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HCII Tables of Contents: 99-20103-103-203-303-407-107-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-1

HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: New Trends

Fullname:HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: New Trends
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5610
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02573-0 (print), 978-3-642-02574-7 (online); hcibib: HCII09-1
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 1
    1. Novel Techniques for Measuring and Monitoring
    2. Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Tools
    3. User Studies
    4. User Interface Design
    5. Development Approaches, Methods and Tools

HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 1

Novel Techniques for Measuring and Monitoring

Automatic Method for Measuring Eye Blinks Using Split-Interlaced Images BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Kiyohiko Abe; Shoichi Ohi; Minoru Ohyama
We propose a new eye blink detection method that uses NTSC video cameras. This method utilizes split-interlaced images of the eye. These split images are odd- and even-field images in the NTSC format and are generated from NTSC frames (interlaced images). The proposed method yields a time resolution that is double that in the NTSC format; that is, the detailed temporal change that occurs during the process of eye blinking can be measured. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, experiments are performed using a high-speed digital video camera. Furthermore, results obtained using the NTSC camera were compared with those obtained using the high-speed digital video camera. We also report experimental results for comparing measurements made by the NTSC camera and the high-speed digital video camera.
Keywords: Eye Blink; Interlaced Image; Natural Light; Image Analysis; High-Speed Camera
A Usability Study of WebMaps with Eye Tracking Tool: The Effects of Iconic Representation of Information BIBAKFull-Text 12-21
  Özge Alaçam; Mustafa Dalci
In this study, we aim to conduct usability tests on different WebMap sites with eye movement analysis. Overall task performance, the effects of iconic representation of information, and the efficiency of pop-up usage were evaluated. The eye tracking technology is used for this study in order to follow the position of the users' eye-gaze. The results show that there are remarkable differences in task performance between WebMaps. Addition, they also differ in the use of iconic representations according to results of users' evaluation. It is also found that efficiency of pop-up windows' usage has an effect on task performance.
Keywords: Web mapping; usability; eye tracking; cognitive processes; iconic representations; the efficiency of pop-ups
Feature Extraction and Selection for Inferring User Engagement in an HCI Environment BIBAKFull-Text 22-29
  Stylianos Asteriadis; Kostas Karpouzis; Stefanos D. Kollias
In this paper, we present our work towards estimating the engagement of a person to the displayed information of a computer monitor. Deciding whether a user is attentive or not, and frustrated or not, helps adapting the displayed information of a computer in special environments, such as e-learning. The aim of the current work is the development of a method that can work user-independently, without necessitating special lighting conditions and with only requirements in terms of hardware, a computer and a web-camera.
Keywords: User engagement; Head Pose; Eye Gaze; Facial Feature tracking
Informative or Misleading? Heatmaps Deconstructed BIBAKFull-Text 30-39
  Agnieszka Bojko
Eye tracking heatmaps have become very popular and easy to create over the last few years. They are very compelling and can be effective in summarizing and communicating data. However, heatmaps are often used incorrectly and for the wrong reasons. In addition, many do not include all the information that is necessary for proper interpretation. This paper describes several types of heatmaps as representations of different aspects of visual attention, and provides guidance on when to use and how to interpret heatmaps. It explains how heatmaps are created and how their appearance can be modified by manipulating different display settings. Guidelines for proper use of heatmaps are also proposed.
Keywords: Heatmaps; attention maps; eye tracking
Toward EEG Sensing of Imagined Speech BIBAKFull-Text 40-48
  Michael D'Zmura; Siyi Deng; Tom Lappas; Samuel Thorpe; Ramesh Srinivasan
Might EEG measured while one imagines words or sentences provide enough information for one to identify what is being thought? Analysis of EEG data from an experiment in which two syllables are spoken in imagination in one of three rhythms shows that information is present in EEG alpha, beta and theta bands. Envelopes are used to compute filters matched to a particular experimental condition; the filters' action on data from a particular trial lets one determine the experimental condition used for that trial with appreciably greater-than-chance performance. Informative spectral features within bands lead us to current work with EEG spectrograms.
Keywords: EEG; imagined speech; covert speech; classification
Monitoring and Processing of the Pupil Diameter Signal for Affective Assessment of a Computer User BIBAKFull-Text 49-58
  Ying Gao; Armando Barreto; Malek Adjouadi
The pupil diameter (PD) has been found to respond to cognitive and emotional processes. However, the pupillary light reflex (PLR), is known to be the dominant factor in determining pupil size. In this paper, we attempt to minimize the PLR-driven component in the measured PD signal, through an Adaptive Interference Canceller (AIC), with the H time-varying (HITV) adaptive algorithm, so that the output of the AIC, the Modified Pupil Diameter (MPD), can be used as an indication of the pupillary affective response (PAR) after some post-processing. The results of this study confirm that the AIC with the HITV adaptive algorithm is able to minimize the PD changes caused by PLR to an acceptable level, to facilitate the affective assessment of a computer user through the resulting MPD signal.
Keywords: Pupil diameter (PD); Pupillary light reflex (PLR); Pupillary affective response (PAR); Adaptive Interference Canceller (AIC); H time-varying (HITV) adaptive algorithm
Usability Evaluation by Monitoring Physiological and Other Data Simultaneously with a Time-Resolution of Only a Few Seconds BIBAKFull-Text 59-68
  Károly Hercegfi; Márton Pászti; Sarolta Tóvölgyi; Lajos Izsó
This paper outlines the INTERFACE methodology developed by researchers of our department. It is based on the simultaneous assessment of Heart Period Variability (HPV),
   Skin Conductance (SC), and other data. The objective and significance of this paper are (1) showing its capability of identifying quality attributes of software elements with a time-resolution of only a few seconds and (2) presenting its practical applicability in the evaluation phase of a real software development process. The Department of Ergonomics and Psychology at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics carried out a contract-based applied research project for the Generali-Providencia Insurance Co. Ltd. The Company was in the process of further developing the software used in its customer centers, and our Department contracted to assess the user interface. Both analytical and empirical usability evaluation methods were applied. In this paper, we highlight the new experiences of the INTERFACE testing methodology.
Keywords: Usability testing and evaluation; empirical methods; case study; Heart Period Variability (HPV); Skin Conductance (SC)
Study of Human Anxiety on the Internet BIBAKFull-Text 69-76
  Santosh Kumar Kalwar; Kari Heikkinen
In this paper a conceptualization of human anxiety on the Internet is introduced; it is built on the understanding of human behavior with regard to technology. The objective of this paper is to conceptualize the human anxiety. An integral part of understanding is an inter-disciplinary (psychology science, cognitive science, behavioral science and communication technology) literature review, of which and overall summary is presented. The understanding is conceptualized by designing, implementing and evaluating through a developed user study model. In this paper the preliminary result of utilizing the developed user study found seven particular anxiety areas which need further studies.
Keywords: Human; study; anxiety; internet
The Research on Adaptive Process for Emotion Recognition by Using Time-Dependent Parameters of Autonomic Nervous Response BIBAKFull-Text 77-84
  Jonghwa Kim; Min Cheol Whang; Jincheol Woo
This study is to propose new method, called by TDP (time dependent parameter) analysis, of physiological signal processing for emotion recognition. TDP consisted of delay, activation, half recovery and full recovery. TDP was determined from running average and normalization of physiological signals for finding tonic and phasic response according to emotion at entire time range from stimulating emotion to recovery. As the results of this study, TDP analysis and adaptive TDP analysis enhanced accuracy of emotion recognition in the comparison with tonic analysis. Specifically, TDP analysis enhanced the accuracy while adaptive TDP analysis reduced the individual difference of the accuracy.
Keywords: Physiological signal; GSR; ECG; PPG; Skin temperature; emotion recognition; accuracy
Students' Visual Perceptions of Virtual Lectures as Measured by Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 85-94
  Yu-Jin Kim; Jin Ah Bae; Byeong Ho Jeon
In this paper, we used eye tracking methodologies to investigate students' visual perceptions of lectures using 3D real-time virtual studio technology. For measuring learning performance, we also gave the students multiple-choice paper quizzes at the end of the lectures. Three virtual lectures were created with different types of lecture materials (text-centered, image-centered, and lecturer-centered) and 3D virtual sets (classroom, cyberspace, and lecture-theme space). Through analyzing students' eye movements in viewing still and moving scenes of the virtual lectures, we found that layouts and movements of design elements on lecture screens significantly influenced students' scanpaths and areas of interest (AOIs). Lecture material types affected learning performance while 3D virtual sets had no effect due to students' inattention to the virtual background areas. We discuss effective ways to develop virtual lectures and design lecture screens for better presentation of lecture content and higher learning performance.
Keywords: Virtual lectures; virtual studios; eye tracking; visual perception; learning performance; user-centered screen design
Toward Constructing an Electroencephalogram Measurement Method for Usability Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 95-104
  Masaki Kimura; Hidetake Uwano; Masao Ohira; Ken-ichi Matsumoto
This paper describes our pilot study toward constructing an electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement method for usability evaluation. The measurement method consists of two steps: (1) measuring EEGs of subjects for several tens of seconds after events or tasks that are targets to evaluate, and (2) analyzing how much components of the alpha and/or beta rhythm are contained in the measured EEGs. However, there only exists an empirical rule on measurement time length of EEGs for usability evaluation. In this paper, we conduct an experiment to reveal the optimal time length of EEGs for usability evaluation by analyzing changes of EEGs over time. From the results of the experiments, we have found that the time length suitable for usability evaluation was more than 0~56.32 seconds.
Automated Analysis of Eye-Tracking Data for the Evaluation of Driver Information Systems According to ISO/TS 15007-2: 2001 BIBAKFull-Text 105-110
  Christian Lange; Martin Wohlfarter; Heiner Bubb
First of all, the most important content of the ISO/TS 15007-2:2001 standard for performing eye tracking experiments will be described. The following text includes a detailed description of how eye/gaze experiments using the Dikablis eye tracking system are conducted according to the above mentioned standard and how recorded statistical evaluations can be automated and visualized.
