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HIMI 2015: 17th International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part I: Information and Knowledge Design

Fullname:HIMI 2015: 17th International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information, Part I: Information and Knowledge Design
Note:Volume 4 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Sakae Yamamoto
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9172
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20612-7 hcibib: HIMI15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-20611-0 (print), 978-3-319-20612-7 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

HIMI 2015: 17th International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part II: Information and Knowledge in Context

Fullname:HIMI 2015: 17th International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information, Part II: Information and Knowledge in Context
Note:Volume 5 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Sakae Yamamoto
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9173
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20618-9 hcibib: HIMI15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-20617-2 (print), 978-3-319-20618-9 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. HIMI 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. Information Visualisation
    2. Information Presentation
    3. Knowledge Management
    4. Haptic, Tactile and Multimodal Interaction
    5. Service Design and Management
    6. User Studies
  2. HIMI 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Context Modelling and Situational Awareness
    2. Decision-Support Systems
    3. Information and Interaction for Driving
    4. Information and Interaction for Learning and Education
    5. Information and Interaction for Culture and Art
    6. Supporting Work and Collaboration
    7. Information and Interaction for Safety, Security and Reliability
    8. Information and Interaction for in Novel Advanced Environments

HIMI 2015-08-02 Volume 1

Information Visualisation

Annotated Domain Ontologies for the Visualization of Heterogeneous Manufacturing Data BIBAFull-Text 3-14
  Rebekka Alm; Mario Aehnelt; Steffen Hadlak; Bodo Urban
Manufacturing processes such as monitoring and controlling typically confront the user with a variety of heterogeneous data sources and systems. The cognitive efforts to summarize and combine the data from these different sources affect the user's efficiency. Our goal is to support the user in his work task by integrating the data and presenting them in a more perceivable way. Hence, we introduce an approach in which different data sources are integrated in an annotated semantic knowledge base: our domain ontology. Based on this ontology, contextually relevant data for a specific work task is selected and embedded into a meta-visualization providing an overview of the data based on the user's mental model. Two systems finally exemplify the usage of our approach.
Evaluation of Data Display Methods in a Flash Flood Prediction Tool BIBAKFull-Text 15-22
  Elizabeth M. Argyle; Chen Ling; Jonathan J. Gourley
Flash flooding can be difficult to predict using traditional, rainfall threshold-based approaches. New initiatives like the Flooded Locations and Simulated Hydrographs (FLASH) project provide real-time information using rainfall observations to force distributed hydrologic models to predict flash flooding events. However, in order to address the goal of creating a weather-ready nation, system designers must not only possess tools that relay useful information, but such tools must also be able to communicate environmental threats to stakeholders in a clear and easy-to-use interface. Where previous research has addressed the performance of forecasting models, the present study uses a human factors approach to enhance FLASH's ability to present information to decision-makers (i.e., forecasters).
Keywords: Flash flood; Decision Making; Forecasting
Modernizing Exploration and Navigation in Enterprise Systems with Interactive Visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 23-33
  Tamara Babaian; Wendy Lucas; Mengru Li
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems empower employees with access to vast amounts of data from across the organization. Learning how to navigate an enterprise system and explore the data within, however, can require herculean effort. Despite the efficacy of visualizations for enhancing knowledge discovery and exploration, they have yet to be applied to assisting users of ERP systems. In this paper, we present two visualization components designed specifically for those users. The first provides an easy-to-use search interface for visualizing relationships between data entities, while the second supports navigation via an interactive map. Both have been implemented in a prototype for validation in future studies.
Keywords: Interactive visualizations; Dynamic visualizations; Enterprise systems; ERP
Explorative Visualization of Impact Analysis for Policy Modeling by Bonding Open Government and Simulation Data BIBAKFull-Text 34-45
  Dirk Burkhardt; Kawa Nazemi; Egils Ginters; Artis Aizstrauts; Jörn Kohlhammer
Problem identification and solution finding are major challenges in policy modeling. Statistical indicator-data build the foundation for most of the required analysis work. In particular finding effective and efficient policies that solve an existing political problem is critical, since the forecast validation of the effectiveness is quite difficult. Simulation technologies can help to identify optimal policies for solutions, but nowadays many of such simulators are stand-alone technologies. In this paper we introduce a new visualization approach to enable the coupling of statistical indicator data from Open Government Data sources with simulators and especially simulation result data with the goal to provide an enhanced impact analysis for political analysts and decision makers. This allows, amongst others a more intuitive and effective way of solution finding.
Keywords: Information visualization; Visual analysis; Impact analysis; Simulation; Open Government Data; Policy modeling; Decision making
Big Data Visualization for Occupational Health and Security Problem in Oil and Gas Industry BIBAKFull-Text 46-54
  Daniela Gorski Trevisan; Nayat Sanchez-Pi; Luis Marti; Ana Cristina Bicharra Garcia
Association rule learning is a popular and well-researched set of methods for discovering interesting relations between entities in large databases in real-world problems. In this regard, an intelligent offshore oil industry environment is a very complex scenario and Occupational Health and Security (OHS) is a priority issue as it is an important factor to reduce the number of accidents and incidents records. In the oil industry, there exist standards to identify and record workplace accidents and incidents in order to provide guiding means on prevention efforts, indicating specific failures or reference, means of correction of conditions or circumstances that culminated in accident. OHS's employees are in charge of analyzing the mined rules to extract knowledge. In most of cases these users has two main challenges during this process: (i) to explore the measures of interestingness (confidence, lift, support, etc.) and (ii) to understand and analyze the large number of association rules. In this sense, an intuitive visualization of mined rules becomes a key component in a decision-making process. In this paper, we propose a novel visualization of spatio-temporal rules that provides the big picture about risk analysis in a real world environment. Our main contribution lies in an interactive visualization of accident interpretations by means of well-defined spatio-temporal constraints, in the oil industry domain.
Keywords: Data visualization; Big data applications; Decision support systems; Oil and gas industry
Affective Responses of Interpolated Sketches BIBAKFull-Text 55-66
  Kun-An Hsiao
This study explored the expression differences between designer-interpolated shapes and computer-interpolated shapes under affective perceptual map. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) program was applied to construct product perceptual space as the basis to demonstrate the relationship among interpolation stimuli and affective adjectives. The designer-interpolated kettles have the tendency to design more fresh and modern images. Comparing the average distance between designer-interpolated kettles and midpoint of the source kettle, it is clear that the operations of interpolation image on the "simple-complex" axis are easier to create than the "contemporary-traditional" and "emotional-rational" axes. This study also proves the relationship between the computer-interpolated shapes and their affective responses to be nonlinear and non-uniform. The results showed under a condition of free design expression for the designer, the design purpose not only yields a finished product appearance but also represents the designer's will.
Keywords: Interpolation; Affective responses; Product shape; MDS
An Approach to Spatial Visualizing Method for Information Structure to Enhance Remember to Look BIBAKFull-Text 67-73
  Jae-Gil Lee; Dong-Hee Shin
Individuals living in our information-driven society can feel overwhelmed by the amount of information as well as the myriad of technologies they can use to access it. Personal information management (PIM) is an activity in which an individual stores personal information items in order to retrieve them later. One ideal of PIM is that we always have the right information in the right place, in the right form, and of sufficient completeness and quality to meet our current needs. Personal information storage tends to become enormous over time. In addition, its structure can also become diversified and complex, resulting in information that is scattered in different forms across various devices and multiple versions. One way to solve the issue of information fragmentation is to emphasize the concept of remembering to look. Most information management system representations are using spatial metaphors, where virtual objects are displayed similar to physical objects in the actual world. The power of spatial metaphors lies in people's tendency to naturally use spatial metaphors.
Keywords: Spatial metaphor; Information structure; Personal information management
Visual Interactive Process Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 74-85
  Sebastian Maier; Hannes Kühnel; Thorsten May; Arjan Kuijper
Sensor data has been coined the oil of the 21st century. We present a technique for the visual analysis of multivariate sensor event log data. This technique tackles two challenges: Firstly, in a complex process the relation of causes and effects is often masked by indirections. Secondly, the metrics to measure success might be different from the measures that identify causes. Thus, our approach does not require that all sensor data is equal. Our techniques combines automated and interactive grouping to identify candidate sets sharing properties relevant for cause and effect analysis. Interactive visual probes offer immediate information on the statistical relevance of an identified connection.
Uncertainty Visualization Framework for Improving Situational Awareness in Emergency Management Systems BIBAKFull-Text 86-96
  Natália Ferreira Oliveira; Leonardo Castro Botega; Lucas César Ferreira; Márcio Roberto de Campos
Situation awareness (SAW) is the perception of environmental elements within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. Processes of acquisition, maintenance and recovering of situation awareness, guided by information visualization methods, may be affected by problems related to the quality of information processing and display, undermining the decision-making process. Among such problems, uncertainty, general dimension and association with the complete gathering of information may arise from the acquisition to its processing and cognition in SAW-oriented systems. Thus, the present study describes the creation of a framework that integrates and disseminates issues related to quality of information and quality of representation, involving the application of graphical representation techniques of uncertainties generated by the dimensions of completeness, consistency and dimensions related to time, such as currently. A case study of emergency management information display will be discussed to illustrate the applicability of the representative framework to improve situation awareness, as well as the graphical representation techniques of uncertainty. Results of this study are discussed, and they point out the contribution to the process of situation awareness of emergency management makers.
Keywords: Uncertainty visualization; Situation Awareness
A Concept for Visualizing Psychophysiological Data in Human Computer Interaction: The FeaturePlotter BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Falko Pross; Dilana Hazer; Harald C. Traue; Holger Hoffmann
This paper introduces a graphical concept and an implementation for visualizing psychophysiological data in human computer interaction. Psychobiological measurements result in huge datasets, which are mandatory for the development of semi-automatic or automated emotion classification and hence a reliable planning and decision-making system called companion system. The mentioned amount of data calls for the need of making dependencies and coherences in those datasets visible for the human eye in addition to algorithmic pattern recognition and feature selection. Seeing through the data by exploring it playfully helps experts understanding the data structure and provokes non-specialists' curiosity.
Keywords: Data visualization; Psychophysiology; Companion systems; Emotion recognition; Human computer interaction
Proposal of a Visualization Method to Support Informal Communication Using Twitter Attributes BIBAKFull-Text 107-114
  Ryota Sasajima; Kohei Otake; Makoto Oka; Akito Sakurai
In this paper, we propose a method to visualize information regarding hobbies and interests of a person inferred from tweets on Twitter to support informal communication in the real world. Analysis of the current states and experiments on informal communication clarified that it is important and useful for a person to know information such as hobbies, interests and other attributes which indicate background of his/her partner to start and maintain a first and good meeting. Through experimental results, we demonstrated that our proposed social profile diagram was effective for informal communication.
Keywords: Social networking service; Informal communication; Visualization
A Team Hiring Solution Based on Graph-Based Modelling of Human Resource Entities BIBAKFull-Text 115-126
  Avinash Sharma; Jyotirmaya Mahapatra; Asmita Metrewar; Abhishek Tripathi; Partha Dutta
As modern organizations become more agile and support more complex business processes, acquiring the right set of talent is becoming crucial for their operations. One of the key talent acquisition problems is staffing a team that has requirement for multiple job descriptions, from a pool of external candidates. This team hiring problem may arise for (i) a new organization, (ii) a new group in an existing organization, or (iii) an existing group that faces high attrition level. This paper presents a Talent Acquisition Decision Support System (TADSS) that provides decision support for team hiring. The system first builds a weighted graph based model for the three types of Human Resource (HR) entities in the problem setup (jobs, employees and candidates), and the inter-relationship among them. Next, an algorithm based on spectral embedding of the HR Graph is used to select teams. The system then provides an interactive team selection and comparison interface based on the HR Graph. Simulation-based evaluations show the effectiveness of the proposed system in team formation.
Keywords: Human resource graph; Graph embedding
Reading Through Graphics: Interactive Landscapes to Explore Dynamic Topic Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 127-137
  Eva Ulbrich; Eduardo Veas; Santokh Singh; Vedran Sabol
An information landscape is commonly used to represent relatedness in large, high-dimensional datasets, such as text document collections. In this paper we present interactive metaphors, inspired in map reading and visual transitions, that enhance the landscape representation for the analysis of topical changes in dynamic text repositories. The goal of interactive visualizations is to elicit insight, to allow users to visually formulate hypotheses about the underlying data and to prove them. We present a user study that investigates how users can elicit information about topics in a large document set. Our study concentrated on building and testing hypotheses using the map reading metaphors. The results show that people indeed relate topics in the document set from spatial relationships shown in the landscape, and capture the changes to topics aided by map reading metaphors.
Keywords: Text visualisation; Dynamic information landscape; Interaction design; User study
Edge Bundling in Multi-attributed Graphs BIBAKFull-Text 138-147
  Takafumi Yamashita; Ryosuke Saga
Numerous information visualization techniques are available for utilizing and analyzing big data. Among which, network visualization that employs node-link diagrams can determine the relationship among multi-dimensional data. However, when data become extremely large, visualization becomes obscure because of visual clutter. To address this problem, many edge bundling techniques have been proposed. However, although graphs have several attributions, previous techniques do not reflect these attributions. In this paper, we propose a new edge bundling method for attributed co-occurrence graphs. Electrostatic forces work between each pair of edges; however, if the edges are under different attributions, then repulsion works between pairs. By bundling edges under the same attribution, a graph can more clearly show the relationships among data.
Keywords: Edge bundling; Network visualization; Attributed graph

