HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | ITAP Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
ITAP Tables of Contents: 15-115-2

ITAP 2015: First International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, Part I: Design for Aging

Fullname:ITAP 2015: First International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, Part I: Design for Aging
Note:Volume 25 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Jia Zhou; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9193
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20892-3 hcibib: ITAP15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-20891-6 (print), 978-3-319-20892-3 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

ITAP 2015: First International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, Part II: Design for Everyday Life

Fullname:ITAP 2015: First International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, Part II: Design for Everyday Life
Note:Volume 26 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Jia Zhou; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9194
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20913-5 hcibib: ITAP15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-20912-8 (print), 978-3-319-20913-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. ITAP 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. HCI Design and Evaluation Methods for the Elderly
    2. ICT Use and Acceptance
    3. Aging, the Web and Social Media
    4. The Elderly and Mobile Devices
  2. ITAP 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Health Care Technologies and Services for the Elderly
    2. Home and Work Support
    3. Smart Environments and AAL
    4. Communication, Games and Entertainment

ITAP 2015-08-02 Volume 1

HCI Design and Evaluation Methods for the Elderly

The Benefits of Involving Older People in the Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Britt Östlund
The more experience we get of involving older people in innovation and design processes, the more we recognize the benefits of having to do with life experience as input to the development of digital products and services. Heterogeneity raises personalization as a key component in design. This paper argues that old people are an asset in innovation processes, which is illustrated by projects conducted in Sweden from 1992 to 2014. The aim is to present how older people contribute to the development and what hinders them. The goal of these projects was to promote participation of older people during the design process but to varying degrees depending on the question. Different degrees of participation and involvement are discussed based on the "participation ladder", on an idea of Arnstein from 1969 and on conclusions from innovation research.
Keywords: Life experiences; Participative design; Older innovators
Emotions Identification to Measure User Experience Using Brain Biometric Signals BIBAKFull-Text 15-25
  Ivan Carrillo; Victoria Meza-Kubo; Alberto L. Morán; Gilberto Galindo; Eloisa García-Canseco
There are different techniques (e.g. direct or indirect observation, questionnaires, etc.) with which it is possible to estimate user experience. Biometric data obtained with different devices (e.g. EEG, EMG) have been used as a source to infer user experience. In this work, as part of the construction of an evaluation model of user experience, we present a preliminary study that seeks to identify emotions using records of brain electrical activity through the visualisation of preset images that stimulate emotions known a priori. The results include identifying emotions of joy and displeasure through brain activity using the Emotive device in older adults.
Keywords: Electroencephalogram; Emotions; Elderly people; International affective image system
Adopting Scenario-Based Design to Increase the Acceptance of Technology Innovations for Older People BIBAKFull-Text 26-34
  Diego Compagna; Florian Kohlbacher
This paper describes the strengths and weaknesses of the Scenario-based Design as a method to achieve a user-centered development of technology for the elderly. Our assumptions are based on findings from a three-year research project dedicated to the application of service robotics in a stationary nursing home. In summary, the increasingly specific nature of the phases during the design process afford a needs-based technical development, thus providing a good basis for participatory technical development. Nonetheless, some weak points were identified during the case study. They are related to the graphic nature of the scenarios as well as following the users' notions in each and every case. In consideration of the difficulties that arose during the use of Scenario-based Design, we conclude with some suggestion for future applications of this method.
Keywords: Scenario-based design; Participatory technology development; Assistive technology for elderly target groups
Constructing Third Age eHealth Consumers by Using Personas from a Cultural Age Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 35-43
  Maria Ekström; Eugène Loos
Society ages and our already extensive use of a host of different portable devices continues to expand. No leap of the imagination is needed to grasp that an exponential growth of the eHealth market is at hand. While the ageing of the baby boomers will have an impact on the global economy as a whole, of particular interest is the impact this will have within the context of eHealth market development. We wish to clarify and raise the level of awareness about how older age identity is constructed in the marketer-consumer dialectic within the eHealth context and how the personas method can be used from a cultural age perspective. Our focus is on the process of third agers becoming eHealth consumers. We present an analytical framework for future studies aiming to analyze eHealth offerings. This will allow us to gain insight into the process of constructing the third age eHealth consumer group's identity through multimodal communicative acts, as is the case in advertising, or in settings requiring interactivity, such as the service design process. It is through these multimodal acts that new eHealth offerings could be marketed to the third age eHealth consumer, focusing especially on both the written and visual language used. Our approach is meant to offer an alternative to studies in which ageing has mostly drawn upon the chronological age concept and where marketing has not been seen as a discursive practice shaping consumers' identities.
Keywords: eHealth; Services; Third age eHealth consumers; Personas; Cultural age
Capturing Older People's Cognitive Capability Data for Design BIBAKFull-Text 44-52
  Shan Huang; Hua Dong
There is a lack of cognitive capability data in design. Existing capability databases lack consideration of older people who are suffering decline of cognitive capabilities. To explore older people's cognitive capability data for the design context, two pilot studies were conducted: a small-scale cognitive capability survey in China, and a study of a group of industrial designers' needs regarding user data. A Framework of user data were developed and key issues for cognitive capability data collection and application in design were identified and discussed.
Keywords: Cognitive capability; User data; Design for older people; Human factors and ergonomics
Designing Tangible Interactions for Aged Users Though Interactive Technology Prototyping BIBAKFull-Text 53-60
  Wei Liu; Yanrui Qu
This research aims to explore how to bring the richness of tangible interaction designs into the everyday living and working contexts of the aged users. To do so, we introduced an interactive technology design at two Chinese Universities, for the first time interactive prototyping skills become important for their undergraduate and graduate students to learn and practice. In an interactive prototyping course, a number of prototypes designed for aged users were built and experienced. From these prototypes, experiences for regularly running interaction design education based on traditional industrial design education were discussed.
Keywords: Interaction design; Interaction qualities; User experience; Interactive design technology; Context of use; Aged users
Developing a Framework for Effective Communication with Older People BIBAKFull-Text 61-72
  Ying Jiang; Hua Dong; Shu Yuan
Communicating with older people is more challenging because of age-related cognitive and sensory impairments. How to develop an approach to enable inexperienced and young designers to effectively communicate with older people? A new and pragmatic framework is developed which aims to identify key factors of communication techniques that designers need to learn. This framework can help designers to decide which techniques are most relevant for specific conversation situations. It can also be used to systematically collect communication knowledge and skills as a designer's personal communication guidance.
Keywords: Effective communication; Older people; Cognitive impairments; Sensory impairments
Music in the Retiring Life: A Review of Evaluation Methods and Potential Factors BIBAKFull-Text 73-83
  Mao Mao; Alan F. Blackwell; David A. Good
People retiring now differ greatly in knowledge, motivation, attitudes towards and use of digital music-related technologies to younger generations or their predecessors. This paper reviews the methods that have been used to investigate why people use music-related technologies, how they use them and why. Using a lens provided by social cognitive theory it identifies future themes for research into music and ageing. Hopefully, these analyses will inform the design of future music related technologies for people at the transition to retirement, and the elderly.
Keywords: Retirement; Transition; Music; Social cognitive theory
Collecting Old People's Data for More Accessible Design: A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 84-93
  Weining Ning; Hua Dong
Good design should be equipped with the quality of being accessible to broad user groups, including older people. As the population becomes older, the needs and capabilities of people become ever more diverse. However, there exists limited effective data for designers to understand older people's capability condition. The lack of good data becomes a great barrier to make design accessible to older people. This paper introduces a pilot study of collecting older people's multiple capability data in China. It aims to explore principles and instructions to design the process, methods and testing tasks of such a study. The results show that in the pilot study, (1) there are discrepancies between users' self-assessment and performance measurement, (2) the selection of products should take into account the cultural context, and (3) ceiling effects exist and they greatly affect the validity and reliability of the data.
Keywords: Accessibility; Inclusive design; Multiple capability; Data collection
Time Reduction Design Method for Cognitive Assist Technology BIBAKFull-Text 94-103
  Junji Ohyama; Nana Itoh; Kenji Kurakata; Ken Sagawa
Given the importance and abundance of current visual information, visual display designs should consider their accessibility to elderly people. However, adapting designs not only to young users but also to older users is difficult because the difference in perception and cognition between these age groups remains unclear. In order to solve this accessible design issue, we introduce three studies: a study on the effect of aging on visibility, the construction of a database containing the sensory characteristics of older persons and persons with disabilities, and experimental and conceptual studies of our proposed design method, the time reduction design. The time reduction design method can solve the cognitive problems of aging societies by improving both spatial visibility and recognition speed.
Keywords: Vision; Time design; Cognitive technology; Experimental psychology
A Robot of My Own: Participatory Design of Socially Assistive Robots for Independently Living Older Adults Diagnosed with Depression BIBAKFull-Text 104-114
  Selma Šabanovic; Wan-Ling Chang; Casey C. Bennett; Jennifer A. Piatt; David Hakken
This paper presents an ongoing project using participatory design methods to develop design concepts for socially assistive robots (SARs) with older adults diagnosed with depression and co-occurring physical illness. We frame SARs development in the context of preventive patient-centered healthcare, which empowers patients as the primary drivers of health and aims to delay the onset of disease rather than focusing on treatment. After describing how SARs can be of benefit in this form of healthcare, we detail our participatory design study with older adults and therapists aimed at developing preventive SARs applications for this population. We found therapists and older adults to be willing and able to participate in assistive robot design, though hands-on participation was a challenge. Our findings suggest that important areas of concern for older adults with depression are social interaction and companionship, as well as technologies that are easy to use and require minimal intervention.
Keywords: Assistive robotics; Social robots; Participatory design; Elderly; Depression; Patient-centered healthcare
Universal Design as an Approach to Technology Intervention for Seniors BIBAKFull-Text 115-122
  Jon A. Sanford
Typical design approaches for technology interventions for seniors tends to focus on specialized design to accommodate functional limitations associated with either disability or aging. This paper will propose universal design as an alternative approach that focuses on design for all users, regardless of age or ability. Moreover, while specialized design is based on prescriptive requirements that often dictate what to design, universal design is an approach to technology intervention that is guided by a set of performance principles and guidelines that provide a rationale for how to design technologies. As such, universal design as extends the usability of everyday design to seniors, without the need for special adaptations or devices.
Keywords: Universal design; Design for aging; Specialized design; Technology for seniors
A Living Lab Method for Innovations to Increase Quality of Life for Elderly -- A Pilot Case BIBAKFull-Text 123-133
  Isabella Scandurra; Madeleine Blusi; Rolf Dalin
A Swedish Living Lab has recently been established offering care organizations a test and evaluation method as an activity in their intrinsic development process. Using the method, innovations for an aging population are assessed, guided by quality criteria as well-being, dignity, value for the elderly and usability.
   This paper describes the method through a pilot test, carried out in November 2014 by the elderly themselves and health and social care staff at a nursing home together with different academic parts in a multidisciplinary test process. The method allows for interaction between innovators and stakeholders as well as potential end-users in the elderly care sector. Simultaneously, the users' quality aspects are kept in focus when innovations for the aging society are tested.
Keywords: Aging society; Elderly care; Innovation; Living lab; Usability; User participation; Health/welfare development; Test; Evaluation; User-centricity
Talking Faces in Lab and Field Trials BIBAKFull-Text 134-144
  Miroslav Sili; Jan Bobeth; Emanuel Sandner; Sten Hanke; Stephanie Schwarz; Christopher Mayer
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Ambient Assisted Living technology to support older adults. Research and industry are working jointly on reliable and suitable solutions to help older adults to remain healthy and safe while living independently. Appropriate interaction methods play an important role for the acceptance of such supporting systems. Today, solutions mainly rely on common and well-evaluated interaction techniques such as TV remotes or touch screens to enhance the usability. Projects presented in this work are based on the same interaction techniques, but additionally enrich the interaction experience with a real-time, empathic virtual assistance avatar. In this paper, we present evaluation settings and user involvement results acquired from three different Ambient Assisted Living projects focusing on avatar-based user interaction. Our results show that avatar-based interaction in the Ambient Assisted Living context is very well applicable, especially when combined with speech recognition.
Keywords: Avatar; User interaction; Ambient assisted living; Multimodality
Gamification and Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 145-154
  Andreas Stiegler; Gottfried Zimmermann
There are many software requirements for the development of accessible applications, in particular for elderly people or people with disabilities. In particular, user interfaces have to be sufficiently abstract to cover required adaptations. In this paper, we introduce a gamification approach for teaching, connecting and engaging developers on accessible design of applications. A particular challenge hereby is combining gamification patters with the requirements of accessibility. As many gamification patters build on visual representation or usage metaphors, they are not suited for adaptation. Instead, we derive a representation-agnostic set of gamification patters from actual game design of commercial games. We identify and illustrate five categories of representation-agnostic gamification patterns, based on a games survey: action space, reward, challenge, progress, and discovery.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Gamification; Accessibility; Elderly; Game development; Serious games; Game design; Game mechanics; Game theory