Keywords: ISO/TS 15007-2:2001; Eye tracking; Driver Assistance Systems; Driver Information Systems
Brain Response to Good and Bad Design BIBAKFull-Text 111-120
  Haeinn Lee; Jungtae Lee; Ssanghee Seo
This paper is about the decision of whether good or bad design is the result of the human brain process. Our research team has used the technique of functional MRI and Electroencephalogram (EEG) to address the question of how the brain answers while subjects viewed different designs. Classifying the good or bad designs, subjects chose a mouse button to decide their perception of good or bad design and we analyzed their patterns of EEG rhythms and fMRI. The results of fMRI showed that the perceptions of different feelings of designs are associated with the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe. After analyzing the EEG by the Event-related brain potentials (ERP) method, we also found that the amplitude of ERP components in perception of bad design is greater and latency is shorter than that of good design. Therefore, the human brain responds sooner and stronger in perception of bad feeling.
Keywords: Human Behaviors; EEG; fMRI; ERP; Interaction and Interface Design; Usability Test; Brainwork; Visual Brain
An Analysis of Eye Movements during Browsing Multiple Search Results Pages BIBAKFull-Text 121-130
  Yuko Matsuda; Hidetake Uwano; Masao Ohira; Ken-ichi Matsumoto
In general, most search engines display a certain number of search results on a search results page at one time, separating the entire search results into multiple search results pages. Therefore, lower ranked results (e.g., 11th-ranked result) may be displayed on the top area of the next (second) page and might be more likely to be browsed by users, rather than results displayed on the bottom of the previous (first) results page. To better understand users' activities in web search, it is necessary to analyze the effect of display positions of search results while browsing multiple search results pages. In this paper, we present the results of our analysis of users' eye movements. We have conducted an experiment to measure eye movements during web search and analyzed how long users spend to view each search result. From the analysis results, we have found that search results displayed on the top of the latter page were viewed for a longer time than those displayed on the bottom of the former page.
Keywords: Eye tracking; Web search; User activity; Search results page
Development of Estimation System for Concentrate Situation Using Acceleration Sensor BIBAKFull-Text 131-140
  Masashi Okubo; Aya Fujimura
Recently, to discipline to increase powers of concentration is popular. One of the reason, it is difficult to concentrate something in these days because of a flood of information. However we discipline our concentration by using the how-to books and the portable games, we cannot evaluate the training effect on the practical life. In this paper, we propose an evaluation system for user's powers of concentration in which the method for the estimate user's sitting situation is utilized. This system is constructed by two kinds of method, one is the method which estimates the sitting situation and the other is the evaluation method for user's powers of concentration situation. These methods use user's motion that is obtained from the acceleration sensor that is fixed on the chair. And we prepare the three kinds of Graphical User Interface (GUI) which presents the concentration situation to the user.
Keywords: Powers of concentration; GUI; Sensory evaluation and Self-management
Psychophysiology as a Tool for HCI Research: Promises and Pitfalls BIBAFull-Text 141-148
  Byungho Park
Psychophysiology, an area of psychology that measures individual's physiological responses to refer to one's psychological state, can provide a set of useful measures HCI researchers can take advantage of. However, there are limitations to the method itself and room for misinterpretation. This paper introduces psychophysiology, and also shows how research methods psychophysiology offer can be used for HCI research, advantages and disadvantages of using research tools from psychophysiology.
Assessing NeuroSky's Usability to Detect Attention Levels in an Assessment Exercise BIBAFull-Text 149-158
  Genaro Rebolledo-Mendez; Ian Dunwell; Erika Martínez-Mirón; María Dolores Vargas-Cerdán; Sara de Freitas; Fotis Liarokapis; Alma Rosa García-Gaona
This paper presents the results of a usability evaluation of the NeuroSky's MindSet (MS). Until recently most Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) have been designed for clinical and research purposes partly due to their size and complexity. However, a new generation of consumer-oriented BCI has appeared for the video game industry. The MS, a headset with a single electrode, is based on electro-encephalogram readings (EEG) capturing faint electrical signals generated by neural activity. The electrical signal across the electrode is measured to determine levels of attention (based on Alpha waveforms) and then translated into binary data. This paper presents the results of an evaluation to assess the usability of the MS by defining a model of attention to fuse attention signals with user-generated data in a Second Life assessment exercise. The results of this evaluation suggest that the MS provides accurate readings regarding attention, since there is a positive correlation between measured and self-reported attention levels. The results also suggest there are some usability and technical problems with its operation. Future research is presented consisting of the definition a standardized reading methodology and an algorithm to level out the natural fluctuation of users' attention levels if they are to be used as inputs.
Effect of Body Movement on Music Expressivity in Jazz Performances BIBAKFull-Text 159-168
  Mamiko Sakata; Sayaka Wakamiya; Naoki Odaka; Kozaburo Hachimura
In this study, we tried to examine empirically how body motion contributes to music expressivity, both in terms of intensity and manners, during impromptu jazz performances. Psychological rating experiments showed that music expressivity in jazz performances are assessed in two aspects, namely power and aesthetic quality. In the assessment of musical performances, the music itself basically contributed to how observers evaluated its expressivity. However, it was also shown that body motion had a greater influence on assessing the quality of music in terms of "hard or soft" and "light or heavy."As a result of the three-dimensional motion analysis using motion capture, we learned that the characteristics of the player's body motions changed with the playing style and the playing dynamics. The player, therefore, is making music not only by producing the "sound," but by also showing "body motions" for creating that sound.
Keywords: Jazz Performances; Music Expressivity; Body Movement; Motion Capture
A Method to Monitor Operator Overloading BIBAKFull-Text 169-175
  Dvijesh Shastri; Ioannis Pavlidis; Avinash Wesley
This paper describes research that aims to quantify stress levels of operators who perform multiple tasks. The proposed method is based on the thermal signature of the face. It measures physiological function from a stand-off distance and therefore, it can unobtrusively monitor a machine operator. The method was tested on 11 participants. The results show that multi-tasking elevates metabolism in the supraorbital area, which is an indirect indication of increased mental load. This local metabolic change alters heat dissipation and thus, it can be measured through thermal imaging. The methodology could serve as a benchmarking tool in scenarios where an operator's divided attention may cause harmful outcomes. A classic example is the case of a vehicle driver who talks on the cell phone. This stress measurement method when combined with user performance metrics can delineate optimal operational envelopes.
Keywords: Human-Machine Interaction; divided attention; stress; thermal imaging
Decoding Attentional Orientation from EEG Spectra BIBAKFull-Text 176-183
  Ramesh Srinivasan; Samuel Thorpe; Siyi Deng; Tom Lappas; Michael D'Zmura
We have carried out preliminary experiments to determine if EEG spectra can be used to decode the attentional orientation of an observer in three-dimensional space. Our task cued the subject to direct attention to speech in one location and ignore simultaneous speech originating from another location. We found that during the period where the subject directs attention to one location in anticipation of the speech signal, EEG spectral features can be used to predict the orientation of attention. We propose to refine this method by training subjects using feedback to improve classification performance.
Keywords: EEG; attention; orienting; classification
On the Possibility about Performance Estimation Just before Beginning a Voluntary Motion Using Movement Related Cortical Potential BIBAKFull-Text 184-191
  Satoshi Suzuki; Takemi Matsui; Yusuke Sakaguchi; Kazuhiro Ando; Nobuyuki Nishiuchi; Toshimasa Yamazaki; Shin'ichi Fukuzumi
The present study aimed to investigate this tripartite relationship, regarding MRCP as a physiological index, ballistic movement as an index of operation and accuracy of the task performance. Experiments were conducted 'reaching' task; the subject touches the target appears 300 pixels away from the start point in a vertical direction on the touch sensitive screen with the forefinger. During experiments, EEG, EMG as trigger, image by high-speed camera and the efficiency of task were acquired. As a result, significant differences between the high and poor performance groups were clear on the NS in MRCP acquired from Fz(p < 0.05), Cz (p < 0.05) and Pz (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the difference was confirmed on the duration of ballistic movement. Based on our findings, we attempted to extract MRCP rapidly and automatically without using signal averaging and discuss whether it is possible to estimate accuracy just before the motion is executed.
Keywords: Accuracy; ballistic movement; movement-related cortical potential (MRCP); reaching; voluntary motion

Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Tools

A Usability Evaluation Method Applying AHP and Treemap Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 195-203
  Toshiyuki Asahi; Teruya Ikegami; Shin'ichi Fukuzumi
This report proposes a visualization technique for checklist-based usability quantification methods. By applying the Treemap method, the hierarchical structure of checklists, weights of check items and evaluation results for target systems can be viewed at a glance. Effective support for usability analysis and its presentation tasks of usability evaluation results are expected. A prototype tool was implemented on a PC and experimental studies assuming actual usability evaluation tasks were conducted. The results indicate that the proposed method improves performance time of some typical tasks. Usability engineers gave higher subjective scores on the usefulness of the proposed method than that of printed table presentation.
Keywords: Usability quantification; checklist; Treemap; visualization; analytic hierarchy process; design tools
Evaluation of User-Interfaces for Mobile Application Development Environments BIBAFull-Text 204-213
  Florence T. Balagtas-Fernandez; Heinrich Hussmann
This paper discusses about the different user-interfaces of mobile development and modeling environments in order to extract important details in which the user-interfaces for such environments are designed. The goal of studying such environments is to come up with a simple interface which would help people with little or no experience in programming, develop their own mobile applications through modeling. The aim of this research is to find ways in order to present the user interface in a clear manner such that the balance between ease-of-use and ease of learning is achieved.
