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SCSM Tables of Contents: 1415

SCSM 2014: 6th International Conference on Social Computing and Social Media

Fullname:SCSM 2014: 6th International Conference on Social Computing and Social Media
Note:Volume 22 of HCI International 2014 Formerly OCSC: Online Communities and Social Computing
Editors:Gabriele Meiselwitz
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8531
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07632-4 hcibib: SCSM14; ISBN: 978-3-319-07631-7 (print), 978-3-319-07632-4 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Designing and Evaluating Social Computing and Social Media
  2. Analysing, Visualising, and Modelling Social Networks
  3. Online Communities and Engagement
  4. Identity and Presence in Social Media
  5. Games, Gamification, and Entertainment in Social Media

Designing and Evaluating Social Computing and Social Media

A Review of Using Online Social Networks for Investigative Activities BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Adnan Abdalla; Sule Yildirim Yayilgan
In this paper, we will describe the use of online social networks (OSNs) for law enforcement. With the increased growth of use of OSNs, the use of OSNs for law enforcement has also shown a parallel growth. Such a trend can easily be seen in the increase of reported number of criminal cases being solved by police officers of various countries. It is of interest to find out how OSNs are actually used by law enforcers to anticipate a crime, how they are being used by law enforcers to solve a crime committed, how they are used by criminals to commit a crime and what possible further needs law enforces have in using OSNs for predicting and solving crimes.
   In order to be able to answer these questions, we have done an extensive review of the literature and existing available crimes. This led us to understand the nature of using OSNs for law enforcement. Further, we have contacted a questionnaire with the top level law enforcers in Turkey in order to find answers to the given questions above.
Keywords: Online Social Networks; Law Enforcement; Framework; Investigation; Digital Forensics; Evidence; Analysis; Tool; Digital Crimes; Activity
An Accessibility Evaluation of Social Media Websites for Elder Adults BIBAKFull-Text 13-24
  Jessica Arfaa; Yuanqiong (Kathy) Wang
Elder adults account for only a small portion of social networking site users despite the numerous benefits provided by social media. Although the number of elder users has grown in the past few years, many are not engaged with social media. Are there any special reasons for the elderly not to take advantage of social media? Are there any accessibility and usability challenges for the elderly to use social media? What are they? How do current social networking sites perform when it comes to accessibility for the elderly? This paper reports the preliminary findings to the above questions based on an instructor's notes on the discussions within an elderly computer class along with an accessibility evaluation of popular social media sites. The results show that many elders struggle with the understanding of Web 2.0 concepts and interpreting the complex layout of the social networking sites. Many sites do not adhere to respected accessibility standards and guidelines. Findings from this study will contribute to the understanding of the elder adults as a user group and improving the design of a more accessible website for the elderly.
Keywords: Social Media; Social Networking; Elder Adults
Social Computing -- Bridging the Gap between the Social and the Technical BIBAKFull-Text 25-36
  Christoph Beckmann; Tom Gross
Developing cooperative systems and social media requires taking complex decisions concerning the social interaction to be supported as well as the technical foundation. In this paper we build on the long and successful tradition of design patterns and the social framework of Erving Goffman. We present design patterns that address both challenges of social interaction and technical foundation -- they provide input for software developers with respect to structuring software and to providing adequate support for the interaction of users with the environment and with each other.
Keywords: Social Computing; Software Design; Cooperative Systems; Social Media
Taxonomy of Enterprise-Related Mobile Applications BIBAKFull-Text 37-47
  Tobias Brockmann; Stefan Stieglitz; Christoph Lattemann
The increasing diffusion of mobile devices is changing the working environment and implicating new challenges for enterprises. Mobile applications specifically designed to the enterprises' needs, so-called Enterprise Apps, conquer the market. Enterprise Apps support e.g. enterprise processes to enhance the communication possessing interface to existing enterprise systems, like CRM or ERP. Mobile workers obtain thereby an ideal tool for the accomplishment of their operations in interaction with enterprise system. The applications areas in enterprises throughout Enterprise Apps are complex and widespread. This paper sheds light in the complexity of Enterprise Apps presenting a framework for specific Enterprise Apps. It contributes to research by providing a first approach of a classification scheme to the scenery of Enterprise App usage.
Keywords: Enterprise Apps; Taxonomy; Mobile; Classification
Representing Students Curriculum in Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 48-58
  Habib M. Fardoun; Abdullah Albarakati; Antonio Paules Ciprés
In this paper we are going to use social network for education, focusing the work on the curriculum. To achieve this we need both to work with the curricular structure and a system that let us work with curricular objects. The systems located at the Cloud allow the interaction and combination of different platforms, but we haven't found any social network exclusively defined with the curriculum and which allows the programmed work by the teacher in the session. A structured system like this divides the problem and creates a research line focused on the edition of contents at the Cloud in the shared space.
Keywords: Educative systems; social networks; cloud computing; Web Services; systems architecture; Students Curriculum; Educative Curricula
Influence of Interactivity on Social Connectedness BIBAKFull-Text 59-66
  Thom van Boheemen; Jun Hu
Public installations have the opportunity to influence many people due to their location and the vast amount of people that are exposed to them. New technologies and materials bring new opportunities to the forms of public installations. Many of these installations are interactive. This paper investigates how interaction with public installations affects its users by evaluating the experience of social connectedness with a specially designed prototype.
Keywords: social connectedness; public installation; public arts; interactivity; user experience
Virtual Homage to the Dead: An Analysis of Digital Memorials in the Social Web BIBAKFull-Text 67-78
  Aron Daniel Lopes; Cristiano Maciel; Vinicius Carvalho Pereira
Considering that many real-world cultural practices are now migrating to virtual environments, the expression of mourning and bereavement is also being imported to the virtual world, by means of the so-called digital memorials, supported by increasingly new and complex technologies. In this paper, we undertake a literature review on real and digital memorials, as well as social networks. Then, through empirical observation of digital memorials in Brazil, we investigate if they have characteristics of the social web. Next, by means of an interaction test and a questionnaire, we analyze how users feel when interacting with digital memorials and their evaluation on the functionalities of those applications. Finally, we approach the difficulties found when studying this kind of tools and our perspectives for future works.
