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DAPI 2014: 2nd International Conference on Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions

Fullname:DAPI 2014: Second International Conference on Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions
Note:Volume 21 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Norbert Streitz; Panos Markopoulos
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8530
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07788-8 hcibib: DAPI14; ISBN: 978-3-319-07787-1 (print), 978-3-319-07788-8 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Design Frameworks, Methods and Models for Intelligent Interactive Environments
  2. Natural Interaction
  3. Cognitive, Perceptual and Emotional Issues in Ambient Intelligence
  4. User Experience in Intelligent Environments
  5. Developing Distributed, Pervasive and Intelligent Environments
  6. Smart Cities

Design Frameworks, Methods and Models for Intelligent Interactive Environments

Designing an Ambient Interaction Model for Mobile Computing BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Jonas Elslander; Katsumi Tanaka
In this paper, we advocate and propose a new interaction model for mobile computing by positioning ambient notifications central to both the user experience and the operating system interface design process. We suggest a model that visually replaces applications as current first digital citizens in mobile operating systems by a modular stream based notification center. In order to do so, we define the general layers that make up the dynamics of the current as well as the proposed mobile computing experience. We conclude and demonstrate the benefits and areas of improvement of our newly proposed paradigm: an ambient mobile interaction model.
Keywords: Methodology; design; HCI; big data; application; interface; interaction; notification; ambient; push; pull; social; context; discovery
Models as a Starting Point of Software Development for Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 15-24
  Peter Forbrig; Michael Zaki; Gregor Buchholz
Creating a smart environment is a challenging task because of the excessive software development and adaptation required. Additionally, hardware in form of stationary as well as dynamic devices has to be installed. Similar to traditional software development, evaluating only the end product is often very costly in terms of time and effort needed. This is due to the fact that usually a lot of changes have to take place since the system fails to deliver the expected behaviour. Therefore, modelling is of great benefit. Models help to get a shared and thorough understanding of a specific domain. Making the animation of those models feasible allows getting a first impression of the system under development. Such prototypes of a system can be created on different levels of abstraction. The paper aims to demonstrate how modelling the human behaviour from the perspective of the activities performed in the environment can lead to first abstract prototypes. Those prototypes can be further extended and fostered by device models as well as models for the whole environment. In the paper, we also strive to discuss the costs and benefits of offering an abstract environmental model in 2D or 3D.
Keywords: Smart Environment; model-based design; evaluation; prototyping
Mapping Interactions in a Pervasive Home Environment BIBAKFull-Text 25-36
  Konstantinos Grivas; Stelios Zerefos; Irene Mavrommati
This work focuses on the visualisation of interactions in a pervasive home environment. Home as a space and as an activity container is traditionally linked to the habitual acts of the inhabitants. However, the infiltration of wireless connectivity, throughout the home and external to it, suggests that, in contrast to the traditional notion of hominess, we as inhabitants do not have the means to perceive significant data connections that take place throughout our home. These connections may range from simple data transfer to sensing and decision making, all taking place around our home and unseen. To this end we have tried to find the means to represent these connections in a visual way, in order to provide a tool that will help to reveal the structure, form and perplexity of digital connections to the inhabitants of a pervasive home environment. The study concludes that in order to visualise all this data, maps have to be formed that include both the material and immaterial infrastructure of home, as well as the connection between them and the rest of the world. These maps are bound to have the characteristics of centralised, distributed and decentralised networks, rendering them as hybrid maps, depending on the type of information they deal with.
Keywords: pervasive home; cartography; visual representation; spatial concept
A Personalized Smart Living Room BIBAKFull-Text 37-47
  Yu-Chun Huang; Scottie Chih-Chieh Huang
Culture, society, and technology heavily influence architectural form, and basic architectural elements and functions evolve to suit users' needs. In the 20th century, with the development of computational technology, architecture underwent dramatic transformation. Human-computer interaction (HCI) has changed architectural space into a smart space, which provides new ways for humans to interact with their living spaces. However, most smart space cases limit their focus to computational technology such as system efficiency and underuse architectural elements of spaces to improve interfaces. Thus this research intends to integrate both architecture and HCI to create a "new inter-relationship system framework" of smart space. An applied scenario called the "Personalized Smart Living Room" showcases the new smart space system. Compared to preexisting smart spaces, which usually focused on a single user, this new system recognizes several different users and gives appropriate personal feedback (such as a personal message or photos) and environmental atmosphere adjustment (interactive wallpaper and personalized music), by monitoring the specific user's posture and personal smartphone.
Keywords: architecture element and function; human-computer interaction; smart space; inter-relationship
Digitally Enhanced Utensils: Designing Dynamic Gustation BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Yui Kita; Jun Rekimoto
While modern cuisine uses various materials such as powder, oil and chemical materials, time-sensitive materials such as bubbles or temperature are still not considered as part of the design of cuisine, due to their temporal nature. Although these time-sensitive gustation play an important role in cuisine, it is difficult to serve them with human hands and static utensils. In this paper, we will introduce sensing and actuation mechanisms to maintain and enhance time-sensitive gustation. We will explore the design space of digitally enhanced utensils through three research prototypes.
Keywords: food; utensil; cutlery; kitchen; cooking; cuisine; dining; wet materials
Towards a Design Space for Ubiquitous Computing BIBAKFull-Text 58-65
  Ilya Shmorgun; David Lamas
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of design space analysis for structuring the state of the art in a selected domain. The resulting design space was created based on a literature review and is an analytical tool that can help interaction designers identify the goals, characteristics, challenges, enabling technologies, and quality attributes that are relevant to the design and development of ubiquitous computing systems. This paper describes the procedure of selecting the design space categories, provides examples of using the design space, and discusses the limitations and perspective.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing; design space analysis; design rationale
A Game Design Workshop to Support the Elaboration of Game Ideas BIBAFull-Text 66-75
  Christos Sintoris; Nikoleta Yiannoutsou; Nikolaos Avouris
In this paper we present a set of game design workshops in the context of which we investigate design practices and elaboration of game ideas. The workshops aimed at engaging participants in crafting designs for location-based mobile games. We analyse the rationale underlying the workshops and describe their structure and the involved material. Next we outline the characteristics of six cases where these workshops were implemented and finally we present a representative set of games produced by the participants.