User-Centered Design and Evaluation -- The Big Picture BIBAKFull-Text 214-223
  Victoria Bellotti; Shin'ichi Fukuzumi; Toshiyuki Asahi; Shunsuke Suzuki
This paper provides a high-level overview of the field of usability evaluation as context for a panel "Systematization, Modeling and Quantitative Evaluation of Human Interface" in which several authors report on a collaborative effort to apply CogTool, an automated usability evaluation method, to mobile phone interfaces and to assess whether usability predictions made by CogTool correlate with user subjective impressions of usability. If the endeavor, which is still underway at the time of writing, is successful, then CogTool may be applied economically within the product development lifecycle to reduce the risk of usability problems.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; methods; metrics; systematization
Web-Based System Development for Usability Evaluation of Ubiquitous Computing Device BIBAKFull-Text 224-231
  Jong Kyu Choi; Han Joon Kim; Beom Suk Jin; Yong Gu Ji
Recently, with the development of electronic technology, information technology (IT) devices that satisfy user requirements, such as PMP (Portable Multimedia Player), PDA (Personal Data Assistant), UMPC (Ultra Mobile Personal Computer) and mobile phones have been developed. These devices are making wireless communication and network communication more accessible, and by the ubiquitous paradigm, provide accessibility of information everywhere. The appearance of these devices and the development of the technology are integrating and converging in the IT devices. Therefore, there are significant changes in the purpose and environment of IT device applications. This is due to the modification of the environment in which the device is used (not only in a passive state but also in a motional state), which has a greater influence on usability. Therefore, a new methodology is required to evaluate the usability of the devices. In previous studies, by gathering and integrating the usability factors and ubiquitous characteristics, the Ubiquitous Evaluation Factor was obtained. For each factor of ubiquitous devices, deconstruction was accomplished for each usability evaluation. Through this process, components of ubiquitous devices could be extracted. Evaluation scores of ubiquitous device components and the score of the evaluation of each usability factor could be obtained from the usability evaluation. This evaluation framework was developed as a Web-based system to let the users perform the usability evaluation without having trouble with the location. This system was developed in Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition platform. Web Server IIS (Internet Information Server) 6.0 was used, and MS-SQL 2000 was used for the database server. For development of language, ASP (Active Server Page) was used, which is run in IIS. This study is meaningful in that through a Web-based system, various people could easily access the device, and in that evaluation of a portion of the device as well as the entire device is possible.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing device; usability; web-based system; system development
Evaluating Mobile Usability: The Role of Fidelity in Full-Scale Laboratory Simulations with Mobile ICT for Hospitals BIBAKFull-Text 232-241
  Yngve Dahl; Ole Andreas Alsos; Dag Svanæs
We have applied full-scale simulations to evaluate the usability of mobile ICT for hospitals in a realistic but controllable research setting. Designing cost-effective and targeted simulations for such a purpose raises the issue of simulation fidelity. Evaluators need to identify which aspects of the research setting that should appear realistic to simulation participants, and which aspect that can be removed or represented more abstractly. Drawing on research on training simulations, this paper discusses three interrelated fidelity components -- equipment/prototype fidelity, environmental fidelity, and psychological fidelity. These components need to be adjusted according to which design aspects evaluators want to gather feedback on. We present examples of how we have configured the components in various simulation-based usability assessments of mobile ICT for hospitals. The paper concludes by providing a set of guiding principles concerning the role of fidelity in simulation-based usability evaluations.
Keywords: Clinical information systems; fidelity; evaluation; human factors; mobility; simulation; training simulation; usability; user-centered design
A Multidimensional Approach for the Evaluation of Mobile Application User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 242-251
  José Eustáquio Rangel de Queiroz; Danilo de Sousa Ferreira
This paper focuses on a hybrid approach for the evaluation of mobile application UI, based upon a set of well known techniques for usability evaluation. Two perspectives of the problem are focused: (i) the user's perspective, which is expressed by user's perception of the application; and (ii) the specialist's perspective, which is expressed by his/her considerations from the point of view of the user-application interaction, and from the point of view of the HCI community as well. Further comparisons between a lab and field evaluation approaches are given for a case study involving an Internet tablet. Conclusions are given concerning on how to apply the experience acquired by evaluating conventional UI in the mobile technology domain.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; mobile devices; multidimensional approach
Development of Quantitative Usability Evaluation Method BIBAKFull-Text 252-258
  Shin'ichi Fukuzumi; Teruya Ikegami; Hidehiko Okada
A variety of evaluation methods are practiced in order to make more appealing and improve the usability of computer systems. The authors have developed a quantitative usability evaluation method that uses a checklist that outlines an evaluation procedure and clarifies judging standards. This paper describes this quantitative usability evaluation method that is not influenced by an evaluator's subjective impression. Moreover, such clear and precise definitions makes checklist-based evaluations more repeatable (thus more reliable) and less affected by differences among evaluators. The effectiveness of our checklist has been evaluated by the experiments with novice and experienced evaluators. This article reports the method and results of the experiments.
Keywords: Usability; evaluation; checklist
Reference Model for Quality Assurance of Speech Applications BIBAKFull-Text 259-266
  Cornelia Hipp; Matthias Peissner
The acceptance of speech applications is still very low in Germany. The German market of speech industry identified this problem and makes an effort to improve the quality of speech applications, which should lead to higher user acceptance. To ensure higher quality standards, a reference model has been developed with special regard to the needs of interactive voice response systems (IVR). This model includes instructions to improve the process quality of the development process as well as methods, measurements and quality criteria to evaluate the product quality. Furthermore, the presented reference model differentiates between eight application types of IVR and describes which methods, measurements and quality criteria are especially important for each application type.
Keywords: Quality; speech; interactive voice response; automatic speech recognition; measurement; method; voice; speech interaction; reference model; application type
Toward Cognitive Modeling for Predicting Usability BIBAKFull-Text 267-276
  Bonnie E. John; Shunsuke Suzuki
Historically, predictive human performance modeling has been successful at predicting the task execution time of skilled users on a desktop computer. More recent work has predicted novice behavior in web searches. This paper reports on a collaborative effort between industry and academia to expand the scope of predictive modeling to the mobile phone domain, both skilled and novice behavior, and how human performance relates to the perception of usability. Since, at this writing, only preliminary results to validate models of mobile phone use are in, we describe the process we will use to progress towards our modeling goals.
Keywords: Cognitive modeling; GOMS; KLM; CogTool; Information Foraging
Webjig: An Automated User Data Collection System for Website Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 277-286
  Mikio Kiura; Masao Ohira; Ken-ichi Matsumoto
In order to improve website usability, it is important for developers to understand how users access websites. In this paper, we present Webjig, which is a support system for website usability evaluation in order to resolve the problems associated with the existing systems. Webjig can collect users' interaction data from static and dynamic websites. Moreover, by using Webjig, developers can precisely identify users' activities on websites. By performing an experiment to evaluate the usefulness of Webjig, we have confirmed that developers could effectively improve website usability.
Keywords: Web usability; usability evaluation; analysis of user interactions; dynamic websites
ADiEU: Toward Domain-Based Evaluation of Spoken Dialog Systems BIBAKFull-Text 287-294
  Jan Kleindienst; Jan Curín; Martin Labský
We propose a new approach toward evaluation of spoken dialog systems. The novelty of our method is based on utilization of domain-specific knowledge combined with the deterministic measurement of dialog system performance on a set of individual tasks within the domain. The proposed methodology thus attempts to answer questions such as: "How well is my dialog system performing on a specific domain?", "How much has my dialog system improved since the previous version?", "How much is my dialog system better/worse than other dialog systems performing on that domain?"
Keywords: Dialog; evaluation; scoring; multimodal; speech recognition
Interpretation of User Evaluation for Emotional Speech Synthesis System BIBAKFull-Text 295-303
  Ho-Joon Lee; Jong C. Park
Whether it is for human-robot interaction or for human-computer interaction, there is a growing need for an emotional speech synthesis system that can provide the required information in a more natural and effective manner. In order to identify and understand the characteristics of basic emotions and their effects, we propose a series of user evaluation experiments on an emotional prosody modification system that can express either perceivable or slightly exaggerated emotions classified into anger, joy, and sadness as an independent module for a general purpose speech synthesis system. In this paper, we propose two experiments to evaluate the emotional prosody modification module according to different types of the initial input speech. And we also provide a supplementary experiment to understand the apparently prosody-independent emotion, or joy, by replacing the resynthesized joy speech information with original human voice recorded in the emotional state of joy.
Keywords: Emotional Speech Synthesis; User Evaluation; Emotional Prosody Modification; Affective Interaction
Multi-level Validation of the ISOmetrics Questionnaire Based on Qualitative and Quantitative Data Obtained from a Conventional Usability Test BIBAKFull-Text 304-313
  Jan-Paul Leuteritz; Harald Widlroither; Michael Klüh
Qualitative and quantitative data, collected during a usability evaluation of two innovative prototypes of a small display touch screen device, have been used to perform a multi-level assessment of the questionnaires used within the trial. The use of different validation methods is depicted and discussed concerning their advantages and disadvantages. The conclusions from the validation study are depicted, revealing that the usage of the ISOmetrics for testing uncommon prototypes may result in insufficient validity of the instrument.
Keywords: Validity; questionnaire; ISOmetrics; AttrakDiff; small display devices; shower control
What Do Users Really Do? Experience Sampling in the 21st Century BIBAKFull-Text 314-319
  Gavin S. Lew
As practitioners we spend a great deal of effort designing and testing products within the confines of usability testing labs when we know that a rich user experience lies outside. What is needed is more research in "the wild" where people use the very interfaces we take so much time to design, test, iterate, and develop. Through innovative advancements in mobile technology, we can expand upon the tried and true "experience sampling" research techniques, such as diary or pager studies, to effectively solicit, monitor and receive data on users' interactions at given points in time. This paper describes various research methodologies and recent advancements in mobile technology that can provide practitioners with improved research techniques to better assess the user experience of a product. The conference presentation will also include results from a pilot experience sampling method study focused on collecting data on usage and satisfaction of a product.
Keywords: Experience sampling; in-situ research; mobile device research; pager study; diary study; mobile research; SMS studies
Evaluating Usability-Supporting Architecture Patterns: Reactions from Usability Professionals BIBAKFull-Text 320-328
  Edgardo Luzcando; Davide Bolchini; Anthony Faiola
Usability professionals and software engineers approach software design differently, which creates a communication gap that hinders effective usability design discussions. An online survey was conducted to evaluate how usability professionals react to Usability-Supporting Architecture Patterns (USAPs) as a potential way to bridge this gap. Members of the Usability Professionals Association (UPA) participated in a pretest-posttest control group design experiment where they answered questions about USAPs and software design. Results suggest that participants perceived USAPs as useful to account for usability in software architectures, recognizing the importance of the USAPs stated usability benefits. Additionally, results showed a difference in perception of the USAPs stated usability benefits between US and European participants. A better understanding of what the usability community thinks about USAPs can lead to their improvement as well as increased adoption by software engineers, which can lead to better integration of usability and HCI principles into software design.