Information Presentation

URU: A Platform for Prototyping and Testing Compatibility of Multifunction Interfaces with User Knowledge Schemata BIBAKFull-Text 151-160
  Sandrine Fischer; Blaine Oelkers; Mitchell Fierro; Makoto Itoh; Eric White
We present a platform for prototyping and testing the information architecture of multifunctional products. A prototyping component supports the creation of feature outlines and their rendering into clickable prototypes. A user testing component implements an experimental method for characterizing the schemata operations involved during first use of multistate interfaces. Generation of the experimental material is automated via natural language processing techniques. The platform supports remote type of interface testing and fits well the needs for agile and data-informed user-centered design.
Keywords: User testing; Graphical user interface; Knowledge schemata; Quantitative evaluation; Prototyping; Design tool
An Exploration of the Effectiveness of Infographics in Contrast to Text Documents for Visualizing Census Data: What Works? BIBAKFull-Text 161-171
  Marylisa Gareau; Rebecca Keegan; Lin Wang
The U.S. Census Bureau conducted a usability research study using 3 published Census infographics on different topics containing statistics produced from Census survey data. The study used a mixed-factorial design with repeated measures, comparing user performance (accuracy of information recall and accuracy of searching for information) and satisfaction after using either the 3 infographics, or 3 text documents containing the same information. 55 participants were randomly assigned to either the Infographics condition or the Documents condition, accordingly. Results revealed significant advantage in accuracy for participants with any amount of college education, and a significant interaction between the stimulus type (infographics compared to documents) and the condition (searching versus recall) with infographics being related to increased performance in the searching task and not the recall tasks. However, there were no significant memory-related advantages for infographics above documents, and no interaction between education and stimulus type.
Keywords: Usability; Infographics; Memory
Searching for Information: Comparing Text vs. Visual Search with Newspapers Websites BIBAKFull-Text 172-180
  Victor M. González; Jesús García; Bárbara Muro
Different approaches used to define how a website shows information have an impact on how users evaluate its usability. As shown in the present study, how people accomplish a search of visual content in a newspaper website is an important factor to review while designing it. In this study, 47 participants were randomly assigned to evaluate one of two different newspaper websites and asked to do visual and written searches. The evaluation metrics were: task success and task time. Also the participants made an overall evaluation of the site, answering two Likert questions and an open-ended question to measure qualitative aspects. Finally, we measured the overall satisfaction with a SUS questionnaire. The results show that a poor performance in the search of visual content lead to lower usability perception, this might be a main aspect to improve when defining priorities to enhance overall usability.
Keywords: Data visualization; Information presentation
The Usability of Magnification Methods: A Comparative Study Between Screen Magnifiers and Responsive Web Design BIBAKFull-Text 181-189
  Elyse C. Hallett; Blake Arnsdorff; John Sweet; Zach Roberts; Wayne Dick; Tom Jewett; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Screen magnifiers, which often result in the need for horizontal scrolling, and enlarging content through the browser itself are two magnification methods used by computer-users with low vision. With responsive web design (RWD), the later can be done with word wrapping, thus eliminating the need to horizontally scroll. The present study compared the effectiveness of the two methods when participants performed two types of Web-based tasks: reading comprehension and data input. Results showed that when using RWD, participants completed the reading comprehension tasks more quickly and accurately compared to when using screen magnifiers. Participants were also able to complete data input more quickly with RWD than with the screen magnifier. Finally, participants rated RWD to be more usable than screen magnifiers. The results of this study have implications for further developments of web accessibility guidelines.
Keywords: Accessibility; Display; Screen magnifiers; Design; Responsive web design; Low vision; Usability
Generating Summary Videos Based on Visual and Sound Information from Movies BIBAKFull-Text 190-203
  Yurina Imaji; Masaya Fujisawa
Vast quantities of video data are now widely available and easily accessible; because of the many videos that users encounter, video summary technology is needed in order to help users find videos that match their preferences. This study focuses on movies to propose a method for extracting important scenes based on visual and sound information, and verifies the degree of harmony of the extracted scenes. The video segments thus characterized can be used to generate summary videos.
Keywords: Summary videos; Visual and sound information
Narrower Conceptual Scope in the App Than the Web Store Interface -- The Size Does It and the Ad Has It BIBAKFull-Text 204-214
  Chien-Ling Kao; Man-Ying Wang
How does screen size impact users in ways other than task performance or efficiency? The current study proposed and tested the hypothesis that a narrower conceptual scope was associated with the small/App than the large/web store interface leading to reduced ad relevance effect (i.e., evaluation of the ad and advertised products in high than low relevance ads was more positive). The hypothesis was supported. Implications for mobile shopping behavior and online ad placement were also discussed.
Keywords: Screen size; Online shopping; Conceptual scope; Eye tracking; Ad relevance
Exploring Cultural Symbols in Nigeria for Contemporary Applications in Web Visual Design BIBAKFull-Text 215-225
  Isah Bolaji Kashim; Oluwafemi S. Adelabu; Sunday O. Ogunwole
The study aimed at exploring rich heritage of cultural symbols in Nigeria for meaningful and harmonious adaptations in web visual interface design. In this study, we focused on developing theme design for computer-based questionnaire form using selected cultural motifs from the Yoruba traditional textile tradition as a source of inspiration. Visual aesthetic evaluations were done by university students in south western Nigeria using semantic differential scales. We assessed the perceived aesthetic impression of the stimuli set through the main test procedure. The study reveals how the inflection and transfiguration of cultural symbols in web visual design can be visually appealing to the local computer users at a first glance and changes that might occur over extended exposure time. This paper underscores the relevance of cultural potentials from Nigerian heritage for modern day design application by using information technology as a platform towards adapting them.
Keywords: Arts and culture; Symbols; Culture-inspired aesthetic value and HCI
Generation of Infotips from Interface Labels BIBAKFull-Text 226-234
  Eric White; Sandrine Fischer; Foaad Khosmood
A method is presented for generating informative and natural-sounding infotips for graphical elements of a user interface. A domain-specific corpus is prepared using natural language processing techniques, and a term-frequency/inverse-document-frequency transform is used for vectorization of features. A k-means algorithm is then used to cluster the corpus by semantic similarity and retrieve the most similar infotips for any inputted interface label. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method and conclude by proposing several approaches to improve the selection of infotips by incorporating natural language processing and machine learning techniques.
Keywords: Natural language processing; Machine learning; Instructional design; Graphical user interfaces
Proposal of a Data Presentation Technique Using Four-Frame Cartoon Expression for a LifeLog System BIBAKFull-Text 235-246
  Takashi Yoshino; Iori Osada
In recent years, research on lifelogging has increased because of developments in information technology. However, few studies have dealt with communication with other people using lifelogging technology. Therefore, we have developed the BlogWear system, which automatically generates weblog entries using lifelog data. The results of our previous experiment showed that a large number of entries from lifelog data have few changes, and readers quickly tire of them. Therefore, this study proposes a method that generates a four-frame cartoon expression from lifelog data. The contribution of this study is to show that the use of four-frame cartoon expressions can make viewing lifelog data more enjoyable.
Keywords: LifeLog; Four-frame cartoon; Blog; Communication support
Search in One's Hand: How Users Search a Mobile Library Catalog BIBAKFull-Text 247-257
  Tao Zhang; Xi Niu; Liugen Zhu; Hsin-liang Chen
With the rapid growth of mobile devices, mobile websites become an important channel of library resources and services. The mobile catalog is often significantly different from its desktop version in interface and features, but few studies of library catalog search behavior have been focused on mobile catalog searches. We present a study on user search behavior with a mobile library catalog based on transaction log analysis. We compared mobile and desktop catalog search behaviors and highlighted the similarities and differences, which could provide important evidence for improving mobile library catalogs' search performance and usability.
Keywords: Mobile search behavior; Library search; Search log analysis; Mobile application development

Knowledge Management

Fusing Text and Image Data with the Help of the OWLnotator BIBAFull-Text 261-272
  Giuseppe Abrami; Alexander Mehler; Dietmar Pravida
A central challenge for any approach to mining multimedia data concerns the availability of a unified semantics that allows for the fusion of multicodal information objects. To meet this challenge, a format is needed that enables the representation of multimedia data even across the border of different (e.g. iconic and symbolic) codes using the same ontology. In this paper, we introduce the OWLnotator as a first step to meeting this dual challenge by example of text-image relations. The OWLnotator is presented as part of the eHumanities Desktop, a browser-based, platform-independent environment for the support of collaborative research in the digital humanities. It focuses on modeling and analyzing multicodal, multimedia information objects as studied in the humanities. The eHumanities Desktop contains a wide range of tools for managing, analyzing and sharing resources based on a scalable concept of access permissions. Within this framework, we introduce the OWLnotator as a tool for annotating intra- and intermedia relations of artworks. The OWLnotator allows for modeling relations of symbolic and iconic signs of various levels of resolution: ranging from the level of elementary constituents to the one of complete texts and images. To this end, the OWLnotator integrates TEILex (a system for interrelating corpus and lexicon data as part of the eHumanities Desktop) with the expressiveness of OWL-based ontologies in order to meet the first part of our twofold challenge. As an evaluation, we illustrate the OWLnotator by means of "Illustrations of Goethes Faust".
A Filtering System of Web History Using the Browsing Characteristic BIBAKFull-Text 273-279
  Keita Arai; Makoto Oka; Hirohiko Mori
Most Web browsers have a Web history function to support to go back to the pages which user use to watch. However, only few people use it to revisit Web pages. In this study, we suggest a filtering system of Web history that holds only the Web pages that is more likely to be revisited. Whether visited Web pages are more likely to be revisited or not is determined by the characteristics of user's browsing behaviors. Our results clarify users' browsing characteristics make a filtering system of Web history work well. This study shows a solution of revisit Web pages, using Web history function.
Keywords: Web history; Revisitation; Refinding; Browsing characteristic; Filtering
Seed, a Natural Language Interface to Knowledge Bases BIBAKFull-Text 280-290
  Bahaa Eldesouky; Heiko Maus; Sven Schwarz; Andreas Dengel
The World Wide Web has been rapidly developing in the last decade. In recent years, the Semantic Web has gained a lot of traction. It is a vision of the Web where data is understandable by machines as well as humans. Developments in the Semantic Web made way for the creation of massive knowledge bases containing a wealth of structured information. However, allowing end-users to interact with and benefit from these knowledge bases remains a challenge.
   In this paper, we present Seed, an extensible knowledge-supported natural language text composition tool, which provides a user-friendly way of interacting with complex knowledge systems. It is integrable not only with public knowledge bases on the Semantic Web, but also with private knowledge bases used in personal or enterprise contexts.
   By means of a long-term formative user-study and a short-term user evaluation of a sizable population of test subjects, we show that Seed was successfully used in exploring, modifying and creating the content of complex knowledge bases. We show it enables end-users do so with nearly no domain knowledge while hiding the complexity of the underlying knowledge representation.
Keywords: Usability; Semantic Web; Natural language; Knowledge bases
Managing References by Filing and Tagging BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Pierre Fastrez; Jerry Jacques
This paper presents the preliminary results of a cognitive ethnography of the personal information management (PIM) practices of five social science researchers. Based on video-recorded interviews involving guided tours of our informants' personal digital spaces of information, we study how they create digital workspaces that support their informational activity. We introduce a semio-cognitive theoretical framework to elucidate the relationships between the users' informational activity, the technical and semiotic properties of the software tools they use, and their conceptual models of these tools. Based on this framework, our analyses of PIM practices highlight how conceptual models play a mediation role between the affordances of the tools and the activities that they support.
Keywords: Personal information management; Folders; Tags; Cognitive semiotics; Conceptual models; Conceptual metaphors
Towards a Class-Based Model of Information Organization in Wikipedia BIBAKFull-Text 301-309
  Michael Gilbert; Mark Zachry
As complexity increases in commons-based peer production communities, the means of organizing and facilitating collective action must also mature to ensure the ongoing health and active maintenance of those communities [1]. This study examines the types of structured data that exist in Wikipedia, introduces an argument for an extension to the types of structured and semi-structured data within Wikipedia supported by that descriptive analysis; and presents an implementation of that extension that supports instantiations of semi-structured content that facilitate both human and tool-mediated interactions with Wikipedia data. This extension offers a novel means of structuring data to support the ongoing health and maintenance of online communities like the community of editors that maintain and develop Wikipedia.
Keywords: Information organization; Information design; Tool-mediated interaction; Wikis; Templates
A General Framework for Text Document Classification Using SEMCON and ACVSR BIBAKFull-Text 310-319
  Zenun Kastrati; Ali Shariq Imran; Sule Yildirim Yayilgan
The text document classification employs either text based approach or semantic based approach to index and retrieve text documents. The former uses keywords and therefore provides limited capabilities to capture and exploit the conceptualization involved in user information needs and content meanings. The latter aims to solve these limitations using content meanings, rather than keywords. More formally, the semantic based approach uses the domain ontology to exploit the content meanings of a particular domain. This approach however has some drawbacks. It lacks enrichment of ontology concepts with new lexical resources and evaluation of the importance indicated by weights of those concepts. Therefore to address these issues, this paper proposes a new ontology based text document classification framework. The proposed framework incorporates a newly developed objective metric called SEMCON to enrich the domain ontology with new concepts by combining contextual as well as semantic information of a term within a text document. The framework also introduces a new approach to automatically estimate the importance of ontology concepts which is indicated by the weights of these concepts, and to enhance the concept vector space model using automatically estimated weights.
Keywords: Ontology; Classification; Text document; SEMCON
A New Information Architecture: A Synthesis of Structure, Flow, and Dialectic BIBAFull-Text 320-331
  Rico A. R. Picone; Bryan Powell
We introduce a new information architecture that is a synthesis of an information structure, information flow (e.g. narrative), and information dialectic (its evolution). Insights from the memory mnemonic the method of loci and the philosophical process of dialectic are introduced. Three cumulative syntheses are presented: the organic architecture with (1) the hierarchical architecture with (2) the sequential architecture with (3) the dialectical method.

