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ECSCW Tables of Contents: 8991939597990103050709111315

Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Nina Boulus-Rødje; Gunnar Ellingsen; Tone Bratteteig; Margunn Aanestad; Pernille Bjørn
Location:Oslo. Norway
Dates:2015-Sep-19 to 2015-Sep-23
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20499-4 bcibib: ECSCW15; ISBN: 978-3-319-20498-7 (print), 978-3-319-20499-4 (online)
Links:Conline Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. Papers
  2. Exploratory Papers


Human Data Interaction: Historical Lessons from Social Studies and CSCW BIBAFull-Text 3-21
  Andy Crabtree; Richard Mortier
Human Data Interaction (HDI) is an emerging field of research that seeks to support end-users in the day-to-day management of their personal digital data. This is a programmatic paper that seeks to elaborate foundational challenges that face HDI from an interactional perspective. It is rooted in and reflects foundational lessons from social studies of science that have had a formative impact on CSCW, and core challenges involved in supporting interaction/collaboration from within the field of CSCW itself. These are drawn upon to elaborate the inherently social and relational character of data and the challenges this poses for the ongoing development of HDI, particularly with respect to the 'articulation' of personal data. Our aim in doing this is not to present solutions to the challenges of HDI but to articulate core problems that confront this fledgling field as it moves from nascent concept to find a place in the interactional milieu of everyday life and particular research challenges that accompany it.
Mining Programming Activity to Promote Help BIBAFull-Text 23-42
  Jason Carter; Prasun Dewan
We have investigated techniques for mining programming activity to offer help to programmers in difficulty. We have developed a (a) difficulty-detection mechanism based on the notion of command ratios; (b) difficulty-classification mechanism that uses both command ratios and rates; and (c) collaboration mechanism that provides both workspace and difficulty awareness. Our studies involve interviews and lab and field experiments, and indicate that (a) it is possible to mine programming activity to reliably detect and classify difficulties, (b) it is possible to build a collaborative environment to offer opportunistic help, (c) programmers are not unnerved by and find it useful to receive unsolicited help arriving in response to automatically detected difficulties, (d) the acceptable level of privacy in a help-promotion tool depends on whether the developers in difficulty are student or industrial programmers, and whether they have been exposed earlier to a help promotion tool, and (e) difficulty detection can filter out spurious help requests and reduce the need for meetings required to poll for rare difficulty events.
Its About Business not Politics: Software Development Between Palestinians and Israelis BIBAFull-Text 43-61
  Nina Boulus-Rødje; Pernille Bjørn; Ahmad Ghazawneh
This paper focuses on the collaboration in an Israeli-Palestinian tech start-up company. We investigate the strategies enacted by the IT developers for managing the political dynamics and making collaboration possible under the highly challenging political conditions. We found that one of the key strategies was explicitly separating the work domain of software development from the domain of politics. We argue that the IT developers manage to collaborate by displacing the political conflict through strategies of non-confrontation instead of engaging in translating conflicting agendas against each other. By insisting on keeping politics outside of the workspace, the IT developers adopt a strategy of keeping the collaboration together by keeping politics and work apart. However, we found that despite the attempts to manage the sub-group dynamics, politics constantly invade the workspace and challenge the collaboration. Significant resources are invested into managing the regimes of differentiated identity cards, permits, and checkpoints, all of which have consequences on the employees' freedom or restriction of mobility. Thus, we argue that the IT development domain is inseparable from and deeply dependent upon the political domain.
Social Media-Based Expertise Evidence BIBAFull-Text 63-82
  Arnon Yogev; Ido Guy; Inbal Ronen; Naama Zwerdling; Maya Barnea
Social media provides a fertile ground for expertise location. The public nature of the data supports expertise inference with little privacy infringement and, in addition, presentation of direct and detailed evidence for an expert's skillfulness in the queried topic. In this work, we study the use of social media for expertise evidence. We conducted two user surveys of enterprise social media users within a large global organization, in which participants were asked to rate anonymous experts based on artificial and real evidence originating from different types of social media data. Our results indicate that the social media data types perceived most convincing as evidence are not necessarily the ones from which expertise can be inferred most precisely or effectively. We describe these results in detail and discuss implications for designers and architects of expertise location systems.
3D Printing with Marginalized Children -- An Exploration in a Palestinian Refugee Camp BIBAFull-Text 83-102
  Oliver Stickel; Dominik Hornung; Konstantin Aal; Markus Rohde; Volker Wulf
We work with a multi-national network of computer clubs for families and children called come_IN. In two such clubs (located in Palestinian refugee camps in the West Bank), we worked with children on playful approaches concerning 3D modeling and 3D printing within a five-week, qualitative field study. Based on this study, we report on the achievements as well as on the difficulties of digital fabrication and of "Making" in developmental and educational contexts. The benefits are related to an overarching theme of self-expression where the main focus was on dimensions as playfulness, approachable complexity, individualization, immediacy and physicality and collaboration as well as motivation. The problematic aspects were mostly related to socio-technical limitations concerning the themes of orientation and camera control, the lack of coordination and collaboration features, usability and UX issues as well as the construction and limitations of current 3D printers. Based on those findings, we have derived implications for the design and the appropriation of future systems for digital fabrication with children, especially in developmental/educational settings, such as improvements of their collaboration support or better feedback mechanisms regarding the system status towards the end user.