Keywords: Architecture Patterns; HCI; Usability; Usability Professionals; Software Design; USAP
Heuristic Evaluations of Bioinformatics Tools: A Development Case BIBAKFull-Text 329-338
  Barbara Mirel; Zach Wright
Heuristic evaluations are an efficient low cost method for identifying usability problems in a biomedical research tool. Combining the results of these evaluations with findings from user models based on biomedical scientists' research methods guided and prioritized the design and development process of these tools and resulted in improved usability. Incorporating heuristic evaluations and user models into the larger organizational practice led to increased awareness of usability across disciplines.
Keywords: Usability; heuristic evaluation; biomedical research; organizational learning; user models
A Prototype to Validate ErgoCoIn: A Web Site Ergonomic Inspection Technique BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Marcelo Morandini; Walter de Abreu Cybis; Dominique L. Scapin
This paper presents current actions, results and perspectives concerning the development of the ErgoCoIn approach, which allows non expert inspectors to conduct ergonomic inspections of e-commerce web sites. An environment supporting inspections based on this approach was designed and a tool is being developed in order to accomplish its validation plan. Besides this validation, the actions to be undertaken will allow us to analyze the task of applying checklists and specify an inspection support environment especially fitted for that. This is of great importance as this environment is intended to be an open web service supporting ergonomic inspections of web sites from different domains. A wiki environment for this tool development is also being proposed.
Keywords: Usability; Evaluation; Web Sites; Inspection; Web 2.0
Mobile Phone Usability Questionnaire (MPUQ) and Automated Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 349-351
  Young Sam Ryu
The mobile phone has become one of the most popular products amongst today's consumers. The Mobile Phone Usability Questionnaire (MPUQ) was developed to provide an effective subjective usability measurement tool, tailored specifically to the mobile phone. Progress is being made in the HCI research community towards automating some aspects of the usability evaluation process. Given that this effort is gaining traction, a tool for measurement of subjective usability, such as MPUQ, may serve as a complement to automated evaluation methods by providing user-centered values and emotional aspects of the product. Furthermore, experimental comparison of MPUQ assessments and automated usability analysis may enable researchers to determine whether automated usability tools generate metrics that correlate with user impressions of usability.
Keywords: Usability; mobile user interface; subjective measurement; questionnaire; automating usability
Estimating Productivity: Composite Operators for Keystroke Level Modeling BIBAFull-Text 352-361
  Jeff Sauro
Task time is a measure of productivity in an interface. Keystroke Level Modeling (KLM) can predict experienced user task time to within 10 to 30% of actual times. One of the biggest constraints to implementing KLM is the tedious aspect of estimating the low-level motor and cognitive actions of the users. The method proposed here combines common actions in applications into high-level operators (composite operators) that represent the average error-free time (e.g. to click on a button, select from a drop-down, type into a text-box). The combined operators dramatically reduce the amount of time and error in building an estimate of productivity. An empirical test of 26 users across two enterprise web-applications found this method to estimate the mean observed time to within 10%. The composite operators lend themselves to use by designers and product developers early in development without the need for different prototyping environments or tedious calculations.
Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms BIBAKFull-Text 362-371
  Anna Trujillo
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to affect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Keywords: Electronic questionnaires; Cooper-Harper controllability rating; questionnaire formats
Website Designer as an Evaluator: A Formative Evaluation Method for Website Interface Development BIBAKFull-Text 372-381
  Chao-Yang Yang
Commerce plays a fundamental part in a lot of websites so that their goals may be different from conventional computer system design e.g. to increase the user base or encourage repeat visits. With limited budgets, website designers are unlikely to involve their users during the design process and not all website designers have access to an evaluator, appropriate testing facilities or evaluation knowledge to support their design. The research develops a low cost, tailorable, formative evaluation method for web designers. The method addressed both HCI and commercial website goals such as the encouragement of repeat visits. This research first investigate the contemporary evaluation method, the users' and designers' needs from websites and website evaluation methods. Finally, the method was developed as a set of guidelines and verified in the evaluation of a website. The potential usefulness, practicality and necessity of the method was then confirmed by website.
Keywords: Website usability; Engagement; Formative Evaluation

User Studies

Building on the Usability Study: Two Explorations on How to Better Understand an Interface BIBAFull-Text 385-394
  Anshu Agarwal; Madhu Prabaker
In this paper, we describe two separate studies that improved our ability to understand our users' experience of our products at salesforce.com. The first study explored a methodology of combining expert and novice performance data to yield a measure of intuitiveness. The second study created a methodology that combines both verbal and nonverbal emotion scales to better understand the emotional effect our products have on our users. We present both these methods as expansions on the standard usability study and examples of ways to better understand your users within an industry environment.
Measuring User Performance for Different Interfaces Using a Word Processor Prototype BIBAKFull-Text 395-404
  Tanya René Beelders; Pieter J. Blignaut; Theo McDonald; Engela Dednam
Usability tests were conducted in order to establish the effect on user performance of different icon sets in a word processor. Both a set of alternative pictorial icons and text buttons were developed for a subset of word processor functions for comparison with the standard icons. In order to accommodate users in their home language the interface was available in English, Afrikaans and Sotho to determine whether usability of a product is increased when the users are allowed to interact with the product in their mother tongue rather than having to use the commonly available English interface. The scores obtained for completed tests as well as the time taken to complete tasks successfully were evaluated. Results indicate that neither icons nor language play a significant part in the usability of a product. In fact, the only significant contributor to user performance was the word processor expertise of the user.
Keywords: Usability; word processor; icons; text buttons; localization
Evaluating User Effectiveness in Exploratory Search with TouchGraph Google Interface BIBAFull-Text 405-412
  Kemal Efe; Sabriye Ozerturk
TouchGraph Google Browser displays connectivity of similar pages around search results returned by Google. A major research question is: to what extent does this graph help improve user effectiveness during exploratory search? This paper reports on our user study with TouchGraph visualization. This study has interesting implications for designing user interfaces of search applications.
What Do Users Want to See? A Content Preparation Study for Consumer Electronics BIBAKFull-Text 413-420
  Yinni Guo; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
To investigate what users want to see from consumer electronic devices, a content preparation study was conducted. A questionnaire was constructed based on the results from web site content research and traditional usability studies on consumer electronics, and was completed by 401 Chinese participants. The statistical results reveal that there are nine major factors of cell phone content. Also users of different age and gender have different requirements for cell phone content, especially concerning accessory and multimedia functions. This study suggests guidelines for cell phone designers targeted at the Chinese market, as well as a base for content study of other consumer electronics.
Keywords: Content preparation; factor structure; consumer electronics
"I Love My iPhone ... But There Are Certain Things That 'Niggle' Me" BIBAFull-Text 421-430
  Anna Haywood; Gemma Boguslawski
Touchscreen technology is gaining sophistication, and the freedom offered by finger-based interaction has heralded a new phase in mobile phone evolution. The list of touchscreen mobiles is ever increasing as the appeal of 'touch' moves beyond the realms of the early adopter or fanboy, into the imagination of the general consumer. However, despite this increasing popularity, touchscreen cannot be considered a panacea. It is important to look beyond the promise of a more direct and intuitive interface, towards the day-to-day reality. Based on our independent research, this paper explores aspects of the touchscreen user experience, offering iPhone insights as examples, before presenting key best practice guidelines to help design and evaluate finger-activated touchscreen solutions for small screen devices.
Acceptance of Future Technologies Using Personal Data: A Focus Group with Young Internet Users BIBAKFull-Text 431-437
  Fabian Hermann; Doris Janssen; Daniel Schipke; Andreas Schuller
Future technologies in smart and social environments are expected to use personal data extensively. As young users of today's social web platforms already take risks of privacy loss, the question of acceptance of technology using personal data and influencing factors appears of to be of strong relevance. We present results from a focus group with ten young internet users which indicate different attitudes on privacy and different aspects of social influence on use decisions. Implications for technology acceptance theories are discussed.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; smart environments; social web; privacy
Analysis of Breakdowns in Menu-Based Interaction Based on Information Scent Model BIBAKFull-Text 438-445
  Yukio Horiguchi; Hiroaki Nakanishi; Tetsuo Sawaragi; Yuji Kuroda
High communicability of the menu-based system is on the basis of consistent vision and clear policy in designing the system of menus, and then they should be perceivable to the users. In this light, failures in menu-based interactions can be explained that they might emerge from lack of information in the users' available cues to identify the design vision. This study focuses on communicative breakdowns in menu-based human-computer interactions from this perspective, and investigates their causes in ill-organized structures of menu hierarchy in terms of the user's interpretation of the menu items. Pirolli's information scent model is extended and utilized as an analytical tool for describing the meaning system of menus from the users' point of view, and their decision making in search of particular menu items is analyzed by use of information scent.
Keywords: Menu-based interaction; information scent model; communicative breakdowns; human-computer interaction
E-Shopping Behavior and User-Web Interaction for Developing a Useful Green Website BIBAKFull-Text 446-454
  Fei-Hui Huang; Ying-Lien Lee; Sheue-Ling Hwang
In recent years there has been an increasing respect for green issues. It has been addressed in various products/services as well. There is still no website to support green customers' decision process on electronic commerce (EC). The aim of this study is to understand user EC needs and expectations in order to elicit the design requirements of a useful interface. A questionnaire and an experiment were conducted to get users' green knowledge and to detect user external behaviors interacting with computer when e-shopping. The study is centered on electric green products, including computers, communication devices, and consumer electronics. The results are used to produce the online-shopping process flowchart and several suggestions for improving e-shopping. The suggestions including information search, information display, and web site features have been addressed. From this, further research will focus on the design of web sites supplying consumers with green product information.