Haptic, Tactile and Multimodal Interaction

Effects of Tacton Names and Learnability BIBAKFull-Text 335-344
  Daniel Barber; Christopher Beck
Increasing robotic capabilities and a strong impetus for mixed-initiative Soldier-Robot teaming is pushing the boundaries of current communication paradigms. These future teams are expected to perform along a continuum of operating environments, in which traditional auditory and visual modalities may be hindered or unavailable. The tactile modality offers an alternative means for a robot to communicate words, phrases, or cues to a Soldier, providing an additional channel to facilitate more robust multimodal communications. However, fundamental research is still needed to understand how to design tactile icons called "tactons." In order to better understand the relationship of a tacton and their assigned names, this paper presents results from an experiment comparing the ability of participants to classify existing tactons from the literature using original versus nonsense-syllable labels.
Keywords: Tactile displays; Tactons; Tacton names; Tactile belt; Human robot interaction; Nonsense syllables
Augmenting Soldier Situation Awareness and Navigation Through Tactile Cueing BIBAKFull-Text 345-353
  Linda R. Elliott; Bruce Mortimer; Gina Hartnett-Pomranky; Gary Zets; Greg Mort
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a dual-row tactile belt comprising two different types of advanced tactors to communicate both navigation information and incoming alerts, during a waypoint navigation night operations scenario. Navigation information was provided to the Soldier by providing a pulse pattern on the torso corresponding to the direction towards the next waypoint. At the same time, the Soldier received incoming situation awareness alerts regarding threat and robot status indicators. Each Soldier participated in two comparable navigation scenarios, where the task performance with a front-mounted visual map display was used. A tactile assisted interface was also part of the Soldier ensemble, such that the tactile system was turned on during one navigation scenario, and turned off for the other. When using the tactile system, Soldiers reported being more situationally aware of their surroundings and having better control of their weapon. They also navigated more quickly, and very rarely consulted their visual display, when the tactile system was turned on.
Keywords: Soldier performance; Navigation performance; Tactile cueing tactile display; Tactile communication
Multisensory Information Processing for Enhanced Human-Machine Symbiosis BIBAKFull-Text 354-365
  Frederick D. Gregory; Liyi Dai
Multisensory information processing is a basic feature of neural systems and has been exploited to facilitate development of Army systems that augment Soldier performance through multisensory displays. However, the full potential of these systems has yet to be determined and will require understanding fundamental features of the underlying neurophysiology of multisensory processing, the neuroergonomics of multisensory machine interface and analytical methods for neural signal analysis, dimensionality reduction and pattern recognition. Here, findings from basic and applied research efforts will be presented that have focused on various aspects of human (brain)-computer interfaces to uncover understanding in these areas and mediate recent technological developments in multisensory display technology, passive mental state detection, attention/orientation detection, and human activities recognition from video in general. Based on the knowledge of multisensory processes acquired from these efforts there are emerging opportunities for creating new human gesture-controlled recognition systems based upon multimodal data analysis which will allow for unprecedented human-machine symbiosis.
Keywords: Human-machine interfaces; Brain-computer interface; Data analysis; Human activity monitoring; Multisensory cueing
Increase and Decrease of Optical Illusion Strength By Vibration BIBAKFull-Text 366-373
  Teluhiko Hilano; Kazuhisa Yanaka
Optical illusions, such as the optimized FraserWilcox figures, are perceived to be moving although they are perfectly still. Optical illusion intensity substantially increases in a color-dependent FraserWilcox figure vibrated at several Hz. By contrast, the intensity decreases in other types of optical illusion subjected to vibration. It is difficult to control the frequency and amplitude of vibration made by hand precisely. Vibrating a figure on the PC display by software may be affected by the response time and limited refresh rate of the PC display. Therefore, we developed a vibration equipment by using a positive mechanical constraint cam. Various optical illusion figures were vibrated using the equipment to determine the relationship of optical illusion strength to the amplitude and frequency of vibration. Results showed that the proposed equipment can effectively determine the vibration frequency and stroke in which optical illusions can be recognized.
Keywords: Optical illusion; Fraser-Wilcox; Vibration
Presentation Method of Walking Sensation Based on Walking Behavior Measurement with Inertial Sensors and Pressure Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 374-385
  Kohei Ichihara; Koichi Hirota; Yasushi Ikei; Michiteru Kitazaki
In this paper, we give the way to make the sitting user feel the walking sensation, by using the walking sensation presenting device in which we put the data we got from measuring walking behavior. We measured walking behavior from the inertial sensors which we put on the insteps and waist of the pedestrian and pressure sensors on the bottoms of their feet. We get the data of back-&-forth movements of feet from the data of acceleration and directions from inertial sensors on insteps. In the same way, we get back-&-forth and left-and-right movements of the whole body from the sensor on back. Walking sensation presenting device has a chair for user to ride, which moves back-&-forth and right-&-left to presents walking body's swing to user and the device which presents walking sensation to user's lower limb. The device which presents walking sensation to user's lower limb consists two parts. One part are the lower limb movement presenting board that moves back-&-forth to make user's lower limbs do the same movement as the real walking. The other is the landing vibration presenting device. About 10% of amount of the whole body movement in real walking presents the best walking sensation to the user. About 20% of amount of the lower limb movement in real walking presents the best walking sensation to the user.
Keywords: Walking behavior measurement; Lower limb movement; Sole vibration; Walking sensation; Physical exercise
Induction of a Relaxed State Using a Vibration Stimulus Based on the Respiratory Cycle BIBAKFull-Text 386-395
  Naoto Iwamoto; Hiroshi Hagiwara
The purpose of this study was to induce different states using a vibration stimulus based on an individual's breathing cycle. Based on the results of Lorenz plot area S (LP-area-S), breathing control with the long-period breathing pattern was able to induce a state of increased parasympathetic activity. Parasympathetic activity was greatly reduced during the task with the short-period breathing pattern. The results of LP-area-S and the AAC (alpha attenuation coefficient) showed that LP-area-S was increased with the short- and long-period breathing patterns when AAC was decreasing. Given the results of this experiment, it appears that breathing control using a vibration stimulus based on individual breathing cycles can lead to a relaxed state in terms of the physiological and psychological changes.
Keywords: Breathing control; Autonomic nervous system; Central nervous system; Lorenz plot; Vibration stimulus
Designing Memorable Tactile Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 396-404
  Daiji Kobayashi; Hiroyasu Mitani
In our previous study, the requirements for designing memorable vibration patterns such as a rhythmical vibration pattern called "vibration rhythm" were proposed. However, almost all participants, regardless of their age, could only recognize a few vibration patterns. Therefore, we attempted to determine a method to create memorable vibration patterns that enabled the users to understand the meaning of the many vibration patterns presented. In this study, a method, designing the vibration patterns with language rhythms implied the Japanese pronunciation of the corresponding message, were tried. The method was evaluated through experiments, and its validity was verified by comparing its results with a working memory system proposed by Baddeley. From the results, we concluded that the method can help the user improve his learning skills and memory. Consequently, our proposed new method is a better option to create memorable vibration patterns.
Keywords: Tactile interface; Vibration perception; Memorable; Vibration pattern; Working memory
Changes in Heart Rate Variability by Using Tactile Thermal Interface Device BIBAKFull-Text 405-411
  Kentaro Kotani; Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Takafumi Asao; Satoshi Suzuki
As an interface for calling attention without noticing others, presentation of tactile thermal information, equipped with an input device was evaluated. The thermal presentation device was designed such that emotional changes were generated after the exposure of the warm and cold stimuli, which may lead to the alarm effect. The experiment was conducted to examine physiological and behavioral responses for the thermal stimuli by measuring reaction time to the stimuli with heart rate variability. The results revealed that the reaction times given by cold stimuli were shorter than those by warm stimuli although the changes in R-R interval of heart rate decreased significantly only by the presentation of warm stimuli. Further evaluation included the usability for the effects associated with alarm and recovery of drowsy situations.
Keywords: Thermal information; HRV; Tactile interaction
Human Factors to Consider During the Early Development and Dissemination of New Displays to Improve Spatial Orientation and Situation Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 412-424
  Ben D. Lawson; John Christopher Brill; Linda-Brooke I. Thompson; Amanda M. Kelley; Casey R. Harris; Angus H. Rupert
When a new technology is contemplated to enhance situation awareness (SA), thought must be given to designing, prototyping, and demonstrating it to enhance usability and acceptance. The focus during this process is typically upon the end-user. We introduce three SA-enhancing displays (designed to avoid spatial disorientation (SD), falling, and collisions, respectively) and describe the typical end-users of such displays. We then argue for a wider consideration of human factors (HF) that includes the needs of those in the entire human chain of technology development before the final end-users. We intend to show how solving problems associated with the early development and refinement of new technologies requires a consideration of multiple types of "users". Consideration of only the end-user is not sufficient to ensure technology acceptance in any of the three case studies described in this report. Everyone in the chain of technology development must be considered a user.
Keywords: Orientation; Usability; Tactile; Vestibular; Balance; Collision; Display
Computer Input System Using Eye Glances BIBAKFull-Text 425-432
  Shogo Matsuno; Kota Akehi; Naoaki Itakura; Tota Mizuno; Kazuyuki Mito
We have developed a real-time Eye Glance input interface using a Web camera to capture eye gaze inputs. In previous studies, an eye control input interface was developed using an electro-oculograph (EOG) amplified by AC coupling. Our proposed Eye Gesture input interface used a combination of eye movements and did not require the restriction of head movement, unlike conventional eye gaze input methods. However, this method required an input start operation before capturing could commence. This led us to propose the Eye Glance input method that uses a combination of contradirectional eye movements as inputs and avoids the need for start operations. This method required the use of electrodes, which were uncomfortable to attach. The interface was therefore changed to a camera that used facial pictures to record eye movements to realize an improved noncontact and low-restraint interface. The Eye Glance input method measures the directional movement and time required by the eye to move a specified distance using optical flow with OpenCV from Intel. In this study, we analyzed the waveform obtained from eye movements using a purpose-built detection algorithm. In addition, we examined the reasons for detecting a waveform when eye movements failed.
Keywords: Eye glance; Eye input; Optical flow; Input interface
Basic Study of Evoking Emotion Through Extending One's Body Image by Integration of Internal Sense and External Sense BIBAKFull-Text 433-444
  Sho Sakurai; Takuji Narumi; Toki Katsumura; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
Emotion has closely relationship with one's body image. In some cases, external object that physically separates from body is recognized as one's body image. In other words, the body image extends to the external object. This phenomenon happens by integration of internal sense that perceives one's body and external sense that perceives the outside of the body. On the other hand, the type of evoked emotion is decided from cognizing not only body image but also attribution of causality. General approaches to evoke emotion in recent have not discussed the causal attribution in depth. This study has proposed a new method for evoking emotions through touching upon the discussion of causal attribution. To investigate the feasibility of our approach, we made "Interactonia Balloon" that lets users evoke a tense feeling by coupling and decoupling a change in respiratory condition and a movement of a balloon. In this paper, we report on the feedback and implications obtained through the exhibition of this work.
Keywords: Interaction design; Multimodal interaction; Evoking emotion; Body image; Somatopsychology
Development of Tactile and Gestural Displays for Navigation, Communication, and Robotic Control BIBAKFull-Text 445-457
  Anna Skinner; Jack Vice; Lisa Baraniecki
Cognitive demands on dismounted Soldiers are ever increasing. This is an investigation into using gestural controls and a tactile display vest to reduce cognitive, physical, and temporal demands as relevant to covert communications and robot control. Data was collected on 31 Soldiers for this experiment-based evaluation consisting of task demands of a typical rural reconnaissance patrol deconstructed into specific tasks involving a platoon leader role, a squad leader role, and a robot controller role. Results found that use of an instrumented glove and a tactile display vest was associated with a higher average percentage and faster average speed of signal detections when compared to traditional hand and arm signals. Glove-based robot control was also compared with traditional methods and evaluated.
Keywords: Human interface; Information management; Robotic control
Human Characteristics of Figure Recognition in Tactile Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 458-465
  Motoki Tanuma; Makoto Oka; Hirohiko Mori
In car, information presented to drivers is increasing and most of information is done using the visual and auditory displays. Presenting the information only to visual and auditory modes must cause drivers' cognitive overloads in the near future and it is necessary to find the way using other modes to reduce them. In this study, we especially focus on human tactile figure recognition of the train of sticking stimuli and examine the human characteristics of what kinds of figures people can recognize as the tactile feedback. We developed tactile device that expresses four figures. We found there are interactions between the interval time of each sticking and the figures and human has quite different mechanisms between the cases of the simultaneous sticking and the consecutive sticking in recognizing the figures.
Keywords: Tactile; Feedback
Recognition of Written Cues System for Users of General Paper Media BIBAKFull-Text 466-476
  Daiki Yamaji; Jiro Tanaka
This paper proposes a system for users of "general paper media (newspaper, books, publications, etc.)" using recognition of written cues (made by handwritten entries) and performing digital processing. Users are able to use this system by a smartphone and on paper-media to save a favorite paragraph or image on the paper, illustrate data associations, and search for English translations, all the while being able to use the paper-media in a natural way. Moreover, users are able to browse the interaction logs from both the paper-media and smartphone. Experiments to evaluate the performance of this system shows the high recognition accuracy, and high discrimination accuracy depending on written cues.
Keywords: Document recognition; Handwriting; Image processing; Image recognition; Data management; Smartphone
Study of Haptics and Tactile Sense of the Direction of Movement BIBAKFull-Text 477-487
  Sakae Yamamoto; Yukiko Yokomizo; Daiji Kobayashi
The operating tool is not mentioned for the case of a location cannot be directly confirmed visually. In above cases, by that people touch the operation tools at our fingertips, its direction can be confirmed. This paper was focused onto the touch, in other words, tactile and haptic. When the operator touches the operation device, for example, button, switch, etc. It is possible to understand of the direction of its movement of machine (equipment) from texture information of device obtained from the operation of the tactile device. From this, when performing multiple operations at the same time, and also the working conditions it is difficult to be confirmed an operation device in the eye, it is to aim to reduce operation errors. The experimental study was done. Tow impression are found as follows; the raise-get down and positive rotation -- negative rotation. It has been proven that there is an association between directionality and textural sense of materials.
Keywords: Haptics; Tactile; Direction of operation; Direction of movement

Service Design and Management

Proposal of New Lighting Which Combined Functionality of Street Light and Outdoor Light BIBAKFull-Text 491-499
  Takeo Ainoya; Keiko Kasamatsu; Akio Tomita
The two types of illuminations were developed as security sensing with motion sensor instead of the image. We focused on the lights in outdoor in this study. As the role of outdoor lights, the proposed light has a function that feels natural presence of residents and pedestrian light as illumination. We examined about a new style of lighting and proposed the lighting which combined functionality of street light and outdoor light. We conducted concept planning, prototyping, experiments for determining flash lighting and evaluation, and proposed two design models. The proposed lightings in this study were able to provide a solution by data and sensing, and to achieve safety and security.
Keywords: Lighting for safety and security; Sensing; Light-emitting pattern; Street light; Outdoor light
A Multi-agent Based System for Route Planning BIBAKFull-Text 500-512
  Eugene Belyi; Indravan Patel; Anusha Reddy; Vijay Mago
Route-planning is a perplexing problem in the field of computer science. Finding computationally viable solutions to route-planning is a challenging task. Various techniques have been devised to solve this problem; however, there is a trade-off in these techniques between computational complexity and accuracy. One paradigm defined in artificial intelligence which can contribute to this problem's solution is a multi-agent system, in which a group of agents work together to achieve a common goal. These agents require a robust mechanism for coordination and information exchange in order to achieve this goal. When applied to route-planning, these agents interact to compute the optimal path based on distance, speed, and a variety of environmental factors that may impact travelling time. The consideration of these factors allows a solution generated by the system to be applicable to real world situations. In this work, a hybrid model is proposed which utilizes a multi-agent system to compute travelling time for a given route. This system utilizes a Bayesian network to model interdependencies which exist between environmental factors. In order to illustrate the potential effectiveness of the proposed model, several case studies from the state of Alabama are presented.
Keywords: Route planning; Road transportation network; Bayesian network; Intelligent transportation system; Multi-agent system
Improving Service Quality by Prioritizing Service Attributes Using SERVQUAL and Kano Model BIBAKFull-Text 513-525
  Chin-Mei Chou; Cindy Sutanto; Shu-Kai Wu
The purpose of this study is to improve the healthcare service in nursing home base on customer desire. Previous studies found that Taiwan nowadays is facing the rapid growth of the ageing population and lack of resources for taking care of elderly. Nursing home has become one of solutions to overcome these issues. However the current condition indicates that some nursing homes can not satisfy the customer desires, especially for elderly who are more sensitive. SERVQUAL model is used to measure the service quality base on the gap score between customer expectation and perception. Kano model is used to categorized and prioritize each service attributes according the degree of influence toward customer satisfaction. The findings of a case study are presented.
Keywords: Service quality; SERVQUAL; Kano; Nursing home; Elderly
Travel-Information Sharing System Using Tweets with Location Information BIBAFull-Text 526-534
  Junko Itou; Keiichiro Nakamura; Jun Munemori
In this article, we propose a travel-information sharing system. Internet-based travel-advisory services have been widely used, and these sites allow users to search and garner information regarding tourist destinations more easily. However, with such services it is difficult to find live information about a particular location, including route information, owing to the quantity of information posted on the Web.
Ubiquitous Healthcare Systems: Improving the Adherence Level within Diabetic Medication Using Cloud-Based Reminder System BIBAKFull-Text 535-546
  Mohammed Kalkattawi; Tatsuo Nakajima
This research focuses on diabetic patients who undergo multiple daily injections therapy (MDI) for their diabetic management. MDI therapy is usually considered challenging and difficult to maintain. For this reason, patients might not able to maintain a good level of adherence to the insulin medication. As a step to improve the adherence level among diabetics, we would like to propose a reminder system that can promote a change in the patients' behavior. This paper is divided into two scopes: the first scope concerns the evaluation of current technologies within diabetic management; while the second scope focuses on testing the proposed system among a number of patients. The results from this usability study demonstrated that there was some improvement within the adherence level among participants. We concluded that these types of systems have the potential to ease the diabetic management and improve the adherence to insulin medication.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Multiple daily injections; Medication adherence; Ubiquitous health; Mobile computing; Smart devices; Smart applications
Centralized Approach for a Unified Wireless Network Access BIBAFull-Text 547-559
  Jan David Nose; Jaromir Likavec; Christian Bischof; Arjan Kuijper
In this paper, a concept is presented that allows to deploy a unified wireless network access for all employees in organizations with heterogeneous network environments. It is designed to be easy to implement and to maintain. Also, it focuses on usability, removing the need for manual actions to obtain network access when roaming between locations. The concept has been tested in the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, and has proven to solve its requirements. It can be deployed with only a small team thanks to the reduced complexity in the branch locations, and it can also be maintained without much effort since ongoing manual tasks have been avoided. Since it is based on open standards, it can easily be customized to match the requirements of the individual organization, or be extended with future improvements. For research and education organizations it is particularly useful that this concept can be integrated with eduroam seamlessly. This allows not only the own employees to roam between locations, but also guests from other participating institutions.
Proposal of Advance Care Planning Support System BIBAKFull-Text 560-568
  Satomi Yamamoto; Takashi Yoshino; Chigusa Kita; Misa Takeshima; Takashi Kato
In terminal care, patients may not receive the treatment they want because they cannot express their will. We found that the "Advance Directive" and the "Living Will" are useful for determining the treatment in terminal care. However, patients being unable to respond to changes due to self-choices and share these self-choices when using a conventional format are some problems that remain. We propose an advance care planning support system that enhances the possibility of performing self-choices, collecting data about end-of-life care, confirming self-choices, and sharing the information with others using social networks.
Keywords: Terminal care; Advance care planning; Quality of death