Keywords: digital memorials; social web; social networks; death
Deployment, Usage and Impact of Social Media Tools in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 79-90
  Eleftherios Papachristos; Christos Katsanos; Nikolaos Karousos; Ioannis Ioannidis; Christos Fidas; Nikolaos Avouris
Social media are today engaging millions of users and provide a great venue for various business activities of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). However, many SMEs have been slow to adopt them due to perceived barriers such as lack of resources, negative views about their usefulness, and unfamiliarity with technology. Social Media Tools (SMTs) aim to lift some of these barriers by helping companies monitor, manage and enhance their social media presence. This paper presents a study that investigates the deployment, overall user experience and impact of such SMTs in SMEs. Four SMTs were introduced to three regional SMEs with diverse profiles. The SMEs freely used the tools for a period of one month, and both qualitative (e.g. perceived issues) and quantitative data (e.g. Facebook page fans, Twitter followers) were collected before, during and after the study. Evaluation results are presented per SME and common themes are tentatively discussed.
Keywords: social media; small and medium size enterprises; SME; case study
Using Ambient Communication and Social Networking Technologies to Reduce Loneliness of Elders BIBAKFull-Text 91-102
  Harri Pensas; Antti-Matti Vainio; Markus Garschall; Tero Kivimäki; Stratis Konakas; Socrates Costicoglou; Jukka Vanhala
Online social networks have become part of our everyday lives. However, many elders do not use these networks even though social connections are important for their health and quality of life. To help elders feel more connected to their safety network we have developed an assistive solution based on the elders' requirements that aims at improving their communication and sense of presence. The prototype, consisting of a touch screen device and web services was evaluated in two field trials lasting for 28 weeks in total in Finland and in Austria. In addition to interviews, we used the logged usage data to analyze the user's experience with the system.
Keywords: Online Social Networks; Ambient Communication; Sense of Presence; Ambient Assisted Living
The Importance of Social Media as Source of Information in the Technology Identification in Dependence of External and Internal Factors BIBAKFull-Text 103-112
  Christian W. Scheiner
Technologies are a key factor in gaining a competitive edge and in ensuring the profitability and survival of a company. Within the last decade a paradigm shift occurred that has placed external sources at the center of identifying technologies. Developments in information technologies have created new external sources of information such as social media, which have enlarged the organizational search field. Social media possess some characteristics which could make them a promising source for technology information. The importance of social media for companies in technology identification has, however, not been examined empirically. This study therefore analyses social media as a source for technological information. The findings of this study show that social media play in comparison to other external sources only a minor role for companies. Additionally, the evaluation of social media does not vary depending on internal or external factors.
Keywords: social media; technology identification; sources of information
The Development and Validation of the Social Network Sites (SNSs) Usage Questionnaire BIBAKFull-Text 113-124
  Yuanyuan Shi; Yu L. L. Luo; Ziyan Yang; Yunzhi Liu; Huajian Cai
Surfing Social network sites (SNSs) has become one of the most popular activity for ordinary people. To date, there has been no satisfactory measure to understand the role of SNSs in daily life. Considering this, we developed a self-report instrument, the Social Network Sites (SNSs) Usage Questionnaire, which included two subscales for featured usage and affective experience, respectively. Factor analysis suggested 3 factors for the subscale of featured usage and 2 factors for the subscale of affective experience. We referred to the Big Five Personality Inventory and a revised version of the Internet Motivation Questionnaire as external criteria to validate our questionnaire. The results indicated that the newly developed questionnaire is of good psychometric characteristics.
Keywords: social network sites (SNSs); affect; personality; motivation
What Is Beautiful in Cyberspace? Communication with Attractive Avatars BIBAKFull-Text 125-136
  Sabrina Sobieraj; Nicole C. Krämer
The face with its structural and nonverbal features is the most important cue in interpersonal face-to-face communication (e.g. Dion et al., 1972; Reis et al., 1990). The aim of the presented study is to examine whether physical attractiveness and nonverbal cues in virtual representations can elicit interpersonal effects comparable to those evoked in face-to-face contacts. In a 2 (observer's nationality) x 2 (smiling, non-smiling) x 3 (sender's attractiveness) x 2 (sender's gender) x 2 (observer's gender) experimental design 158 German and 128 Malaysian participants evaluated 18 faces (9 smiling, 9 non-smiling) concerning attractiveness, social competence and dominance. Analyses show several effects, e.g. indicating that the same facial features are attractive in virtual faces and human faces.
Keywords: Attractiveness; avatars; facial features; nonverbal behavior
Moderation Techniques for Social Media Content BIBAKFull-Text 137-148
  Andreas Veglis
Social media are perhaps the most popular services of cyberspace today. The main characteristic of social media is that they offer to every internet user the ability to add content and thus contribute to participatory journalism. The problem in that this content must be checked as far as quality is concerned and in order to avoid legal issues. This can be accomplished with the help of moderation. The problem is that moderation is a complex process that in many cases requires substantial human resources. This paper studies the moderation process and proposes a moderation model that can guarantee the quality of the content while retaining cost at an affordable level. The model includes various moderation stages which determine the applied moderation technique depending on the publication record of the user that submits the content.
Keywords: Social Media; moderation; hybrid moderation; pre-moderation; post moderation; distributed moderation

Analysing, Visualising, and Modelling Social Networks

Use of Twitter Stream Data for Trend Detection of Various Social Media Sites in Real Time BIBAKFull-Text 151-159
  Sapumal Ahangama
Emergence of social networks such as Twitter has enhanced communication among large proportions of participants sharing enormous volumes of data. Categorization and analysis of the data in-depth will enable to generate valuable insights and information. In this paper, a new method is presented to find the trending content and trending topics of various social media networks using real time data shared on Twitter. The insights on current trending content generated by the proposed system will be of high importance as majority of the external social media networks doesn't directly publish any real time data related to trends or most interesting content within itself.