ICT Use and Acceptance

Evaluating All-Inclusive ICT with Developers, End Users and Stakeholders BIBAKFull-Text 157-165
  Eleni Chalkia; Evangelos Bekiaris; R. Ignacio Madrid
ICT have been moving rapidly into people's lives nowadays. Even if living without access to ICT would be a barrier in the past, today access to ICT is required for most education, employment, and commerce, and is increasingly required for travel, health, safety, daily living and participation in most of our society. In this paper we present the evaluation of an all-inclusive ICT infrastructure from the perspective of different type of users that use it for different purposes based on their abilities, needs and preferences.
Keywords: Evaluation; All inclusive ICT; Accessibility; People with disabilities; Developers; Stakeholders
Access and Use of ICTs Among the Italian Young Elderly: A Field Study BIBAKFull-Text 166-176
  Fausto Colombo; Simone Carlo
Our research aims to investigate the relationship between the young elderly (65-74 years old) and use of technologies [1], and to explore active ageing and the role played by media and ICTs in building a friendly and positively domestic environment for the elderly in their everyday life [2]. Hence the use of ICTs by the elderly takes into account two different perspectives: (1) Generational approach: the young elderly are here considered by looking at the role played by their generational identity in shaping their media use [3]. (2) Domestication and Leisure: Media consumption is spatially and temporally located and media uses and routines are shared within the household and are enabled by processes of domestication [4]. The project is based on an theoretical study about ageing, a preliminary survey with a representative sample of the Italian "young elderlies" regarding ICTs equipment and usage (N = 900), (3) 20 family in-depth interviews in Milan area.
Keywords: Elderly; ICTs; Active ageing; Domestication; Generations
Patterns of ICT Use among "Senior Technology Experts": The Role of Demographic Variables, Subjective Beliefs and Attitudes BIBAKFull-Text 177-188
  Michael Doh; Laura I. Schmidt; Florian Herbolsheimer; Mario Jokisch; Hans-Werner Wahl
Information and communication technologies (ICT) play a substantial role for enhancing participation and autonomy in old age. In Germany, as in most modern industrialized societies, huge diffusion gaps between younger and older age groups exist regarding the use of the internet and ICT devices. Very few studies address the differential role of older "frontrunners" in terms of modern ICT. In this project, we address patterns of ICT use and competence beliefs among "senior technology experts" (N = 108; aged 51-81, M = 68.37), who took part in a German initiative to help older novice users with ICT, and explore the associations with psychological constructs such as self-efficacy and obsolescence. Findings suggest a strong relationship of two self-efficacy measures and perceived obsolescence with usage patterns and competence ratings. Insights on usage patterns, perceived competence and associations with psychological constructs are discussed, as they may help improve the understanding of early technology adopters among older adults with implications for research and practice.
Keywords: Technology Use; Diffusion; Self-efficacy; Obsolescence; Aging
Why Age Is Not that Important? An Ageing Perspective on Computer Anxiety BIBAKFull-Text 189-200
  Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol; Loredana Ivan
We analyze the influence of age on mobile computer anxiety in a sample of 158 individuals 55+ by means of path analysis modeling. Taking as the endogenous variable a mobile computer anxiety scale (MCAS, Wang 2007), models include demographic and socioeconomic variables and a computer experience scale -- based on the familiarity and frequency of use of different information and communication technologies. Results confirm a positive influence of age on mobile computer anxiety which is mediated by both socio-economic variables and computer experience. The influence of age on mobile computer anxiety is comparatively low. Age is not the relevant dimension to explain computer anxiety, as socio-economic background and computer experience have higher explanatory capacity. This result may explain the inconsistent results regarding the direct relationship between age and computer anxiety available in the literature.
Keywords: Older people; Computer anxiety; Romania; Survey; Path analysis; MCMC Bayesian estimation
Values and Ethics in Making Emerging Technologies Work for Older People BIBAKFull-Text 201-209
  Caroline Holland
Since the early 20th century, population ageing and technological developments have developed apace. Many social changes took place, including the development of digital technologies and the ageing of populations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of these two phenomena and to think about how certain values and may be drawn upon to help make technologies work better for older people as both technology markets and worldwide demographic profiles continue to evolve.
Keywords: Ageing Technology Values Ethics
Accessing InterACTion: Ageing with Technologies and the Place of Access BIBAKFull-Text 210-220
  Constance Lafontaine; Kim Sawchuk
In this paper, we reflect upon our participation in a pilot digital literacy project titled InterACTion currently being deployed in low-income housing for seniors the city of Montreal. To assess the complexities of access with respect to ageing in this real world setting, we draw upon Clement and Shade's 'Access Rainbow Model.' We use the InterACTion project as a case study and formulate seven lessons that we have gleaned in the carrying out of the project, each of them working to display intricacies of access within a context of precarious ageing and situated engagements with technologies. Our interest in drawing from the model lies in our understanding of access a multi-layered concept that relies both on the establishment of technical requirements and on a host of entangled conditions that are crucial in determining an individual's ability to use digital technologies.
Keywords: Access rainbow; Access; Digital literacy; Place; Ageing
Review of Empirical Research in Recent Decade About the Use of IT for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 221-229
  Yi-Chang Li
This study reviews the research articles about the use of IT for older adults' from 2009-2015. As result, fourteen articles published in peer reviewed journals are reviewed.
Keywords: Older adults; IT usage; Review
Exploring the Impacts of Age and Usage Experience of e-Service on User Perceived Web Quality BIBAKFull-Text 230-238
  Chien Hsiang Liao
Prior studies have shown that while older adults use web or e-service, they tend to rely on user accessibility guidelines or friendly web appearance. For instance, older people have difficulty reading text presentations more than younger readers. Inappropriate design decisions might create barriers for older people. However, this causality might not be entirely resulting from age. This study found that the usage experience of e-service is also strongly associated with the requirements of web quality for users as well. The empirical study was conducted on a sample of 318 users of using web services. The results reveal that the requirements of web quality (including web appearance, context quality, and technical adequacy) between older and younger adults are not significantly different. Instead, users with low usage experience require greater web quality than experienced users.
Keywords: Web quality; Age; Usage experience; Satisfaction; Trust
Acceptance of ICTs by Older Adults: A Review of Recent Studies BIBAKFull-Text 239-249
  Qi Ma; Ke Chen; Alan Hoi Shou Chan; Pei-Lee Teh
Objectives: Issues surrounding aging and information communication technologies (ICTs) are of critical importance. This study aims to identify the determinants of the acceptance of ICTs innovations by older adults, and discuss the research gap in the gerontechnology literature.
   Methods: Research articles were selected from four multi-disciplinary databases (SCOPUS, ProQuest, EBSCOHOST, Science Direct) from 2004 to 2015. Articles were filtered by "Older than 55", "healthy", "acceptance", "ICTs", etc. Finally, a total of 29 papers including qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method research are used in this study.
   Results: The majority of these studies indicated that older adults have a positive attitude towards using ICTs. The findings summarized ICTs-related technologies in five basic domains: Intelligent monitoring, Health care delivery, Online services, Social communication, and Internet & Computer. The review gathered and classified important acceptance factors into six themes: Perceived Benefits of Use, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavior Control, Perceived Usability, Affections, and Socio-demographic Mediators.
Keywords: Review; Older adults; Information communication technologies (ICTs); Technology acceptance
An Appraisal-Based Approach to the Stigma of Walker-Use BIBAKFull-Text 250-261
  Andrew McNeill; Lynne Coventry
Walker-use among older adults is often avoided because of the stigma of using one. Drawing on the appraisal theory of stress, we argue that stigma associated with walker-use is subject to various cognitive appraisals that affect whether the user sees the walker as stigmatizing and the extent to which they can cope with that stigma. We followed a participatory design approach to involve older adults in the design of an intelligent walker. One of the activities was to conduct focus groups to explore the role of the aesthetic design of the product in acceptance and use of such walkers. Qualitative analysis of these focus groups provides data explaining the ways in which potential users assess stigma and coping resources. We emphasise that while better design of walkers is important, tackling the self-stigma of users and increasing their ability to cope with using one is equally important.
Keywords: Psychology and cognition; User acceptance; Design
Perceptions of Computer System Usefulness: Insights for Design from Experienced Older Users BIBAKFull-Text 262-272
  Tracy L. Mitzner; Neil Charness; Wendy A. Rogers
Computer systems have the potential to assist older adults by supporting independence, enhancing social communication, and enabling healthcare activities. Yet older adults' adoption rates continue to lag behind younger and middle-aged adults. We report data from 249 older adult computer users (65-93 years of age) that identify the details of their perceptions of computer usefulness for a range of everyday activities. Participants rated the importance of activities to their quality of life and the usefulness of current computer systems for supporting those activities. These experienced computer users indicated that computers were meeting their needs for some activities (e.g., social communication, games) but not for other activities (e.g., calendaring, healthcare, recreation and learning). Our data provide guidance for (a) introducing the potential of computer systems to current non-users and (b) designing systems targeted to meet the needs of older adults and enhancing computing functionality for them.
Keywords: Technology; Older adults; Adoption; Perceived usefulness; Perceived ease of use
Useful or Easy-to-Use? Knowing What Older People Like about Near Field Communication Technology BIBAKFull-Text 273-281
  Pei-Lee Teh; Pervaiz K. Ahmed; Alan H. S. Chan; Soon-Nyean Cheong; Wen-Jiun Yap
The goals of this study are two-fold: (1) To develop a novel concept of a light system with the use of Near Field Communication (NFC)-enabled technology, Bluetooth and Raspberry-PI. This new system is known as NFC Light System (NLS). (2) To set up an experimental design to examine the influence of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on older adults' behavioral intention to use the NLS. Our proposed system was empirically tested with 33 older adults in Malaysia. Our findings show that perceived ease of use appears to be the primary factor for the older adults to use the NLS. Interestingly, perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of older adults' behavioral intention to use the NLS. From the practical viewpoint, this study offers a new insight for gerontechnology manufacturer and developers to focus their design efforts on easy-to-use attribute that are desired by older adults.
Keywords: Technology acceptance model; Experimental design; Gerontechnology; Near field communication; Malaysia
Pitfalls when Placing Electricity Pylons -- The Influence of Age on Acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 282-293
  Barbara S. Zaunbrecher; Katrin Arning; Baris Özalay; Hendrik Natemeyer; Martina Ziefle
The increasing penetration of renewable energies influences and changes the transmission task of electricity in Germany. However, the planning and construction of new lines is met with resistance from the public. To address public concerns adequately, a tailored information and communication concept is needed, for which knowledge about acceptance-relevant factors for different user groups is indispensable. In this paper we explore acceptance-relevant attributes in the context of electricity pylons contrasting attitudes of older and younger persons. Results of a conjoint study indicate that both age groups basically have comparable acceptance levels, but younger persons were found to be more sensitive with regard to distance of the pylon and possible health effects. Additionally, acceptance patterns similar to those for cell tower location were found, which implies that the analyzed attributes are not only stable across demographic groups but also across technologies.
Keywords: Energy infrastructure; Technology acceptance; Electricity pylons; User diversity; Renewable energies; Conjoint analysis