User Studies

A Study of the Feature of the Lovely Product Forms BIBAKFull-Text 571-581
  Wen-chih Chang; Ching-An Hsu
The appealing points of a product are not only "good function" and "easy to use", but also "lovely form" for a consumer. Especially it is true for a window shopping or an internet shopping. Many studies have shown that a product looked lovely is more welcomed. If product features made products looked lovely are analyzed and singled out, product designers can easily apply them in the concept development stage. This study was conducted by two phases: a questionnaire survey and a feature analysis of product that looked lovelier. This paper concludes several important findings which are: 1. A structure scale for measuring form features is established. 2. The form features of the loveliest products, the form features of lovelier product between male and female, and the form features of lovelier product among different age groups are identified.
Keywords: Lovely form; Product feature; Feature analysis
Induction of Human Behavior by Presentation of Environmental Acoustics BIBAKFull-Text 582-594
  Eisuke Fujinawa; Sho Sakurai; Masahiko Izumi; Takuji Narumi; Osamu Houshuyama; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
Many conventional guidance systems utilize words and signals that need to be recorded by humans. However, these systems have the disadvantage of going unnoticed or being too intrusive when used in quiet places, such as a museum. Human behavior is known to change as a result of varying feelings and ambient sounds elicit pleasant and unpleasant feelings. We therefore hypothesized that creating a comfortable sound field at a particular location would induce human behavior. To induce human behavior with sound, we constructed a system that divides space without a physical barrier by focusing sound in a narrow area. Using this system, we examined the possibility of generating an acoustic field in a narrow target position and measured the output accuracy of the presented acoustic pressure. In addition, we tested whether humans were unconsciously guided by the effects of this system.
Keywords: Behavior induction; Virtual sound field; Parametric speaker; Evoking emotion; Acoustic AR
Modeling Users' Sentiment in User Segmentations: An Argumentation Approach for User Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 595-606
  María Paula González; Carlos I. Chesñevar; Ramon Brena
User segmentation is a practice of clustering an audience based on mutually exclusive subsets of individuals that are similar in specific ways. Nowadays user segmentation is crucial not only for the industry but also for the field of User Centered Design, where achieving an accurate understanding of the user's behavior in the current e-scenario is becoming a complex task. The segmentation could be based on demographic issues, social-economical features, psychographic data, physical characteristics and psychological profiles, etc. This paper proposes a novel strategy for the automatic detection of critical segmentation factors that divide users focused on their feelings and opinions towards a particular topic. Given a topic and on the basis of user's text-based opinions posted at Web 2.0 services (such as social networks, microblogging platforms, online review systems, online news media, etc.), our proposal introduces an argument-oriented methodology that integrates argumentation theory, sentiment analysis and opinion mining including the computational treatment of incomplete, contradictory or potentially inconsistent information. The mining process is characterized in terms of dialectical analysis of opinions (atomic or more complex opinions constructed by an aggregation mechanism) according to a preference criterion given by topic and feature specificity. As a result, an "opinion analysis tree" rooted in the first original topic is automatically constructed and visualized, in which any node models a user segmentation, showing the factor that define the segmentation as well as the particularities that group the subset. This way, traditional problems associated with the subjective interpretation of user's opinions expressed in natural language are minimized. Besides, instead of defining a user's statistical sample, all available information is considered and possible, not evident critical segmentation factors could be discovered, thus enhancing a rational decision making process.
Keywords: User centered design; User segmentation; Sentiment analysis; Sentiment mining; Argumentation theory
Voice Control System and Multiplatform Use: Specialist Vs. Generalist? BIBAKFull-Text 607-616
  Soyoung Jung; Kwan Min Lee; Frank Biocca
How do participants respond to and prefer either a common voice agent that follows them across platforms or a community of specialist agents connected to specific hardware platform. This study examines users' gender as it relates to preference for voice-control system (VCS). The participants experiences a VCS agent that followed them across platforms such as from a smart pone to a personal cloud computing (PCC) or smart TV. One group met a different specialist agents that were tied to different devices. This study pits the effect of specialization by interface against the principle of consistency design principle with regards to voice agents. However, we found a strong gender effect, females preferred a single, generalist female agent across platforms while males tended to prefer different, specialist female agents embodying different platform.
Keywords: Voice control system; Voice agent; Multi-platform; Clouding; Specialist vs. Generalist; CASA HCI
This Study of Hand Anthropometry and Touchscreen Size of Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 617-626
  Yu-Cheng Lin; Ming-Hung Lin
With the development of communication technology, smartphone becomes an important personnel device that everyone must have. As the introduction of 3rd Generation mobile telecommunication, the technology of touch screen was started to be applied on the mobile phones and an indispensable component on a 3G smartphone that is built in advanced computing capability like digital cameras, GPS and web-browser. Most of modern smartphones include high-resolution touchscreens for display and control and the size of touchscreen becomes larger and larger. However, the question is that a larger screen is convenient to every user? The aim of this study is to realize the relationship between touchscreen sizes of smartphones and user's relative hand dimensions based on the operation time, operation error rate and subjective thumb fatigue. One hundred subjects, including 50 males and 50 females were invited to attend the experiment. The experiment design includes 4 touchscreen sizes. The hand length and hand width were both divided into 4 categories respectively. The results indicated there is a rapid increasing trend from 3.5 in. screen to 5.7 in. screen for smaller hand length/width and the trend decreases firstly slight and then increases for large hand length/width. Touchscreen size from 4.6 in. to 5.0 in. is suggested for most people because this interval of screen size is relatively suitable based on the analysis of hand dimensions and 3 performance evaluation indices. Too large touchscreen (5.7 in.) is hard to use for any hand length or width.
Keywords: Touchscreen; Anthropometry; Hand dimension; Smartphone
Internet Users' Legal and Technical Perspectives on Digital Legacy Management for Post-mortem Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 627-639
  Cristiano Maciel; Vinicius Carvalho Pereira; Monica Sztern
Digital assets are produced in large scale by technology users, especially after the advent of the Internet. This paper aims to analyze Brazilian users' experience with Google Inactive Accounts, under technical, legal and cultural perspectives. Regarding legal aspects, Brazilian laws are still inceptive. Some projects are being designed or analyzed by governmental institutions, and the right to oblivion is one of the main controversial points. The experiment was part of an exploratory research by means of questionnaires, which were answered by web software engineers, who are users of that application too. The answers were organized into four main categories: (a) inheritance rights; (b) the Right to be Forgotten; (c) temporal contact information; and (d) technical stalemates. All those data were analyzed according to a literature review on technical and legal issues regarding death, legacy and technology, so as to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of the options provided by Google Inactive Accounts.
Keywords: Digital legacy management; Post-mortem; Legal issues
Analysis Using Purchasing Data in Japan BIBAKFull-Text 640-647
  Ryota Morizumi; Yumi Asahi
Purchasing style of Japanese consumers have made their own development. Purchase of goods with a large amount once a month or once a few weeks is a kind of global standard. On the contrary, purchase of goods with a small amount once in couple of days is common in purchasing style of Japanese consumers. Purchase of goods with a large amount in a weekend is recently getting to increase however the interval is a week at the longest.
   Japanese supermarkets have various features to respond to such a unique purchasing style. First, in the rest of the world, stores are located in the extensive sites on the suburbs but, in Japan, stores are located in the town. Secondly, Japanese supermarkets handle a small amount of products which are subdivided. Furthermore, even if in the same category, supermarkets handle different kinds of products by different manufacturers. In this way, purchasing style of Japanese consumers have made their own development.
   The analysis was carried out using the purchasing data of all customers who visited stores and distribution data of members-only coupon.
   As the analysis, the authors have found that member registration rate of customers is very high. Its registration rate is as high as 70%. Also, utilization rate of the coupons as member's privileges is low and, when the members pay in the stores, 70% of them don't use the coupons.
   In future task, how to analyze the member information which is not customer information.
Keywords: Comparative analysis; Marketing strategy; Membership system; Purchasing style
Changing Drinking Behavior and Beverage Consumption Using Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 648-660
  Eiji Suzuki; Takuji Narumi; Sho Sakurai; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
The main aim of this paper is to investigate whether our augmented reality (AR) system (which changes the appearance of a cup) can implicitly change individuals' beverage consumption via affecting volume perception for long periods. Recent studies have revealed that the consumption of food and beverages is influenced by both their actual volume and external factors during eating and drinking. Previous research has confirmed that the apparent height of the cup is a vital factor in changing drinking behavior with regard to one sip. Therefore, in this paper, we conducted a user study to confirm whether our AR system can change drinking behavior and beverage consumption and whether the effect can be sustained over the course of one hour. The results showed that the total amount of beverage consumed in one hour can be changed from about -14% to about 25% compared to normal. By comparing this result and that of previous research, we showed that the total beverage consumption in one hour is proportional to the amount consumed in one mouthful, and the effect of our method on changing the total beverage consumption continues over the course of one hour.
Keywords: Volume perception; Beverage consumption; Augmented reality; Human food interaction; Health
Learning to Manage NextGen Environments: Do Student Controllers Prefer to Use Datalink or Voice? BIBAKFull-Text 661-667
  Alice Winter; John Sweet; Yuri Trujillo; Adriana Miramontes; Sam Curtis; Karen Sanchez; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel
The Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) system will introduce new automation tools to help air traffic controllers manage the projected increase in air traffic. As automation tools are gradually implemented, there will be a period of time where some air traffic will be managed with traditional voice-based tools and others will be managed with automation tools. The present study examined whether ATCo students prefer to use voice or Datalink more often to solve conflicts, and determine if there were any situations where Datalink was particularly beneficial to students. The present study is an archival analysis of data collected from 50 student ATCos who took part in one of four semesters of an ATCo training internship offered by the Center for Human Factors in Advanced Aeronautics Technologies (CHAAT). We found that students were more likely to use Datalink to resolve conflicts during the midterm than at the final, suggesting early reliance on tools during learning. However, at the final exam, students used voice and Datalink equally often, and indicated that they preferred voice over Datalink. The preference for voice is likely due to it being a more efficient method of controller-pilot communication than Datalink.
Keywords: ATC-pilot communication; ATC training; Nextgen tools; Datalink
An Observation of Human Comprehension Through Wood Joints Assembly of a Cube Puzzle BIBAKFull-Text 668-677
  Thongthai Wongwichai; Takamitsu Tanaka
In Japan, cube puzzle toys are traditionally made of jointed wood. This paper explores the personal decision-making process necessary to correctly assemble a cube puzzle toy. Participants from Iwate Prefecture were divided into two groups, based on a questionnaire that assessed their skill level in assembling construction kits. The participants were presented with an unassembled toy and their actions, together with all of the conditions necessary for interpretation of the puzzle, were recorded with a VDO camera. As a result of the observations, new variables were developed to create three cube puzzle sets and customize the difficulty level associated with each puzzle. Furthermore, new information about how people define shapes was revealed during the observational stage of the study.
Keywords: Signifier; Physical constraint; Affordance
The Research of the Influence of Customer Perceived Value to Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Games BIBAKFull-Text 678-687
  Kailiang Zhang; Yumi Asahi
With the popularity of LTE technology, the mobile industry is booming and the market size of the mobile industry is expanding. The major Internet companies have entered the mobile gaming market, resulting in an increasingly competitive market. Under this background, mobile games have then become an emerging market in online game industry in the past few years. The scholars studying mobile games are focused on the technology development level, few studies on consumer behavior. The paper study is behavior intention of mobile games based on Customer Perceived Value. The research results in this paper have practical meaning for mobile game developers and operators. Through the use of Customer Perceived Value, analyze the behavior features of Chinese and Japanese users. Then they can enhance customer satisfaction and customer loyalty by properly managing Customer Perceived Value.
Keywords: Mobile game; Customer perceived value; Customer satisfaction; Customer loyalty

HIMI 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Context Modelling and Situational Awareness