Keywords: Trend Detection; Social Media; Social Computing
Social Network Representation and Dissemination of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): A Semantic Network Analysis of HIV Prevention Drug on Twitter BIBAKFull-Text 160-169
  Zheng An; Margaret McLaughlin; Jinghui Hou; Yujung Nam; Chih-Wei Hu; Mina Park; Jingbo Meng
Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a new approach to HIV prevention. The study aims to examine how PrEP has been represented and disseminated on one of the most popular social networking sites -- Twitter. We collected 1435 public tweets containing the word "Truvada." After computer-mediated and manual de-duplication, we analyzed 447 unique tweets and calculated weights between two words to measure their co-occurrence in 7-word windows. Semantic networks of PrEP-related tweets were constructed. We found that Twitter was used to generate public discussions and collectively interpret new medical information, especially in frequently propagated tweets and from users with more followers. In the meantime, the results revealed the presence of illicit online pharmacies that marketed and sold PrEP without the need for a prescription. We discussed implications for public health and made urgent call for better regulation of online pharmacies.
Keywords: PrEP; HIV; Twitter; Semantic Network; Illicit Online Pharmacies
Identifying Locations of Social Significance: Aggregating Social Media Content to Create a New Trust Model for Exploring Crowd Sourced Data and Information BIBAKFull-Text 170-177
  Al Di Leonardo; Scott Fairgrieve; Adam Gribble; Frank Prats; Wyatt Smith; Tracy Sweat; Abe Usher; Derek Woodley; Jeffrey B. Cozzens
Most Internet content is no longer produced directly by corporate organizations or governments. Instead, individuals produce voluminous amounts of informal content in the form of social media updates (micro blogs, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and other artifacts of community communication on the Web. This grassroots production of information has led to an environment where the quantity of low-quality, non-vetted information dwarfs the amount of professionally produced content. This is especially true in the geospatial domain, where this information onslaught challenges Local and National Governments and Non-Governmental Organizations seeking to make sense of what is happening on the ground.
   This paper proposes a new model of trust for interpreting locational data without a clear pedigree or lineage. By applying principles of aggregation and inference, it is possible to identify locations of social significance and discover "facts" that are being asserted by crowd sourced information.
Keywords: geospatial; social media; aggregation; trust; location
Living in the Era of Social Media: How the Different Types of Social Media May Affect Information Acquisition Process BIBAKFull-Text 178-185
  Katerina Fraidaki; Katerina Pramatari; George Doukidis
The main objective of this research is to study the role of social media in the information acquisition process. We study social media as "information sources" and we give answer to the question: Do consumers use different types of social media when they seek for pre-purchase information? In order to address this question, firstly we investigate the existence of a typology of social media based on their characteristics as information sources; and we study the factors that affect consumers to use different types of social media during their pre-purchase information acquisition process.
Keywords: social media; typology; factors
SONETA: A Social Media Geo-Trends Analysis Tool BIBAKFull-Text 186-196
  Ioannis Ioannidis; Elefterios Papachristos; Christos Katsanos; Nikolaos Karousos; Christos Fidas; Nikolaos Avouris
Social media are used for expressing thoughts and opinions. Finding information hidden inside the vast amount of social media data is an overwhelming task especially for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that have limited resources. In this paper, we present an early prototype of SONETA, a social media geo-trend analysis tool that supports users, and specifically SMEs, by helping them detect social media trends in specific geographic areas. First, its architectural design and development process is delineated, followed by the presentation of a study that evaluated SONETA in terms of its usefulness and usability. Three SMEs participated in the SONETA evaluation study. Evaluation results showed that SONETA can be used in order to help SMEs in engaging social media more effectively.
Keywords: social media tools; geo-location analysis; visualization; Twitter
Seed-Centric Approaches for Community Detection in Complex Networks BIBAKFull-Text 197-208
  Rushed Kanawati
Seed-centric algorithms constitute an emerging trend in the hot area of community detection in complex networks. The basic idea underlaying these approaches consists on identifying special nodes in the target network, called seeds, around which communities can then be identified. Different algorithms adopt different seed definitions and apply different seed selection and community construction approaches. This paper presents a first survey work on this type of algorithms.
Keywords: Community detection; complex networks; seed-centric algorithms
Visualizing Impression-Based Preferences of Twitter Users BIBAFull-Text 209-220
  Tadahiko Kumamoto; Tomoya Suzuki; Hitomi Wada
Twitter is extremely useful for connecting with other users, because, on Twitter, following other users is simple. On the other hand, people are often followed by unknown and anonymous users and are sometimes shown tweets of unknown users through the tweets of the users they follow. In such a situation, they wonder whether they should follow such unknown users. This paper proposes a system for visualizing impression-based preferences of Twitter users to help people select whom to follow. The impression-based preference of a user is derived based on the impressions of the tweets the user has posted and those of the tweets of users followed by the user under consideration. Our proposed system enables people to select whom to follow depending on whether or not another user adheres to the user's own sensibilities, rather than on whether or not another user provides valuable information.
A New Approach to Exploring Spatiotemporal Space in the Context of Social Network Services BIBAKFull-Text 221-228
  Jae-Gil Lee; Kun Chang Lee; Dong-Hee Shin
This paper proposes a new approach for exploring contextual information in social network services (SNS) such as Facebook. With the explosion of SNSs on the internet, it is becoming increasingly necessary for users to search for appropriate information in the contextual space of SNSs. However, conventional methods to accomplish this task, which are based on 2D browsing mechanisms, are inefficient for those attempting to find the right information in the contexts of SNSs in a timely manner. To help users overcome this inefficiency, this paper proposes TARDIS (Time and Relative Dimension in Space), where a 3D hand gesture interface is available to enhance users' perceived satisfaction.
Keywords: Social network; 3D gesture; Space-time cube; HCI
How Do Users Express Their Emotions Regarding the Social System in Use? A Classification of Their Postings by Using the Emotional Analysis of Norman BIBAKFull-Text 229-241
  Marília S. Mendes; Elizabeth Furtado; Vasco Furtado; Miguel F. de Castro
Social Networking Sites (SNS) allow users to post messages about any event which has occurred with them, including the system itself. In this study, we conducted two experiments with postings of users on SNS in order to investigate (i) how users express their emotions regarding the use of the system, and (ii) how to assess the user experience by using their postings during the system interaction. The results showed some characteristics of postings related to the use which may be useful for UX evaluation in SNS.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; User eXperience; Natural Processing Language; Social Network Sites
Modelling of Excitation Propagation for Social Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 242-252
  Darius Plikynas; Aistis Raudys; Šarunas Raudys
This paper investigates regularities in excitation information propagation in social interaction. We use cellular automaton approach where it is assumed that social media is composed from tens of thousands of community agents. Each agent can transmit and get a signal from several nearest neighbours. Weighted sums of input signals after reaction delay are transmitted to the closest agents. The model's originality consists in the exploitation of neuron-based agent schema with nonlinear activation function employed to determine the reaction delay, the agent recovery period, and algorithms that define cooperation of several excitable groups. In the grouped model, each agent group can send its excitation signal to other groups. The agents and their groups should acquire diverse media parameters of social media in order to ensure desirable for social media character of excitation wave propagation patterns. The novel media model allows methodical analysis of propagation of several competing novelty signals. Simulations are very fast and can be useful for understanding and control of the simulated human and agent-based social mediums, planning and performing social and economy research.