Keywords: User-centered design; User-Web Interaction; Green product; E-commerce
Interaction Comparison among Media Internet Genre BIBAKFull-Text 455-464
  Sang Hee Kweon; Eun Joung Cho; Ae Jin Cho
This research explores interactivity dimension in the portal media (such as Yahoo, Naver, Daum, Paran, and Nate). The research is designed to measure user's perception of interactivity in the portal site at the three levels including 1) media 2) contents, 3) perception of HCI and CMC. This research also seeks the associated variables relationship among those variables through SEM (structural equation model). The 587 data was collected and was analyzed to test the hypotheses. The results shows that the dimension of the media side's interactivity affected to the content's side's interactivity. The content side's interactivity affected the user's perception of portal media level either HCI and CMC media.
Keywords: HCI; CMC; Interactivity; Communication; Community; Hypertext; Interface
Comparing the Usability of the Icons and Functions between IE6.0 and IE7.0 BIBAKFull-Text 465-473
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Min-Chih Hsieh; Hui-Chi Yu; Ping-Jung Tsai; Wei-Jung Shiang
Microsoft has presented the newest net browsing interface, Internet Explorer 7 (IE7) in 2007. The purpose of this study was to compare the design of icons and functions between IE 7.0 and IE 6.0 for the effect of operating performance. Thus, we designed two experiments and a program which was constructed in Builder C++ 6.0. Participants were given missions, and then we recorded the mission completed time as operating performance. The results showed that the difference of icon design and functions between IE 7.0 and IE 6.0 do affect the operating performance.
Keywords: Interface Design; Usability; Browser
Goods-Finding and Orientation in the Elderly on 3D Virtual Store Interface: The Impact of Classification and Landmarks BIBAKFull-Text 474-483
  Cheng-Li Liu; Shiaw-Tsyr Uang; Chen-Hao Chang
The internet 3D virtual store has received wide attention from researchers and practitioners due to the fact that it is one of the most killing applications customers can feel in a real shopping environment and possibly increase satisfaction. Though numerous studies have been performed on various issues of the internet store, some research issues relating to the spatial cognition of the elderly when immersed in a 3D virtual store still await further empirical investigation. The objective of this study was to examine how elderly users acquire spatial cognition in an on-screen virtual store. Specifically, the impact of presence and absence of goods-classification on the acquisition of route and survey knowledge was examined. Since landmarks are associated with both route and survey knowledge, we expected to observe the impact of different types of landmarks with both presence and absence of goods-classification. The experimental results indicated that the presence of goods-classification was more important in constructing route knowledge than in absence, and the time of duration of goods-finding would be shorter. However, we also found that the measuring scores of survey knowledge in presence of goods-classification were not significantly larger than in absence. In addition, the measuring scores of route knowledge were the largest and the time of duration of goods-finding was shorter while the presence of goods-classification combined with landmark in the type of alphanumeric + 2D picture + 3D object. Simultaneously, it could be found in absence of goods-classification. Therefore, while the goods-classification is absent, the landmarks could be seemed as redundant codes for goods-finding in 3D virtual store.
Keywords: 3D virtual store; Goods-finding; Goods-classification; Landmarks; Route knowledge; Survey knowledge
Effects of Gender Difference on Emergency Operation Interface Design in Semiconductor Industry BIBAKFull-Text 484-489
  Hunszu Liu
This research investigates the effects of gender difference on emergency operation interface design through studying monitoring operations performed at emergency response center. An experiment is designed to test the performance differences between fifteen male and fifteen female college engineering students. The signal detection time, incident processing time, number of errors, and duration of experiment are dependant variables to measure the participants' performance. Statistical analysis indicates that no significant differences can be found between males' and females' performances except the number of errors. Female participants make more errors than male participants. A training program is suggested to help female workers familiar with the emergency operations. The research results provide evidences for adjusting current disaster prevention personnel recruitment policy and suggestions for further improvements of emergency operation interface design in semiconductor industry.
Keywords: User interface design; emergency management; human performance; gender differences
Evaluating a Personal Communication Tool: Sidebar BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Malena R. Mesarina; Jhilmil Jain; Craig Sayers; Tyler Close; John Recker
By more closely integrating email with the web we aim to bring organization to email and more collaboration to the web. To this end we developed the Sidebar, a web-browser plug which displays email messages which link to the currently displayed URL. We conducted longitudinal studies on two versions of Sidebar to observe the usage of Sidebar and determine if it improves communications productivity. We found that providing an email summary in Sidebar resulted in raised awareness of the email collaborations, increased serendipitous discovery of information, and resulted in higher reported communication productivity. This paper summarizes Sidebar's operation, describes the user studies, and presents conclusions.
Keywords: Personal communication; browser plug-in; longitudinal user study; interviews; diary study; surveys; usability evaluation; conversation visualization; information visualization; email visualization; conversational thumbnail; email; related links; related web-pages
"You've Got IMs!" How People Manage Concurrent Instant Messages BIBAKFull-Text 500-509
  Shailendra Rao; Judy Chen; Robin Jeffries; Richard Boardman
Instant Messaging (IM) clients allow users to conduct multiple simultaneous conversations, which we term "concurrent IMs." In this study we investigate how adults manage concurrent IMs both in the workplace and within the context of a goal-directed, time-bounded recreational task. We discuss differences in behavior between engaging in a single IM conversation and engaging in concurrent IMs. We document the errors that arise as a consequence of concurrent IMs and identify four main strategies users employ to manage them: controlling the pace of conversations, limiting the number of simultaneous conversations, window management, and using tabbed IM windows. Finally, we explore the pros and cons of these strategies and examine design tradeoffs to enable effective space and attention management while minimizing disruption to the user.
Keywords: Instant messaging; concurrent IMs; multitasking; informal communication; notifications; tabs
Investigating Children Preferences of a User Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 510-513
  Jamaliah Taslim; Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Noor Azyanti Abu Bakar
Though there have been many studies of user interface design preferences, only a few have considered the children preferences. This paper presents an investigation into the children preferences regarding user interface design. The objective of studying this area is to investigate the differences of children preferences on the elements of a user interface design. An experiment was conducted regarding five elements of user interface design: font type, font size, background color and interface type. Findings show that there is a significant differences in the children preferences for interface type, font type and background color. Further analysis was conducted and the results indicate that there is a significant difference between gender groups for background color, interface type and font color. This study provides empirical evidence on the importance of considering the children in the interface design.
Keywords: Children; User interface design; Preference; Color; Interface type
Usability Evaluation of Graphic Design for Ilmu's Interface BIBAKFull-Text 514-519
  Tengku Siti Meriam Tengku Wook; Siti Salwah Salim
Graphic design is fundamental to Ilmu's interface (i.e. WebOPAC for children) and is the focus of this study. A usability evaluation is carried out for the new prototype of Ilmu's interface which gives the emphasis to the components of graphic design. Questionnaire and observation methods are used to accumulate the usability data. The usability of Ilmu's new interface is shown to be significantly better through t-testing, and statistical testing using chi square (Χ²).
Keywords: Usability; graphic design and children's interface
Are We Trapped by Majority Influences in Electronic Word-of-Mouth? BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  Yu Tong; Yinqing Zhong
Being an effective online mechanism to generate large-scale electronic Word-of-Mouth (EWOM), online feedback systems (OFS) offers a variety of system design cues to facilitate consumers' decision making. However, such cues may lead consumers to make inferences based on an overall picture of the majority opinion without scrutinizing the content of reviews. This study draws on theories of majority/minority influence and dual-process to explore the influences of OFS design cues on consumers' learning outcomes (i.e., awareness of product/service, confidence in judgment, intention to searching for additional information and intention to conform to majority). Numerical and power majority influences are examined through two design cues: review clustering format (list-clustering vs. pair-clustering) and source credibility (available vs. unavailable).
Keywords: Word-of-mouth; online feedback system; majority influence; system design
Leveraging a User Research Framework to Guide Research Investments: Windows Vista Case Study BIBAFull-Text 530-539
  Gayna Williams
During the development of Windows Vista we had the opportunity to invest in new methods to understand user behavior. We leveraged standard usability methods to work on feature areas during development; however, we had to invent and adapt new approaches to measure holistic experiences. In this area user research methods are evolving, due to the integration of technologies and changes in the definition of a successful experience. While considering the methods that suited our needs, a user research framework was created. This helped us manage investments in research activities. The framework is organized along two dimensions: perspective and time. Perspective refers to the breadth of the experience being considered: 'narrow' defines a focus on an individual feature area or small product area, and 'broad' defines a focus on an integrated experience. Time can indicate either a product cycle or real time. For product cycle most of the research is spent on the evaluation of the designs of the features and experiences related to predicting user behavior for a particular release of a product, whereas real time is our research investment into understanding how products are used in the wild without our intervention. Each quadrant of the two-dimensional framework highlights different research methods and purposes. It's important to realize that the value of the framework comes from the integration of findings that provides a rich holistic picture of our users to ultimately guide product decisions. This paper describes some of the methods that were evolved and created during the development of Windows Vista and their relationship to the user research framework. The methods described in the paper include user experience score-carding, measurement of desirability, and the impact of the consumer adoption program. These methods continued to be used today in the development of Windows 7.
A Usability Evaluation of Public Icon Interface BIBAKFull-Text 540-546
  Sungyoung Yoon; Jonghoon Seo; Joonyoung Yoon; Seungchul Shin; Tack-Don Han
Existing image codes interface needs additional visual marker and explanation of the service. To overcome these limitations, there were some researches to use a public icon as an anchor. The public icon is human-readable and does not need additional visual marker or explanation. In this paper, we carried out the usability evaluation of the public icon interface with a high-fidelity prototype in comparison to the existing image code. In addition, we analyze user preferences from the results. From the analysis, we perceived that the public icon interface is better to use in the public because the public icon interface is familiar with people and doesn't need additional materials or much cognitive load and are in good harmony with current environments.