Multi-criteria Fusion of Heterogeneous Information for Improving Situation Awareness on Emergency Management Systems BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Valdir Amancio, Jr. Pereira; Matheus Ferraroni Sanches; Leonardo Castro Botega; Jessica Souza; Caio Saraiva Coneglian; Elvis Fusco; Márcio Roberto de Campos
Information Fusion is the synergic integration of data from different sources for the support to decision-making. The emergency management systems predominance of such application has driven the development to new and better sensors, new methods, for data processing and architectures that promote access, composition, refinement and information handling, with the active participation of specialists as data providers and specialists of the systems. In this scenario of data fusion, uncertainty of diverse natures can be aggregated to both data and information at different levels of the process, creating distorted information to the specialist. As a result the situation awareness and cognitive process can be affected leading to poor quality support to decision-making as a generalization of information quality, uncertainty need to be reduced to improve awareness about the situation of interest. The objective of our work is the mitigation of uncertainty propagated by other quality attributes such as information completeness, so specialists can be able to convey an improved understanding. For such, a new fusion framework fed by multi-criteria parameterization, including information quality measures and its semantics, is depicted as an engine to build more accurate information from diverse sensed possibilities. A case study with a situation assessment application is in course to validate the effectiveness of the generated solution. Preliminary and promising results are discussed as a more valuable tool to support decision-making.
Keywords: Information fusion; Situation awareness; Emergency Management Systems
Situational Transformation of Personal Space BIBAKFull-Text 15-24
  Yosuke Kinoe; Nami Mizuno
This paper describes an experimental study that investigated how interpersonal distance varied depending on situational factors, as well as postures and gender. The results revealed statistically significant simple main effects of the "task", "combination of bodily directions", and "devices". Interpersonal distances were affected by the differences between: (a) "without task > with a task", (b) "front > lateral", (c) "lateral > side-by-side", and (d) "front > backward" under the conditions except for "typing" task. It was considered that interpersonal space was co-constructed through an interactive process by a dyad.
Keywords: Personal space; Spatial behavior; Nonverbal communication
A Method for Calculating Air Traffic Controller Communication Complexity BIBAKFull-Text 25-32
  Zach Roberts; Blake Arnsdorff; James Cunningham; Dan Chiappe
Verbal communication is currently the primary tool Air Traffic Controllers (ATCos) use to manage traffic and ensure separation [1]. For these verbal communications to be effective they need to be clear, concise, and use proper phraseology. Under increased workload, however, ATCos may issue multiple commands in one transmission. Pilots commonly cite message complexity and length as a potential source of frustration and error [2]. The current study discusses an algorithm for calculating communication complexity values. This algorithm is applied to a simulated environment involving different speeds and numbers of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), examining the communications between the ATCos and the surrounding conventional aircraft. The findings suggest that the computer program for calculating communication complexity is a helpful tool for examining ATCo-pilot communications and can be used in future studies to analyze communications in dynamic environments.
Keywords: Communication complexity; Unmanned aircraft systems; Air traffic control
Conceptual Framework to Enrich Situation Awareness of Emergency Dispatchers BIBAKFull-Text 33-44
  Jessica Souza; Leonardo Castro Botega; José Eduardo Santarém Segundo; Claudia Beatriz Berti; Márcio Roberto de Campos; Regina Borges de Araújo
Computer-Aided Dispatch (CAD) systems provide powerful resources to support emergency operators (dispatchers) in their activity. However, these dispatchers can work under heavy stress, which can lead to failure to get necessary information, resulting in unsuccessful response to calls. One challenging issue to better support operators in stressing calls is to determine how to generate, score and represent informational quality cues to help them to reason under uncertainties and improve their understanding about an ongoing situation (situational awareness -- SAW). In such a context, the poor knowledge about the entities involved in a situation and what is really going on may lead to wrong decision-making. One of the gaps in the state-of-the-art research in this area is the lack of a common ground regarding information quality. This is due to domain-specific demands and the absence of a comprehensive framework of information quality that interface with different levels of knowledge during a situation assessment cycle. Hence, in order to improve dispatchers' situational awareness, we present a new conceptual framework to support decision making in emergency call situations by enriching situations knowledge with reliable metadata and successive reassessments of information quality. The framework's requirements elicitation was carried out with police experts as well as the definition and application of information quality scoring criteria and the representation of such scores along with a semantic knowledge representation model. The framework application on real robbery reporting calls has indicated very positive results.
Keywords: Information management; Data quality framework; Situational awareness; Knowledge management
Using Eye Movements to Test Assumptions of the Situation Present Assessment Method BIBAKFull-Text 45-52
  Lindsay Sturre; Dan Chiappe; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel
The Situated approach to Situation Awareness (SA) holds that when the immediate task environment is present, an operator will form partial internal representations of a situation and offload detailed information to the environment to access later, as needed. In the context of air traffic control (ATC), Situated SA states operators store general features of the airspace internally, along with high priority information, and offload specific and low priority information. The following describes a method for testing these claims that involves combining the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) with a web camera used to record eye movements to the radar display while probe questions are presented during a simulated air traffic control task. In the present study, probe queries address information specificity and information priority. Images from queries that are correctly responded to are coded for total number of glances and total glance duration. We argue that this technique is reliable for determining whether information is stored internally or offloaded by operators.
Keywords: Situation awareness; SPAM; Situated SA
Map-Based Linking of Geographic User and Content Profiles for Hyperlocal Content Recommendation BIBAKFull-Text 53-63
  Steven Verstockt; Viktor Slavkovikj; Kevin Baker
In this paper we describe a novel approach for map-based linking of users with content (and vice versa) based on their geographic profiles. The proposed technique facilitates hyperlocal content recommendation targeted to the user's geographic footprint. The generation of the geographic user profiles (GUP) is based on user-logged activity analysis. The result of this analysis is a heat map of the geographic keypoints where the outdoor activities were performed. For the geographic content profiling (GCP), we use the available geotags and perform address geocoding and geographic named entity recognition to extract additional locations from the media objects. In order to link the GCP to the GUP, and to be able to recommend the hyperlocal content that fits the user's current profile, heat map analysis is performed using geographic analyzing tools. The GEOprofiling demonstrator, which is evaluated on real activity profiles and different media types, shows the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Recommendation; Geo-profiling; Geocoding; Heat map analysis
Scene Feature Recognition-Enabled Framework for Mobile Service Information Query System BIBAKFull-Text 64-74
  Yi-Chong Zeng; Ya-Hui Chan; Ting-Yu Lin; Meng-Jung Shih; Pei-Yu Hsieh; Guan-Lin Chao
Aiming at development of intelligent service on mobile device, this paper proposes a new travel information query method, which combines image acquisition device, image recognition, and recommendation technologies. The framework of information query consists of four components, including passive information query, active information query, trip scheduling, and information management. A prototype application is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of smart tourism guidance by mobile device. User can browses stationary information through the application program. Furthermore, the user takes pictures and transmits it to cloud server. The cloud server hosts image recognition and delivers the corresponding information to the user. For trip scheduling, the prototype recommends the proper trips to guide user easily, which is referred to user's preferences with location based service. The resultants will demonstrate that the prototype is implemented by an application program runs on mobile device. It is powerful to search for travel information and to generate trip schedules.
Keywords: Intelligent services; Recommendation; Information query; Recognition; Trip scheduling

Decision-Support Systems

What Methodological Attributes Are Essential for Novice Users to Analytics? -- An Empirical Study BIBAKFull-Text 77-88
  Supunmali Ahangama; Danny Chiang Choon Poo
Data analytic methodologies proposed to improve the productivity of a data analytic process have failed due to user resistance for changing their existing working practices. Thus, an attempt was made in this paper to determine methodological attributes influencing user acceptance, using literature on software engineering methodology adoption, Theory of Diffusion of Innovation and Technology Acceptance Model. Through a survey carried out among novice users we found that the relative advantage and result demonstrability of the analytical model development process as well as the usefulness of knowledge management are significant attributes affecting usage intention of an analytics methodology. The theoretical and practical implications for effective implementation of data analytic methodologies too are mentioned.
Keywords: Data analytics; Methodology; Survey; Diffusion of innovation; Technology acceptance
What Should I Read Next? A Personalized Visual Publication Recommender System BIBAKFull-Text 89-100
  Simon Bruns; André Calero Valdez; Christoph Greven; Martina Ziefle; Ulrik Schroeder
Discovering relevant publications for researchers is a non-trivial task. Recommender systems can reduce the effort required to find relevant publications. We suggest using a visualization- and user-centered interaction model to achieve both a more trusted recommender system and a system to understand a whole research field. In a graph-based visualization papers are aligned with their keywords according to the relevance of the keywords. Relevance is determined using text-mining approaches. By letting the user control relevance thresholds for individual keywords we have designed a recommender system that scores high in accuracy (x-bar=5.03/6), trust (x-bar=4.31/6) and usability (SUS x-bar=4.89/6) in a user study, while at the same time providing additional information about the field as a whole. As a result, the inherent trust issues conventional recommendation systems have seem to be less significant when using our solution.
Keywords: Recommender systems; Visualization; User-study; Trust; Usability
The Effect of Timing When Introducing a Decision Aid in a Decision Support System for Supply Chain Management BIBAKFull-Text 101-108
  Nirit Gavish; Hussein Naseraldin
In the current research, we evaluated the effect of previous experience with a task on users' willingness to accept a suggested decision aid and their performance in a supply chain management system. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three between-participants groups: the No Aid Group, which did not receive any decision aid during the interaction; the Aid Group, which was offered an algorithm, at the beginning of the first session, to help members improve their decisions; and the Mid-term Aid Group, which received, at the beginning of the second session, the same algorithm that was offered to the Aid Group. The results demonstrated that in the second session the performance of the Aid Group was significantly better in comparison to the No Aid Group. The Mid-term Aid Group's performance did not show any gain, although both the Aid and Mid-term Aid Groups made similar use of the aid in this session. We concluded that in a decision support system, previous experience with the task before introducing the decision aid is not always helpful.
Keywords: Decision aid; Decision support system; Experience; Algorithm; Compliance; Reliance
Design of Framework for Students Recommendation System in Information Technology Skills BIBAKFull-Text 109-117
  Thongchai Kaewkiriya
One of the problems of learners is learners do not know their own skills. Especially learners who study IT field will have different aptitudes. If learners do not know their aptitude will affect themselves such as learning without a goal, and so on. The objective of this research is to design of conceptual framework for students recommendation for Information Technology skills. The concept framework consists of five modules. (1) to introduce the pattern base module which is an analysis by data mining. (2) to explain the mapping module for students. (3) to present the forecasting module which connect to the mapping module. (4) to present the web portal module. Web portal module is the User interface (UI) to connect user with system application. (5) to describe the Information Technology skills. This module consists of four parts; (1) programming skills (2) System engineering and network engineering (3) Graphic designs (4) other skills. Information Technology skills are mapped by using Multiple Intelligence theory. The process of selection pattern base, is use to compare the algorithm which is consisted of three algorithms (1) ID3 algorithm (2) J48 algorithm (3) Bayes Net algorithm. J48 algorithm is the highest percentage of prediction. Percentage of prediction for J48 algorithm is 78.267% which base on pattern base for recommendation systems.
Keywords: Recommendation system; Data mining; Multiple intelligence; Information technology skill
Improving Knowledge Management in Patient Safety Reporting: A Semantic Web Ontology Approach BIBAKFull-Text 118-128
  Chen Liang; Yang Gong
Patient safety reporting system is in an imperative need for reducing and learning from medical errors. Presently, a great number of the reporting systems are suffering low quality of data and poor system performance associated with data quality. For improving the quality of data and the system performance towards reducing harm in healthcare, we introduce an ontological approach with the scope of establishing a comprehensive knowledgebase. A semantic web ontology plays a crucial role to facilitate the knowledge transformation ranging from human-to-computer data entry to computer-to-human knowledge retrieval. The paper describes the theoretical foundation, design, implementation, and evaluation of the prototype ontology. Based on W3C open standard Web Ontology Language (OWL), the proposed ontology was designed and implemented in Protégé 4.3. We envision that utilizing semantic web ontology would serve as a uniformed knowledgebase facilitating information retrieval and clinical decision making.
Keywords: Knowledge management; Ontology; Clinical information system; Patient safety
Human Error and e-Navigation: Developing the Nautical Chart as Resilient Decision Support BIBAKFull-Text 129-139
  Thomas Porathe
Recent development of HCI on the ship bridge has led to a discussion of deskilling and out of the loop syndrome; of the "navigating navigator" versus the "monitoring navigator". In this paper work done on some new design concepts for decision-support systems on the ship's bridge is presented. The work has focused on keeping the navigator in the loop while sharing information to the wider maritime system: route exchange.
   The paper offers an overview of the route exchange concept developed in the ACCSEAS and MONALISA projects as well as the results of recent tests done in a ship handling simulator at Chalmers University of Technology and in ship trials in Korea.
   The results of the concept development have so far been mostly positive and professional actors participating in user tests have mainly been positive.
Keywords: e-navigation; MONALISA; ACCSEAS; Human error; ECDIS; Route exchange
Dealing with Data Deluge at National Funding Agencies: An Investigation of User Needs for Understanding and Managing Research Investments BIBAKFull-Text 140-151
  Mihaela Vorvoreanu; Ann McKenna; Zhihua Dong; Krishna Madhavan
This paper provides in-depth, applied and contextualized insights about the particular challenges members of federal government funding agencies face when dealing with data deluge. We present the findings of qualitative research conducted with members of a federal US funding agency. The findings point out specific needs for understanding investment portfolios broadly and tracking the evolution and impact of ideas. They show limitations of existing solutions and their negative effects on labor, time, and personal stress. Based on these findings, we make specific suggestions for the design of automated tools that can help funding agencies understand and manage their portfolios.
Keywords: Understanding users; User research; Knowledge management; Data deluge; Funding agencies; Research investments; Portfolio mining
Dot Matrix Analysis of Plant Operation Data for Identifying Sequential Alarms Triggered by Single Root Cause BIBAKFull-Text 152-158
  ZheXing Wang; Masaru Noda
Sequential alarms are alarms triggered in succession by a single root cause in a chemical plant. In general, they occur sequentially with specific time lags within a short period of time and, if they are numerous, they reduce the ability of operators to cope with plant abnormalities because critical alarms can become buried under numerous unimportant alarms. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying sequential alarms hidden in plant operation data by using dot matrix analysis. Dot matrix analysis is one of the sequence alignment methods for identifying similar regions in a pair of DNA or RNA sequences, which may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships. The proposed method first converts plant operation data recorded in a Distributed Control System (DCS) into a single alarm sequence by putting them in order by alarm occurrence time. Then, similar regions in the alarm sequence are identified by comparing the alarm alignment with itself. Finally, the identified regions, which are assumed to be sequential alarms, are classified into sets of similar sequential alarms in accordance with the similarities between them. The method was applied to simulated plant operation data of an azeotropic distillation column. The results showed that the method is able to correctly identify sequential alarms in plant operation data. Classifying sequential alarms into small numbers of groups with this method effectively reduces unimportant sequential alarms at industrial chemical plants.
Keywords: Plant alarm system; Dot matrix analysis; Sequential alarms
An Analysis of the Synergistic Effect in the Advertisement BIBAKFull-Text 159-170
  Tadahiro Yamada; Yumi Asahi; Katsuhiko Yuura
In recent years, in the advertising market in Japan, the Internet commercials have expanded to the second media following the television commercials. The consumers came to refer to more information when they take the purchasing action. It is said that the Internet commercials have the synergistic effect by combining with the mass media such as the television commercials. The authors analyze the effect of the advertisement and the promotion including the synergistic effect between the Internet commercials and the mass media such as the television commercials by using the single source data. For example, the percentage that the consumers who watched the television commercials are led to the Internet commercials is analyzed. As a result of the analysis, it becomes possible to clarify the effect that the contact to the advertisement gives to the purchasing process. And it will become a key of planning the marketing strategy in the companies.
Keywords: Synergistic effect; Advertisement; Promotion; Single source data; Purchasing process; Marketing strategy