Keywords: agents based modelling; social medium; excitation waves; grouped populations; propagation of novelties
Agent-Based Nonlocal Social Systems: Neurodynamic Oscillations Approach BIBAKFull-Text 253-264
  Darius Plikynas; Saulius Masteika
This work addresses a conceptual problem -- the lack of a multidisciplinary connecting paradigm, which could link fragmented research in the fields of neuroscience, artificial intelligence (AI), multi-agent systems (MAS) and social simulation domains. The need for a common multidisciplinary research framework arises essentially because these fields share a common object of investigation and simulation, i.e. individual and collective behavior. Based on the proposed conceptually novel social neuroscience paradigm (OSIMAS), we envisage social systems emerging from the coherent neurodynamical processes taking place in the individual mind-fields. For the experimental validation of the biologically inspired OSIMAS paradigm we have designed a framework of EEG based experiments. Some benchmark EEG tests for the chosen mind states have been provided in the current paper.
Keywords: oscillating agent; group neurodynamics; social neuroscience; multiagent systems
Enhancing Social Media with Pervasive Features BIBAKFull-Text 265-276
  Ioanna Roussaki; Nikos Kalatzis; Nicolas Liampotis; Edel Jennings; Pavlos Kosmides; Mark Roddy; Luca Lamorte; Miltiades Anagnostou
During the last decade, social media have enjoyed meteoric success in bringing people together online. On the other hand, pervasive computing assists users in their everyday tasks, in a seamless unobtrusive manner exploiting the resources available in the user's environments focusing on the needs of individuals. The time is ripe for the two paradigms to converge. This paper presents research work undertaken to integrate pervasive computing with various social computing systems, including enterprise social media, aiming to contribute to the emergence of the next generation of social media systems.
Keywords: social networking; pervasive computing; pervasive communities; enterprise social media
Social Robots as Persuasive Agents BIBAKFull-Text 277-284
  Evgenios Vlachos; Henrik Schärfe
The topic of human robot interaction (HRI) is an important part of human computer interaction (HCI). Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents. The ability of a robotic system to conform to the demands (behaviors, understanding, roles, and tasks) that arise from the place the robot is designed to perform, affect the user and his/er sense of place attachment. Places are constantly changing, and so do interactions, thus robotic systems should continually adjust to change by modifying their behavior accordingly.
Keywords: human-robot interaction; persuasive agent; social robots; ethics; place attachment

Online Communities and Engagement

Worker-Community: Using Crowdsourcing to Link Informal Workers with Potential Clients BIBAKFull-Text 287-297
  Rocío Abascal-Mena; Erick López-Ornelas; J. Sergio Zepeda-Hernández; Bárbara E. Gómez-Torrero; Gilberto León-Martagón; Héctor Morales-Franco
Crowdsourcing is an emerging paradigm that is changing the way people establishes contact and works with others. The crowd is used to make people collaborate and solve problems that are difficult to answer without having many brains working together. Some of the applications of crowdsourcing include the capacity to create new employment opportunities to informal workers who seek for potential clients in the street. This paper presents Worker-Community, a new platform to link informal workers with potential clients in Mexico City. Our approach is based on the study of informal workers in order to know how they reach potential clients and the study of these clients to know their needs. A contextual study was carried to propose a prototype to create employments and assure security to all the people involved.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; Human Computer-Interaction; usability; recruitment system; collaboration
Revolutionizing Mobile Healthcare Monitoring Technology: Analysis of Features through Task Model BIBAKFull-Text 298-305
  Supunmali Ahangama; Yong Sheng Lim; Shun Yuan Koh; Danny Chiang Choon Poo
Proliferation of health information and patient communication had allowed patients to have deeper understanding of their ailments leading to positive effects on personal health management (PHM). There are many PHM systems developed in the form of web and mobile applications to cultivate personal responsibility for one's own health. Thus, this paper aims to explore the alternatives and avenues available in the form of mobile PHM applications utilized by patients, caregivers and medical professionals that can provide value-adding initiatives to improve the process of personal medical care. A Task model for the development of a mobile PHM will be discussed based on six factors, namely (1) subject; (2) objective; (3) control; (4) tool; (5) context; and (6) communication.
Keywords: Friends and family groups; healthcare communities; task model
Feedback Platform for Community Colleges: An Approach to Knowledge Excellence BIBAKFull-Text 306-313
  Habib M. Fardoun; Abdullah Al-Malaise Al-Ghamdi
This proposal describes a feedback system based on a virtual platform between the cloister, which connects theoretical and practical imbalances taught for adapting them to new needs. This allows an increase in efficiency in the quality of teaching and that students get involved in improving their own training, by making the dynamism and interaction two fundamental pillars.
   This feedback can improve the quality of academic material and facilitate students' adaptation to their practical preparation and their incorporation into the workplace. This fact is complemented with the use of the feedback system by the technical department of the companies associated with training centers, which communicate to them their needs and improvement suggestions based on the needs that they experience.
Keywords: community college; education; feedback; e-learning; adaptability
Useful Educational Exercises for the Community BIBAKFull-Text 314-321
  Habib M. Fardoun; Daniyal M. Alghazzawi; Lorenzo Carretero González
In a lot of cases, the contents given by the educational system don't leave a mark on students due to that it doesn't reach to pay enough attention for it has a positive effect on the learning. For that reason, we propose a system able to help for carrying the learning task out and for solving the problem raised with the lack of students' attention related to the lack of awareness of the place to apply the new taught contents. That makes necessary the incorporation of new technologies, like the use of a Cloud system and the communication via of Web Services when users access by mean of mobile devices, which provide a global site of consults that helps to students to understand contents given and associate them to the real world.