Prototyping Distributed Physical User Interfaces in Ambient Intelligence Setups BIBAKFull-Text 76-85
  Gervasio Varela; Alejandro Paz-Lopez; Jose Antonio Becerra Permuy; Richard J. Duro Fernandez
Ambient Intelligence systems require the development of highly customized distributed UIs adapted to the user and environment characteristics. They make use of many different devices, from different manufacturers, technologies and modalities. Supporting this wide variety of devices and technologies increases the complexity of a system, affecting its costs and development time. The objective of Dandelion, the solution presented in this paper, is to alleviate this complexity and reduce development costs. Dandelion provides a development framework for distributed physical UIs. It is capable of decoupling the system logic from the characteristics and specifics of the interaction devices, and supports the easy prototyping of different physical realizations of a distributed UI.
Keywords: physical user interfaces; distributed user interfaces; ambient intelligence; ubiquitous computing; user interfaces; model-driven engineering

Natural Interaction

Expression Recognition Driven Virtual Human Animation BIBAKFull-Text 89-96
  Junghyun Cho; Yu-Jin Hong; Sang C. Ahn; Ig-Jae Kim
Since the character expressions are high dimensional, it is not easy to control them intuitively with simple interface. So far, existing controlling and animating methods are mainly based on three dimensional motion capture system for high quality animation. However, using the three dimensional motion capture system is not only unhandy but also quite expensive. In this paper, we therefore present a new control method for 3D facial animation based on expression recognition technique. We simply utilize off-the-shelf a single webcam as a control interface which can easily combine with blendshape technique for 3D animation. We measure the user's emotional state by a robust facial feature tracker and facial expression classifier and then transfer the measured probabilities of facial expressions to the domain of blendshape basis. We demonstrate our method can be one of efficient interface for virtual human animation through our experiments.
Keywords: 3D facial animation; control interface; blendshape; facial feature tracking; expression recognition
Ambient Gesture-Recognizing Surfaces with Visual Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 97-108
  Tobias Grosse-Puppendahl; Sebastian Beck; Daniel Wilbers; Steeven Zeiß; Julian von Wilmsdorff; Arjan Kuijper
In recent years, gesture-based interaction gained increasing interest in Ambient Intelligence. Especially the success of camera-based gesture recognition systems shows that a great variety of applications can benefit significantly from natural and intuitive interaction paradigms. Besides camera-based systems, proximity-sensing surfaces are especially suitable as an input modality for intelligent environments. They can be installed ubiquitously under any kind of non-conductive surface, such as a table. However, interaction barriers and the types of supported gestures are often not apparent to the user. In order to solve this problem, we investigate an approach which combines a semi-transparent capacitive proximity-sensing surface with an LED array. The LED array is used to indicate possible gestural movements and provide visual feedback on the current interaction status. A user study shows that our approach can enhance the user experience, especially for inexperienced users.
Keywords: gesture recognition; capacitive sensing; proximity sensing
Smart Wristband: Touch-and-Motion-Tracking Wearable 3D Input Device for Smart Glasses BIBAKFull-Text 109-118
  Jooyeun Ham; Jonggi Hong; Youngkyoon Jang; Seung Hwan Ko; Woontack Woo
The smart wristband is a novel type of wearable input device for smart glasses, and it can control multi-dimensional contents by using touch and motion. The smart wristband uses a touch-and-motion-tracking system with a touch screen panel (TSP) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) to help users control the smart glasses' interface accurately and quickly without environmental noise, distortion, and multi-leveled pattern recognition tasks.
   This paper presents the availability and usability of the smart glasses; how exactly and quickly users can manipulate the smart glasses' multi-dimensional contents and augmented reality (AR) system by selecting, moving, and changing contents via touching and dragging a finger and rotating the wrist; the device's point-and-click capacity; and its navigation, program switchover, zoom in and out, undo and redo for interactions, and 3D virtual object manipulation aspects for application.
Keywords: Distributed; Ambient and pervasive interactions; Interactive matter and physical computing; Wearable computing; Input Device; Smart device; Smart glasses; Head-mounted display; touch-aware; motion-aware; multimodal/ multisensory interaction; Symmetric interaction in real and virtual worlds
A Comparative Study of User Dependent and Independent Accelerometer-Based Gesture Recognition Algorithms BIBAKFull-Text 119-129
  Aya Hamdy Ali; Ayman Atia; Mostafa Sami
In this paper, we introduce an evaluation of accelerometer-based gesture recognition algorithms in user dependent and independent cases. Gesture recognition has many algorithms and this evaluation includes Hidden Markov Models, Support Vector Machine, K-nearest neighbor, Artificial Neural Net-work and Dynamic Time Warping. Recognition results are based on acceleration data collected from 12 users. We evaluated the algorithms based on the recognition accuracy related to different number of gestures from two datasets. Evaluation results show that the best accuracy for 8 and 18 gestures is achieved with dynamic time warping and K-nearest neighbor algorithms.