Aging, the Web and Social Media

Usability Evaluation of a Social Networking Site Prototype for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 297-306
  Jessica Arfaa; Yuanqiong (Kathy) Wang
Social networking sites offer a number of benefits; however a large amount of elder adults still do not engage in these types of sites due to usability issues and a lack of understanding of Web 2.0 concepts. To alleviate these issues, a social networking site interface was redesigned to accommodate elders so that they can reap the benefits of social media. Following a three phased usability study, 22 elder adults utilized a redesigned website incorporating web standards and additional usability and accessibility considerations. With the use of the redesigned prototype, does it improve accessibility and usability for elder adults? What tasks improved in terms of success rates and task performance? How do the elders perceive the newly redesigned prototype? The preliminary findings of this study show that usability and accessibility for elder adults improved when utilizing the redesigned social networking site. In addition, elder adults had a more positive perception of these types of sites after using the redesigned prototype.
Keywords: Social media; Social networking; Elder adults; Usability study
ICT Access in Libraries for Elders BIBAKFull-Text 307-316
  Amrish Chourasia; Jim Tobias; Steve Githens; Yao Ding; Gregg Vanderheiden
The ability to use information and communication technologies (ICT) is becoming a necessity. Older users are one of the fastest growing segment of ICT users but many still face barriers in ICT use. Libraries are one of the first places that individuals turn to when looking for information or assistance with ICT. Libraries also serve as an important resource for individuals to access the Internet. However, libraries face several problems in providing services to elders. Lack of funding and trained staff, insufficient knowledge about accessibility prevents them from successfully serving their patrons. We present the Library-GPII-System, a cloud based auto-personalization system that will enable libraries to successfully serve their older patrons. Results from our library stakeholder needs analyses are also presented.
Keywords: Libraries; Auto-personalization; Cloud infrastructure; Assistive technology; Access features
Examining the Validity of the Banner Recommendation System BIBAKFull-Text 317-324
  Rong-Fuh Day; Chien-Ying Chou
The phenomenon of banner blindness has concerned researchers, advertisers and website publishers during these years. In order to alleviate the phenomenon, this study attempted to develop a banner recommendation system which could arrange banners according the relative salience of keywords on a webpage viewed by a user. The prototypical system are being developed, however, we have made an initial examination on the effectiveness of its banner recommendation functionality. It was found that two recommendation accuracies for the system calculated with two different criteria both were significantly higher than the probability by chance.
Keywords: Banner blindness; Recommendation system; Eye tracking approach
Conducting Acceptance Tests for Elderly People on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 325-336
  Alexander Henka; Andreas Stiegler; Gottfried Zimmermann; Thomas Ertl
Due to the overlapping requirements with people with disabilities, elders can benefit from accessible web design and the use of assistive technologies. But elderlies face also semantic problems that are derived from different perception models or the mere anxiety of using new technologies, which can't be evaluated by accessibility guideline conformance only. Tackling those semantic issues calls for more user-centered evaluation. The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) provides user interface adaptation based on peoples individual needs and preferences. These preferences are stored in so-called preference sets and can also contain sematic settings. In this paper, we propose an accessibility evaluation method, using the preference sets of the GPII to derive authentic accessibility requirements. Hereby, we're able to carry out tests according to guideline conformance and semantic requirements. In this context, we propose a personalized accessibility evaluation approach based on original user preferences that addresses the need for a user-centered evaluation.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Accessibility; Elderlies; Acceptance tests; Web accessibility guidelines; GPII; User-preference set; User-centered accessibility evaluation; Technical accessibility; Semantical accessibility
Older Adults' Usage of Web Pages: Investigating Effects of Information Structure on Performance BIBAKFull-Text 337-346
  Jincheng Huang; Jia Zhou; Huilin Wang
This study focuses on older adults' usage of web pages. An experiment consisted of three information structures (the net structure, the tree structure, and the linear structure) was conducted to investigate effects of information structure (IS) on older adult's performance. Three findings were found. First, the number of clicks was the fewest in the net-structure web page among three web pages. Older participants spent less time to complete the tasks in the linear-structure web page than the other two web pages. The number of clicks and the accuracy of participants answered the questions in the tree-structure web page were the highest among three web pages. Second, older participants' performance of card sorting was positively correlated with the task completion time. And there was a positive correlation between spatial ability and the performance of older participants. Third, older participants showed the highest preference of the linear structure among three information structures. They always lost task targets in the tree-structure web page, especially when they needed to transfer from one branch of the tree structure to another branch. This indicated that a simple IS was better used and understood by older participants than a complicated one.
Keywords: Information structure; Older adults; Web pages; Navigation
Perceived Barriers for Older Adults' Shopping Channel Selection Toward Online Shopping BIBAKFull-Text 347-353
  Jiunn-Woei Lian
The aim of this study is to understand perceived barriers for older adults to select novel shopping channel. Questionnaire survey was employed. Innovation resistance theory is served as the theoretical base for this study. Five innovativeness acceptance barriers (usage barrier, value barrier, risk barrier, traditional barrier, and image barrier) and three business models (online shopping oriented vs. TV shopping oriented vs. hybrid) were investigated. 108 valid respondents who are older than 50 years old and have online shopping experience participated in this study. The major results including: (1) The order of the barriers for older adults to adopt novel shopping business models is risk barrier, traditional barrier, image barrier, usage barrier, and value barrier. (2) There exist significant (p<0.01) different in traditional barrier and image barrier among different business models. (3) Value barrier, risk barrier, and traditional barrier have significant (p<0.05) impact on novel shopping business models acceptance.
Keywords: Older adults; Shopping channel; Perceived barriers; Business model
Processing Speed and Vocabulary are Related to Older Adults' Internet Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 354-364
  Jennifer Romano Bergstrom; Erica Olmsted-Hawala; Wendy A. Rogers
Some cognitive declines commonly occur with aging; yet they are seldom taken into account by Website designers and User Experience (UX) researchers. In this empirical study, we compared younger adults, middle-age adults, high-functioning older adults, and low-functioning older adults to examine whether there is a relationship between aspects of cognition and performance when using a Website. Performance was measured by accuracy (percent of tasks completed successfully), efficiency (mean time to complete tasks) and self-rated satisfaction, three commonly used usability metrics. Results suggest that processing speed and vocabulary may be related to Internet performance. Specifically, older adults with faster processing speed and/or high vocabulary may perform better than their lower-functioning counterparts. More importantly, these older adults perform similar to younger adults.
Keywords: Usability; Cognition; Aging; Computers; Internet; Technology
Validation of the Computer Literacy Scale (CLS) BIBAKFull-Text 365-375
  Michael Sengpiel; Nicole Jochems
Successful use of ICT requires domain knowledge and interaction knowledge. It shapes and is shaped by the use of ICT and is less common among older adults. This paper focus on the validation of the computer literacy scale (CLS) introduced by [14]. The CLS is an objective knowledge test of ICT-related symbols and terms commonly used in the graphical user interface of interactive computer technology. It has been designed specifically for older adults with little computer knowledge and is based on the idea that knowing common symbols and terms is as necessary for using computers, as it is for reading and writing letters and books. In this paper the Computer literacy scale is described and compared with related measures for example computer expertise (CE), Computer Proficiency (CPQ) and computer anxiety (CATS). In addition criterion validity is described with predictions of successful ICT use exemplified with (1) the use of different data entry methods and (2) the use of different ticket vending machine (TVM) designs.
Keywords: Computer literacy; Computer experience; Computer proficiency; Measurement; Questionnaire; Validation
Age(ism) in Digital Information Provision: The Case of Online Public Services for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 376-386
  Maria Sourbati
This paper draws on an empirical investigation of how older people are represented on the websites providing social care service information in the inner London Boroughs. My research questions follow the work of Loos [1, 2] on the relationship between representations of older age, information accessibility and access to digital services. Mirroring Loos and reflecting the specificities of the fieldwork my investigation found older people were largely invisible as a diverse group of citizens in the emerging cultures of digital public service. The images of older adults were few and lacked diversity. Inner London has an ethnically and culturally diverse population yet older adults were commonly represented though images of frail white women. The paper highlights representational politics of older age in digital public service information provision and their consequences for access and social inclusion; intra-generational diversity; ageism as a prevalent form of social discrimination.
Keywords: Age; Ageism; Access; Inclusion; Digital public service; Intragenerational diversity
A Framework for Evaluating the Implementers' Experience in Making Existing Products Accessible: The Prosperity4all Approach BIBAKFull-Text 387-397
  Katerina Touliou; Maria Gemou; Till Riedel; Maria Panou; Evangelos Bekiaris
Prosperity4All is a continuous and dynamic paradigm shift towards an e-inclusion framework building on the architectural and technical foundations of other Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) projects aiming to create a self-sustainable and growing ecosystem where developers, implementers, consumers, prosumers and other directly and indirectly actors (e.g. teachers, carers, clinicians) may play a role in its viability and diversity. An agile and dynamic approach is adopted in three evaluation phases, starting with formative evaluations with five internal implementers leading to more summative techniques towards the final evaluation phase where more (n = 25) and external professionals will use the tools and resources available in the project's repository (DeveloperSpace) to improve and enhance their own products and services. The evaluation approach for the implementers considers three dimensions: (a) the project's Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), (b) technical validation activities prior evaluation, and (c) three evaluation phases followed by a final impact assessment.
Keywords: Inclusive design; Implementers; Evaluation; Accessibility; Ecosystem
The Study of Using Facebook in Taiwan's Elderly Populationa Case Study in Learners of the Senior Citizens Academy in a City of Taiwan BIBAFull-Text 398-404
  Ming-Wei Wang; Yu-Chin Lin
Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook site in 2004, and open to e-mail applications use in 2006. The global active users of the Facebook site surpassed one billion people on September 14th, 2012. It spent 13 years that the users of the Google site founded in 1998 surpassed one billion people in 2011. It spent 8 years that the Facebook site to do so. The official statistics of the Facebook site represented that there are about 15 million users visited the Facebook site monthly and there are about 12 million people visited the site by using the mobile Internet devices in the fourth quarter of 2013 in Taiwan. In the same time, there are about 11 million users visited the Facebook site daily and there are about 8.5 million people visited the site by using the mobile Internet devices in Taiwan. Taiwan is a mature market for the Facebook site, the website penetration is the highest in the world.
   Taiwan in where the Facebook site utility rate is so high faces the rapidly aging population issue. According to the statistics from Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China, the ratio of the population over 65 years old has exceeded 7% in 1993. It means that Taiwan is the aging society. The ratio of the population over 65 years old is 11.90% in October, 2014. With the statistics from Council for Economic Planning and Development in the Republic of China Executive Yuan, the ratio of Taiwan elderly population will exceed 14% in 2018, and Taiwan will be the aged society. The ratio of Taiwan elderly population will increase quickly from 2014 to 2025 because of the effect of the postwar baby boom.
   This investigation using action research discusses the elderly people studying IT lessons in the Senior Citizens Academy of a city in Taiwan. How do they use the Facebook site? We found that the elderly people is not the main usage group of the Facebook site, but using the Facebook site impacts positively for their learning, social networking, and the interactions among their family members. There are two difficulties for elderly people to use the Facebook site, one reason is they are not used to share their thinking to others, and the other reason is the computer operation is difficult for them. We also found that some of the elderly people begin to use the mobile Internet devices what are new things for them, and they use the internet, the Facebook site, Line by making use of the mobile Internet devices.
An Older Person and New Media in Public Discourses: Impossible Encounters? BIBAKFull-Text 405-413
  Monika Wilinska
The aim of this paper is to consider the use and role of new media in the lives of older people. To this end, I focus on the social images of encounters between older people and new media. My focus is two-fold; on the one hand, I aim at opening the academic discussion on new media and older people to societal and structural considerations; on the other, I make an argument about the use of discourse, critical discourse analysis in particular, approaches to understand the main discourses that frame the experience of older people with new media. Thus, in this paper I question taken for granted assumptions regarding the inherent characteristics of older people that prevent them from entering the social media space. I draw on the concept of ageism to discuss the implications of this for an individual, older social media user.
Keywords: New media; Older person; Discourse; Social imaginaries
Technology Generation and Media Usage in B-2-B Communication: A Cross-Cultural View BIBAKFull-Text 414-425
  Martina Ziefle; Vanessa Cabral; Judith Leckebusch; Toni Drescher
In this work culture-specific and cross-cultural influences on frequency of use of media and trust in media for B-2-B communication purposes were explored, taking Brazil and Germany as exemplary countries. Using an online survey, 236 respondents from Brazil and Germany were examined regarding their professional media usage. Findings show both culture-specific as well as cultural insensitive media usage in B-2-B communication. Brazilians use new media more frequently than Germans. However, it was also revealed that cross-cultural variables as age, gender and technical self-efficacy influence even more significantly the frequency of use of media. Furthermore, trust in media for B-2-B communication showed to positively correlated with the frequency of use of media in both countries.
Keywords: Business-to-business; B-2-B; New media; Social media; Culture; Age
Patterns for User Interface Adaptations BIBAKFull-Text 426-436
  Gottfried Zimmermann; Annkristin Stratmann; David Reeß; Tobias Glaser
Websites and web applications that require user input via web forms can be a usability barrier for elderly users if not designed carefully. This issue is even compounded by a broad diversity of needs and preferences as observed in this group of users. In this paper, we report about a current study in which we prototypically implemented and empirically evaluated four exemplary patterns of user interface adaptation. These patterns allow for dynamic substitution and/or augmentation of user interface parts at runtime, with the goal of improving the individual usability for an elderly user in a specific use context. This approach could eventually lead to highly personalized web forms within GPII and URC enabled infrastructures.
Keywords: User interface adaptation; Personalized user interface; Web forms; Supplemental user interface resources; GPII; URC