Keywords: Cloud; Web Services; e-Learning; Educational System; practical exercises
An Investigation into Gender Role Conformity in an Online Social Networking Environment BIBAKFull-Text 322-330
  Alexander Fawzi; Andrea Szymkowiak
Social networking sites (SNS) offer a relatively novel arena in which to display and investigate social behavior. The study investigated consistency between social behaviors typical of traditional (offline) social interactions and those online by examining conformity to gender stereotypes in an online social networking environment. Findings from gender role conformity research based on traditional approaches provided a framework for analyzing online social interactions. Three predictions were derived: 1) females will display higher expression in status updates than males; 2) there will be a relationship between status update frequency and the amount of friends in an individual's network; and 3) there will be an effect of gender on concentration of emotional expression within status updates. All three predictions were at least partially supported with significant differences apparent between males' and females' online behavior. The findings are discussed with respect to theories on gender differences.
Keywords: Social behavior; gender role; conformity; internet-mediated research; social networking
Can Network Help Chinese Microblogs Diffuse? Analyzing 118 Networks of Reposts About Social Issues in China BIBAKFull-Text 331-341
  King-wa Fu
The use of microblog, i.e. Twitter, in politics and social issues has been broadly studied. But research into the role of microblog in China's unique socio-political context is still limited and empirical data remain inadequate. In this study, we conceptualize the process of diffusion of microblogs in China as a "social network" and deploy social network analysis to operationalize the network characteristics of such process. Using Sina Weibo's Open API, we collected 118 networks of reposts related to various social issues in China. While our findings describe the network characteristics of the samples, we reveal that decentralized network is a key contributing factor for diffusion of microblogs in China. The implication of the result is then discussed.
Keywords: China; microblog; social network analysis; information diffusion
On the Design of Trustworthy Compute Frameworks for Self-organizing Digital Institutions BIBAKFull-Text 342-353
  Thomas Hardjono; Patrick Deegan; John Henry Clippinger
This paper provides an overview of the Open Mustard Seed (OMS) project that seeks to develop a social interaction platform to facilitate group affiliations based on Reed's Law [1]. Reed posits that the value of a network soars when users are given the tools for free and responsible association for common purposes. The OMS as tool for common association supports the ability for people to form self-organizing groups following the notion of the data commons put forward by Elinor Ostrom [2]. The data commons in OMS consists of various personal data which the owner has agreed to contribute into what Ostrom calls the common-pool resource, and which is to be managed by the self-organized group or institution. This paper discusses some design considerations of the OMS platform from the perspective of the privacy and security of the personal data that participate in the common-pool resource. The technical core value of the OMS lies in its construction of the Trusted Compute Cells, which are intended to be recombinable and embeddable units of logic, computation and storage.
Keywords: Reed's Law; personal data; open data commons; social computing; virtualization; cloud computing
Health Slacktivism on Social Media: Predictors and Effects BIBAKFull-Text 354-364
  Chih-Wei Hu
The present study examined predictors, moderators, and effects of health slacktivism, which is characterized as individuals' effortless acts in supporting health causes primarily through Internet and social media. Findings revealed that issue-involvement and self-presentation were two underlying predictors of slacktivism. Specifically, ingratiation self-presentation was found to be a significant predictor of slacktivism among slacktivists, while enhancement self-presentation predicted slacktivism among activists. Results imply that strategic impression-management types were associated with health slacktivism among particular sub-groups. It is also found that health slacktivists and activists differed by relational connection. Slacktivists tended to be people who were remotely related to the health issue advocated, while activists were people who had closer relational connection to the health issue. Health consciousness, however, was not a significant predictor of slacktivism nor a differentiating factor between slacktivists and activists. Consistent with the Transtheoretical Model, slacktivism was found to have positive effects among participants in terms of awareness, psychological wellbeing, behavioral intention and behavior adoption. Individuals' low-threshold engagement as slacktivism also predicted their high-threshold engagement (activism), implying that getting involved in slacktivism does not substitute for offline forms of participation but may increase the possibility of offline engagement instead.
Keywords: slacktivism; activism; social media; health campaign; health consciousness; issue-involvement; self-presentation
Exploring Health Care Professionals' Attitudes of Using Social Networking Sites for Health Care: An Empirical Study BIBAKFull-Text 365-372
  Zhao Huang; NanNan Gai
Evidence from relevant studies show that the use of social networking sites or Web 2.0 portals in health care provide huge potential to transform traditional health care services, generating great collaboration, participation and openness. However, challenges of employing Web 2.0 for health care still exit. This empirical study uses semi-structured interview approach to explore health care professionals' attitudes towards using Web 2.0 portals for health care, especially focusing on specific social networking sites for chronic health care in China. Results present a range of positive attitudes of using the social networking sites to health professionals' clinical practice. Meanwhile, the opportunities and barriers related to use of such social networking sites into clinical practice are presented and discussed.
Keywords: E-health; health care services; Web 2.0 portals; Social media; Social networking sites
E-Democracy and Public Online Budgeting BIBAKFull-Text 373-384
  Alice Katharina Pieper; Michael Pieper
If social media are to reinforce sustainability of political decisions their design has conceptually to take into account the implications of deliberative democracy, which stresses the active co-operation of virtually all citizens of a democracy for the purposes of participatory involvement. Essential to deliberative e-democracy is therefore a technologically supported comprehensive discourse about political subjects which is also called Deliberation. Theoretical implications of Deliberation are discussed from the angle of political science and social psychology. Finally, the practical implications of Deliberation rooted in social media are exemplified by an online citizen involvement for the public budgeting purposes of the city of Frankfurt/Main (Germany).