Keywords: Public icon; pictogram; color-based image code; image code; barcode

User Interface Design

Little Design Up-Front: A Design Science Approach to Integrating Usability into Agile Requirements Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 549-558
  Sisira Adikari; Craig McDonald; John Campbell
In recent years, Design Science has gained wide recognition and acceptance as a formal research method in many disciplines including information systems. Design Science research in Human-Computer Interaction is not so abundant. HCI is a discipline primarily focusing on design, evaluation, and implementation where design plays the role as a process as well as an artefact. In this paper, we present a design science approach using "Little Design Up Front" to integrate the User-Centred Design perspective into Agile Requirements Engineering. We also present the results of two agile projects to validate the proposition that incorporating UCD perspective into Agile Software Development improves the design quality of software systems.
Keywords: Design Science; Agile Requirements Engineering; Usability
Aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction: Views and Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 559-568
  Salah Uddin Ahmed; Abdullah Al Mahmud; Kristin Bergaust
There is a growing interest of aesthetics issues in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in the recent days. In this article we present our literature review where we investigate where and how aesthetics has been addressed by the HCI researchers. Our objective is to find out the sectors in HCI where aesthetics has a role to play. Aesthetics in HCI can be the common interest that involves both art and technology in HCI research to facilitate from each others discipline in the form of mutual interaction.
Keywords: Aesthetics; interaction; usability; art and technology
Providing an Efficient Way to Make Desktop Icons Visible BIBAKFull-Text 569-578
  Toshiya Akasaka; Yusaku Okada
Desktop icons allow users to access files/programs quickly. Some users are struggling to adapt their window management strategy to secure the visibility of desktop icons. In this paper, we propose an approach to provide users with an efficient way to make desktop icons visible in order to reduce the workload of window management. The approach was developed based on careful considerations to the context in which we aim to help users. The experimental results showed that out approach made the process of making desktop icons visible faster. However, it was not confirmed that the workload of window management was reduced.
Keywords: Desktop icons; Display space management; Desktop Environment; Window management
An Integration of Task and Use-Case Meta-models BIBAFull-Text 579-586
  Rémi Bastide
Although task modeling is a recommended practice in the Human-Computer Interaction community, its acceptance in the Software Engineering community is slow. One likely reason for this is the weak integration between task models and other models commonly used in Software Engineering, notably the set of models promoted by the mainstream UML method. To overcome this problem, we propose to integrate the CTT model of user tasks into the UML, at the meta-model level. CTT task models are used to provide an unambiguous model of the behavior of UML use-cases. By so doing, we also bring the benefit of hierarchical decomposition of use-cases ("extend" and "include" relationships) to CTT. In our approach, CTT tasks also explicitly operate on a UML domain model, by using OCL expressions over a UML object model to express the pre- and post-conditions of tasks.
Model-Based Specification and Validation of User Interface Requirements BIBAKFull-Text 587-596
  Birgit Bomsdorf; Daniel Sinnig
Core functional requirements as captured in use case models are too high-level to be meaningful to user interface developers. In this paper we present how use case models can be systematically refined into detailed user interface requirements specifications, captured as task models. We argue that the transition from functional to UI specific requirements is a semi-formal step which necessitates experience, skills and domain knowledge of the requirements engineer. In order to facilitate the transition we sketch out an integrated development methodology for use case and task models. Since the engineer is also responsible for establishing conformity between use cases and task models we also show, how this validation can be supported by means of the WTM task model simulator.
Keywords: Requirements specification use case model; task model; model simulation
A Position Paper on 'Living Laboratories': Rethinking Ecological Designs and Experimentation in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 597-605
  Ed H. Chi
HCI have long moved beyond the evaluation setting of a single user sitting in front of a single desktop computer, yet many of our fundamentally held viewpoints about evaluation continues to be ruled by outdated biases derived from this legacy. We need to engage with real users in 'Living Laboratories', in which researchers either adopt or create functioning systems that are used in real settings. These new experimental platforms will greatly enable researchers to conduct evaluations that span many users, places, time, location, and social factors in ways that are unimaginable before.
Keywords: HCI; Evaluation; Ecological Design; Living Laboratories; Methodology; Web Services
Embodied Interaction or Context-Aware Computing? An Integrated Approach to Design BIBAKFull-Text 606-615
  Johan Eliasson; Teresa Cerratto Pargman; Robert Ramberg
This paper revisits the notion of context from an interaction design perspective. Since the emergence of the research fields of Computer supported cooperative work and Ubiquitous computing, the notion of context has been discussed from different theoretical approaches and in different research traditions. One of these approaches is Embodied Interaction. This theoretical approach has in particular contributed to (i) challenge the view that user context can be meaningfully represented by a computer system, (ii) discuss the notion of context as interaction through the idea that users are always embodied in their interaction with computer systems. We believe that the particular view on users context that the approach of Embodied Interaction suggests needs to be further elaborated in terms of design. As a contribution we suggest an integrated approach where the interactional view of Embodied Interaction is interrelated with the representational view of Context-aware computing.
Keywords: Embodied Interaction; Context-aware computing; Design; Representation; Context
Supporting Multidisciplinary Teams and Early Design Stages Using Storyboards BIBAFull-Text 616-623
  Mieke Haesen; Jan Meskens; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
Current tools for multidisciplinary teams in user-centered software engineering (UCSE) provide little support for the different approaches of the various disciplines in the project team. Although multidisciplinary teams are getting more and more involved in UCSE projects, an efficient approach to communicate clearly and to pass results of a user needs analysis to other team members without loss of information is still missing. Based on previous experiences, we propose storyboards as a key component in such tools. Storyboards contain sketched information of users, activities, devices and the context of a future application. The comprehensible and intuitive notation and accompanying tool support presented in this paper will enhance communication and efficiency within the multidisciplinary team during UCSE projects.
Agent-Based Architecture for Interactive System Design: Current Approaches, Perspectives and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 624-633
  Christophe Kolski; Peter Forbrig; Bertrand David; Patrick Girard; Chi Dung Tran; Houcine Ezzedine
This paper proposes a survey concerning agent-based architectures of interactive systems. This survey is focused on certain models and perspectives. Indeed, general agent-based architectures are first presented. Then agent-based approaches dedicated to CSCW systems are reviewed. The appearance of web services requires new agent-based approaches; basic ideas are introduced. Agent-based interactive systems necessitate new tools for their evaluation; an example of representative evaluation tool is presented.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Architecture model; agent-based systems; CSCW; design; evaluation
BunBunMovie: Scenario Visualizing System Based on 3-D Character BIBAKFull-Text 634-643
  Tomoya Matsuo; Takashi Yoshino
There are many text-based contents, such as novels and script. Those contents have only scenario, and lack visual information. The purpose of this research is to provide visualizing environment that can visualize text-based contents easily. Moreover, such environment can also provide the opportunity to get pleasure out of scenario. It is necessary for visualizing scenario to make various motions of characters and to depict various situations. Therefore we propose motion assortment function to make various motions of characters. The function uses a Japanese dictionary and a thesaurus search. We also propose associated image display function that uses an image search to depict various situations. From the experiments about the motion assortment function, we show that the proposal method can assort some motions. From the experiments of subjective assessment, we found that some subjects inclined to use such easy visualizing environment.
Keywords: Scenario visualizing; 3-D character; motion synthesis
Augmented Collaborative Card-Based Creative Activity with Digital Pens BIBAKFull-Text 644-651
  Motoki Miura; Taro Sugihara; Susumu Kunifuji
Typically, practitioners of the KJ method use paper labels and four-colored ball-point pens to externalize their thoughts and ideas during the process. A similar approach and method is used in group KJ lessons. However, due to the large paper size required, this approach is limited in effective capturing and sharing of outcomes. Considering the merits of the conventional paper-pen approach and the demand for quick sharing of outcomes after the session, we designed and implemented a system to digitize the group KJ session -- not just the outcomes but also the details of the creative work processes. We use digital pens to capture position and orientation of labels, as well as their contents, during the session. We confirmed the efficiency of our system with several KJ sessions.
Keywords: CSCW; Creative meeting; Label work; KJ method
Usability-Engineering-Requirements as a Basis for the Integration with Software Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 652-659
  Karsten Nebe; Volker Paelke
Usability is growing to become an integral quality aspect of software development, but it is not an exclusive attribute of the generated product; it is also a fundamental attribute for the development process itself. The question is how to adapt software engineering processes (or models) in such a way that they can ensure the development of usable solutions. In this paper, the authors present an integration approach pursuing this goal. It draws on so called 'Compliancy and Key Requirements' that can be used for the definition of software processes (or process models) and thereby support the integration of both disciplines. The requirements are based upon representative standards (DIN ISO 13407 and ISO/PAS 18152) but were enhanced by the results of an expert based survey using interviews and questionnaires. Additionally the requirements have been verified by experts and represent an evaluated knowledge base for the development of usable products.
Keywords: Integration; Software Engineering; Usability Engineering; Standards DIN EN ISO 13407 and ISO/PAS 18152; Process Models; Process Definition; Process Improvement; Assessment
Design Creation Based on KANSEI in Toshiba BIBAKFull-Text 660-666
  Yosoko Nishizawa; Kanya Hiroi
In endeavoring to increase the quality of design, Toshiba has outlined a concept of "perceived quality," and evaluates designs on the basis of achieving a higher level of perceived quality. We defined six indices from the result of the image research into the design by the user. These six indicators of perceived quality were used in the creation and evaluation of designs, and a number of products were put on the market and evaluated.
Keywords: KANSEI; design; product; quality of design; Evaluation of design
High-Fidelity Prototyping of Interactive Systems Can Be Formal Too BIBAKFull-Text 667-676
  Philippe A. Palanque; Jean-François Ladry; David Navarre; Eric Barboni
The design of safety critical systems calls for advanced software engineering models, methods and tools in order to meet the safety requirements that will avoid putting human life at stake. When the safety critical system encompasses a substantial interactive component, the same level of confidence is required towards the human-computer interface. Conventional empirical or semi-formal techniques, although very fruitful, do not provide sufficient insight on the reliability of the human-system cooperation, and offer no easy way to, for example, quantitatively compare two design options. The aim of this paper is to present a method, with supporting tools and techniques, for engineering the design and development of usable user interfaces for safety-critical applications. More precisely we present the Petshop environment which is a Petri net based tool for the design specification, prototyping and validation of interactive software. In this environment models of the interactive application can be interactively modified and executed. This is used to support prototyping phases (when the models and the interactive application evolve significantly to meet late user requirements for instance) as well as in the operation phase (after the system is deployed). The use of the description technique (the ICO formalism) supported by PetShop is presented on a multimodal ground segment application for satellite control and more precisely how prototyping can be performed at the various levels of the architecture of interactive systems.