The Elderly and Mobile Devices

Older People's Attitude Towards Mobile Communication in Everyday Life: Digital Literacy and Domestication Processes BIBAKFull-Text 439-450
  Francesca Comunello; Simone Mulargia; Francesca Belotti; Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol
Older people's attitude towards mobile communication constitutes a privileged perspective for analyzing domestication processes of digital technologies. By means of a qualitative case study conducted in Italy, we study older users' motivations and usage practices. We focus on perceptions of mobile phones, adoption and domestication of mobile phones, as well as on usage skills. Participants, aged 60 to 95 years old, typically started to make use of mobile telephony in mid 1990 s and they mainly described a utilitarian approach to the mobile device even though there are cases of anthropomorphization. With a variety of profiles, from assisted to advanced users, those not having smartphones sometimes see touchscreen as challenging. They describe different learning strategies, which are shaped by personal interests. Finally, some participants adopt more sophisticated devices while others decide to slow down their relationship with mobile phones.
Keywords: Mobile telephony; Older people; Domestication; Learning strategies
Differences in the Adoption of Smartphones Between Middle Aged Adults and Older Adults in China BIBAKFull-Text 451-462
  Shang Gao; John Krogstie; Yuhao Yang
This research aims to investigate the differences in the adoption of smartphones between middle aged adults and older adults in China. Based on a literature review from previous research, a research model with eight research hypotheses was developed by extending UTAUT with a consideration of observability and compatibility from IDT, and perceived enjoyment and price value. This research model was empirically examined using survey data from 196 middle aged adults and 146 older adults respectively from China. The findings indicated that the effects of perceived enjoyment, compatibility, and observability on users' intention to use smartphones were significant, but no age differences between middle aged adults and older age adults were found to exist. Furthermore, the findings also identified age-related differences in the use and adoption of smartphones. The effects of performance expectancy and social influence on users' intention to use smartphones were moderated by age, such that it was significant for older adults but insignificant for middle aged adults.
Keywords: Adoption of smartphones; UTAUT; Older adults; Middle aged adults
Ease-of-Use of Tactile Interaction for Novice Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 463-474
  Lilian Genaro Motti; Nadine Vigouroux; Philippe Gorce
Usability, particularly ease-of-use, is a main factor affecting the acceptance of technologies by older adults. Mobile devices offer great possibilities for well-being applications, but they are often equipped with touchscreen. In order to evaluate the ease-of-use of tactile interaction, this study compares the performances of 16 novice (mean age 74) and 8 experienced older adults (mean 75) during the execution of drag-and-drop interaction for achieving tactile puzzle games on smartphone and tablet, with pen and fingers. Results show that novice users were able accomplish interaction accurately with longer times but no significant difference of errors of accuracy.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Interaction techniques; Older adults; Touchscreen; Drag-and-drop; Errors of accuracy; Ease-of-use; Usability
Age-Related Differences in a Usability Study Measuring Accuracy, Efficiency, and User Satisfaction in Using Smartphones for Census Enumeration: Fiction or Reality? BIBAKFull-Text 475-483
  Erica Olmsted-Hawala; Temika Holland
Age-related differences were investigated in a usability study of an application developed for U.S. Census Bureau enumerators to collect survey data and automate their time and expenses. Accuracy, efficiency and satisfaction measures were collected as participants used a smartphone to answer typical tasks. Usability flaws were also identified with the application. Results indicate that in general there were no differences with task accuracy and efficiency when comparing all tasks, however when looking at individual tasks, the task that had the most usability flaws also revealed age-related differences for accuracy and efficiency -- that is older adults were less accurate and took longer to complete. Surprisingly, there were age-related differences with the user satisfaction of the application such that older adults were less satisfied with the application than younger adults. Tying age-related differences to usability flaws highlights the importance of designing optimal applications for all users.
Keywords: Usability; Accuracy; Efficiency; Satisfaction; Age-related differences; NRFU; Census bureau
Older Adults and the Appropriation and Disappropriation of Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 484-495
  Natalie Pang; Samantha Vu; Xue Zhang; Schubert Foo
Research in recent years has focused on examining the acceptance as well as the appropriation of technologies amongst older adults, especially in how technologies alleviate issues of functional declines, loneliness, and financial difficulties brought about by ageing. Yet such studies have often overlooked meaningful appropriation or disappropriation of technologies amongst older adults. By drawing on a longitudinal study of ten older adults who were given a smartphone under a corporate social responsibility program by a telecommunications company, we followed the use of smartphones by ten older adult users using in-depth interviews lasting one to two hours each. Our findings revealed a mix of appropriation and disappropriation, which are linked to everyday technological use and routines, attitudes to technology, and social support.
Keywords: Non-use; Technology appropriation; Older adults; Smartphones
Abilities to Use Technological Communication Tools in Aging: Contribution of a Structured Performance-Based Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 496-508
  Lisa Quillion-Dupré; Emmanuel Monfort; Vincent Rialle
New technologies remain little used by the elderly and their impact is not sufficiently evaluated. Our research aims to evaluate the potential benefits associated to the use of communication tools and specifically with digital applications on touch pad. The present research compared the ability to use a fixed or mobile phone and a touchpad, by 25 young adults and 25 older people, living in the community and without neurological or psychiatric history. Compared to younger adults, aging people produce more commission errors and need more assistance to correct themselves, especially for the most recent technologies. The data appear to validate a hierarchical assistance model to help aging people using technological communication tools. They should be better assisted in a strategic way, using reinsurance and specific cueing. The results also indicate that the combination of a specific observation grid for standardized daily living tasks is especially sensitive to evaluate autonomy loss in aging.
Keywords: Telephone; Performance-based assessment; Older person; Touchpad; Errors; Human assistance
Elderly and Tablets: Considerations and Suggestions About the Design of Proper Applications BIBAKFull-Text 509-518
  Eliseo Sciarretta; Andrea Ingrosso; Valentina Volpi; Antonio Opromolla; Roberta Grimaldi
In this paper, the authors support the idea that tablet is the ideal tool to assist and enhance the elderly living by providing them with value-added services. Currently the risk is that a poor design interface may exclude this substantial part of the population from using useful technologies because of their specific age category requirements. So, after an analysis of the related academic literature and an assessment both of elderly needs and tablet limits and potential, the authors select a set of considerations and suggestions for the design of tablet applications for elderly, in order to facilitate the interaction.
Keywords: Elderly; Tablet; Interaction design; Design considerations and suggestions
Developing New Gesture Design Mode in Smartphone Use for Elders BIBAKFull-Text 519-527
  Ming-Hong Wang; Yu-Chi Chang; Shuo-Fang Liu; Hsin-Hsi Lai
This article is aimed to design new hand gesture mode of smartphone for better used by the elderly. The method first use focus grouping to find out the most difficult use hand gestures for the elderly. Secondly, we develop new gesture mode with one-finger gesture. Finally, we compare the traditional gesture with new design gesture mode. Results show that (1) use two fingers as gesture are the most difficult for the elderly; (2) new design mode are better than traditional mode statistically significant in usability evaluation. Accordingly, we suggest the new design gesture mode may be as one solution to substitute the traditional gesture mode for the elderly.
Keywords: Hand gesture mode; Smartphone design; Focus grouping; Usability evaluation; The elderly people
Research on Interaction Design of Intelligent Mobile Phone for the Elderly Based on the User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 528-536
  Minggang Yang; He Huang
Whether in the developed or developing countries, aging of population has been a common global trend. With the development of the communication technology and the Internet era of prosperity, the elderly people also inevitably need to use modern communication products such as mobile phone so that they could keep contact with their family, children, the outside world, including quick call in case of an emergency etc. But the physiology and psychology of the elderly are very different from the young people, which mainly is reflected in the degradation of vision, hearing, touch, reaction ability, hand strength, text and graphics memory ability and so on. Thus when the elderly people are using the mobile phone there are a lot of inconvenience and special requirements by them and the user experience is also far different form the other age groups. Therefore, in the design of the mobile phone for the older age groups whether the appearance design or the interaction design should reflect on our care for this special group, to improve the usability of the product, to bring convenience for them. This paper firstly studies the physiological and psychological characteristics of the elderly. Then it analyses the behavior characteristics of the elderly in the use of mobile phone and the user experience. Moreover some principles and methods of interaction design for the elderly mo-bile phone are presented in this essay; Additionally through several practical cases of the mobile phone design for the elderly in China and by using the research method such as the user behavior analysis, user survey, Analysis of the availability of products, product evaluation, this paper will analyze and summarize the shortcomings of the current mo-bile phone for the elderly in interaction design. Finally this paper will not only point out the direction of improvement for the elderly mobile interaction design but also provide some useful suggestions and enlightenment for the elderly mobile phone design in the future.
Keywords: Interaction design; The elderly mobile phone; User experience

ITAP 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Health Care Technologies and Services for the Elderly