Keywords: Gesture recognition; Accelerometers; Human Computer Interaction
AiRSculpt: A Wearable Augmented Reality 3D Sculpting System BIBAKFull-Text 130-141
  Sung-A Jang; Hyung-il Kim; Woontack Woo; Graham Wakefield
In this paper, we present a new kind of wearable augmented reality (AR) 3D sculpting system called AiRSculpt in which users could directly translate their fluid finger movements in air into expressive sculptural forms and use hand gestures to navigate the interface. In AiRSculpt, as opposed to VR-based systems, users could quickly create and manipulate 3D virtual content directly with their bare hands in a real-world setting, and use both hands simultaneously in tandem or as separate tools to sculpt and manipulate their virtual creations. Our system uses a head-mounted display and a RGB-D head-mounted camera to detect the 3D location of hands and fingertips then render virtual content in calibration with real-world coordinates.
Keywords: Augmented reality; virtual sculpting; direct 3D manipulation; embodied interaction
Children's Collaborative Storytelling on a Tangible Multitouch Tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 142-153
  Anna Helen Leversund; Aleksander Krzywinski; Weiqin Chen
According to the literature, tangible multitouch tabletops provide natural and intuitive interaction and afford face-to-face collaboration. Storytelling is an effective method for building conceptual skills and using reasoning to solve problems. This paper reports the evaluation of a tangible multitouch tabletop application (RoboTale) in supporting children's collaborative storytelling. By examining how children use RoboTale to create and tell stories, this study showed the positive effects and potential improvement in the design of RoboTale.
Keywords: Tangible user interface (TUI); multitouch tabletop; collaborative storytelling
An Optical Guiding System for Gesture Based Interactions in Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 154-163
  Martin Majewski; Tim Dutz; Reiner Wichert
Using gestures to control Ambient Intelligence environments can result in mismatches between the user's intention and the perception of the gesture by the system. One way to cope with this problem is to provide the user with an instant feedback on what the system has perceived. In this work, we present an approach for providing visual feedback to users of Ambient Intelligence systems that rely on gestures to control individual devices within their environments. This paper extends our previous work on this topic [1] and introduces several enhancements to the system.
Keywords: Gesture-based Interaction; Visual Feedback; Ambient Intelligence
Paint-It: A Children's Habit Revised BIBAKFull-Text 164-171
  Nikolaos Partarakis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Ambient Intelligence technologies can play an important role in enriching the education and learning experience. Such technologies offer students increased access to information within an augmented teaching environment which encourages active learning and collaboration, enhancing their motivation to learn. This paper focuses of transferring painting into the Ami environment through the usage of an augmented digital surface as a painting canvas, and offering interaction through augmented physical painting material such as paint tubes, brushes, physical palettes of color, etc. This enriched painting experience is targeted to support the development of artistic skills for young artists through employing artistic concepts such as color theory, color mixing for artists, brush type information, etc.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Serious Games; Learning; Painting; User Interfaces for children
Robot-Supported Pointing Interaction for Intelligent Environments BIBAKFull-Text 172-183
  Mark Prediger; Andreas Braun; Alexander Marinc; Arjan Kuijper
A natural interaction with appliances in smart environment is a highly desired form of controlling the surroundings using intuitively learned interpersonal means of communication. Hand and arm gestures, recognized by depth cameras, are a popular representative of this interaction paradigm. However they usually require stationary units that limit applicability in larger environments. To overcome this problem we are introducing a self-localizing mobile robot system that autonomously follows the user in the environment, in order to recognize performed gestures independent from the current user position. We have realized a prototypical implementation using a custom robot platform and evaluated the system with various users.
Keywords: Gesture recognition; service robots; smart environments
BlowBrush: A Design of Tangible Painting System Using Blowing Action BIBAKFull-Text 184-195
  Yang Ting Shen; Pei Wen Lu
This paper presents a novel tangible interaction system called BlowBrush that enables people to create leaf collage paintings on a digital canvas by blowing at a toy windmill. We couple the metaphorical mapping between wind and blow to facilitate the interaction that uses digital leaf inks for drawing. The windmill-shape device functions as a brush that transforms users' blowing and grasping actions into painting commands. Four kinds of digital leaf inks can be used alternately via swapping the physical RFID sheets. Uses manipulate the tangible brush and inks to compose a digital leaf collage intuitively as well as artists. We carefully review the related literature of tangible interaction and abstract the critical criteria as our design guideline. In the end of this paper, we conduct the comparative evaluation to assess the effectiveness between BlowBrush, TouchBrush, and MouseBrush based on the criteria.
Keywords: Tangible User interface; Embodied Facilitation; Affordance; RFID
DETI-Interact: Interaction with Large Displays in Public Spaces Using the Kinect BIBAKFull-Text 196-206
  Tiago Sousa; Igor Cardoso; João Parracho; Paulo Dias; Beatriz Sousa Santos
The problem of interaction with large displays in public spaces is currently of interest given the large number of displays available in such spaces (as lobbies, train stations, waiting rooms, etc.) that are only showing information with no possibility to interact with the contents. Several works have been developed in order to allow interaction with these displays using technologies such as infrared, Bluetooth, GPRS, digital compasses or touch screens. Some only intend to provide information, while others emphasize on capturing users' attention eventually leading them to some action. This paper describes DETI-Interact, a system located in the entrance hall of a University department allowing users to interact with a large display without the need to carry any electronic device since a Kinect is used to capture different user's gestures. In this work, special attention was given to another issue intrinsically linked to the presentation of information on large public displays 'How to call the user's attention?'