Keywords: impact research; sustainable systems design; conceptual models; deliberation; social media; social capital; collective intelligence; e-democracy; Web 2.0
Reasons for Using Social Networks Professionally BIBAKFull-Text 385-396
  Anne Kathrin Schaar; André Calero Valdez; Martina Ziefle; Denise Eraßme; Ann-Kathrin Löcker; Eva-Maria Jakobs
Since the success of social media in private usage settings, social media applications spread rapidly in the working context. In business internal contexts these applications seem useful as a measure for strategic knowledge management. Social media in this context promises to offer adequate facilities to support a systematic storage of knowledge as well as a support of knowledge exchange and communication in enterprises. But since social media is only successful when used, the usage motivation of employees is one central key for their success. Therefore this paper focusses on the motivation to use social media professionally. To achieve this we are investigating the influence of user diversity factors such as age, gender, and social media expertise on aspects of usage motivation. In a study with N=84 the employees of an enterprise were asked which reasons for using social media are relevant to them. Findings show that both factors age and gender reveal a relatively low influence on the factors evaluation of usage motives, tools (as a measure for motivation), and incentives/reinforcements for social network usage. In contrast both expertise with social media and achievement motivation revealed many correlations with both usage motives and tools as well as incentives and reinforcements.
Keywords: social media; technology acceptance; motivation; user-centered design; incentivation
Antecedents and Consequences of Online Campaign Engagement of Greek College Students BIBAKFull-Text 397-407
  Amalia Triantafillidou; Prodromos Yannas; Georgios Lappas
This study measured college students' engagement with official online campaign tools of political parties and politicians during the pre-election period in Greek Parliamentary elections in May 2012. Furthermore, the antecedents and consequences of voters' online campaign engagement were examined. Findings indicate that Greek college students are not digitally mature in using various online platforms for political information and engagement. The engagement with official campaign tools is affected by the interest of young voters in politics as well as their level of political cynicism. Based on the findings, only Facebook interaction of Greek college students with the profile of political party/politicians can influence their voting intentions.
Keywords: online campaign engagement; young voters; Greek Parliamentary Elections 2012; political interest; distrust in politics; political cynicism; voting intention

Identity and Presence in Social Media

Emotional Contagion with Artificial Others. Effects of Culture, Physical Appearance, and Nonverbal Behavior on the Perception of Positive/Negative Affect in Avatars BIBAKFull-Text 411-420
  Gary Bente; Thomas Dratsch; Diana Rieger; Ahmad Al-Issa
In the present study, we investigated whether cultural stereotypes activated through the physical appearance of avatars would influence the perception of positive and negative affect in in- and out-group members. In a first study, forty-three German and forty Arab participants saw short video clips of a German and an Arab avatar displaying ambiguous nonverbal behavior. In spite of cultural stereotypes, both Arab and German participants attributed more positive emotions to the Arab avatar than to the German avatar. To further investigate these counterintuitive results, we conducted a follow-up study, in which fifty-two German and fifty-two Arab participants rated the valence of both avatars. Both German and Arab participants rated the Arab avatar significantly more positively than the German avatar. Taken together, the results of both studies show that the valence of avatars has the potential to override cultural stereotypes and influence the perception of positive and negative affect.
Keywords: Culture; Stereotypes; Avatars; Nonverbal Behavior
Connected to My Avatar: BIBAKFull-Text 421-429
  Frank Biocca
Mediated experience increasingly involves some representation of ourselves, so-called avatars. Avatars are used to facilitate the interaction with others in social media or are integrated as part of interfaces, used for interacting with 3D spatial environments and objects in games and simulations. These avatars vary in the degree to which they are realistic, representative of our sense of self or social status, or embodied, that is connected via the computer interface to the user's body via sensorimotor interaction. We review some of psychological effects of avatar identification and embodiment including evidence of the effects of avatar identification and embodiment on changes in behavior, arousal, learning, and self-construal. Furthermore, some avatar based changes in perception, cognition, and behavior may carry over and extend into changes into user's real world perception and behavior.
Keywords: avatar; human computer interaction; presence; embodiment
iCONFESS BIBAKFull-Text 430-439
  Alma Leora Culén; Sisse Finken; Andrea Gasparini
In this paper, we describe an installation, iConfess, used to explore the question of disclosure in a physical space, when conditions for remaining anonymous are provided. The iConfess booth, a physical space where one could confess a secret, was tried at a large Student Faire. The paper reports on our findings on its use. The principle was simple: people could confess any secret in the privacy of the booth, on an anonymous site, using a tablet. After a period of time, confessions were handwritten on homemade cardboards and hung in the vicinity of the booth for everyone to see. In order to collect data on how it felt to reveal a secret in this way, we have offered to visitors a possibility to answer a questionnaire after the act of confession. 49 people did, a majority of them students (34), but also some others (15). In addition to the questionnaire, both participant and passive observations were made during the Faire. We have found that people enjoy revealing secrets, and reading those from others, although one participant still wondered just how anonymous the set up was. Attempts to connect people who confessed face-to-face during a social event, using a glow-in-the-dark bracelet, symbolizing that they have confessed, was not a success.
Keywords: anonymity; physical booth; social interaction; confession; design
I'd Rather Die Than Be with You: The Effects of Mortality Salience and Negative Social Identity on Identification with a Virtual Group BIBAKFull-Text 440-451
  Lena Frischlich; Diana Rieger; Olivia Rutkowski
Research inspired by terror management theory has demonstrated that mortality salience (MS) triggers defense of one's self-esteem and cultural worldview, for instance in terms of in-group identification. A necessary pre-condition is that this in-group contributes to a positive self-evaluation by being successful in relevant social comparisons. Unsuccessful in-groups pose an identity-threat and trigger dis-identification. Nowadays, virtual worlds and avatars offer new pathways to in-group identification and self-enhancement, raising the question which virtual groups and self-representations serve terror-management needs. The current study examined this question in a life simulation game. Participants either wrote about their death or a control topic before they were confronted with an identity-buffering (successful) versus identity-threatening (unsuccessful) virtual in-group, manipulated via ethnicity. Subsequently, preference for in-group avatars and identification with the virtual group were assessed. The results confirmed an increased identification after MS only when one's identity was buffered. Results are discussed with regard to their implications.