The Role of Health Status in Older Adults' Perceptions of the Usefulness of eHealth Technology BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Ryan Best; Dustin J. Souders; Neil Charness; Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between an older individual's self-reported health and the perceived usefulness of computers in assisting with health-related tasks. Methods: A total of 210 older adults (age ≥ 60) completed questionnaire items pertaining to demographics, general health, perception of importance of daily activities, technology experience and use, and perceived usefulness of computers and the Internet. Results were obtained using a factor analysis and multiple regression. Results: Self-reported health was found to have a significant negative relationship with the importance of health-related activities to daily living (Beta = -0.210) but a significant positive relationship with the perceived usefulness of computers in assisting with the same health-related activities (Beta = 0.151). Discussion: Results indicate that adoption of health-supporting technologies could be facilitated by user-centered designs that better accommodate older adults in poor health. Alternatively, adoption may be facilitated by making the potential usefulness of computers more salient to older adults.
Keywords: Self-reported health; eHealth technology; Technology adoption
The Use of Smartwatches for Health Monitoring in Home-Based Dementia Care BIBAKFull-Text 15-26
  Costas Boletsis; Simon McCallum; Brynjar Fowels Landmark
A large number of dementia patients receive home-based care, in order to maintain their independence and improve quality of life and health status. The current formal home-based care model presents certain limitations related to the monitoring of the patients and the reporting of the progression of physical and cognitive decline. In recent years, novel care models and assistive technologies have been proposed in order to improve the quality of care and assistance services. In this paper, we test the assumption that the use of smartwatches for monitoring physical health aspects of dementia patients can benefit formal home-based care, by providing formal caregivers with additional, important information about significant, health-related events that may have happened during the non-visit home care hours. We perform a qualitative feasibility study -- consisted of a small-scale usability study with one dementia patient, and an expert (physician) review -- in order to test and evaluate the efficacy of a smartwatch intervention in home-based dementia care, as well as to examine its potential for a subsequent, larger-scale study. The smartwatch documented participant's health-related issues regarding night sleep disturbances, potentially frequent toilet visits, daytime snoozing, low sleep quality and early waking up times. Those issues were verified by the project's physician and, subsequently, measures can be taken to ensure the patient's good health, safety, and quality of life.
Keywords: Cognitive impairment; Dementia; Home-Based care; Smartwatch; Wearable computing
Lack of Development and Usability Descriptions in Evaluation Reports on Online Health Information Tools for Older Patients BIBAKFull-Text 27-37
  Sifra Bolle; Julia C. M. van Weert; Ellen. M. A. Smets; Eugène F. Loos
New media play an increasing role in the everyday life of older individuals. They extensively use the Internet to search for health-related information. In our systematic review we found that online health information tools have been proven to be effective in improving self-efficacy and several clinical outcomes in older (≥ 65 years) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and usability of the effective online health information tools. The reporting of the development of the online health information tools turned out to be too succinct. Moreover, we were unable to evaluate the usability of online health information tools as none of them were publicly available. We argue the need to report more detailed information about the development and usability of online health information tools in evaluation studies in order to replicate findings and to develop new evidence-based online health information tools for older patients.
Keywords: Older adults; eHealth; Website usability; Online health information tools
Older Users' Rejection of Mobile Health Apps a Case for a Stand-Alone Device? BIBAKFull-Text 38-49
  André Calero Valdez; Martina Ziefle
Mobile health apps make up an enormous market in mobile phone app stores. These apps allow automatic measurement of vital parameters and transmission of data to the doctor. Older users often reject mobile health apps for various reasons. We investigate the influence of several user factors on the willingness to use a health app integrated in a mobile phone vs. a stand-alone device. Furthermore we look into the modality for data transmission and its influence on the overall acceptance. In a questionnaire study (n=245) we ask both healthy and chronically ill (heart disease and diabetes) for their preferences. Using multiple linear regression analysis we found that the motives to use such a device influence the preference for an integrated device four times more strongly than the participants age. Still, the older the users are the more they prefer a stand-alone device.
Keywords: Diabetes; Heart disease; User diversity; Mobile phones; Aging; Technology acceptance
Delivering Telemonitoring Care to Digitally Disadvantaged Older Adults: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Design Recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 50-60
  Hongtu Chen; Sue E. Levkoff
Although telemonitoring has promise in improving care delivery and reducing unnecessary health care costs, the recent years have witnessed growing interest in identifying and resolving barriers to engagement, participation, and spreading of telemonitoring service programs among digitally disadvantaged populations. Based on a review of three key conceptual perspectives relevant to the problem of the digital divide, specific issues concerning technological acceptance, human resources development, and collaboration with service systems are described. Major strategies and policy implications are discussed with regard to HCI design considerations for telemonitoring of medical and aging conditions of the target population, integration of the telemonitoring service into the existing clinical and social context, and development of reimbursement policy that supports not only service use but also access to technology services and additional training for effective use of the technology.
Keywords: Digital divide; Telemonitoring; Older adults; Policy
Accessibility in Serious Games for Adults Aging with Disability BIBAKFull-Text 61-71
  Keiko Gomez-Gurley; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Maribeth Gandy Coleman; Jason C. Allaire
As serious games rise in number and popularity, particularly for therapeutic purposes, so rises the importance of making these games accessible to those with disabilities. We discuss the state of accessibility for commercial and research-based serious games, common age-related considerations for accessible designs, and recommendations for usability testing protocols. We close with a case study of a visual accessibility investigation of a research-based cognitive training game, Food for Thought.
Keywords: Aging; Design; Accessibility; Age-related change; Cognition; Perception; Movement; Displays; Serious games; Cognitive training games
How Measuring an Older Person's Walking Pattern Can Help Keep Them Mobile BIBAKFull-Text 72-81
  Diana Hodgins; Ian McCarthy
One of the common causes of falls is gait deficiency, and the first aim of the study was to ascertain how specific gait parameters of elderly people with gait and balance issues compare to those of the healthy elderly population. Eleven 'at risk' elderly people were compared with eighteen healthy people.
   The second aim was to explore the potential of using objective data to support personalised exercise over a two year period to help prevent falls. The 'at risk' group attended a weekly balance class and were monitored regularly.
   The results indicate that gait can be adapted by instruction and exercises. Regular monitoring provided the participants with the incentive to continue with the exercises. No participant fell during the monitoring period and all remained active. These results indicate that it is possible to personalise exercises and provide motivation using gait data and this could potentially reduce falls in the elderly.
Keywords: Mobility; Gait; Monitoring; Sensors; Elderly; Falls
Opportunities for Technology: Translating an Efficacious Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence Among Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 82-88
  Kathie Insel; Jeannie K. Lee; Gilles O. Einstein; Daniel G. Morrow
We developed and tested the Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention (MPMI) to improve medication adherence among older adults (≥ 65 years of age) who were prescribed at least one daily medication for the control of high blood pressure. Blood pressure control is important because high blood pressure is a leading cause of stroke, heart failure, retinopathy, renal disease as well as pathology in other end organs including the brain. The MPMI resulted in improvement from 57% at baseline to 78% adherence to the inter-dose interval post intervention, but most of these gains were lost after 5 months. The control condition started at 68%, was stable during the intervention, but dropped to 62% after 5 months of additional monitoring. The intervention was successful, but the effects were not sustained. Continued investigation to find ways to enhance self-management among older adults using technology is needed in order to maintain health and function.
Keywords: Medication adherence; Aging
Taiwanese Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients' Acceptance and Resistance Toward the Health Cloud BIBAKFull-Text 89-100
  Wen-Tsung Ku; Pi-Jung Hsieh
As the Taiwanese society ages, the demand for cloud services is rising, particularly among middle-aged and elderly patients, since it enables people to live independently and access health care easily. Despite cloud services great potential, there are gaps in our understanding of how patients evaluate change related to the health cloud and why they resist it. In keeping with the technology acceptance and status quo bias perspectives, this study develops an integrated model to explain middle-aged and elderly patients' intention to use and resistance to health cloud services. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to collect data from middle-aged and elderly patients. The structural equation model was used to examine the data. The results showed that patients' resistance to use health cloud services was caused by sunk costs, inertia, and transition costs. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control have positive and direct effects on behavioral intention to use. The results also indicate a significant negative effect in the relationship between middle-aged and elderly patients' intention and resistance to using the health cloud. Our research illustrates the importance of incorporating user resistance into technology acceptance studies in general and health technology usage studies in particular. There are grounds for a resistance model that can serve as the starting point for future studies in this relatively unexplored, yet potentially fertile, area of research.
Keywords: Health cloud; Middle-aged and elderly patients; User resistance; Technology acceptance; Status quo bias
Multi-disciplinary Design and In-Home Evaluation of Kinect-Based Exercise Coaching System for Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 101-113
  Gregorij Kurillo; Ferda Ofli; Jennifer Marcoe; Paul Gorman; Holly Jimison; Misha Pavel; Ruzena Bajcsy
Physical activity is recognized as one of the most effective measures to reduce risk of injury and to improve the quality of life in elderly. Many of the elderly however lack the motivation, confidence and skills to engage in regular exercise activity. One of the promising approaches is semi-automated coaching that combines exercise monitoring and interaction with a health coach. To gain a better understanding of the needs and challenges faced by the elderly when using such systems, we developed Kinect-based interactive exercise system to encourage healthy behavior and increase motivation to exercise. We present the multi-disciplinary design process and evaluation of the developed system in a home environment where various real-world challenges had to be overcome.
Keywords: Gerontechnology; Interactive exercise; Kinect; Health coaching
Considerations in Evaluating Technologies in Memory Care Units BIBAKFull-Text 114-122
  Amanda Lazar; Hilaire J. Thompson; George Demiris
As the population ages worldwide, dementia is becoming increasingly prevalent. There is a pressing need to investigate non-pharmacological interventions to meet the needs of people with dementia. Technology may be one tool to enhance the lives of people with dementia without the use of medication. However, conducting studies with people with dementia in memory care units (MCUs) has unique challenges. In this paper, we discuss methodological and logistical considerations in designing, recruiting for, and conducting technology evaluations in memory care units. These considerations are based on a six-month study evaluating a technology system designed to encourage people with dementia to participate in recreational activities. Findings will assist researchers in conducting studies deploying technology tools for people with dementia in memory care units and assisted living facilities.