Keywords: Large displays; natural interfaces; attention catching
A Gesture-Based Door Control Using Capacitive Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  Steeven Zeiß; Alexander Marinc; Andreas Braun; Tobias Große-Puppendahl; Sebastian Beck
In public places sanitary conditions are always of concern, particularly of surfaces that are touched by a multitude of persons, such as door handles in rest rooms. Similar issues also arise in medical facilities. Doors that open based on presence are common in environments such as shopping malls; however they are not suited for sensitive areas, such as toilet stalls. Capacitive proximity sensors detect the presence of the human body over a distance and can be unobtrusively applied in order to enable hidden gesture-based interfaces that work without touch. In this paper we present a concept for a gesture controlled automated door based on this sensor technology. We introduce the underlying technology and present the concept and electronic components used in detail. Novel interaction patterns and data processing methods allow to open, close, lock and unlock the door using simple gestures. A prototype device has been created and evaluated in a user study.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living (AAL)
PaperIO: Paper-Based 3D I/O Interface Using Selective Inductive Power Transmission BIBAKFull-Text 217-228
  Kening Zhu
In this paper, we introduce PaperIO, a paper-based 3D I/O interface, in which a single piece of paper can be sensed and actuated at the same time in three dimensions using the technology of selective inductive power transmission. With this technology, paper material with multiple embedded receivers, can not only selectively receive inductive power to perform paper-computing behavior, but also work as input sensors to communicate with power transmitter wirelessly. In addition, due to the simplicity, this method allows users to easily customize their own paper I/O devices. This paper presents the detailed implementation of the system, results of the technical experiments, and a few sample applications of the presented paper-based 3D I/O interface, and finally discusses the future plan of this research.
Keywords: Paper Computing; 3D User Interface; Tangible User Interface

Cognitive, Perceptual and Emotional Issues in Ambient Intelligence

Collecting Behavior Logs with Emotions in Town BIBAKFull-Text 231-240
  Kenro Aihara
This paper proposes a new methodology for collecting visitors' behavior and their emotions in town by using smartphones.
   Existing social information services, such as Facebook and Twitter, are expanding to attach location data to users' content. To capture situations of town, such as events what happens there or how people feel, the author believes that it's not enough to collect tweets and behavior logs of locations in the town, because in fact the number of geotagged tweets is limited. Especially for microscopic analysis of town situations in small resolution of time and space, more information sources reflecting strollers' behaviors and emotions are needed.
   The paper proposed a function of LBS smartphone application to collect users' behavior and emotions. When a user installs and uses an application with the function in town, the function records and transmits not only his/her locations but also his/her facial expressions by using front-facing camera.
   An experiment was made in the beginning of November 2013. 55 subjects participated in the experiment. In addition to using the application in town, subjects were requested to provide correct data of facial expressions in 9 classes such as excited, fun and tired.
   The function extracts 66 feature points of face by using Saragih's model. As a quick result, the overall precision of 9 class-classification is 91.1% at 10-fold cross validation. The author believes that the result supports that the proposed application can collect facial expressions of not only active users who post microblogs but also read-only users.
Keywords: Context; Human activity modelling and support; Sensor-augmented environments; Smart and hybrid cities; behavior log; emotion; facial expression
Panic Room: Experiencing Overload and Having Fun in the Process BIBAFull-Text 241-252
  Björn Bankowski; Thiemo Clausen; Dirk Ehmen; Maximilian Ernestus; Henning Hasemann; Tobias Jura; Alexander Kröller; Dominik Krupke; Marco Nikander
We present the "Panic Room", an ambient system in the form of a game, where a player has to perform an ever-growing number of parallel tasks until he is overloaded. The game is built in a way to deduce construction and design principles for pervasive environment, as it allows for experimenting with design anti-patterns, disguised as game elements.
Ontology Based Simulation Framework: Studying of Human Behavior Changes Impacted by Accessibility of Information under Building Fire Emergency BIBAKFull-Text 253-261
  Chaianun Damrongrat; Mitsuru Ikeda
In general, human behavior under emergency situation is considered as irrational behavior. However, recent research studies showed that evacuees had rational decision making process even though they said they were panic at that time. Evacuees behaved rationally based on information they could access at that moment and then selected the best option for response. This research is interested in relationship between human behavior and accessibility of information under the restricted information situation, emergency in this case. We propose an ontology-based simulation framework as a tool to find out the relationship. Even though it is hard to claim that human will behave as same as the simulation outcome, we could study the relationship by observing trend and tendency of human behavior changes in the simulation by varying simulation parameters. For this purpose, the simulation models should be easy to modify. Then ontology plays a key component for this issue.
Keywords: ontology based simulation; human behavior; accessibility of information; emergency situation; restricted information
My Smart TV Agent: Designing Smart TV Persona for Linguistic UX BIBAKFull-Text 262-271
  Seyeon Lee; Jiwon Moon; Hokyoung Im; Chung-Kon Shi; Bong Gwan Jun
Linguistic UX design for Smart TV has been creating much heap as a means of new TV control. Since human voice displays powerful social presence, the issue with defining a Smart TV agent that interacts with users has a big impact in users' satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to analyze the linguistic patterns in vocal commands of TV users and to suggest underlying personas of Smart TV agent that appears when users interact with a Smart TV. First, we analyzed most common TV viewing situations and the patterns of users' behavior through a survey. Then, we collected 867 vocal data through a cultural probe method in which 10 families, each representing a typical type of TV viewers, by asking them to record what they would like to say to the TV while watching it for about a week. We suggest 6 different type of Smart TV personas, such as expert, assistant, colleague, slave, machine and pet, based on the relationship that the user and TV exhibited. With the collected vocal data, we analyzed the participants' speech pattern and style to examine which type of Smart TV persona was most prevalent. As a result, there were slight difference in types that emerged according different functions of Smart TV and we found that the assistant type appeared most frequently followed by the colleague type.