Intertext: On Connecting Text in the Building Process BIBAFull-Text 103-121
  Lars Rune Christensen
Actors in the building process are critically dependent on a corpus of written text that draws the distributed work tasks together. This paper introduces, on the basis of a field study, the concepts of corpus, intertext and intertextuality to the analysis of text in cooperative work practice. This paper shows that actors in the building process create intertext (connections) between complementary texts, in a particular situation and for a particular task. This has an integrating effect on the building process. Several types of intertextuality, including the complementary type, the intratextual type and the mediated type, may constitute the intertext of a particular task. By employing the concepts of corpus, intertext and intertextuality with respect to the study of the building process, this paper outlines an approach to the investigation of text in cooperative work.
Analyzing Collaborative Reflection Support: A Content Analysis Approach BIBAFull-Text 123-142
  Michael Prilla; Alexander Nolte; Oliver Blunk; Dennis Liedtke; Bettina Renner
Collaborative reflection helps groups to learn from work experiences for future work. Although its potential has been recognized and initial work is available, insights on how tools support people in collaborative reflection at work are scarce. We present an approach to analyze collaborative reflection support based on content analysis and an initial study in which it was applied to four cases of using a tool for collaborative reflection. From this we derive design suggestions such as levels of support for different groups and support for the creation of results from collaborative reflection. Our work contributes to CSCW by showing how tools can foster collaborative reflection at work.
Keeping Distributed Care Together: Medical Summaries Reconsidered BIBAFull-Text 143-161
  Troels Mønsted
Summaries in the medical record have traditionally offered health professionals good cognitive support by guiding reading of the medical record and supporting communication and collaboration in clinical teams. However, because of increased distribution of chronic care and fragmentation of the medical record, summaries are becoming increasingly incomplete and have lost some of their ability to mediate collaboration in clinical teams and support situated sensemaking. Based on findings from a project aimed at studying and designing IT to support collaboration among health professionals in distributed, chronic care, this article present a detail study of current use of summaries and discusses how a new type of summary can be designed to offer better support for distributed, chronic care. Overall I argue that we must maintain an appropriate balance between structure and flexibility, while reconsidering the readership, the authorship, and the maintenance of summaries.
Constructing Awareness Through Speech, Gesture, Gaze and Movement During a Time-Critical Medical Task BIBAFull-Text 163-182
  Zhan Zhang; Aleksandra Sarcevic
We conducted a video-based study to examine how medical teams construct and maintain awareness of what is going on in the environment during a time-critical, collaborative task -- endotracheal intubation. Drawing on a theme that characterizes work practices in collaborative work settings -- reading a scene -- we examine both vocal and non-vocal actions (e.g., speech, body movement, gesture, gaze) of team members participating in this task to understand how these actions are used to display status of one's work or to acquire information about the work status of others. While each action modality was helpful in constructing awareness to some extent, it posed different challenges, requiring team members to combine both vocal and non-vocal actions to achieve awareness about each other's activities and their temporal order. We conclude by discussing different types of non-vocal actions, their purpose, and the need for computational support in this dynamic work setting.
Online Social Networks and Police in India -- Understanding the Perceptions, Behavior, Challenges BIBAFull-Text 183-203
  Niharika Sachdeva; Ponnurangam Kumaraguru
Safety is a concern for most urban communities; police departments bear the majority of responsibility to maintain law and order and prevent crime. Police agencies across the globe are increasingly using Online Social Network (OSN) (such as Facebook and Twitter) to acquire intelligence and connect with citizens. Developing nations like India are however, still exploring OSN for policing. We interviewed 20 IPS officers and 21 citizens to understand perceptions, and explored challenges experienced while using OSN for policing. Interview analysis, highlights how citizens and police think about information shared on OSN, handling offensive comments, and acknowledgment overload, as they pursue social and safety goals. We found that success of OSN for policing demands effective communication between the stakeholders (citizens and police). Our study shows that OSN offers community-policing opportunities, enabling police to identify crime with the help of citizens. It can reduce the communication gap and improve coordination between police and citizens. We also discuss design opportunities for tools to support social interactions between stakeholders.
The Work of Infrastructuring: A Study of a National eHealth Project BIBAFull-Text 205-221
  Miria Grisot; Polyxeni Vassilakopoulou
In this paper we examine a national initiative to further develop the Norwegian healthcare information infrastructure. Specifically, we analyse the work of a project team engaged in the design and development of new web-based capabilities for communication between citizens and primary healthcare practitioners. We foreground the work of infrastructuring which entails conceptualising new technological capabilities not as standalone objects, but as elements in larger arrangements that are sociotechnical in nature. Our findings show how the work within the project was shaped by concerns for embeddedness and durability that led to certain design decisions. Furthermore, we find that these decisions had significant repercussions on the development process and created a complex situation where the cooperation of an evolving constellation of multiple actors was required. Our research contributes an initial understanding of how an infrastructural project is different to projects aimed to the development of specific software artefacts.