Information and Interaction for Driving

Development of a New Low Cost Driving Simulation for Assessing Multidimensional Task Loads Caused by Mobile ICT at Drivers' Workplaces. -- Objective-Fidelity Beats Equipment-Fidelity? BIBAKFull-Text 173-179
  Michael Bretschneider-Hagemes
Digitization of the world of work has led to drivers' workplaces frequently being equipped with information and communications technology (ICT) [1]. These workplaces often involve the use of several such digital systems. Owing to these systems' potential to distract the driver, they must be integrated into users' workplaces with appropriate attention to ergonomics, and tested by risk-free methods under laboratory conditions. A driving simulator designed and constructed for this purpose at the IFA forms the subject of this paper. Particular aspects of this simulator are its design, which is low-cost and assumed to deliver low fidelity, but which enables good overall simulation quality results to be achieved owing to a special software environment. Third parties are expressly invited to copy the simulator and pool their experiences.
Keywords: Driving simulation; Measurement of distraction; Mobile information and communications technology
Differences in Driver Distractibility Between Monolingual and Bilingual Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 180-189
  Isis Chong; Thomas Z. Strybel
The present research sought to bridge the gap between research on driver distraction and the bilingual advantage by testing monolingual and bilinguals in a driving simulation similar to those encountered by drivers on a daily basis. The Lane Change Test (LCT) was used to test driving performance in the presence of a delayed digit recall task (2-back task) and three types of peripheral detection tasks (PDTs). Although performance came to be degraded as the complexity of tasks increased, the overall performance of the bilinguals was more negatively affected than their monolingual counterparts across the LCT, PDT, and 2-back task. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Attention; Bilingual advantage; Driving; n-back task; Peripheral detection task
Urban Driving: Where to Present What Types of Information -- Comparison of Head-Down and Head-Up Displays BIBAKFull-Text 190-200
  Martin Götze; Klaus Bengler
In this paper, a comparison is made of different categorizations of the content of information given with a warning presented, either on a head-up or head-down display, in the context of urban driving. The study shows a significant advantage of the head-up display in terms of workload. No significant difference for three warning scenarios was found in a driving simulator experiment where the reaction times and the standard deviation of the distance to lane center were compared. The results will help build a generic and integrative HMI concept in the future.
Keywords: HMI; HCI; Urban; Driving; Cockpit; HUD; HDD; Head-up; Display; Head-down; Instrument; Cluster; Warnings; Adas; Assistance systems; Driver
Information Sharing System Based on Situation Comprehensions of Intelligent Vehicles to Improve Drivers' Acceptability for Proactive ADAS BIBAKFull-Text 201-212
  Takuma Ito; Tatsuya Shino; Minoru Kamata
This research focuses on improving elderly drivers' acceptability for proactive collision avoidance systems by passive information sharing with drivers. In this paper, visual contents by concentric circles for informing risky areas and ones by dot line for informing predicted path of surrounding traffic participants were proposed as the prototypes for sharing situation comprehensions of the intelligent vehicle. The evaluation experiment with a driving simulator revealed the effectiveness of the proposed visual contents for improving acceptability and the further challenges relating to the mental models of functions of intelligent vehicles.
Keywords: Automobile; Intelligent vehicle; Visual HMI; Acceptability
An Analysis of Ear Plethysmogram for Evaluation of Drivers' Mental Workload Level BIBAKFull-Text 213-224
  Ahmad Khushairy Makhtar; Makoto Itoh
Distracted driving has emerged as a factor of road accidents. Usage of cellular phones or car navigation systems has aggravated the problem. Therefore, the detection increase of drivers' mental workload has been a vital issue for establishing safety support systems. Studies on the estimation of driver's mental workload have been performed using a various devices. However, an applicable and a sensitive device is still vague. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to estimate driver's mental workload level through blood pulse wave analysis. In order to find a standard value that indicates high mental workload, two ways of analyzing pulse wave data have been studied: (1) Average Maximum Lyapunov exponent and (2) Normalized Maximum Lyapunov exponent. The result shows that, the analysis of average a Maximum Lyapunov exponent shows a significant different between the days with a secondary task and the days without the task.
Keywords: Mental workload; Plethysmogram; Safety; Driver assistance
Education Method for Safe Bicycle Riding to Evaluate Actual Cycling Behaviors When Entering an Intersection BIBAKFull-Text 225-232
  Hiroaki Kosaka; Masaru Noda
In this study, we conducted a new educational method for safe bicycle riding to improve the riding manners of bicyclists riding manners to increase adherence to traffic rules. First, we conducted an experiment in which participants rode a bicycle and passed through an intersection to collect such data as bicycle speed and the rider's direction of glance. Next, we did a simulation in which a bicycle passed through an intersection to evaluate riding behaviors. Finally, an experimenter explained to the participants how they could improve their safe bicycle riding awareness using the data collected in the experiment and the simulation results. The participants learned that safety can be confirmed by looking right and left to decrease the risks of accidents.
Keywords: Educational method; Safe bicycle riding; Cycling behavior; Crossing collision
Self-perception of Assister Driver Responsibility and Contribution in Mutual Assistance System BIBAKFull-Text 233-242
  Sui Kurihashi; Yutaka Matsuno; Kenji Tanaka
Noting the current deep interest in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), this study focuses on the "mutual assistance" paradigm, by which drivers mutually assist each other to promote a safer automobile culture. In our previous study, we examined the effectiveness of mutual assistance systems from both the recipient and assister sides using a driving simulator. In this paper, assister attitude changes, especially those related to their responsibility and contribution to an incident/accident, are compared for manual, semi-automatic and automatic warning scenarios. The results indicate that more positive attitude changes will result if "participants felt that he/she had some responsibility related to accident". Additionally, it was determined that semi-automatic warnings were most likely to engender feelings of responsibility in an assister. These experimental results indicate that semi-automatic mutual assistance system is the most effective examined technique for reducing the target level of risk.
Keywords: Mutual assistance; Warning system; Safety; Target level of risk; Attitude change
Map Matching to Correct Location Error in an Electric Wheel Chair BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  Yuta Noriduki; Hirotoshi Shibata; Shigenori Ioroi; Hiroshi Tanaka
This paper presents a method of map matching that is a scheme for accurate guidance of an electric wheel chair. Indoor navigation seems to require more accurate guidance than outdoor areas, the location estimation by the rotary encoders embedded in the wheel chair cannot be satisfy the accuracy requirement, because estimation error is accumulated as the wheel chair travels. The authors propose the map matching that uses the building structure in order to compensate for accumulated position error. The corner detection and its position information are used for replacement as a correct position. The methods of the corner detection and the calculation model for the correct position are shown, and the validity of the proposed methods are confirmed by the experiment using a laser range finder.
Keywords: Electric wheelchair; Automatic traveling; Indoor positioning; Map matching; Laser range finder
Driving Evaluation of Mild Unilateral Spatial Neglect PatientsThree High-Risk Cases Undetected by BIT After Recovery BIBAKFull-Text 253-261
  Tasuku Sotokawa; Takuya Murayama; Junko Noguchi; Yoko Sakimura; Makoto Itoh
The respective driving abilities of three patients having a right hemisphere infarct and mild unilateral spatial neglect (USN) were examined. Neuropsychological examinations included the Behavioral Inattention Test Japanese version (BIT-J) and the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale -- Third edition. Their driving ability was assessed with a driving simulator test and on-road evaluation. Patients had no neglect based on the BIT-J, but showed some slight signs of USN on a driving simulator test and on-road evaluation. This study assessed risks of mild USN patient driving and explored possibilities of improving it using Advanced Driving Assistance Systems.
Keywords: Driving ability; Driving simulator; Stroke; Visual neglect; Neuropsychological test
Effect of Adaptive Caution on Drivers' Lane-Change Behavior under Cognitively Distracted Condition BIBAKFull-Text 262-271
  Huiping Zhou; Makoto Itoh
This paper investigates caution type message that is given to a driver in two ways. One refers to driver's characteristic of intentional eye movement for changing lanes, and the other is adaptive to driver state as well as the characteristic. Experimental results imply the two ways' effectiveness of improving the intentional checking behavior that might be degraded by a cognitively distracted secondary task. Meanwhile, this study also indicates that the later way is more effective for improving a maneuver of changing lanes. It is suggested that it would be more acceptable to consider driver state into a support system.
Keywords: Adaptive caution information; Driving safety; Cognitive distraction; Lane changes

Information and Interaction for Learning and Education

Hand-Raising Robot for Promoting Active Participation in Classrooms BIBAKFull-Text 275-284
  Saizo Aoyagi; Ryuji Kawabe; Michiya Yamamoto; Tomio Watanabe
In Japanese school classrooms, it is important to promote hand-raising, because this motion reflects active participation in the classroom. In this study, a hand-raising robot is proposed. A prototype of the robot was developed based on typical hand-raising motions, which were measured in a separate experiment. In addition, experiments were conducted and the results suggest that fast, straight, and high hand-raising is the most favorable, and that the robot with the hand-raising is effective for promoting active participation in classrooms and enhancing student enjoyment when answering questions.
Keywords: Embodied interaction; Hand-raising; Motion analysis; Classroom
Development of a Learning Support System for Class Structure Mapping Based on Viewpoint BIBAKFull-Text 285-293
  Tatsuya Arai; Takahito Tomoto; Takako Akakura
To be able to use knowledge, learners must arrange the relationships between information as a knowledge structure. A class structure is a typical knowledge structure. The skills required to build class structures are (1) identifying the attributes of the target instance, (2) selecting attributes of the target instance on the basis of several viewpoints, and (3) describing relationships between instances hierarchically. As a first step, learners need to understand "discrimination and inheritance" in a class structure; therefore, we have previously proposed a method for learning class structure construction. To facilitate the acquisition of skills for learners to build class structures, however, they should be supported in setting a viewpoint and selecting attributes of instances on the basis on that viewpoint. In this study, we propose a learning support system for selecting several attributes of each instance in the construction of a class structure based on several viewpoints.
Keywords: Systematization of knowledge; Learning class structure construction; Article structure
A Ubiquitous Lecture Archive Learning Platform with Note-Centered Approach BIBAKFull-Text 294-303
  Shinobu Hasegawa; Jiangning Dai
The main topic of this paper is to develop a cloud-based ubiquitous video on demand learning (u-VOD learning) platform for the lecture archives. The key ideas of the platform are note-centered and responsive function approaches with universal access. Learning style in only watching the archives tends to be passive. The note-centered approach enables the learners to improve such passive learning by means of note taking corresponding to a timeline of the archives. In addition, there are diverse variables in size, shape, performance, and input function for the ubiquitous/smart devices. The responsive function supports ubiquitous device dependency by HTML 5. The universal access would help operation and text input by application of existing speech recognition technique. Based on a proposed u-VOD learning model, we have developed the prototype platform which follows 3-tier architecture to implement it in a scalable way. We have also conducted a small case study to evaluate effectiveness of the platform. The results did not show significant effect compared with "without-note" condition. But, most of the subjects seemed to accept the proposed functions as the part of the u-VOD learning platform.
Keywords: U-VOD learning; Lecture archive; Note-centered approach; Responsive function; Universal access
Analysis of the Relationship Between Metacognitive Ability and Learning Activity with Kit-Build Concept Map BIBAFull-Text 304-312
  Yusuke Hayashi; Tsukasa Hirashima
Metacognitive ability is one of important ability in learning. If learners can monitor their own cognition and know strategies to control it, they can make their thinking better and get better performance. Concept mapping gathers attention as a tool to facilitate metacognition. This study investigates the relationship between metacognitive ability and learning activity with Kit-build concept map (KB map). In KB map method concept maps cannot be built freely. A teacher forms what he/she wants to teach as a concept map. This is called goal map. And then, this is decomposed into separated nodes and likes. These parts are provides to learners and they make a concept map with the parts to represent their understanding. Like this, the method doesn't allow freedom to build concept maps. Instead, a teacher can grade maps of learners with consistency as the degree of the same parts as the gal map. The degree can be an important indicator of understanding of learners. Metacognitive ability can be decomposed into three sub abilities: metacognitive monitoring, control and knowledge. This study investigates correlation between these sub abilities and score of map. The correlation presents, in learning with KB map, which sub ability affect map score, that is, understanding of learner. The result shows there is the correlation between metacognitive control and map scores. From this result, it can be considered that Kb map helps learners to monitoring their cognition.
The Effect of Problem Sequence on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Physics BIBAKFull-Text 313-322
  Tomoya Horiguchi; Takahito Tomoto; Tsukasa Hirashima
The effect of problem sequence on students' understanding in elementary mechanics is empirically examined. We used two types of problem sequences: and surface-blocked sequence. In the former, problems of which superficial feature is different but solution is the same are adjacent, while in the latter, problems of which superficial feature is similar but solutions are different are adjacent. Our hypotheses were: (1) Students who learned with structure-blocked sequence show better performance in solving simple problems because it would train students how to apply a solution in various situations. (2) Students who learned with surface-blocked sequence show better performance in solving complex problems because it would give students an exercise in choosing appropriate solution depending on the situation. (3) The effect of surface-blocked sequence appears more clearly when students are aware of the structure of problems. The results of experiment suggested our hypotheses are true.
Keywords: Science education; Effect of problem sequence; Conceptual understanding; Semantics of constraints; Mechanics
A Topic Model for Clustering Learners Based on Contents in Educational Counseling BIBAKFull-Text 323-331
  Takatoshi Ishii; Satoshi Mizoguchi; Koji Kimita; Yoshiki Shimomura
For improving the quality of education, we need to analyze the interaction among the learners and teachers. For example, we empirically know that an agreement among the learner and teacher on the point of learning motivation makes good lecture. For this purpose, this paper aim to characterize the interactions based on the contents in the interactions. This paper employs a topic model for characterizing the interactions. Topic model is a method for estimating topic (theme or subject) in documents and clustering the documents based on estimated topics. By using topic model, this paper analyzes contents in actual educational counseling.
Keywords: Educational engineering; Service engineering; Natural language processing; LDA
Method to Generate an Operation Learning Support System by Shortcut Key Differences in Similar Software BIBAKFull-Text 332-340
  Hajime Iwata
Some software packages have the same purpose, but different operation methods. Users typically choose software that they find easier to operate. However, this is not always the case, and users may be confused by software operations in similar software packages. This study focuses on software shortcut keys. End users can operate software efficiently when they learn shortcut keys because they are independent of GUIs. Herein a learning operation support system is proposed to illustrate the difference in shortcut key functions between software packages. This system analyzes software manuals and source codes to extract shortcut key combinations and functions, and the results are color-coded displays of shortcut key combinations that carry out the same function by software package.
Keywords: Software operation learning support system; Operation consistency; Shortcut keys; Usability
Learning State Model for Value Co-Creative Education Services BIBAKFull-Text 341-349
  Koji Kimita; Keita Muto; Satoshi Mizoguchi; Yutaro Nemoto; Takatoshi Ishi; Yoshiki Shimomura
Achieving learning objectives is considered as a value in use for higher education service. To achieve learning objectives, a teacher needs to grasp a learning state at each time point and then determine a target state that should be achieved by the next time point. With regard to the target state, the teacher also needs to achieve consensus with the learner. This study aims to support teachers in grasping the learning state and achieving consensus with the learner. To that end, we propose a model to represent changes in the learning state and the relationship between learning state and learning and instructional events.
Keywords: Service engineering; Value co-creation; Consensus building
Development of a Seminar Management System BIBAKFull-Text 350-361
  Yusuke Kometani; Keizo Nagaoka
The role of universities in imparting of knowledge is declining as e-learning and massive open online courses become widespread, and eventually only seminar activity will remain on university campuses. It is important to make seminars the central component of university education, and to think of them as a "university within a university". Within this educational philosophy, each seminar should compete as an attractive educational experience that students want to participate in, and should aim to achieve high quality. In this paper, we report the development of an integrated seminar management system to support seminar activities.
Keywords: Seminar activity; University within a university; Seminar educational philosophy; Seminar management system
Analysis of Multiple-Choice Tests Through Erroneous Choices Using a Technique of Automatic Problem Generation BIBAKFull-Text 362-369
  Noriyuki Matsuda; Hisashi Ogawa; Tsukasa Hirashima; Hirokazu Taki
In multiple-choice problems, incorrect choices that hide correct answer do not play the only significant function. A more significant function is to capture learner errors and provide learners with the opportunity to amend those errors. In this sense, explanation texts for incorrect choices might be important in allowing learners to amend their own errors correctly. In this paper, we term this "meaningful erroneous choice." We confirm the existence of meaningful erroneous choice through actual problems used in an examination. We then compare choices using a technique of automatic problem generation. The result indicates that the difference between correctness knowledge and incorrectness knowledge plays an important role in problem posing.
Keywords: Multiple-choice problems; Automatic problem generation; E-learning; Prolog
Proposal of an Instructional Design Support System Based on Consensus Among Academic Staff and Students BIBAKFull-Text 370-377
  Shuya Nakamura; Takahito Tomoto; Takako Akakura
In this paper, we propose an instructional design-based method for supporting academic staff and students in value co-creation within the university setting. The term co-creation adopted in this study comes from the field of service engineering and is defined as the mutual creation of value by service providers and service beneficiaries. Co-creation is realized by consensus among them. Within the university setting, the service providers are the academic staff and the beneficiaries are students. Here, we propose a model of co-creation in universities and then present a support method based on a syllabus and learning motivation for co-creation. Finally, we discuss the co-creation support system.
Keywords: Instructional design; Co-creation; Service engineering
Development of a Speech-Driven Embodied Entrainment Character System with Pupil Response BIBAKFull-Text 378-386
  Yoshihiro Sejima; Yoichiro Sato; Tomio Watanabe; Mitsuru Jindai
We have developed a speech-driven embodied entrainment character called "InterActor" that had functions of both speaker and listener for supporting human interaction and communication. This character would generate communicative actions and movements such as nodding, body movements, and eyeball movements by using only speech input. In this paper, we analyze the pupil response during the face-to-face communication and non-face-to-face communication with the typical users of the character system. On the basis of the analysis results, we enhance the functionalities of the character and develop an advanced speech-driven embodied entrainment character system for expressing the pupil response.
Keywords: Human interaction; Nonverbal communication; Avatar-Mediated communication; Line-of-Sight; Pupil response
Development of a Learning Support System for Reading Source Code by Stepwise Abstraction BIBAKFull-Text 387-394
  Keisuke Watanabe; Takahito Tomoto; Takako Akakura
We describes the development of a support system that facilitates the process of meaning deduction by stepwise abstraction in two steps: unifying processing and specifying the meaning of the unified processing. We developed a tool that supports stepwise abstraction with a function that points out learners' mistakes and makes them aware of their errors. We conducted experiments using the learning support tool and found that the system and process are possibly effective.
Keywords: Programming learning; Learning support system; Stepwise learning; Meaning deduction