Keywords: Affective communication; Smart TV agent; Linguistic UX; Voice command
UbiComp Applications for Assisting Visually Impaired People Live an Independent Life: A Participatory Conceptualization Design Phase BIBAKFull-Text 272-281
  Anna Leda Liakopoulou; Irene Mavrommati
This paper presents a classified set of proposals of Ubiquitous Computing Applications aimed for the wellbeing of the visually impaired, and the initial design analysis and conceptualization process that led to them. Domestic applications for the visually impaired have been conceptualized and evaluated, with insight from participatory design approaches. Thirty two total proposals resulted from brainstorm sessions between the designer and a focus group of blind end users. The proposals were then ranked by a broader focus group of visually impaired end users. Top ranked scenaria are further evaluated in order to identify strengths and weaknesses and make further improvements. Such classified scenarios can provide valuable input towards a ubiquitous computing system that is designed from its very conception based on the needs of the visually impaired.
Keywords: Scenario based design; Visually impaired; Ubicomp applications
Using Eye-Gaze and Visualization to Augment Memory BIBAFull-Text 282-291
  Jason Orlosky; Takumi Toyama; Daniel Sonntag; Kiyoshi Kiyokawa
In our everyday lives, bits of important information are lost due to the fact that our brain fails to convert a large portion of short term memory into long term memory. In this paper, we propose a framework that uses an eye-tracking interface to store pieces of forgotten information and present them back to the user later with an integrated head mounted display (HMD). This process occurs in three main steps, including context recognition, data storage, and augmented reality (AR) display. We demonstrate the system's ability to recall information with the example of a lost book page by detecting when the user reads the book again and intelligently presenting the last read position back to the user. Two short user evaluations show that the system can recall book pages within 40 milliseconds, and that the position where a user left off can be calculated with approximately 0.5 centimeter accuracy.
How Do We Teach Young Children New Concepts via Sketching? BIBAKFull-Text 292-303
  Chau Thai Truong; Duy-Hung Nguyen-Huynh; Minh-Triet Tran
The authors propose a system that supports children to learn new concepts of familiar topics via their sketches on an interaction surface. The proposed system has two main subcomponents: a system of interaction surface with touch detection from depth images captured by a Kinect and a sketch recognition module based on the idea of bag-of-word model. The system provides a natural and intuitive interface for children because they can learn new concepts via sketching. With the dataset of 70 common concepts, the accuracy of the sketch recognition is 78.21% and the average response time to recognize a sketch is 0.86s. The sketch database can also be easily customized to teach new concepts to children.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; sketch recognition; bag-of-word model; table-top; 3D interaction

User Experience in Intelligent Environments

Design and Evaluation of a Smart Library Using the APEX Framework BIBAKFull-Text 307-318
  Tiago Abade; Tiago Gomes; José Luís Silva; José C. Campos
User experience is a key point for successful ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) environments. The envisaged design should be explored as soon as possible to anticipate potential user problems, thus reducing re-design costs. The development of ubicomp environments' prototypes might help, providing feedback on the users' reaction to the environments. This paper describes the design and evaluation of ubicomp environments using APEX, a rapid prototyping framework providing user experience via a 3D application server and connected physical devices. APEX prototypes allow users to explore and experience many characteristics of a proposed design, in a virtual world. The paper focus in particular the design and evaluation of a smart library in the APEX framework.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing; 3D environments; prototyping; evaluation
Fairness Properties for Collaborative Work Using Human-Computer Interactions and Human-Robot Interactions Based Environment: "Let Us Be Fair" BIBAKFull-Text 319-328
  Myriam El Mesbahi; Nabil Elmarzouqi; Jean-Christophe Lapayre
Fair human-computer interactions and human-robot interactions in distributed environments are inspected, and it is suggested that humans, computers and robots may have to achieve overlapping tasks. Permission-based and token-based algorithms are used to ensure fairness in interactions between humans, computers and robots. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the impact of several environment properties including a variety of processes, sent messages, received messages, collaboration stratum, average waiting time, and the average execution time. Actual experiments efforts are discussed and the convenient properties involved in designing fair human-computer and human-robot interactions in distributed systems are considered.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Human-Robot Interaction; Collaboration; Fairness; Distributed Environment
Engage! Empower! Encourage! -- Supporting Mundane Group Decisions on Tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 329-336
  Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross
This paper presents an interaction model to support groups making decisions, aiming to Engage the group in the interaction, Empower all users to put forth their opinion, and Encourage the group to discuss the options. Based on the tabletop application MTEatsplore, we show how the interaction model helps to design a system to structure the decision making process and thus can lead to an effective and efficient yet inclusive support for mundane decisions.
Keywords: Group Decision Support; Interactive Tabletop; Multi-touch
Constructing the Immersive Interactive Sonification Platform (iISoP) BIBAKFull-Text 337-348
  Myounghoon Jeon; Michael T. Smith; James W. Walker; Scott A. Kuhl
For decades, researchers have spurred research on sonification, the use of non-speech audio to convey information [1]. With 'interaction' and 'user experience' being pervasive, interactive sonification [2], an emerging interdisciplinary area, has been introduced and its role and importance have rapidly increased in the auditory display community. From this background, we have devised a novel platform, "iISoP" (immersive Interactive Sonification Platform) for location, movement, and gesture-based interactive sonification research, by leveraging the existing Immersive Visualization Studio (IVS) at Michigan Tech. Projects in each developmental phase and planned research are discussed with a focus on "design research" and "interactivity".
Keywords: design research; interactive sonification; interactivity; visualization
Human-Computer-Biosphere Interaction: Beyond Human -- Centric Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 349-358
  Hill Hiroki Kobayashi
Current human-computer interaction (HCI) is primarily focused on human-centric interactions. However, people experience many non-human-centric interactions during the course of a day. Interactions with nature, such as experiencing the sounds of birds and trickling water, can reinforce the importance of our relationship with nature. The paper presents the author's vision of Human-Computer-Biosphere Interaction (HCBI) to facilitate non-human-centric interaction with the goal of moving society towards environmental sustainability. HCBI extends HCI from countable people, objects, pets, and plants into an auditory biosphere that is uncountable, complex, and non-linguistic. This paper describes the development and integration of non-human-centric design protocols, requirements, methods, and context evaluation.