How Do User Groups Cope with Delay in Real-Time Collaborative Note Taking BIBAFull-Text 223-242
  Claudia-Lavinia Ignat; Gérald Oster; Olivia Fox; Valerie L. Shalin; François Charoy
A property of general interest of real-time collaborative editors is delay. Delays exist between the execution of one user's modification and the visibility of this modification to the other users. Such delays are in part fundamental to the network, as well as arising from the consistency maintenance algorithms and underlying architecture of collaborative editors. Existing quantitative research on collaborative document editing does not examine either concern for delay or the efficacy of compensatory strategies. We studied an artificial note taking task in French where we introduced simulated delay. We found out a general effect of delay on performance related to the ability to manage redundancy and errors across the document. We interpret this finding as a compromised ability to maintain awareness of team member activity, and a reversion to independent work. Measures of common ground in accompanying chat indicate that groups with less experienced team members attempt to compensate for the effect of delay. In contrast, more experienced groups do not adjust their communication in response to delay, and their performance remains sensitive to the delay manipulation.
Configuring Attention in the Multiscreen Living Room BIBAFull-Text 243-261
  John Rooksby; Timothy E. Smith; Alistair Morrison; Mattias Rost; Matthew Chalmers
We have conducted a video study of households in Scotland with cohabiting students and young professionals. In this paper we unpack five examples of how mobile devices are used by people watching television. In the examples we explore how screens are used together (a) in a physical ecology, (b) in an embodied way, (c) in an orderly way, and (d) with respect to others. We point out that mobile devices are routinely used to access media that is unconnected and unrelated to media on television, for example for sending and receiving messages, browsing social media, and browsing websites. We suggest that mobile devices are not used to directly enhance television programmes, but to enhance leisure time. We suggest that it is important, when considering mobile devices as second screens, not just to treat these as a design topic, but to pay attention to how they are interactionally integrated into the living room.
Measures and Tools for Supporting ICT Appropriation by Elderly and Non Tech-Savvy Persons in a Long-Term Perspective BIBAFull-Text 263-281
  Claudia Müller; Dominik Hornung; Theodor Hamm; Volker Wulf
Appropriation work of new media by the elderly who do not possess experiences in information and communication technologies (ICT) and related support of their acquisition of media competencies are in focus of this paper. A study based on ethnography and action research aiming at examining elderly and not tech-savvy persons' first steps in their appropriation of tablet PCs and internet applications is being provided. On the basis of socio-constructivist learning approaches we outline specific obstacles and constraints in the set-up of an appropriate learning environment for elderly ICT novices.

Exploratory Papers

CSCW and the Internet of Things BIBAFull-Text 285-294
  Toni Robertson; Ina Wagner
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises a massive increase in interconnectivity between objects and spaces requiring some sense of cooperation and interaction between them. We suggest the explicit conceptualization of the cooperation between objects and spaces as cooperative work and explore some of the visions, analogies and exemplary illustrations of the IoT using key CSCW concepts: coordination mechanisms, differences across contexts, common information spaces, and awareness. The paper begins a reflection on how CSCW concepts and approaches can inform an understanding of the IoT from a social and practice perspective raising crucial questions for the design of these technologies in the future. An issue of paramount importance will be negotiating the boundaries between (networks of) objects and people, making them transparent, understandable and adaptable.
Ageing Well with CSCW BIBAFull-Text 295-304
  Ann Light; Tuck W. Leong; Toni Robertson
This paper rethinks the role of technology in the life of older people by critically considering the discourses around ageing: drawing on insights from literatures on active ageing, findings from two studies conducted with older citizens and prevalent understandings of old age in technology design. It argues for a departure from the deficit model of old age, to an understanding that reveals older people's agency in the ageing process and the work they do to manage their capacity to age well. This reframing of ageing and the ageing population offers new insights to CSCW and suggests new goals to support when designing technology for older people -- goals that are more cognizant of people's agency and their desires to manage their evolving experiences of the ageing process. We conclude with characteristics of the technologies we might develop.
Collaborative Visualization for Supporting the Analysis of Mobile Device Data BIBAFull-Text 305-316
  Thomas Ludwig; Tino Hilbert; Volkmar Pipek
Visualizations are mainly used for providing easy access to complex information and data. Within this paper we focus on how visualization itself can serve as a collaborative aspect within distributed and asynchronous team work. In doing so, we try to uncover challenges to support a team of researchers in understanding and analyzing mobile data by collaborative visualization. Based on a review of recent literature, two workshops with participants from the academic field were conducted, which revealed use cases and major design challenges for a collaborative visualization approach. With our user-centered study, we introduce design implications for collaborative visualizations that focus on research questions instead on single visualizations, embed multiple visualizations into a discussion thread, highlight relations between research artefacts as well as include external parties in collaborative visualizations.