Information and Interaction for Culture and Art

Virtual Jizai-Ryu: Hi-Fidelity Interactive Virtual Exhibit with Digital Display Case BIBAKFull-Text 397-408
  Yuki Ban; Takashi Kajinami; Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
This paper proposes a high-definition digital display case for manipulating a virtual exhibit that has linking mechanisms. This technique enhances the understanding of dynamic exhibits. It is difficult to construct interactive contents of dynamic virtual exhibits, because measuring the mechanism invokes the risk of an exhibit's deterioration, and it takes tremendous efforts to create a fine spun computer graphics (CG) model for mechanisms. Therefore, we propose an image-based interaction method that uses image-based rendering to construct interactive contents for dynamic virtual exhibits using the interpolation between exhibit pictures with a number of deformational conditions and viewpoints. Using this method, we construct a high-definition digital showcase and exhibit the interactive content at a museum to evaluate the availability of our system.
Keywords: Digital display case; Image-based interaction; Digital museum; Virtual reality
Next Step of Cultural and Creative Products -- Embracing Users Creativity BIBAKFull-Text 409-419
  Chia-Ling Chang; Ming-Hsuan Hsieh
The use of cultural design products can improve products uniqueness and strengthen emotional consumer experience. In recent years, the concept of "open innovation" has initiated the age of "individual creativity", more and more users are showing a higher interest in expressing their design idea and being concerned in creative products which express themselves.
   In this study, the creative users demand as the starting, propose "Cultural and creative user-based product Innovation Pattern". The steps of pattern are described below: (1) Prepare cultural themes and collect elements, (2) Extract cultural elements, (3) Transform cultural elements of product components, (4) Develop product interface, (5) Design creativity-friendly interface, (6) Prototype, and (7) Inspect the features of products. Since ancient times, the bat was used as a mascot in decorative arts as a symbol of good fortune and happiness as a characteristic of Chinese culture. We toke the bats as a cultural theme to practice the "Cultural and creative user-based product Innovation Pattern". This study escaped the existing cultural and creative product design methods by importing the users creativity into cultural products, refining the relationship between classic archives and users, and successfully developing "users permissible creativity development" into cultural and creative products. This study also was able to break the traditional cultural products usage intentions by not only allowing users to freely change the shape of the products, but also to meet the functional needs based on different needs. In this study, users' creativity-based, classical culture collections for reference, the development of the key of cultural elements proposed by "Cultural and creative user-based product Innovation Pattern" have lead cultural and creative designers to new strategies of thinking and designing. The archives will be more variable, interesting, and creative while logically maintaining Chinese cultural and conservative feel for daily life in the modern world. When the users practice their creativity based on transitional culture, they help maintain the cultural continuity, applicability, and value.
Keywords: Users creativity; Cultural and creative product; Open innovation; Innovation pattern
Association of National Dimensions of Culture with Perceived Public Sector Corruption BIBAKFull-Text 420-427
  Denis A. Coelho
Corruption, and in particular, public sector corruption, is currently one of the most talked about problems in the world. Following on previous work on the association of national measures of dimensions of culture proposed by Gert Hofstede (1983) with manufacturing strategies (in countries across continents) and road fatalities (in countries within the European Union), this contribution focuses on association with perceived public sector corruption. This is based on the 2014 Corruption Perception Index -- CPI (a Transparency International index), measuring the perceived levels of public sector corruption in 175 countries and territories. Power distance is positively associated with corruption, while individuality is negatively associated with perceived corruption (number of countries and territories included from across five continents: 69).
Keywords: Power distance; Individualism; Corruption perception index; Correlation analysis
K-Culture Time Machine: Development of Creation and Provision Technology for Time-Space-Connected Cultural Contents BIBAKFull-Text 428-435
  Taejin Ha; Younsung Kim; Eunseok Kim; Kihong Kim; Sangmin Lim; Seungmo Hong; Jeain Kim; Sunhyuck Kim; Junghwa Kim; Woontack Woo
The "K-Culture Time Machine" project develops technologies to structure diverse cultural content from associated organizations and projects, including the "Cultural Heritage hub-bank," and construct new cultural content connected to time and space, then develop a technique that provides the structured content to industries (culture, tourism, IT) and the public. To integrate heterogeneous dataset, designing a new data model is a vital process for our project. As Europeana designed data model which aims to integrate and link several data set across cultural institutions of Europe, we also invented a new data model that encompasses a wide range of metadata for cultural institution in Korea. This approach and data model aim to provide a possibility of semantic link between heterogeneous dataset. This project also provides services with various visualization techniques (virtual reality, augmented reality, etc.) for cultural heritage by traveling through a variety of historical periods in its contents. Last, the project develops image-based time-space content configuration techniques and a software framework that enables visualization with various devices. We perform a validation and feedback process of research and development on the implemented prototype service "Journey of a Korean world cultural heritage."
Keywords: Context-of-interest; Augmented reality; Spatial co-presence; Semantic data model; Linked open data
Experience Simulator for the Digital Museum BIBAKFull-Text 436-446
  Yasushi Ikei; Seiya Shimabukuro; Shunki Kato; Kohei Komase; Koichi Hirota; Tomohiro Amemiya; Michiteru Kitazaki
This paper describes a design philosophy and an implementation example of a simulator of bodily experience as a potential exhibit style of a future digital museum. An experience transfer method is discussed first to introduce a physical reliving of the past person's body motion itself. The new bodily reliving experience is such that the follower person replicates the motion of the other person. A working hypothesis is proposed in which the body of the reliving user is a part of the display media of the multisensory VR system that projects a virtual body backward from the real body. A specificity of the bodily experience in voluntariness is also discussed. The sensation of walking as both for the self body and others' body were rated under some visual and vestibular display conditions. The result showed that the vestibular stimulation markedly enhanced the sensation of walking, and that the self body with a first person view produced the highest rating.
Keywords: Bodily media; Backward projection; Multisensory display
Virtual Aquarium: Mixed Reality Consisting of 3DCG Animation and Underwater Integral Photography BIBAKFull-Text 447-456
  Nahomi Maki; Kazuhisa Yanaka
Virtual aquariums have various advantages when compared with real aquariums. First, imaginary creatures and creatures that are difficult to maintain in real aquariums can be displayed. Second, virtual aquariums have similar soothing effects as an actual aquarium. Therefore, we developed a new virtual aquarium through integral photography (IP), wherein virtual fishes are created with 3DCG animation and real water. Stereoscopic view is possible from all directions above the water tank through the IP and without the need for special glasses. A fly's eye lens is sunk in the water resulting in larger focal length for the fly's eye lens and an increase in the amount of popping out. Therefore, a stronger stereoscopic effect is obtained. The displayed fishes appear to be alive and swimming in the water, an effect achieved through three-dimensional computer graphics animation. This system can also be appreciated as an artwork. This system can also be applied to exhibit already-extinct ancient creatures in aquariums or museums in the future.
Keywords: Integral photography; Three-dimensional computer graphics; Animation
Enhancing Abstract Imaginations of Viewers of Abstract Paintings by a Gaze Based Music Generation System BIBAKFull-Text 457-464
  Tatsuya Ogusu; Jun Ohya; Jun Kurumisawa; Shunichi Yonemura
The purpose of abstract painters is to let viewers get the various images and abstract images. However, viewers who do not have enough knowledge of art, cannot easily get abstract images. The authors have proposed a music generation system that utilizes viewers' gazes. It can be expected that the authors' music generation system can prompt the viewer of abstract paintings to imagine abstract images, which the painter intended to express. This paper explores whether the authors' music generation system can enhance abstract imaginations of persons who see abstract paintings, by subjective tests. Experiments using 19 subjects and eight abstract paintings were conducted for the two cases in which the subjects see the abstract paintings without hearing any music and while hearing the viewers' gaze based music generated by the authors' system. Experimental results imply that "hearing gaze based music" could enhance the viewers' abstract imagination.
Keywords: Paintings; Music; Gaze behavior; Imagination

Supporting Work and Collaboration

Possible Strategies for Facilitating the Exchange of Tacit Knowledge in a Team of Creative Professionals BIBAKFull-Text 467-475
  Søren R. Frimodt-Møller; Nanna Borum; Eva Petersson Brooks; Yi Gao
This paper discusses strategies for improving how creative professionals embrace new digital tools into their workflow, in context of the EU-funded international research project IdeaGarden, which aims at developing tools and scenarios that facilitate creative collaboration. In previous research by the authors, a preference for analog tools over digital has been detected among creative professionals. In a new series of interviews done at the same workplace, it is shown that it is possible for a designer to build up tacit knowledge of the field in which he works, for use in a digital environment. Using examples from the interviews alongside examples from the literature on tacit knowledge, we try to describe a path for further inquiry into the challenge of facilitating the designer's shift from analog to digital tools via facilitating the exchange of tacit knowledge between co-workers, especially via making amendments to the physical arrangement of the workplace.
Keywords: Digital tools; Creative work practices; Tacit knowledge; Workplace design
Innovation Compass: Integrated System to Support Creativity in Both Individuals and Groups BIBAKFull-Text 476-487
  Yoshiharu Kato; Tomonori Hashiyama; Shun'ichi Tano
This study intends to present the concept of a mechanism that will lead to generate active innovations that can change our society. We first analyze the general process of innovations and identify core elements that lead to innovations. We then analyze existing tools and systems that support the creation of innovations in relation to core elements. This analysis leads to the building of the innovation model. We propose an "innovation compass" based on the innovation model that is an integrative system that enhances human creativity to generate innovations. It supports both individual and group creativity. It not only supports rational aspects of innovation processes but also stimulates the motivation of innovators.
Keywords: Innovation; Creative support; Serendipity; Network; Motivation
Automatic Generation of Integrated Process Data Visualizations Using Human Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 488-498
  Felix Mayer; Ulrich Bührer; Dorothea Pantförder; Denise Gramß; Birgit Vogel-Heuser
The increasing complexity of industrial processes leads to complex process visualizations. Amongst other things, this is often due to the fact that a visualization engineer does not have deep knowledge of all physical and logical relations inside a plant. Additionally, different operators have to work with the same visualization despite the fact, that their personal preferences, abilities and needs differ. Having to work with unclear and confusing visualizations leads to an increased workload for plant operators and thus to higher error rates. Due to cost and time constraints, creating better or user-specific visualizations manually is not possible, especially because taking the operators' specific knowledge and experience into account is difficult.
   This paper presents a concept to automatically generate process visualizations and support systems by the usage of a knowledge base and an influence model. This allows for operator-specific visualizations, considering preferences, abilities and needs. It also eases the visualization engineer's work by automatically choosing suitable diagrams and their properties. Additionally, by providing a system to acquire the operator's knowledge, complex relations inside a plant can be made accessible and utilized for optimizing the production process and visualization.
Keywords: Knowledge base; Visualization; 3D; Operator support
A Head-up Display with Augmented Reality and Gamification for an E-Maintenance System: Using Interfaces and Gamification to Motivate Workers in Procedural Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 499-510
  Allan Oliveira; Nahana Caetano; Leonardo Castro Botega; Regina Borges de Araújo
A current challenge in industrial systems, such as E-maintenance, responsible for gathering all maintenance-related data in a single system, is how to display information to users. This same challenge is present when considering new devices for visualization, such as Head Mounted Displays -- HDM (e.g. Google Glass). Advanced interfaces such as Augmented Reality (AR) and Head-Up Display (HUD) provide a means to display these information for users. However, there is still a lack of theoretical design studies (studies that do not consider current technologies limitations) of Augmented Reality and HUD. Another problem in industrial scenarios is motivation, especially considering repetitive procedural works. Therefore, this paper present and discuss a high fidelity theoretical prototype of an interface for maintenance, that uses Gamification techniques to motivate the user, and AR and HUD to display information in a HMD device.
Keywords: Augmented reality; HUD; Gamification; Maintenance
Representation Model of Collaboration Mechanism with Channel Theory BIBAKFull-Text 511-521
  Patchanee Patitad; Hidetsugu Suto
In this paper, a mathematical model of collaboration mechanism is proposed. Channel theory is utilized to accomplish this goal. Collaboration between engineering course students and entertainment media course students was represented by using the proposed model. As the results, there are two infomorphisms were deduced from the classifications. It means the students could gain new knowledge from the collaboration process and we can say that the collaboration is effective. To verify the effect of the collaboration, a workshop was conducted. During the workshop, the participants were asked to answer the questionnaires to investigate how the knowledge of each member changed. The number of the keywords of the first questionnaire and the second questionnaire were compared. The number of keywords of entertainment media course grow 95% on average. Meanwhile, the number of keywords of engineering course grow 150% on average. As the results, the participants can enlarge their knowledge from the collaboration.
Keywords: Collaboration; Channel theory; Knowledge sharing
Using Wearable and Contextual Computing to Optimize Field Engineering Work Practices BIBAKFull-Text 522-533
  Roberto S. Silva Filho; Ching-Ling Huang; Anuj Tewari; James Jobin; Piyush Modi
Industrial work, as performed in field engineering and manufacturing, is inherently different from traditional office work. Industrial work is highly mobile and physical, and involves continuous interaction between people and machines in settings such as factory floors, power plants, oil rigs, locomotive maintenance yards, etc. This domain has recently benefitted from a set of disruptive technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) [2], mobile and wearable computing, and contextual software applications. In particular, GE's Industrial Internet initiative [1] aims at researching new ways to connect people and machines, enabling communications between people and traditional software systems, between people at work, and between people and intelligent machines. When allied with wearable and mobile computing, the Industrial Internet enables new forms of contextual user experiences focusing on the delivery of the right information to the right user at the right time and place. Moreover, these new technologies have enabled experiences that better adapts to industrial workers' needs. For example, using virtual reality glasses and natural language interaction, workers can readily access information about their tasks at hand, the machines nearby, and people located at a distance. This is achieved with minimal distraction, in a proactive way, leveraging the knowledge about each person's tasks and surroundings. In this paper, we describe a general approach and architecture designed to support contextual and mobile applications in the industrial domain and the application of this architecture in the development of the MyWorld application, a contextual mobile applications that works as a single point of entry for a field engineer's needs.
Keywords: Mobility; Collaboration; Wearable computing; Field engineering; Smart manufacturing; Virtual reality; Workflow automation