Keywords: Dementia; Study planning; Computers; Multimedia
Influence of Mobile ICT on the Adherence of Elderly People with Chronic Diseases BIBAKFull-Text 123-133
  Alexander Mertens; Peter Rasche; Sabine Theis; Matthias Wille; Christopher Schlick; Stefan Becker
A great variety of applications for mobile devices are designed to support users during medical intake. One of these applications is 'Medication Plan' which aims at supporting regular and correct intake of medication and documentation of vital parameters. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of demographic and health-related factors on user behavior and patterns of use. The application was available free of charge between 2010 and 2012 in the Apple™-App-Store™. The study is based on data collected via an online questionnaire. In total 1799 participants generated 1708 complete data sets. 69% of the users (74% male) with a median age of 45 applied 'Medication Plan' for more than one day. The mean duration of application increased substantially with age (< 21 years = 23.3 days; > 60 years = 103.9 days). However, other demographic factors (sex, educational status etc.) had no effect on usage intensity. Users with complicated medical treatment or aged > 60 years applied the application for 3 month on average. This is a promising trend towards the support treatment of chronic conditions with mobile applications.
Keywords: Adherence; Elderly patients; Ergonomics; HCI; ICT; Telemedicine
Principles for Developing Digital Health Interventions for Prostate Cancer: A Community-Based Design Approach with African American Men BIBAKFull-Text 134-145
  Otis L. Owens
To reduce disparities related to prostate cancer among African American men, the American Cancer Society recommends that men make an informed decision with their healthcare provider about whether prostate cancer screening is right for them. The informed decision-making process can be facilitated through technology by teaching men about prostate cancer and providing them with activities to build their self-efficacy. However, these tools may be most effective when they are developed using a set of validated design principles, such as the Usability Engineering Lifecycle, in conjunction with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process. Using CBPR can be especially useful in designing tools for minority communities, where men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality. This paper describes the author's process for using CBPR principles to develop a prostate cancer education program for African American men and also discusses the value of using these principles within an existing usability framework.
Keywords: Usability; Community based participatory research; Health disparities; Prostate cancer; Minority health
Evaluation of Complex Distributed Multimodal Applications: Evaluating a TeleRehabilitation System When It Really Matters BIBAKFull-Text 146-157
  Carlos Pereira; Nuno Almeida; Ana Isabel Martins; Samuel Silva; Ana Filipa Rosa; Miguel Oliveira e Silva; António Teixeira
The evaluation of applications or systems within dynamic environments is complex. The existence of multiple hardware and software items which share the same space can provoke concurrency issues and result in erratic interactions. A sudden change within the environment can result is dramatic changes both to the user and application itself which can pass unnoticed in traditional evaluation methodologies. To verify if a component is compatible with a given environment is of paramount importance for areas like pervasive computing, ambient intelligence or ambient assisted living (AAL). In this paper, a semi-automatic platform for evaluation is presented and integrated with a TeleRehabilitation system in an AAL scenario to enhance evaluation. Preliminary results show the advantages of the platform in comparison with typical observation solutions mainly in terms of achieved data and overall ease of use.
Keywords: Evaluation; Multimodality; TeleRehabilitation
Innovative Technology-Based Healthcare and Support Services for Older Adults: How and Why Industrial Initiatives Convert to the Living Lab Approach BIBAKFull-Text 158-169
  Maribel Pino; Caroline Moget; Samuel Benveniste; Robert Picard; Anne-Sophie Rigaud
To support older adults with age-related or chronic diseases living in the community, suppliers are increasingly turning to Personal Health Systems (PHS) for remote care delivery. Despite the advantages of PHS, implementing these systems brings on several challenges on the technical level, but also related to the diversity of end-users, the characteristics of the ecosystem, the innovation process itself, regulatory and social aspects. To discuss these issues, we study two different PHS currently under implementation and deployment by two French companies: a telehealth service for frail older adults living at home and a GPS-based monitoring service to deal with wandering and disorientation of persons with dementia. We describe and compare problematic situations faced by these companies on three levels -- demand, supply, and context -- and explain why they decided to evolve towards a Living Lab approach to improve technology acceptance and social and economic return on investment.
Keywords: Living-lab; Innovation; Healthcare; PHS; User involvement; Older adults
Developing Radical-Digital Interventions to Tackle Loneliness Amongst the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 170-180
  Dhruv Sharma; Lynne Blair; Stephen Clune
Loneliness is a growing issue amongst older people and one popular approach to tackling it is by developing non-medical interventions such as befriending services, mentoring provisions, social clubs, etc. Our analysis reveals that these interventions are predominantly incremental-physical in nature and that there is a lack of radical-digital ones. In this paper we discuss the properties of digital technologies that can be potentially helpful for the elderly and we suggest that social innovation provides a robust theoretical framework to conceive radical-digital loneliness interventions. We also draw parallels between loneliness interventions based on social innovation and the emerging 'sharing economy' in the digital world and discuss the role of third paradigm of HCI research in this area.
Keywords: Elderly; Loneliness; Interventions; The third paradigm; Radical-digital
Effects of Using Care Professionals in the Development of Social Technology for Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 181-192
  Marie Sjölinder; Isabella Scandurra
In some situations when developing technology for elderly, the intended users are too fragile and cannot participate themselves in the design process. The aim with this study was to investigate the use of care personnel as mediators for the elderly in the design process. The system that was developed was an information and communication technology system for sharing information and for keeping in touch with friends and family. Initially the care personnel misunderstood the need of technology among the elderly. During the project the care personnel changed their view and suggested new ways of using the technology. When the devices where placed in the rooms of the elderly the usage was low, but when the system was used in the dining areas as something to gather around, e.g. to show each other pictures of friends and family, the system became a success.
Keywords: Social technology; Welfare technology; Elderly; Community-based participatory research; Co-participatory design; Community networks; Professional-patient relations
More Light! Improving Well-Being for Persons Suffering from Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Charlotte A. Sust; Peter Dehoff; Christina Hallwirth-Spörk; Dieter Lang; Dieter Lorenz
Daylight regulates the wake-sleep cycle by acting on specific receptors of the retina that are sensitive to the blue component of the spectrum. Especially in the winter months, the amount of daylight exposure is insufficient for adequate control of the circadian rhythm in many people because they increasingly stay indoors. This is particularly true for elderly or mobility-impaired persons, as well as for residents of care homes, where prevailing levels of illuminance and colour temperature are frequently too low. This not only has negative consequences for the residents' cognition, but also impairs their sleep-wake rhythms. Starting from the hypothesis that suitably designed, biologically effective artificial lighting can compensate for the lack of daylight and lead to regulation of the wake-sleep rhythm, a study comprising approximately 60 participants investigated whether an improvement in the mental and emotional condition of the residents can be achieved. Appropriate lighting was installed in four wards of two Caritas Socialis care homes in Vienna and from October 2012 until April 2013: basic illumination (static, 300 lux, 3000 K) and intervention illumination (dynamic, 800-1200 lux, 3000-6500 K) were alternated (roughly every four weeks). The results indicated that agitated behavior (as measured by the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory) increased with basic illumination and decreased in the intervention situation. Communicative behavior (observation inventory) was likewise positively influenced, particularly the non-verbal component.
Keywords: Biologically effective lighting; Dementia; Well-being; Field study
The Design of Pain Management and Creative Service for Older Adults with Chronic Disease BIBAKFull-Text 201-210
  Wang-Chin Tsai; Chia-Ling Chang; Hsuan Lin
Chronic Disease is expected to affect approximately 3 million older adults by the year 2030 in Taiwan. It is one of the top causes of disability, mobility problems, and chronic pain among older adults. With so many individuals affected, it is important to identify how to effectively manage the pain associated with chronic pain disease. The purpose of the present research was to understand the factors and needs critical to the successful management of chronic pain and to create the management and service tools currently available to the older adults. We conducted structured interviews with subject matter experts, target user, and brainstorming for the pain management development. All of the process reviewed were found to be current chronic problem pain lacking in several key areas, such as failing to include critical variables and difficulty integrating the data collected into a meaningful representation of one's pain experience. Resolving these issues will improve the quality of life for individuals suffering from chronic pain. The researches provides 3 pain care system concepts through the convenience of household devices combined with cloud computing technology, touch interface and information design (The Pain Tracker, The Pain Helper, The Pain Exerciser). According to older patients with chronic pain, considering the both of physiological and psychological part of the demand to conduct innovative service design, the health care self-management concept will enhance the better quality of life of older chronic patients.
Keywords: Chronic pain; Older adults; Pain management
The Design of Mobile Technology to Support Diabetes Self-Management in Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 211-221
  Laura A. Whitlock; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Maurita Harris; Jessica Bradshaw
Type 2 diabetes is a concern for older adults and an increasing concern for society as the percentage of older persons rises across the globe. Though potentially deadly, it is a disease that responds well to self-management through behavior: adherence to dietary guidelines, medication regimens, and exercise. However, older persons with type 2 diabetes tend to self-manage poorly, despite educational initiatives. Based on a review of the challenges faced by persons with type 2 diabetes and the state of existing highly rated diabetes self-management applications, we propose a list of design practices and core features most needed in mobile technologies designed to support the self-management of diabetes in older adults.
Keywords: Older adults; Aging; Chronic health condition; Type 2 diabetes; Mobile technology; App; Support
Design and Fabricate Neckwear to Improve the Elderly Patients' Medical Compliance BIBAKFull-Text 222-234
  Xiaolong Wu; Young Mi Choi; Maysam Ghovanloo
According to the estimation of the US National Council for Patient Information and Education, there is millions of prescription written each year, but only half of them are correctly followed by patients. Non-compliance with medicine prescription will result in higher medical cost, more hospitalizations, more complicated pill dosage, and even a threat to life. In order to improve elderly people's medical compliance, a new approach that utilizes microelectronics technology in wearable neckwear has been proposed. The sensors in the neckwear are able to detect whether the user has actually taken the pill and which pills the user has taken. During the design iteration, elderly participants' medication related behavioral data and their opinions towards the neckwear reminder concept were first gathered by interviews. The result has demonstrated that wearable neckwear seemed to be a potential solution to improve elderly people's medication compliance. Then a set of physical (non-functional) prototypes was created based on the initial survey input. Usability testing was conducted in order to measure elderly people's preferences in relation to shape, comfort, desirability, ease of use and other factors. This paper documented the development of this prototype and focused on the design challenges that have been encountered, and how the problems have been solved.
Keywords: Medical compliance; Wearable