Keywords: HCBI (Human Computer Biosphere Interaction); Nature Conservation; Nature Interface; Smart Fashion; Soundscape Visualization; Sustainability; Sustainable Interaction Design
Smart Objects: An Evaluation of the Present State Based on User Needs BIBAKFull-Text 359-368
  Alessandra Papetti; Matteo Iualé; Silvia Ceccacci; Roberta Bevilacqua; Michele Germani; Maura Mengoni
In the last years, some attempts have been made to explore the use of smart objects, with the purpose of monitoring well-being and supporting people's independent living. However an inventory of characteristics of smart products currently available on the market is still lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such products in order to: (1) understand if their features really match users' needs, answering to the definition of assistive technology and, consequently, (2) understand if an environment embedded with SOs can be considered as assistive too, taking into consideration the attributes given by the definition of the SOs, of being embedded in familiar objects and immerse in the users' surround.
Keywords: Inclusive Design; Universal Design; Home Environment; Internet of Things
Factors Influencing the Quality of the User Experience in Ubiquitous Recommender Systems BIBAKFull-Text 369-379
  Nikolaos Polatidis; Christos K. Georgiadis
The use of mobile devices and the rapid growth of the internet and networking infrastructure has brought the necessity of using Ubiquitous recommender systems. However in mobile devices there are different factors that need to be considered in order to get more useful recommendations and increase the quality of the user experience. This paper gives an overview of the factors related to the quality and proposes a new hybrid recommendation model.
Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing; Recommender Systems; Quality Factors; User Experience
The Experience of Spatial Interaction: Conceptualizing the User Experience of Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 380-391
  Charalampos Rizopoulos; Dimitris Charitos
This paper examines the issue of User Experience (UX) as applied to immersive Virtual Reality from the standpoint of environmental psychology and related fields as a complement to principles from the fields of product design, psychology of emotion, formal aesthetics etc. Partly on account of its generality, multidisciplinary nature, and broad applicability, UX continues to defy a single commonly accepted definition, a fact which necessitates a holistic treatment of the subject of spatial interaction design. Various approaches and models of environmental psychology, as well as approaches to usability and UX are outlined in light of the need to highlight the influence and effects of particular spatial designs to particular dimensions of UX. Additionally, the concept and constituent dimensions of environmental appraisal are similarly defined and analysed, and indicative experimental designs currently under development are briefly described.
Keywords: User Experience; spatial cognition; virtual environments; environmental appraisal
A See-through Vision with Handheld Augmented Reality for Sightseeing BIBAKFull-Text 392-399
  Goshiro Yamamoto; Arno in Wolde Lübke; Takafumi Taketomi; Hirokazu Kato
We propose a see-through vision with augmented reality (AR) for increasing the quality of the experiences in the activities of sightseeing. In the sightseeing activities, there are certain temporal and spatial limitations when sightseers are gazing on the real objects. In this research, we aim to eliminate the spatial limitations caused by the inability to see farther objects through opaque surfaces by using see-through vision technology with alpha blending, and to make the appearance of the target objects with 3D effect based on parallax effect. We focus on the platform of handheld devices that provides AR experiences with high accurate alignment of virtual objects on pre-captured real scene images based on cube mapping method. This paper describes the engineering methodology that we have used to develop our prototype system and the implementation of the prototype system for confirming our approach. The results about how the prototype system performs on a real site are reported in this paper.
Keywords: Augmented reality; see-through vision; sightseeing; handheld AR
A Structure of Wearable Message-Robot for Ubiquitous and Pervasive Services BIBAFull-Text 400-411
  Tomoko Yonezawa; Hirotake Yamazoe
In this paper, we introduce a haptic message-robot which gives user-friendly physical contacts while it tells message to the user. This robot is expected to help elderly people who need outings but have anxiety. The pervasive support of the robot via network will provide the user a human-like service as though it were a real caregiver. The system makes haptic stimiuli corresponding to the user's clothing and posture. We investigated two types of implementations: the first implementation combines haptic stimiuli and anthropomorphic motion to express the physical contact, and the second one is an simplified system for application on smartphones to provide ubiquitous services. The subjective evaluations in a course with two diverges showed the effectiveness of both the robot's motion and the haptic stimuli on the intelligibleness and affective communication.

Developing Distributed, Pervasive and Intelligent Environments

Developing Smart Homes Using the Internet of Things: How to demonstrate Your System BIBAFull-Text 415-426
  Ioannis Chatzigiannakis; Jan Philipp Drude; Henning Hasemann; Alexander Kröller
The Internet of Things (IoT) currently grows with great momentum offering the potential of virtually endless opportunities for new applications and services in the "Smart Home" context. Yet, regardless of the tremendous efforts made by the relevant research & development community, application development is still a very complex and error prone process as the large range of IoT devices and smart appliances often result to complex systems-of-systems interactions. In addition, we need to factor in the human behavior and interaction goals thus making it more difficult to understand and analyzing the operating principles of the new applications. It is therefore imperative to conduct experiments verifying the complex interactions of those systems, as well as to be able to demonstrate and showcase them; to give users clear evidence how the system around them will behave. In this work we present two demonstrators that we have developed during the past years in order to provide a generic environment for showcasing new applications and services in a "Smart Home" context. We have displayed these demonstrators at several occasions, which gave us numerous opportunities to receive feedback from spectators of different backgrounds. We discuss the design choices of each demonstrator, the benefits of each approach and the experience gained from each one.