Keywords: Model-based approaches; formal description techniques; interactive prototyping; reliability; evolvability
Note: Best Paper Award
RUCID: Rapid Usable Consistent Interaction Design Patterns-Based Mobile Phone UI Design Library, Process and Tool BIBAKFull-Text 677-686
  Avinash Raj; Vihari Komaragiri
This paper is based on a research effort at Kyocera Wireless, India that aimed to overcome the limitations in the mobile phone design process, by giving designers an improved design and specification tool and helping them deal routinely with some of the more rooted constraints of phone design. The tool extends the idea of templates from simple visual elements, to more abstract design components. It adds further value to this modularization of design, by taking an approach of extensive and ever-growing library of patterns to define and refine these components. The components cover most of the low- to medium-level building blocks of design. They are specified in the library as a tuple (patterns) of <design problem, design solution, context, constraints> each at the different level of hierarchy. The components are visually represented using standardized shapes with placeholder and help text and are made available as part of the design work surface of a visual prototyping tool such as MS Visio or Adobe Fireworks.
Keywords: Mobile phone UI design; patterns; architecture; design process; lib
The Appropriation of Information and Communication Technology: A Cross-Cultural Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 687-696
  Jose Rojas; Matthew Chalmers
In this paper we explore the process of appropriation attempting to broaden the set of topics considered significant on it. We present a model of appropriation derived from two studies conducted in the UK, Japan, South Korea and China. We describe our model based on a characterisation of elements supportive of appropriation in the context of use (discussed in terms of space/place, social practices and activity) and in the ICT itself (described in terms of meaning, relevance and triviality). We emphasise the pre-eminence of context in achieving the appropriation of ICT.
Keywords: Appropriation; ICT; context; infrastructure; layout; marketing; business; domestication; socialisation; peer support; media; triviality; commoditisation; meaning; relevance; space; place; social practices
UISK: Supporting Model-Driven and Sketch-Driven Paperless Prototyping BIBAKFull-Text 697-705
  Vinícius Costa Villas Bôas Segura; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Sketches are often used during user interface design and evaluation as both a design support tool and a communication tool. Despite recent efforts, computational support to user interface sketching has not yet reached its full potential. This paper reports a study comparing two evaluation techniques: paper prototyping and a simulation-based evaluation supported by the UISKEI tool.
Keywords: User interface sketching; prototyping; user interface evaluation
Beyond the User Interface: Towards User-Centred Design of Online Services BIBAKFull-Text 706-714
  Marcin Sikorski
This paper presents an attempt to identify those economic factors relevant to design of online services, which shape long-term customer satisfaction, as well as customer loyalty and business relationship with the service vendor. Using user-based studies and expert-based evaluations and major economic factors were identified as consumer needs. Also typical technical components of online services have been identified and prioritized as design elements, also relevant to satisfying economic needs of consumers of online services. As a result of this study will be delivered: a catalogue of design elements, design guidelines and economics-oriented design methodology for online services.
Keywords: HCI; usability of online services; e-commerce; online customer behaviour; customer value
Designing for Change: Engineering Adaptable and Adaptive User Interaction by Focusing on User Goals BIBAKFull-Text 715-724
  Bruno Santana da Silva; Ariane Moraes Bueno; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
In the human-computer interaction area, research work in end-user programming, end-user development, and user or system-driven adaptation of interactive systems has attempted to cope with variations in users' intents, context changes and evolutions. In the field of requirements engineering, research that addresses similar issues has been called variability analysis. Most work in variability analysis, however, focuses on prioritizing one or few possible solutions to be implemented in the final product, whereas in human-computer interaction many researchers advocate that we should strive to enable users to adjust and adapt the product as needed. This paper presents an approach to bring the results obtained in requirements engineering to inform the choice of interaction design solutions to cope with variability.
Keywords: Variability analysis; interactive systems adaptation; bridging requirements engineering and interaction design
Productive Love: A New Proposal for Designing Affective Technology BIBAKFull-Text 725-734
  Ramon Solves Pujol; Hiroyuki Umemuro
Love highly present in peoples talks and all cultural spheres, its importance suggests the need to understand what role technology plays in relation to it and the roles it could play in the future. We review studies related to love in HCI and we identify a lack of consideration of philosophy as a background for love understanding. Based on literature review, we offer a proposal of guidelines for designing technology that aims to improve loving relationships. Besides, we examine principles of engagement with technology that may be important when designing love-promoting technology. Finally we present a Productive Love promoting system, which evaluation indicated that the participant found it useful to improve their Productive Love.
Keywords: Productive Love; affective technology; care; respect; responsibility; knowledge; lovers; family
Insight into Kansei Color Combinations in Interactive User Interface Designing BIBAKFull-Text 735-744
  K. G. D. Tharangie; Shuichi Matsuzaki; Ashu Marasinghe; Koichi Yamada
Color has a major impact on Human Computer Interaction. Although there is a very thin line between appropriate and inappropriate use of color, if used properly, color can be a powerful tool to improve the usefulness of an interactive interface in a wide variety of areas. On the contrary the excessive or inappropriate use of color can severely hinder the functionality and usability of an interface accordingly. A good visual design provides higher level of user satisfaction and further aids with conveying the intended message to its audience. In this paper we focus on one requisite aspect of visual design as such the Color, revealing one hidden dimension of color; Affectivity, by acquiring prospective user's concealed color aesthetic preferences, employing Kansei Engineering Assessing System with respect to interactive Interfaces.
Keywords: Interactive environment; Kansei Engineering; color; Visual design; Affective color
Learn as Babies Learn: A Conceptual Model of Designing Optimum Learnability BIBAKFull-Text 745-751
  Douglas Xiaoyong Wang
A newborn baby's first move is to look for the nipples. This is an instinct for a baby to live, build strength and interact with the world. The interaction seems very similar to our users' choosing a product for self-empowerment and productivity. However, most users are not babies, neither the majority of man-made products embody perfect affordances. How could user experience designers help to create an easy-to-learn product for specific user goals? This paper explores the answer via a balanced view on user-learning and machine-learning, and proposes designers' early engagement in conceptual design together with full awareness of users' learning constrains, so as to make users happier and thankful since initial contact with the product the designers created.
Keywords: User Experience (UX); Learning Curve; User Centered Design (UCD); Harmonious; Learnability
Time-Oriented Interface Design: Picking the Right Time and Method for Information Presentation BIBAFull-Text 752-759
  Keita Watanabe; Kei Sugawara; Shota Matsuda; Michiaki Yasumura
Today, people have far more access to relevant information than they can possibly consume. In this paper we describe a framework for Time-oriented Interface Design where information presentation and access is regulated according to when human activities afford opportunities for interacting with information. Information interfaces are then designed according to the time available during these opportunities, with the designs being constrained by salient aspects of the associated situations and contexts. In our view of time-oriented interface design there are four main types of situation where there may be time to view or interact with information: Spontaneous time; Waiting time; Background time; Interruption / Resumption. Information presented in these situations may be consumed without conflicting with the performance of other tasks. In the following presentation, the four types of information access situation are described. The use of time-oriented interface design is then illustrated by five prototype systems that have been developed in our laboratory. The paper will conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and an assessment of the potential for time-oriented human interface design to enhance future information interaction.
Enabling Interactive Access to Web Tables BIBAKFull-Text 760-768
  Xin Yang; Wenchang Xu; Yuanchun Shi
Tables are widely used in web pages. Unfortunately, most web tables can only be passively accessed but cannot be interactively accessed, that is, users can view information displayed in tables but cannot control the presentation of tables like sorting data and hiding or showing a column/row. Interactive access is especially useful when encountering large tables or browsing on small screens. In this paper, we propose to enable interactive access to genuine web tables based on automatic table detection and a good understanding of table contents. We designed and implemented a plug-in for the Microsoft Internet Explorer, called the iWebTable, which provides a customized user interface supporting interactive access to genuine web tables. Experimental results show that users are satisfied and really enjoy the interactive access mode to web tables, especially in such cases as they need to sort data in large tables or compare data in distant columns or rows.
Keywords: Web table; Interactive access; Table extraction; Table interpretation; User interface design
Integration of Creativity into Website Design BIBAKFull-Text 769-776
  Liang Zeng; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
The desire to achieve a sound design of a product and its interaction with humans runs the gamut from the simplest hardware products to the most complex information technology systems. This paper proposes a conceptual framework highlighting the central role of creativity in ergonomic design of websites. The integration of creativity helps to achieve synergy of the three dimensions in ergonomic design: functionality, usability, and affectivity. A factor structure of website creativity is further discussed in terms of its relation to the ergonomic design framework. Suggestions for the realization of website creativity are provided, and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Creativity; e-commerce; information technology; website design

Development Approaches, Methods and Tools

YVision: A General Purpose Software Composition Framework BIBAFull-Text 779-788
  Antão Almada; Gonçalo Lopes; André Almeida; João Frazão; Nuno Cardoso
Expectations for the industry of Human Computer Interaction are much higher today than they were ten or even five years ago. Innovative solutions to sense and gather information from the real world in real-time must be combined with lightning-fast computer graphics to deliver high-quality designs for the new interaction paradigms. The very combination of all these emerging technologies presents difficult challenges, not only for finding good design and programming methodologies, but to encapsulate those patterns in a collection of frameworks and tools enabling rapid-prototyping and agile development. Application designers should be able to express their creative endeavours by quickly trying out different design combinations with full access to leading edge technology. In the following we present the YVision general purpose software composition framework and show how it achieves the goal of managing the complexity and reducing the development time of parallel, data-driven, multimedia applications.