Home and Work Support

Psychosocial Approach of Skills Obsolescence in Older Workers: Contribution of Methodological Triangulation BIBAKFull-Text 237-246
  Florence Cros; Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon; Bruno Cuvillier
Information and Communication Technologies have spread rapidly these last decades. The employment sphere has not been unaffected by these technological developments. One of the greatest risks of computerization is the rise of inequalities between two kinds of workers: those who have knowledge, an easy practice of ICT and those who do not. Older workers constitute a major part of this second kind of workers. They represent a group that is disadvantaged by technological developments. How may the widespread use of ICT in the workplace impact on older workers' activity? In attempting to answer this question, we will focus on the notion of skills obsolescence. The aim of this article is to focus on methodological triangulation to understand the dynamic construction of skills.
Keywords: ICT; Older workers; Skills obsolescence; Methodological triangulation
HAVAS: The Haptic Audio Visual Sleep Alarm System BIBAKFull-Text 247-256
  Ali Danesh; Fedwa Laamarti; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik
Sleep inertia is a transitional state of decreased performance or disorientation that occurs immediately after awakening [1]. We introduce HAVAS as a potential prevention measure to sleep inertia. It is a haptic audio visual alarm system that determines an optimal awakening time by considering the sleep stages. It consists of two major parts: Smart Bed Sheet and Smart Phone App. The design principles, methodology, and implementation are explained in detail in the following pages. Additionally, a comparison is drawn between the proposed system and those from similar studies. Moreover, the results of preliminary feasibility tests are presented at the end.
Keywords: Sleep inertia; Sleep stages; Sleep monitoring
CogniWin -- A Virtual Assistance System for Older Adults at Work BIBAFull-Text 257-268
  Sten Hanke; Hugo Meinedo; David Portugal; Marios Belk; João Quintas; Eleni Christodoulou; Miroslav Sili; Miguel Sales Dias; George Samaras
This paper presents an innovative virtual assistant system, which aims to address older adults' needs in a professional environment by proposing promising and innovative virtual assistance mechanisms. The system, named CogniWin, is expected to alleviate eventual age related memory degradation and gradual decrease of other cognitive capabilities (i.e. speed of processing new information, concentration level) and at the same time assist older adults to increase their learning abilities through personalized learning assistance and well-being guidance. In this paper we describe the overall system concept, the technological approach, the methodology used in the elicitation of user needs, and describe the first pre-trials' evaluation.
Developing Mobile Application Design of Virtual Pets for Caring for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 269-277
  Hsiu Ching Laura Hsieh
In the population ageing society, the companionship and care of the elderly, the medical system, and the consumer trend cannot be neglected. The contact with the external and the ones caring about oneself is essential for the elderly. This study aims to develop application with the functions of healthcare and accompanying, and the accessibility design is included in the interface, where virtual pets are the major communication media to assist the elderly in using mobile application. The required functions and contents in mobile application as well as the preference for the interface and models of interaction for the elderly are investigated in this study. It aims to ease and convince the elderly of the easy use. In the process of cultivating and training the virtual pet mobile application, the elderly could be accompanied and reduced the sense of loneliness; in the further use and interaction with virtual pet mobile application, the physical and metal conditions of the elderly could be real-time monitored and recorded to assist monitoring stations in managing the physical conditions of the elderly and nursing personnel in periodical checks. This research is preceded as following. First, literatures are reviewed. Second, Focus Group Interview is utilized for concluding the application contents and functions and the requirements and preference of the elderly for virtual pets. Third, an application experimental prototype is designed according to such requirements and preference. Fourth, the questionnaire, aiming to test the usability of the elderly, is filled. Fifth, the principles and suggestions for mobile application design suitable for the elderly are concluded based on the test results and analyses. The research outcome would assist in and contribute to the accessibility design of mobile application and the application to medical care by providing possible solutions for insufficient caring manpower in ageing societies and uneven distribution of medical resources.
Keywords: Mobile application; Virtual pet; Virtual elder care; Accessibility
Implementing the SimpleC Companion: Lessons Learned from In-Home Intervention Studies BIBAKFull-Text 278-289
  Chantal Kerssens; Renu Kumar; Anne Edith Adams; Camilla C. Knott; Wendy A. Rogers
This paper provides insights from our experiences that would guide the implementation of home- and community-based intervention studies, in particular field tests of technology in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive impairment and their informal (family) caregivers. Critical issues include recruitment in a vulnerable and frail population, intervention and protocol design, environmental and technology-specific barriers to implementation, and facilitators of success. Our experiences and recommendations should be relevant to a broad range of longitudinal field tests, particularly those with older adult populations.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Caregivers; Dementia; Seniors; Disease management; Caregiver burden; Recruitment; Retention; Applied research; Field test; mHealth; Healthcare technology
Investigation of Sensitivity of Foot Soles to Vibrational Stimuli: First Results for Developers of Information Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 290-299
  Stefan Lutherdt; Eva Kaiser; Tim Kirchhofer; Philipp Wegerich; Hartmut Witte
This paper gives the first results of basic researches to identify parameters and requirements for the development of a vibrational interface in shoe soles. This interface is an integral part of a system to support orientation and navigation of elderly in new and/or unfamiliar environments. To meet the requirements of the later users it is necessary to know the restrictions, basics and needs of this new technology. For these analyses a test bench was developed to examine the sensitivity of the user's foot sole to vibrational stimuli, and to determine the amount of information which could be transmitted. Another result of first test runs is the possibility to decrease the number of vibrational actuators beneath the foot sole.
Keywords: Foot sole; Vibro-tactile stimuli; Mechanoreceptors; Vibrational interface for orientation; Elderly
Robotic Interfaces Design BIBAKFull-Text 300-310
  Angie L. Marin Mejia
In the Human Robot Interaction field, developers choose among different solutions to portray a face, ranging for mechanical solutions, or avatars displayed on screens attached to the robot's body. Those designs are commonly displayed separately, being a mechanical head and a tablet size screen, or a screen with the avatar's face and a different one for the Graphical User Interface. The user interactions with the avatar and the GUI are noticeably divided by screen, and interaction designers can make use of design guidelines for computer systems during their design process. However, when the Avatar and Graphical User Interface are displayed together in the same screen, visual and interactive features compete for user's attention, increasing the complexity and affecting users' impression of the robotics system.
   It is known that prior knowledge affects older user's interactions, and navigation structures for can be applied trying to elicit that prior knowledge. However, when it comes to robots and elderly people, interaction designers should consider a robot's embodiment as a variable in the interaction equation, whether they are making decisions for the avatar or the GUI.
   Designers have little empirical research to guide them in creating such combined models for robotics interfaces and older adults. The fashion in which the visual interfaces of a robot are designed could make the difference in how often and ease individuals use that technology. The true challenge in designing a robotic interface for a system that displays an avatar and a Graphical User Interface in the same screen is representing a GUI Interaction structure without affecting the state of the embodied agent or avatar.
   The present research approaches this issue. Different Robotic Interfaces designs for Avatar + GUI with older adults as users are analyzed. The study reported in this paper, implements a robotic female Avatar and Graphical User Interface of our own design. Both designs share the same screen on Homemate, a consumer robot developed to assist the elderly with errand services, communication, entertainment capabilities, and that employs a screen instead of head, allowing us to explore whether these design considerations of Avatar + GUI produce any effect in older adults impressions of an assistant robot.
Keywords: Robotics; Interface; Design; Avatar; Elderly; User experience; Interaction; GUI; UX; Older adults
An Adaptable AR User Interface to Face the Challenge of Ageing Workers in Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 311-323
  Maura Mengoni; Matteo Iualè; Margherita Peruzzini; Michele Germani
In the last years introducing measures to face age discrimination and increasing work safety in production environments have become crucial goals. The present research proposes an innovative user interface exploiting Augmented Reality techniques to support frail people, mainly elderly, in everyday work on complex automated machines. It adapts its functionalities according to the user skill, tasks, age, and cognitive and physical abilities thanks to a set of knowledge-based configuration rules. A case study is described to illustrate the methodology to manage the complexity of configuration rules and the resulting developed platform.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Accessibility; User-centred design; Adaptation; Augmented reality
Development of Caricature Robots for Interaction with Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 324-332
  Jeffrey Sebastian; Chih-Yin Tai; Kim Lindholm; Yeh-Liang Hsu
This paper proposes a concept of combining the techniques of classic animation and robotic design to create a simple robot capable of interacting with older adults, denominated "caricature robots". A caricature robot can be described as "a non-humanoid robot that can show simplified humanoid motions in exaggerated ways". To achieve that illusion, three key elements should be met in a caricature robot: functionality, simplicity in motion and personality. While interaction for every older adult can be different, users are allowed to personalize their caricature robot by creating their own set of motions and personas that suits their personal taste. This is made possible through the "Body Cerebellar and Brain" control structure and the MotionClips software developed in this research. MusicMouth is used to exemplify caricature robots. Through the advantage of customization and personalization, caricature robots present a range of scenarios.
Keywords: Interaction; Caricature robots; Robotic motion design
Computer Input Devices and the Elderly: A Musculoskeletal Disorder Focus BIBAKFull-Text 333-340
  Alvaro D. Taveira; Sang D. Choi
The aging process carries important implications for the design of human-computer interfaces. Decreases in vision, motor control and muscle force combined with a higher vulnerability to musculoskeletal disorders and to degenerative diseases should be taken in consideration when designing and selecting computer input devices for the elderly. This study reviews the recent research literature on computer input devices and their adequacy to the elderly user. Significant findings from evaluative studies are summarized, and recommendations are provided.
Keywords: Computer input devices; Aging; Older; Elderly; MSDs
Development of Automatic Speech Recognition Techniques for Elderly Home Support: Applications and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 341-353
  Michel Vacher; Frédéric Aman; Solange Rossato; François Portet
Vocal command may have considerable advantages in terms of usability in the AAL domain. However, efficient audio analysis in smart home environment is a challenging task in large part because of bad speech recognition results in the case of elderly people. Dedicated speech corpora were recorded and employed to adapted generic speech recognizers to this type of population. Evaluation results of a first experiment allowed to draw conclusions about the distress call detection. A second experiments involved participants who played fall scenarios in a realistic smart home, 67% of the distress calls were detected online. These results show the difficulty of the task and serve as basis to discuss the stakes and the challenges of this promising technology for AAL.
Keywords: Automatic speech recognition; Aged voices; Home automation; Vocal command; Distress call; Ambient assisted living
Aging Working Population: Hearing Impairment a Growing Challenge for the Working Environment BIBAKFull-Text 354-364
  Verena Wagner; K. Wolfgang Kallus
Population developments raise expectations of an aging working population. These create new challenges for the working world. One is to deal with age-related impairments such as hearing impairment which impacts performance due to impairment of speech comprehension, memory performance and can lead to safety risks. In order to compensate this proactively a basic question has to be answered: Are problems in auditory processing and memory performance due to deficits in peripheral hearing or due to age-related or secondary deficits in central processing components? Two studies were conducted to check the role of peripheral factors. Young normal hearing participants have to perform a verbal memory task under different hearing conditions that simulate hearing impairment. The results show significant effects of induced hearing impairment and provide further evidence that verbal memory performance deficits of hearing impaired are based on a peripheral hearing loss/early processing stages and maybe less on central processing components.
Keywords: Aging working population; Hearing impairment; Verbal memory performance