Keywords: terror management theory; Negative Social Identity; Avatar Selection; Virtual Group-identification; Simulation Games
Extended Episodic Experience in Social Mediating Technology: Our Legacy BIBAKFull-Text 452-461
  Haliyana Khalid; Alan Dix
Drawing from an online survey and a focus group study, we extend the concept of the extended episodic experience to include truly long-term interaction. As our life is still unfolding, we leave many legacies in the flow; both printed and more subtle. Although much effort is being made to preserve digital legacy in online space, we also need to look into the subtle legacy that is equally important in the long-term experience. This subtle legacy is untouchable and often forgotten but it follows us till the very end. Our concern on the consequences of this legacy has led us to suggest the need to design for virtue.
Keywords: extended episodic experience; long-term interaction; digital legacy; virtues
Reinterpret 3G Emoticons from a Persona Theory BIBAKFull-Text 462-473
  Minseo Kim; Chungkon Shi; Jeounghoon Kim
As the use of Instant message service increased, emoticons also have been changed and developed in various forms. Especially, 3rd-generation (3G) emoticons are being spotlighted as new communicative tools because they provide wide selection of choice through vividly personified characters. To reflect this trend, this study formulated and confirmed a hypothesis that the more emoticons are personified and sophisticated, the more people tend to regard emoticons as persona. And to prove it, we follow three steps: 1) we account the definition and characteristics of 3G emoticons; 2) we examine whether 3G emoticons reflect people's social personality by adopting Five-Factor Model; 3) based on a great deal of research that has revealed gender differences during real conversations, we analyzed gender differences in 3G emoticons usage through self-report questionnaire. As a result, we verified that people recognized 3G emoticons as kinds of their' persona rather than just tools to facilitate conversations.
Keywords: Emoticons; Five Factor Model (FFM); Gender difference; Computer-mediated Communication (CMC); Instant Message Service (IMS)
"Presence in Absence": Distributed Family Communication Practices for Familial Bonding via Mobile Communication Technology BIBAKFull-Text 474-485
  Fazillah Mohmad Kamal; Nor Laila Md. Noor; Hanif Baharin
Technology for bringing family together or coined as Family Connecting Technology (FCT) has become a prominent topic in HCI. As familial bonding has significant implication in affecting the design and use of FCTs, research on familial bonding is deemed important, yet challenged by discrepancy on its actual operationalization due to the diversity of current research focus. Therefore, this study aims to discover underlying patterns of mediated familial bonding from family's actual practice of FCT that is social messaging system. From a thematic analysis of interview data, we identified two main issues: 'online shared activity as transitory platform of familial bonding' and 'effects from technology design on familial bonding'. Then, we discuss potential indicators of familial bonding that provide insights to our future work in developing a conceptual model of mediated familial bonding.
Keywords: HCI; family connecting technology; social messaging; mobile technology; familial bonding; extended family; mobile communication; mediated family interaction; online shared activity
Beyond Facebook Personality Prediction: BIBAKFull-Text 486-493
  Carrie Solinger; Leanne Hirshfield; Stuart Hirshfield; Rachel Friendman; Christopher Leper
We investigate creating a predictive model that increases accuracy in personality prediction of social media and social network site users through a multidisciplinary pilot analysis. We present a novel method for increasing personality prediction accuracy of Facebook users. We discuss an experiment that combines natural language processing and machine learning methods, as well as the Big Five Personality and other cognitive psychology metrics and scales. Our machine learning predictive model showed promising results in personality prediction accuracy of three personality traits. However, the results indicate that more research and further data collection will improve prediction accuracies.
Keywords: Big Five; personality traits; propensity to trust; trust propensity; need for cognition; Facebook; social media; social networking sites; SNS
Social Psychology of the Digital Age: The Interpersonal Neuroscience of Mediated Communication BIBAFull-Text 494-505
  Michiel Spapé; Niklas Ravaja
Psychological science has a rich tradition of investigating how interaction with others affects individual affect and cognition. Findings from neuroscience suggest that the reason for this is that we perceive others as fundamentally part of us. However, with the advent of mobile networks and the internet, the physical presence of others has become more and more often mediated by technology. In order to better understand the consequences, we call for the rise of a combined effort between human-computer interaction, psychology and social neuroscience which we term the interpersonal neuroscience of mediated communication. We demonstrate the many faces of this new field by describing five paradigms that provide insight in the question of how the technological medium -- from the most sparse, haptic type to rich, computer-gaming scenarios -- affects the message and inter-individual interaction. Furthermore, the paradigms show how the mediated interaction field may provide new answers to the perception of others affects individual affect, cognition and decision making.
What Does Your Profile Picture Say About You? The Accuracy of Thin-Slice Personality Judgments from Social Networking Sites Made at Zero-Acquaintance BIBAKFull-Text 506-516
  Mark Turner; Natalie Hunt
The study investigates impressions formed through social networking sites, specifically the initial judgments we make of others when first momentarily exposed to their photograph. The personality characteristics of 52 Female Facebook profile owners were evaluated by a group of raters who briefly viewed the current profile picture of each person. Analysis revealed consensus between raters when judging personality attributes, although self-other agreement was low: raters' judgments correlated with profile owners' judgments of their own personality for only 2 out of the 10 attributes examined. Profile owners perceived as more physically attractive were rated more positively on other personality attributes. Smiling, and being alone or with others in a profile picture was also demonstrated to have a significant impact on personality assessments. It was concluded that whilst profile pictures can strongly influence how we judge others, such initial judgments are not highly likely to be accurate.
Keywords: First Impressions; Personality; Facebook; Thin-slice judgments
Inventing Partners in Computer-Mediated Communication: How CMC Sustains Self-fulfilling Prophecies and Relational Attributions BIBAFull-Text 517-527
  Joseph B. Walther; Stephanie Tom Tong
Research on computer-mediated communication (CMC) vacillates between arguments that the medium of text is too barren to experience partners' personalities, to claims that we "fill in the blanks" when encountering others online. This metaphor of filling in the blanks can be substantiated scientifically by examining data from several studies that demonstrate when and how CMC users form idealized false impressions, and what false attributions they bestow when they anticipate or interact with online partners. These instances take place when users are provided insufficient descriptions of chat partners, or with avatars that are knowingly random with respect to their operators. Going beyond mere impressions, CMC users create their own versions of their partners' attractiveness and sociability. They do so outside their own awareness, creating demonstrable self-fulfilling prophecies in ways that traditional research eschews in the CMC context. Research examining behavioral disconfirmation online, the behaviors that actuate it, and the erroneous relational attributions CMC users apply to partners, depict how these self-fulfilling prophecies are realized.