Collaborative Development and New Devices for Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 789-795
  Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Gunnar Brink
The article pays tribute to the emergence in 1993 of graphical browsers that allow users to address electronic information with a point-and-click interface, and places this development on a par with other important historical events that shaped society and the life of the individuals. It describes the resistance that some voiced at the time to the prompt economical utilization of the Internet's new possibilities. It goes on to describe current technical developments in the human-computer interface environment that could be very, perhaps even comparably, important. It concludes with an appeal for the courage to develop technical innovations, particularly in difficult economic times.
Keywords: Context-aware services; pervasive gaming; collaboration; semantic web; testing methods; interfaces and peripherals; mini-projector; augmented immersive 3D displays; acoustic wave field synthesis
Orchestration Modeling of Interactive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 796-805
  Bertrand T. David; René Chalon
In this paper we study the role of orchestration and its modeling for interactive systems. After a common sense explanation of orchestration and its meaning in information technologies and mainly SOA, we explain its use specifically for the design and use of interactive systems. We propose a taxonomy and, in relation with it, we point out both adaptation and plasticity of HCI systems as a partial answer for orchestration. We then suggest complementary aspects needed for orchestration and their modeling in an MDA approach. We also present a case study and we conclude by considering perspectives.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Orchestration; SOA; MDA; CSCW; static and dynamic evolution
An Exploration of Perspective Changes within MBD BIBAFull-Text 806-815
  Anke Dittmar; Peter Forbrig
Most current model-based design approaches tend to be specification-driven. Using task models solely at the specification level, contradicts the very idea inherent to task-based design. This paper suggests to look for improvements of the situation at different levels of artifact use. First, HOPS is introduced as a general specification formalism for the interaction paradigm which also allows advanced task modeling. Second, we propose to apply formal modeling in different modes during the different stages of a design process. "Task sketching" is elaborated more deeply. And third, a combination with complementary techniques is recommended to embed the development of formal system specifications in a reflective conversation between all stake holders. An example is used throughout the paper to illustrate our ideas.
Rapid Development of Scoped User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 816-825
  Denis Dubé; Jacob Beard; Hans Vangheluwe
As the demand for domain- and formalism-specific visual modelling environments grows, the need to rapidly construct complex User Interfaces (UIs) increases. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Paradigm Modelling (MPM) approach whereby structure, visual appearance and above all reactive behaviour of a UI are explicitly modelled. These models are constructed at the most appropriate level of abstraction, using the most appropriate modelling formalisms. This allows for rapid application synthesis, easy adaptation to changing requirements, and simplified maintenance. In this paper, we introduce Scoped User Interfaces, and illustrate how one may model them using Hierarchically-linked Statecharts (HlS). The use of HlS is demonstrated through the rapid development of a DChart formalism-specific modelling environment.
PaMGIS: A Framework for Pattern-Based Modeling and Generation of Interactive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 826-835
  Jürgen Engel; Christian Märtin
This paper introduces the PaMGIS framework for pattern-based modeling, generation and usability evaluation of interactive systems. It describes the structural aspects of HCI pattern languages and how such languages and patterns for various modeling stages (e.g. task modeling) and abstraction levels can be exploited to automate part of the software development process for interactive applications. The main components and the general functionality of the framework are discussed. The remaining part of the paper focuses on the low-level automation component of the framework and illustrates how the code for concrete interaction objects is generated from semi-abstract user interface patterns.
Keywords: Interactive system; user interface; model-driven development; pattern-based development; HCI pattern languages; task-models; software generation; usability evaluation
People-Oriented Programming: From Agent-Oriented Analysis to the Design of Interactive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 836-845
  Steve Goschnick
Where the Object-Oriented paradigm set about abstracting objects, Agent-Oriented (AO) theory draws on Psychology to abstract mentalist notions like: beliefs, perceptions, goals, and intentions. As such, the associated Agent-Oriented analysis can be used quite successfully to design interactive systems for people, delivering applications that are heavily individual-oriented. This reversal of the AO lens focuses analysis back upon people. It puts a multi-faceted agent used in analysis 'into the shoes' of the user and turns the design and implementation into one we call People-Oriented Programming (POP). POP calls on users to gather ethnographic data about themselves using Cultural Probes and on end-user innovation via software toolkits. This turn of focus is timely as the analyst/designer of interactive systems is facing new challenges regarding flexibility, user situatedness, dynamic environments, incomplete data, diversity in user needs, sensors in the environment, and users emersed in multiple parallel social worlds. Based on an extensive background analysis this paper distills a set of key aspects that any POP effort should possess.
Keywords: Agent-oriented analysis; agent-oriented paradigm; user innovation; HCI; people-oriented programming; agent meta-models; ShadowBoard Agents
Visualization of Software and Systems as Support Mechanism for Integrated Software Project Control BIBAKFull-Text 846-855
  Peter Liggesmeyer; Jens Heidrich; Jürgen Münch; Robert Kalcklösch; Henning Barthel; Dirk Zeckzer
Many software development organizations still lack support for obtaining intellectual control over their software development processes and for determining the performance of their processes and the quality of the produced products. Systematic support for detecting and reacting to critical process and product states in order to achieve planned goals is usually missing. One means to institutionalize measurement on the basis of explicit models is the development and establishment of a so-called Software Project Control Center (SPCC) for systematic quality assurance and management support. An SPCC is comparable to a control room, which is a well known term in the mechanical production domain. One crucial task of an SPCC is the systematic visualization of measurement data in order to provide context-, purpose-, and role-oriented information for all stakeholders (e.g., project managers, quality assurance managers, developers) during the execution of a software development project. The article will present an overview of SPCC concepts, a concrete instantiation that supports goal-oriented data visualization, as well as examples and experiences from practical applications.
Keywords: Software Project Control Centers; Visualization Mechanisms; Data Visualization; GQM
Collage: A Declarative Programming Model for Compositional Development of Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 856-865
  Bruce Lucas; Rahul P. Akolkar; Charles Wiecha
Collage is a declarative programming model and runtime expressly targeted at building and deploying cross-organizational software as compositions of web components. Collage is based on an RDF data model, data-driven execution model, and flexible support for cross-organizational composition of both application and UI components. In this paper we outline a uniform set of Collage language features addressing end-to-end application design, including business objects, but with particular focus on user interaction, and adaptation to current interaction platforms such as web browsers.
Keywords: Declarative languages; Cross-organizational applications; Distributed Computing; Resource Description Framework; Constraint-based programming
Hypernetwork Model to Represent Similarity Details Applied to Musical Instrument Performance BIBAFull-Text 866-873
  Tetsuya Maeshiro; Midori Maeshiro; Katsunori Shimohara; Shin-ichi Nakayama
This paper treats the quantification and description of similarities among entities being represented as a network. The proposed representation model, hypernetwork model, allows more specific description of relationships among represented entities than conventional knowledge representation models. Musical instruments performance is represented with hypernetwork model. Detailed description of similarity relationships provided by the hypernetwork model enables the discrimination of various types and degrees of similarity. A method to compare similar relationships is also discussed, which leads to the analogical reasoning, associative search and retrieval.
Open Collaborative Development: Trends, Tools, and Tactics BIBAKFull-Text 874-881
  Kathrin Möslein; Angelika C. Bullinger; Jens-Hendrik Soeldner
Following the successful trend of open source, companies can be observed to open their innovation and development processes towards interested and capable partners inside and outside the organization. Previous research has neglected the need to integrate these different innovators. In this paper, we start to explore how this integration can be facilitated by social software, a class of applications that belong to the group of web-based, user-centric applications commonly referred to by the term Web 2.0. We show data of 24 social networking services which we examined along the characteristics typically used in the field of social software.
Keywords: Social networking services; open innovation; collaborative development
Investigating the Run Time Behavior of Distributed Applications by Using Tiny Java Virtual Machines with Wireless Communications BIBAKFull-Text 882-889
  Tsuyoshi Miyazaki; Takayuki Suzuki; Fujio Yamamoto
From the viewpoint of programming education, distributed application programs carried out in a small JAVA machine group were considered. These computers are equipped with radio communication facility, multi-thread function, LEDs and various sensors. Parallel genetic algorithms and distributed search problems were targeted for the study here. About the latter, a detailed implementation method and the result of the experiment are shown. In such a computing environment, it was understood that the internal behavior and the data communication in the distributed application were easy to be grasped by an effect of visualizing them by the physical interface.
Keywords: Physical Computing; Distributed Computing; Software Education
OntoDesk: Ontology-Based Persistent System-Wide Undo on the Desktop BIBAKFull-Text 890-899
  David Nemeskey; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
Recovery is an important aspect of user experience. However, current desktop environments lack a system-wide undo facility. OntoDesk is an ontology-based experimental desktop system that offers this feature. Ontology is used to model the semantic relationships between parts of the system. OntoDesk assembles a global action history of application use. With this information, it provides undo/redo for any part of the system, including applications without native recovery. The framework allows developers to add advanced features to their applications, and it allows users to explore the system with confidence, knowing that their actions will be reversible.
Keywords: OntoDesk; ontology; OWL; system-wide undo; persistent undo; application; action; global history; session management
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Communication Detection System with Traffic Mining and Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 900-909
  Satoshi Togawa; Kazuhide Kanenishi; Yoneo Yano
In this research, we have built a system for network administrators that visualize the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file sharing activities of network users. This system monitors network traffic and discerns traffic features using traffic mining. This system visualizes the P2P file sharing traffic activities of an organization by making the processing object not an individual user but a user group. The network administrator can comprehend the P2P sharing activities of the organization by referring to the map. This system extracts traffic features from captured IP packets that the users communicated. And this system extracts the appearance ratio of DNS host query. Afterwards this system creates traffic model. These features of the traffic model are emphasized by weighting. After that, the traffic model is visualized by High Speed Spherical Self-Organizing Map. This feature map shows network traffic behavior related with P2P file sharing communication like a birds-eye view. As a result, we think we can assist the monitoring operation and network administration.
Keywords: Traffic Mining; Traffic Visualization; Administrator Assistance; Peer-to-Peer communication Detection; High Speed Spherical SOM