Smart Environments and AAL

Spatial Modeling Factors in Sensor-Based Ambient Assisted Living Technologies Designed for Ageing Populations BIBAKFull-Text 367-376
  Dua'a Al-Hajjar; Reem Al Ehaidib; Sarah Al Muhanna; May Al Sohibani; Areej Al-Wabil
In this paper, we synthesize research on the different emerging Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) sensor-based technologies and examine the spatial parameters that are used in these systems. Different lenses in examining the AAL literature are considered, such as the chronological development in sensor-based AAL and the human factors in the design of sensor-based AAL in various contexts. Relevant metrics and standards in AAL design are highlighted. A comparative prospective of these metrics and how they are applied in recent studies and systems are also discussed. The paper presents a categorization of those technologies based on their selection of the spatial information to obtain a clearer understanding of the relationship between spatial modeling and the accuracy of these technologies. Implications for the design of AAL and situated interaction in AAL contexts are discussed.
Keywords: AAL sensors; AAL human factors; Spatial metrics
Modeling the Interaction and Control of Smart Universal Interface for Persons with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 377-388
  Shady Aly; Ghassan Kbar; Mohammed Abdullah; Ibraheem Al-Sharawy
A little if not rare work has been considered empowering the PWD with smart universal assistive technologies at the workplace. Most researches focus on specific or single impairment condition such as smart solutions for blind or low vision persons, physically disabled persons (PDP), deaf or mute persons, and mostly with home or building places. This paper present the models of interaction and control of a universal interface solution for PWD, called SMARTUNIVERS. The SMARTUNIVERS is currently being developed within the of SMARTDISABLE's research project activities implemented at the Riyadh Techno Valley, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. IT includes two smart interface modules: Smart Help (SMARTHELP) and Smart editor (SMARTEDIT). The SMARTHELP module provides personalized smart help and communication services for the PWD at workplace. The SMARTEDIT module is a multimodal editor interface that provides the capability for wide spectra of PWD groups (11 groups with various combination of disabilities) to edit documents using multi-model ways of interactions and commanding through use of speech recognition engine, text-to-speech, Mic, virtual mouse/keyboard and Braille keyboard. We shall present in this paper the high level design of the SMARTUNIVERS and the two smart component modules, together with the interaction models and scenarios for some typically covered PWD groups. The SMARTUNIVERS provides a flexible dynamic interface that adjusts itself according to the impairment conditions associated with the eleven supported groups of PWD.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living (AAL); Smart workplace; Persons With Disability (PWD); Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
Signing Off: Predicting Discontinued ICT Usage Among Older Adults in Assisted and Independent Living BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  Ronald W. Berkowsky; R. V. Rikard; Shelia R. Cotten
While previous research examining digital inequality among older adults has exposed factors that prevent older adults from using information and communication technologies (ICTs), less has been done focusing on factors that may contribute to ICT discontinuation. This investigation uses data from a randomized controlled intervention study to examine possible predictors of discontinued ICT usage among older adults in assisted and independent living communities. Survival analysis shows that participating in a non-technology activities intervention can increase the odds of stopping the use of ICTs over time. In addition, an increase in the number of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) an individual needs assistance with was associated with increased odds of discontinuing ICT use. Results suggest that those promoting continued usage of ICTs among older adults in assisted and independent living need to address the social activities that may prevent use and account for the increasing frailty of residents over time.
Keywords: ICTs; Aging; Assisted living; Independent living; Digital divide
Understanding the Socio-Domestic Activity: A Challenge for the Ambient Technologies Acceptance in the Case of Homecare Assistance BIBAKFull-Text 399-411
  Salima Body-Bekkadja; Marc-Eric Bobillier-Chaumon; Bruno Cuvillier; Florence Cros
Due to the global aging of population, fatal domestic accidents increase. In this paper we describe a user-centered design process of a new pervasive technology (CIRDO). The aim of this technology is to empower the elderly people by the detection of their physical falls and to alert family or caregivers. Two different studies were performed. First, we analyzed the actual risk situations. Second, social acceptance was investigated for the different stakeholders involved. Altogether 63 older adults and 38 other stakeholders were subjected to interviews, focus groups, and were observed in user tests. Falls are mostly due to environments, internal factors, external resources, and social factors. Falling scenarios were identified to configure the future device. All stakeholders proved to have different views as to the acceptability of CIRDO, depending on previous experience, trajectory, needs and objective (support, assistance, care, prevention...) Therefore they have specific expectations and fears with regard to the system.
Keywords: Pervasive technology; Social acceptance; Domestic activity; Elderly people; Risk situations
The Wearable Multimodal Monitoring System: A Platform to Study Falls and Near-Falls in the Real-World BIBAKFull-Text 412-422
  Tracy Jill Doty; Bret Kellihan; Tzyy-Ping Jung; John K. Zao; Irene Litvan
Falls are particularly detrimental and prevalent in the aging population. To diagnose the cause of a fall current medical practice relies on expensive hospital admissions with many bulky devices that only provide limited diagnostic information. By utilizing the latest wearable technology, the Wearable Multimodal Monitoring System (WMMS) presented here offers a better solution to the problem of fall diagnostics and has the potential to predict these falls in real-time in order to prevent falls or, at least, mitigate their severity. This highly integrated system has been designed for real-life long-term monitoring of movement disorder patients. It contains multiple wearable and wireless biosensors that simultaneously and continuously monitor cardiovascular, autonomic, motor, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, in addition to receiving critical patient feedback about symptoms. Initial pilot data show that the system is comfortable and easy to use, and provides high quality data streams capable of detecting near-falls and other motor disturbances.
Keywords: Wireless electroencephalography; Skin conductance response; Electrodermal activation; Heart-rate variability; Blood pressure; Wearability; Fall prediction
Smart Textiles as Intuitive and Ubiquitous User Interfaces for Smart Homes BIBAKFull-Text 423-434
  Julian Hildebrandt; Philipp Brauner; Martina Ziefle
Textile user interfaces for smart homes offer novel intuitive input gestures and may lower acceptance barrier for technophobic or elderly people. To understand the users' requirements of smart textile input devices, an Adaptive Conjoint Analysis with the attributes wearability, functionality, haptic, location, and components was carried out with 100 participants. The attributes were rated with different importances. Users request non-wearable textile input devices with no noticeable electronics for the living room. Gender, but no age effects were identified, as women prefer health applications, whereas men prefer media control. In summary, the device needs to be individually tailored to the user's requirements to achieve high acceptance.
Keywords: Smart textiles; Technology acceptance; Design space; User centered design; Conjoint; Smart home
Designing an Indoor Navigation System for Elderly People's Capabilities BIBAKFull-Text 435-445
  Mathias Källström; Sondre Berdal; Suhas Govind Joshi
The elderly population is increasing and the need of smart home technology and customized health-care solutions is growing rapidly. A common symptom of old age is cognitive impairment, which can in some cases lead to the inability of self-navigation. Numerous indoor navigation systems have proposed to solve such problems. However, previous developers have only to a minor extent included elderly in the design process, despite the user group's complex needs. The solution presented in this paper is based on using recognizable aids and abstractions to ensure that the new proposed system is something elderly users can relate to and feel comfortable with. Other solutions often require wearable modules, or constant interaction, whereas this system does not require any of the two. In addition to our solution we present five implications when designing an indoor navigation system for elderly people.
Keywords: Indoor navigation; Cognitive impairment; Elderly people; Assisted living; Positioning
Exploring Use Cases of Smart Presence for Retirement Communities BIBAKFull-Text 446-455
  Karina R. Liles; Rachel E. Stuck; Allison A. Kacmar; Jenay M. Beer
The goal of this study was to understand what employees of continuing care retirement communities (CCRC) think about the smart presence technology. To better understand their perceptions of the benefits, concerns, and adoption criteria for smart presence systems we have conducted a needs assessment with CCRC employees (N=23) who were given first-hand experience operating the smart presence system, BEAM, as a local and a pilot user. From the interview data, the most commonly mentioned use case was interaction with others such as doctors, staff, and patients, family, friends, and guests and conduct/attend meetings. From the questionnaire data, the highest uses cases were entertainment (e.g. playing games), interaction for CCRC group activities, and receive remote visits and tours. Findings from this study can guide designers in identifying ways in which smart presence can be integrated into a CCRC environment and used by the employees. Future directions are also considered.
Keywords: Performance; Design; Human factors
A Meta User Interface for Understandable and Predictable Interaction in AAL BIBAKFull-Text 456-464
  Aida Mostafazadeh; Ali Asghar Nazari Shirehjini; Sara Daraei
The aim of this paper is the design and development of a novel user interface to interact with a meta system. Our focus is rather on interacting with Ambient Intelligence as a whole, which would for example enable users to influence the overall behavior and attributes of dynamic device compositions. We call such interfaces Meta User Interfaces. The design details of a proposed user interface as well as a cognitive walkthrough evaluation are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; System image; Transparency; Predictability; Overriding default behavior; Human-environment interaction
Giving Elderly Access to Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 465-475
  Lukas Smirek; Alexander Henka; Gottfried Zimmermann
An increasing number of devices and applications from the Smart Home and Ambient Assisted Living domain are leaving the experimental state and are reaching commercial viability. These developments come with great opportunities, but also with challenges for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose a holistic approach, using concepts of the Global Public Infrastructure (GPII), the Universal Remote Console (URC) and the upcoming technology of Web Components, to build personalized and adaptive user interfaces for people with special needs. The goal is to provide for everyone the interface fitting best his or her needs. In this paper we present the preliminary result of our approach and discuss its impact on the design of adaptive user interfaces.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Accessibility; Elderly users; GPII; URC; AAL; Smart home; Web components; Adaptive user interfaces

Communication, Games and Entertainment

Baby Boomers and Gaze Enabled Gaming BIBAKFull-Text 479-487
  Soussan Djamasbi; Siavash Mortazavi; Mina Shojaeizadeh
Despite common belief, Baby Boomers form a sizable population of gamers. Paying attention to how this generation experiences a game can help companies that target this group of users increase their market share. To address this need, this study examines Baby Boomers' reaction to a new way of manipulating objects in a game, namely with their eyes. In particular, the study focuses on testing the impact of two different gaze activation strategies on Baby Boomers' interaction experience of a game. We tested two gaze enabled games that provided different levels of flexibility in their respective gaze activation strategies. Our results showed that Baby Boomers had a significantly better interaction experience with the game that had a more flexible gaze activation strategy.
Keywords: Activation strategy; Gaze interaction; User experience; Game play; Baby boomers; Human technology interaction; HCI
Assessing Older Adults' Usability Challenges Using Kinect-Based Exergames BIBAKFull-Text 488-499
  Christina N. Harrington; Jordan Q. Hartley; Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers
Exergames have been growing in popularity as a means to get physical exercise. Although these systems have many potential benefits both physically and cognitively, there may be barriers to their use by older adults due to a lack of design consideration for age-related changes in motor and perceptual capabilities. In this paper we evaluate the usability challenges of Kinect-based exergames for older adults. Older adults rated their interaction with the exergames system based on their perceived usefulness and ease-of-use of these systems. Although many of the participants felt that these systems could be potentially beneficial, particularly for exercise, there were several challenges experienced. We discuss the implications for design guidelines based on the usability challenges assessed.
Keywords: Older adults; Exergames; Usability; Interface evaluation
Play for the Elderly -- Effect Studies of Playful Technology BIBAKFull-Text 500-511
  Henrik Hautop Lund
This paper addresses play for the elderly, and how playware can act as a play force that pushes people into a play dynamics. Play is a free and voluntary activity that we do for no other purpose than the play and enjoyment. Nevertheless, we may observe collateral effects of play amongst the elderly, e.g. in terms of health effects. The paper presents both qualitative and quantitative studies of the effect of play amongst elderly. For instance, it is shown how playful training on modular interactive tiles show statistical significant effects on all the test measures of elderly functional abilities (e.g. balancing, strength, mobility, agility, endurance) after merely 13 group training sessions during which each elderly play (exercise) for just 12-13 min. Hence, the statistical significant effects are obtained after just 2-3 h of total playing time with such playful technology. In play, the elderly seem to forget about time and place (e.g. forget about their possible fear of falling and physical limitations), and thereby achieve the remarkable collateral effect on their health.
Keywords: Play; Playware; Elderly; Effect; Modular technology
TwitterIDo: What if My Shopping Bag Could Tell My Friends I'm Out Shopping BIBAFull-Text 512-523
  Elena Nazzi; Tomas Sokoler
In this paper, we explore the use of augmented everyday artefacts to make seniors' everyday activities more visible in local communities to strengthen existing face-to-face social interactions or open new ones. We ground the twitterIDo idea in a three-year research project. We involved seniors as co-designers and we explored twitterIDo in a living lab with a community of senior citizens. Through a set of interactive prototypes of augmented everyday artefacts and dedicated displays, we engaged senior co-designers in in-situ enactments and workshops. Experiencing the possibilities of our idea, the seniors envisioned the use of the interactive prototypes to support their collaboration in shopping activities. We reflect on how promoting social interaction by making everyday activities more visible became instrumental to support collaboration, offering the seniors a clear purpose to make their shopping activities more visible.
Designing Cross-Age Interaction Toys for Older Adults and Children BIBAKFull-Text 524-532
  Wang-Chin Tsai; Chi-Hsien Hsu; Kung-Chih Lo
This paper describes the process of using a co-participatory design method to produce a toy prototype for children and adults. Based on suggestions from both groups, co-participatory design activities were organized around a single guiding principle: to construct an interesting and creative toy to help both generations interact with each other. Our findings support the usefulness and necessity of this design method and illustrate how designers could implement them in future work. Two industrial designers, six older adults (three male and three female, aged 65-75), and six children (3 male and 3 female, aged 6-10) were involved in the co-participatory design process, which was conducted via daily dialogue, scenario creation, and semi-structured interviews. This research described a co-participatory design process that included designers, children, and older adults. Data gathered from the process revealed that children had creative design ideas that considerably improved the interactive toy. This enabled the designer team to achieve a better empathic understanding of older and younger users, and to work on a project that was grounded in the interests of both target groups.
Keywords: Co-participatory design; Older adults; Children; Toy
A Slow Game Design for Elderly with Their Family and Friends BIBAKFull-Text 533-540
  Yi-Sin Wu; Teng-Wen Chang
After preliminary studies, based on horticultural activities, to propose amendments. Through interviews with elderly people, exploring the life and discuss the literature review, and found that the most affect elderly living alone is the quality of interaction with the community, rather than quantity. The concept of community nurseries, proposed to the original game, the family cannot help activities, through interaction with neighborhood friends, let elderly care by being converted into active share.
Keywords: Elderly platform; Community nursery; Neighborhood and friends