Information and Interaction for Safety, Security and Reliability

SAW-Oriented User Interfaces for Emergency Dispatch Systems BIBAKFull-Text 537-548
  Leonardo Castro Botega; Lucas César Ferreira; Natália Pereira Oliveira; Allan Oliveira; Claudia Beatriz Berti; Vânia Paula de Neris; Regina Borges de Araújo
Situational awareness (SAW) is a concept widely spread in application areas that require critical decision-making, such as in emergency dispatching systems. SAW is related to the level of consciousness that an individual or team has to a situation. SAW-oriented UI for critical systems require specialized user interfaces to provide operators a dynamic understanding of what is happening in an environment. The information to be managed by such interfaces affects the way operators in an emergency dispatch system acquire, maintain and recover SAW. A challenging issue on the design of SAW-oriented interfaces is how the human-system interaction process can be redesigned for the enhancement of SAW considering environments with potential large scale heterogeneous multi sensors data in complex, ever-changing situations. The problem is increased when such information is subject to uncertainty, which may compromise the acquisition of the situational awareness. Also, humans are expected to make decisions based on their own understanding of what is going on, which allied to experience and expertise can be valuable assets to be used to process refinement during the construction of an incremental knowledge. The goal of this paper is to introduce a conceptual framework to create specialized interfaces that support the participation of operators in the process of SAW acquisition. Such SAW-oriented interface presents a tight integration between the operator and the other phases of an assessment process, such as information quality assessment, information fusion and information visualization. A robbery event report, in an emergency dispatch system, is used as a case study to demonstrate practical and promising results of the applicability of our solution.
Keywords: Situational awareness; User interfaces; Information fusion; Situation assessment
A Method for Generation and Check of Alarm Configurations Using Cause-Effect Matrices for Plant Alarm System Design BIBAKFull-Text 549-556
  Takashi Hamaguchi; B. Mondori; Kazuhiro Takeda; Naoki Kimura; Masaru Noda
An alarm system must provide useful information to operators as the third layer of an independent protection layer when a chemical plant is at abnormal situation. Therefore, a design method of a plant alarm system is important for plant safety. Because the plant is maintained in the plant lifecycle, the alarm system for the plant should be properly managed through the plant lifecycle. To manage changes, the design rationales of the alarm system should be explained explicitly. This paper investigates a logical and systematic alarm system design method that explicitly explains the design rationales from know-why information for proper management of changes through the plant lifecycle. In this paper, we propose a method for generation and check of alarm configurations using cause-effect matrices for plant alarm system design. The matrices are based on a cause-effect model and used for generation and check of alarm configurations.
Keywords: Plant alarm system design; Cause-effect matrices; Alarm management
Parking Autonomous Skids BIBAKFull-Text 557-568
  James Hing; Ross Boczar; Kyle Hart
Autonomous movement of materiel aboard an aircraft carrier can potentially be accomplished using robotic skids. This work proposes a simple human machine interface (HMI) and a control algorithm that would enable a sailor to control and park multiple robotic skids. This work specifically looks at an artificial potential field approach to parking multiple robotic skids (non-holonomic) within a user defined boundary. Optimal goal locations within the boundary for the skids are calculated through convex optimization techniques.
Keywords: Non-holonomic; Artificial potential fields; Autonomous parking
SAFT: Firefighting Environment Recognition Improvement for Firefighters BIBAKFull-Text 569-578
  Jin Hyun Park; In Jin Baek; Su Ji Han
This study is to develop a device that enables to protect life of firefighters and facilitate firefighting activities. In many cases, the existing studies focus on the development of firefighting suites with many sensors and entire network system. In contrast, there are not many studies related to simple device easily used for protecting one's life in fire firefighters is likely to encounter more frequently. As a result from the field research and focus group interview, it has been recognized that rapid concept prototype is possible to develop by using open source hardware. It has been also found that the device is required to combine with the existing equipment and it should be unit device with single function.
Keywords: Wearable; Firefighting system; Navigation; Space recognition
Modelling of a Business Process for Alarm Management Lifecycle in Chemical Industries BIBAKFull-Text 579-587
  Kazuhiro Takeda; Takashi Hamaguchi; Naoki Kimura; Masaru Noda
A plant alarm system is one of important safety equipment. Instrument Society of America has proposed an alarm management lifecycle. Although the lifecycle shows guideline of alarm management, business process activities and information exchange between the activities concerned with alarm management are not represented. To perform the alarm management lifecycle, a business process model for alarm management is necessary. In this paper, we propose an alarm management business process model, called AMBPM here after. We have developed the AMBPM based on a business process model for a plant lifecycle engineering. The AMBPM represents business process activities concerned with an alarm management and information exchange between the activities. In a case study, a business flow of an alarm system design process was derived from the AMBPM. The business flow represents specific activities and information for the respective step, whereas the AMBPM represents whole information concerned with the activities.
Keywords: Alarm management lifecycle; Plant lifecycle engineering; Business process model; Business flow
Disaster Recovery Framework for e-Learning Environment Using Private Cloud Collaboration and Emergency Alerts BIBAKFull-Text 588-596
  Satoshi Togawa; Kazuhide Kanenishi
In this research, we have built a framework of disaster recovery such as against earthquake, tsunami disaster and a heavy floods for e-Learning environment. Especially, our proposed framework is based on private cloud collaboration. We build a prototype system based on IaaS architecture, and this prototype system is constructed by several private cloud fabrics on each site such as several universities. These private cloud fabric; that is handled almost like same block device. For LMS (Learning Management System) to work, we need to boot up virtual machines which installed LMS. The virtual disk images of each virtual machines are stored into the distributed storage system. The distributed storage system will be able to keep running as a large block device. We can control the virtual machine's status and virtual machines positioning on the private cloud fabrics by the private cloud collaboration controller related with the emergency alert via smart phone. We think that our private cloud collaboration framework can continue working for e-Learning environment under the post-disaster situation. In this paper, we show our private cloud collaboration framework. And, we show the experimental results on the prototype system.
Keywords: Private cloud collaboration; Disaster recovery; E-Learning; Disaster alert notification

Information and Interaction for in Novel Advanced Environments

Study About Creation of "Maai" Involving Intention Using Rhythm Controller BIBAKFull-Text 599-609
  Shiroh Itai; Yoshiyuki Miwa
In this paper, we developed a "Maai" creating agent that predicts human's intention from the changes in his/her controller manipulation method (i.e., relationship between controller input and avatar motion) of a rhythm controller. And, we examined whether the human's intention is reflected in the controller manipulation method in the creation of Maai involving the human's intention. From results, we showed that the human's intention to create Maai with the opponent leads to the potential for changes in the human's controller manipulation method. Furthermore, we showed that such an intention of a human as to whether he/she intends to maintain or collapse Maai is expressed in his/her controller manipulation method. Consequently, our research shows that an unconscious process plays a role in the creation of Maai involving the human's intention.
Keywords: Maai; Embodiment; Intention; Agent; Unconscious process
Designing the Embodied Shadow Media Using Virtual Three-Dimensional Space BIBAKFull-Text 610-621
  Yusuke Kajita; Takuto Takahashi; Yoshiyuki Miwa; Shiroh Itai
In this paper, we discuss media technology that enables the emergence of bodily expressions. We paid attention to the difference between body and shadow movements, so we developed the system which generates the shadow media using skeleton information which is able to express the posture of person simply. To realize the system, we use virtual three-dimensional space and three-dimensional human model. By dividing the system processes into every software programs and creating the method to connect these programs, we got prospects of success for cloudization of the shadow media system. From our experimental results, we discovered that the system is able to be used for the research of bodily sensations, the emergence of bodily expressions, and supports of co-creative expressions.
Keywords: Communication; Co-creation; Expression; Shadow media; Skeleton information; Virtual three-dimensional space
Kick Extraction for Reducing Uncertainty in RoboCup Logs BIBAKFull-Text 622-633
  Tomoharu Nakashima; Satoshi Mifune; Jordan Henrio; Oliver Obst; Peter Wang; Mikhail Prokopenko
The effectiveness of using log information in RoboCup soccer simulation 2D league is shown in this paper. Although it is not possible to exactly know a strategy that a team is taking, that strategy is well represented by how the players in the team kick during games. Extracted kicks such as passes and dribbles form a kick distribution, which hopefully represent the team' strategy. In order to show the usefulness of the kick distribution, a series of computational experiments are conducted where the uncertainty in predicting the game results is reduced by grouping the games based on the kick distributions.
Keywords: RoboCup; Feature extraction; Strategy analysis; Clustering; Earth Mover's Distance (EMD)
Virtual Bogie: Exhibition System to Understand Mechanism of Bogie with Digital Display Case BIBAKFull-Text 634-645
  Tomohiro Tanikawa; Hirosi Ohara; Ryo Kiyama; Takuji Narumi; Michitaka Hirose
We aim to construct a digital display case system that effectively conveys background information about an exhibited object, and introduce our system into museum exhibition rooms. In this paper, we present a digital display case system that enables viewers to interact with an exhibited artifact in a manner that conveys its dynamic mechanism more easily than conventional approaches. Based on a field trial at a museum, we report visitors' observations, reviews from museum curators, and a detailed evaluation and discussion of the system.
Keywords: Digital display case; Digital museum; Dynamic mechanism; Virtual reality
Fortune Air: An Interactive Fortune Telling System Using Vortex Air Cannon BIBAKFull-Text 646-656
  Ryoko Ueoka; Naoto Kamiyama
In Japan, people visit shrines in order to pray for good fortune. By determining our fortune, we draw fortune telling paper slips called Omikuji. Omikuji contains predictions ranging from daikichi ("great good luck") to daikyo ("great bad luck") As a novel interactive fortune telling system, we propose "Fortune Air". By generating the adequate pattern of vortex rings with the smoke of the incense aroma according to a prayer's interaction, visual, olfactory and tactile feedback is realized. As a first step of this interactive system, we implemented a prototype of fortune air. For generating the pattern of vortex air rings, we use two air cannons placed side by side. Vortex rings shot by each air cannon make various patterns of air such as merging or repelling. We define four patterns of vortex rings and adapt them as special meaning of couple matching fortune telling system. In this paper we performed two basic experiments to determine the parameters of controlling the pattern of double vortex rings. From the results, we confirmed that distance of air cannons and combination of value of air pressure will increase the probability to generate a designated pattern though it is difficult to control all of the patterns of vortex air rings under everyday environment. Finally we made a fortune air system to evaluate the performance.
Keywords: Interactive air media; Vortex ring; Air cannon
Development of the Horror Emotion Amplification System by Means of Biofeedback Method BIBAKFull-Text 657-665
  Ryoko Ueoka; Kouya Ishigaki
Current 3D digital film gives us a more realistic sensation. However there is still some problem that keeps us away from immersing the horror contents. In order to find an effective way to amplify horror emotion to viewers, we propose cross modal display system to enhance horror emotion. As a first step, we developed a pseudo heart beat feedback system to give vibrotactile feedback. We made a locker-type 3d movie watching environment while generating heart beat-like vibration on the sole of the foot. We conducted the experiment to view the horror movie with the system. In this experiment, we gave two types of pseudo heart beat vibration. One is to raise heart beat vibration by referring a user's heart rate real time. Other is to raise heart beat vibration in a stepwise manner up to predetermined heart rate value. We evaluated which method is effective to raise viewer's real heartbeat.
Keywords: Vibrotactile feedback; Horror emotion; Pseudo heartbeat; Biofeedback; Synchronization
Application of the Locomotion Interface Using Anthropomorphic Finger Motion BIBAKFull-Text 666-674
  Yusuke Ujitoko; Koichi Hirota
This paper describes new applications of a locomotion interface that uses fingers instead of legs. With this device, users let two fingers "stand" or "walk" on a ball floating on water. The first-person perspective presented to the user is updated according to the state of the ball. The aim is to make users feel virtually present by means of the synchrony between their vision and the haptic information from their fingers. The difficulty of controlling of the ball with fingers lets users subjectively experience an unsteady foothold. The proposed system is structured to be space saving and cost effective compared to an ordinary full-body motion simulator and is thus suitable for museum exhibitions.
Keywords: Locomotion; Finger motion; Multimodality; Ground instability
Considering a New Nanbu Fuurin Design that Play a Healing Sound -- Including Innovations in Appearance and Texture, and Continually Improving BIBAKFull-Text 675-684
  Ying Zhang; Takamitsu Tanaka
This study concerns the design of Japanese traditional wind chimes, called Nanbu Fuurin in Japanese. The purpose of this study is to pass on and carry forward this traditional craft, while also giving it a new modern element. In order to, relieve pressures from life, work, study, disaster occurrences, the designers give the well-known Nanbu Fuurin a design of texture to improve people's emotions and offer feelings of treatment visually.
Keywords: Nanbu Fuurin; Healing; Texture design