Image Choice to Represent the Self in Different Online Environments BIBAKFull-Text 528-537
  Monica Whitty; James Doodson; Sadie Creese; Duncan Hodges
This paper draws from 'impression management theory' to examine the choices individuals make to visually represent themselves on Facebook and Twitter. We interviewed 20 participants about their image choice and the sorts of inferences others make about their identity. Participants were asked whether they believed their image influenced the types of people who connect with them, and whether their pictorial representation affected the topics and type of communication they have with other people. Contrary to previous research on online impression management, we found that few individuals were motivated to create a specific impression by playing with different images and instead individuals were motivated to appear genuine and authentic. Only a few desired hiding behind an avatar in order to feel freer to self-disclose. We found that Facebook and Twitter were perceived as very different spaces with different affordances and that these perceived affordances influenced participants' choice in image.
Keywords: social identity and presence; computer mediated communication; avatars; impression management; online pictorial representations; online identity

Games, Gamification, and Entertainment in Social Media

Using Serious Games to Train Adaptive Emotional Regulation Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 541-549
  Mariano Alcañiz; Alejandro Rodríguez; Beatriz Rey; Elena Parra
Emotional Regulation (ER) strategies allow people to influence the emotions they feel, when they feel them, how they experience them, and how they express them in any situation. Deficiencies or deficits in ER strategies during the adolescence may become mental health problems in the future. The aim of this paper is to describe a virtual multiplatform system based on serious games that allows adolescents to train and evaluate their ER strategies. The system includes an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) tool, which allows the therapist to monitor the emotional status of teenagers every day in real time. Results obtained from a usability and effectiveness study about the EMA tool showed that adolescents preferred using the EMA tool than other classical instruments.
Keywords: Serious Games; Emotional Regulation; Ecological Momentary Assessment; Virtual Reality
Version Control System Gamification: A Proposal to Encourage the Engagement of Developers to Collaborate in Software Projects BIBAKFull-Text 550-558
  Alexandre Altair de Melo; Mauro Hinz; Glaucio Scheibel; Carla Diacui Medeiros Berkenbrock; Isabela Gasparini; Fabiano Baldo
This paper proposes to use gamification for recognition of software developers' collaboration and commitment. In order to improve productivity, the paper also evaluates the users' engagement in a software development project. The idea is to use the information extracted from source repositories where developers realize their commits. A tool proposes ranking via news feed that will extract information from the source repository by using software engineering metrics, such as McCabe's cyclomatic complexity, in order to build a ranking system, which highlights and rewards the most active developers. The ultimate goal is to determine whether the use of gamification encourages collaboration and commitment of all involved in software development projects.
Keywords: gamification; collaboration; version control; software engineering; interface
Guidelines for the Gamification in Mobile Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 559-570
  Fábio Pereira Alves; Cristiano Maciel; Júnia Coutinho Anacleto
Among those responsible for the large amount of content on the internet are the social networks. With the popularization of the mobile devices there has been the emergence of the so-called mobile social networking, which has changed the way the users relate to applications. In the quest for improving the user experience in mobile social networking, the gamification (the use of game design elements in non-related games) has played an important role. This article presents an analysis of data from two case studies and, from the results, suggests guidelines for the use of gamification in mobile social networks.
Keywords: Gamification; Mobile Social Networks; Foursquare; GetGlue; Design Guidelines
A Proposal of a Support System for Motivation Improvement Using Gamification BIBAKFull-Text 571-580
  Kohei Otake; Ryosuke Sumita; Makoto Oka; Yoshihisa Shinozawa; Tomofumi Uetake; Akito Sakurai
In this research, we built a support system for improving motivation by utilizing gamification, targeting one university circle, the Senshu University Philharmonic Orchestra, as an example of voluntary communities. The purpose of this research was to maintain and improve the motives of each individual orchestra member for practice. Analysis of the current conditions clarified the following two factors as obstacles for improving the motivation of section members: "It is difficult to realize one's own practice achievements" and "Achievement level of practice of other members are unknown". In order to solve these problems, we built a system that visualized practice achievements and enabled sharing of the information among section members, with applying the concept of gamification in order to reinforce these functions. Through the experimental result, we consider that the effectiveness of this system was successfully verified.
Keywords: Gamification; Voluntary Community; Motivation Management
Gamifying Social Media to Encourage Social Activities with Digital-Physical Hybrid Role-Playing BIBAKFull-Text 581-591
  Mizuki Sakamoto; Tatsuo Nakajima
This paper proposes a new way to gamify the micro-crowdfunding service. Micro-crowdfunding is a crowdsourcing service to achieve a sustainable society based on a crowdfunding concept and an aging money concept. In this type of service, each activity to achieve a sustainable society is called a mission, and performing a mission is encouraged through social and economic incentives. A new approach described in this paper enhances the original strategies by using a game concept. The approach consists of two techniques. The first technique adopts several concepts from dramaturgy. The technique coordinates multiple missions and encourages people to complete them by providing a fictional goal that most people want to achieve. The second technique incorporates persuasive ambient mirrors that reflect people's current situation with visual and fictional expressions. The technique emotionally increases people's incentives by using operant conditioning. We also conduct a user study to validate the approach proposed in this paper.
Keywords: Social Media; Crowdfunding; Crowdsourcing; Fictional Expressions; Sustainability; Dramaturgy; Digital-Physical Hybrid Role-Playing; Gamification
Co-pulse: Light Based Emotional Design in Musical Performances BIBAKFull-Text 592-601
  Junjie Yu; Ke Fang; Zhiyong Fu
The main research areas of emotional design have been divided into three parts, which are product form, function and culture. However, culture-related emotional experience has less research results to date. In this paper, we combine a unique approach with three levels of emotional design. Co-pulse is an optical media service system for musical performances. It consists of two main parts, one part is the programmable spotlight with its coding system, and the other part is the intelligent illuminated wristband worn by the audience. The entire system uses light as both the media and the signal transmission method. It can show wonderful scenes rendering visual effects followed by the music features, and also achieve the WYSIWYG communication effect. Encoding the visible light actualizes all this.
Keywords: Emotional design; pleasing design; multi-media system