Denial-of-Service Attacks in Wireless Networks Using Off-the-Shelf Hardware BIBAFull-Text 427-438
  Alexandros Fragkiadakis; Ioannis Askoxylakis; Panos Chatziadam
Wireless network technologies offer ubiquitous broadband access to millions of users at an affordable cost. However, the broadband nature of the wireless medium make these networks vulnerable to a number of attacks. Malicious interference at the physical layer, and extended packet collisions at the medium access layer can cause significant DoS attacks. In this work, we show how off-the-shelf hardware can be used to create devastating DoS attacks in a IEEE 802.11 network. Moreover, we present two algorithms for attack detection that are based on the cumulative sum algorithm.
Context Aware Collaborative Computing Model for Natural Disaster Management Systems BIBAKFull-Text 439-449
  Hamid Mcheick; Raef Mousheimish; Ali Masri; Youssef Dergham
Nowadays, natural disaster management is considered one of the critical issues, where many governments are spending a huge amount of money to master it. And to help these governmental bodies in managing this kind of situation, we used the concept of collaborative computing, to introduce an approach for mobiles to collaborate in order to act as helper agents for other ones with limited resources. Our approach is called the Disaster Pool. And in this paper we highlighted the importance of collaborative computing, have a quick look on previous work, and discuss our approach and the implemented code.
Keywords: Collaborative computing; context-aware applications
Situated Micro-displays for Activity-Aware Systems BIBAKFull-Text 450-461
  Esunly Medina; Fahim Kawsar; Roc Meseguer; Sergio F. Ochoa
Most activity-aware systems designed to support mobile workers in dynamic environments, such as hospitals or industrial plants, typically consider the use of mobile devices and large displays. However, we envision potential benefits of using ubiquitous micro-displays as support of mobile workers activities. Particularly, in this paper we show how the use of situated micro-displays, as a mechanism for embedding information into a physical environment, can contribute to improve the performance and experience of mobile workers in those scenarios. The article also describes the prototype of a micro-display network designed to support people performing spatially distributed activities. It also presents a user study that helps understand how the spatial distribution of situated micro-displays impacts on the mobile workers performance.
Keywords: Situated micro-display; activity-centric system; mobile work
From Annotated Objects to Distributed Planning in Heterogeneous and Dynamic Environments BIBAKFull-Text 462-473
  Daniel Moos; Sebastian Bader; Thomas Kirste
Controlling a dynamic and distributed device ensemble is challenging. Such ensemble should support their users pro-actively, by taking useful actions automatically. Here, we propose an approach in which methods of deployed objects are annotated with preconditions and effects. From those annotations, we construct planning operators that are used in a distributed planning system. The resulting system is able to control a real laboratory infrastructure without any central control component such that goal-directed behavior emerges from the interplay of all deployed devices.
Keywords: distributed planning; goal-directed behavior; emergent behavior; smart environment; ambient intelligence
Taking Care of Elderly People with Chronic Conditions Using Ambient Assisted Living Technology: The ADVENT Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 474-485
  Theodor Panagiotakopoulos; Christos Antonopoulos; Panayiotis Alefragkis; Achilles Kameas; Stavros Koubias
The population ageing trend has created an imperative need for ICT-based solutions that will support continuous care provision and help elders prolong the time they live independently in their own home environment. The ADVENT project aims at providing a comfortable, safe and secure environment to support the daily living of elders through a set of adaptive and demand-driven services. This paper presents the user and system requirements analysis results, based on which the high-level architecture of the core ADVENT system was drawn. This architecture highlights the home environment and the ambient intelligence platform, which are described in detail on a design level.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; Home Monitoring; Sensor Networks
User Indoor Location System with Passive Infrared Motion Sensors and Space Subdivision BIBAKFull-Text 486-497
  Marios Sioutis; Yasuo Tan
The use of indoor location information has the potential to enable ground-breaking smart services in a home environment. The objective of this research is to design a relatively inexpensive real time indoor location system which also poses no threat to user privacy. We propose an indoor location system that uses commodity parts such as infrared motion sensors and the idea of space subdivision. By evaluating the state of the sensors involved in a scene, it is further possible to evaluate each unique area and extract those that the user is most likely to be located at. In conclusion, despite a couple of flaws that should be addressed, the proposed system achieves its targets while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy.
Keywords: indoor location system; infrared motion sensor; space subdivision; smart home
A Conceptual Framework for Augmented Smart Coach Based on Quantified Holistic Self BIBAFull-Text 498-508
  Hyoseok Yoon; Young Yim Doh; Mun Yong Yi; Woontack Woo
Augmented human (AH) refers to a research direction of enhancing or augmenting human abilities by human-computer-integration. At its core, AH attempts to monitor and interpret domains of knowledge about human nature to actuate appropriate augmentation. We envision AH as a human-centered approach and a major milestone to be accomplished for ubiquitous virtual reality (i.e., combining the real human with assets of virtual environments). As a concrete example of augmenting human with intellectual abilities, we present a conceptual framework for augmented smart coach. In the proposed framework, multi-dimensional life experiences of human, are systematically captured, assessed, refined, encoded, and quantified into basis patterns of digital holistic self (D-Personality). By doing so, quantified holistic self serves a purpose of a dynamic user profile, which is exploited and explored by anthropomorphic and adaptive augmented interfaces for coaching the needs of individual. We highlight and identify foreseeable technical challenges for future research direction revolving around the presented framework.
Crowd Target Positioning under Multiple Cameras Based on Block Correspondence BIBAKFull-Text 509-518
  Qiuyu Zhu; Sai Yuan; Bo Chen; Guowei Wang; Jianzhong Xu; Lijun Zhang
In the research of crowd analysis in a multi-camera environment, the key problem is how to get target correspondence between cameras. Two main popular methods are epipolar geometric constraint and homography matrix constraint. For large view-angle and wide baseline, these two methods exist obvious disadvantages and have a low performance. The paper utilizes a new correspondence algorithm based-on the constraint of line-of-sight for the crowd positioning. Since the target area is discrete, the paper proposes to use blocking policy: dividing the target regions into blocks with certain size. The approach may provide appropriate redundancy information for each object and decrease the risk of objects missing which is caused by large view-angle and wide baseline between different perspective images. The experimental results show that the method has a high accuracy and a lower computational complexity.
Keywords: multiple cameras; constraint of line-of-sight; target positioning; blocks correspondence
Building a Sensory Infrastructure to Support Interaction and Monitoring in Ambient Intelligence Environments BIBAFull-Text 519-529
  Emmanouil Zidianakis; Nikolaos Partarakis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
In the context of Ambient Intelligence (AmI), the elaboration of new interaction techniques is becoming the most prominent key to a more natural and intuitive interaction with everyday things [2]. Natural interaction between people and technology can be defined in terms of experience: people naturally communicate through gestures, expressions, movements. To this end, people should be able to interact with technology as they are used to interact with the real world in everyday life [19]. Additionally, AmI systems must be sensitive, responsive, and adaptive to the presence of people [16]. This paper presents the design and implementation of an interaction framework for ambient intelligence targeting to the provision of novel interaction metaphors and techniques in the context of AmI scenarios. The aforementioned infrastructure has been deployed in vitro within the AmI classroom simulation space of the FORTH-ICS AmI research facility and used to extend existing applications offered by an augmented interactive table for young children (Beantable) to support also games that facilitate biometric information, rich interaction metaphors and speech input [20].

Smart Cities

Applicability of Portable Health Clinic to Ageing Society BIBAKFull-Text 533-544
  Ashir Ahmed; Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave; Rafiqul Islam; Sozo Inoue; Naoki Nakashima
Portable Health Clinic is adapted to provide primary care to a super aged society. A super aged society occurs when, one third of the population is 65+ years and one fifth is 85+ years. The combination of aging society and incidence of non-communicable diseases increases the prevalence of elderly disability and places pressure on health care systems, health costs, and existing social norms. The goal is to reposition the Portable Health Clinic as a health information and affordable disability prevention system. In this paper, we show how the healthcare worker can supplement her competence on medical risk factors with sensor technology and share her knowledge with elderly patients within the community. We suggest that the remote telemedicine call center should be used to support distant screening and surveillance programs and provide early intervention to diseases. We investigate 18,278 Portable Health Clinic Electronic Health Records between 2012 and 2013 to see what are the most important risk factors for ill health in Bangladesh. The field data implies that elevated blood pressure and blood sugar and protein in the urine and the most important risk factors for the elderly population (>65 years) when compared to younger population (<65 years).
Keywords: Portable Health Clinic; Ageing Society; Personal Health Records (PHR); Remote Health Consultancy; BigData
The Vision of the Sociable Smart City BIBAKFull-Text 545-554
  Eleni Christopoulou; Dimitrios Ringas; John Garofalakis
In this paper we define what is a Sociable Smart City and how this vision can be realised. This vision elaborates on recent developments in smart cities around the world where novel technologies and applications have been introduced in order to provide services and promote economic growth and sustainability. According to our approach a smart city has to also focus on social and cultural aspects, to allow people to interact with their cities in novel ways and to enable them to shape and decide the future of the city. This approach has originated from the large-scale deployment and evaluation of the CLIO urban computing system, which enables people to interact with the collective city memory. Our findings revealed that a system that exploits city infrastructure and both people's and artificial intelligence in order to empower and engage them in social activities may enhance citizen participation and sense of belonging as well as it may enable urban social interactions. Aiming to address the Sociable Smart City vision, we held a homonymous workshop in 2013 that brought together researchers of urban computing, smart cities, pervasive technologies and hci. Among its outcomes has been a definition of the Sociable Smart City, the identification of challenges in realising it, the proposition of applications that can accelerate its adoption and what their impact can be, as well as the identification of the major stakeholders involved.
Keywords: sociable smart city; urban computing; mobile computing; smart cities
Communications in Emergency and Crisis Situations BIBAKFull-Text 555-565
  Andreas I. Miaoudakis; Nikolaos E. Petroulakis; Diomedes Kastanis; Ioannis G. Askoxylakis
In emergency and crisis situations (ECS) like earthquakes, tsunamis, terrorist attacks, it is very important that communication facilities are operative to provide services both to rescue teams and civilians. In ECS it is very common that communication premises are often unable to provide services, either due to physical damages or traffic overload. In such a case there is the need for rapid reestablishment of communication services. In this paper the communication services that can be exploited for ECS mitigation are discussed. The usage scenarios of such services are studied. Following that and looking from a network perspective view an ECS communication network architecture is presented. This architecture aims to provide seamless interoperability of varies communication technologies often present in ECS to provide an ECS communication solution.
Keywords: Emergency; Crisis; Disaster; Critical Infrastructure; Heterogeneous Networks
Sociable Smart Cities: Rethinking Our Future through Co-creative Partnerships BIBAKFull-Text 566-574
  Ingrid Mulder
The challenges of tomorrow's society demand new ways of innovation -- a shift in thinking, doing and organising. It requires releasing existing paradigms, changing perspectives and doing things differently. In the current work, we envision a sociable smart city that enables transforming society into a more participative domain where participatory innovation takes place. A city that combines best a two worlds; on the one hand, a social city that is people-centred, values active citizenship and embraces community-driven innovation, and, on the other, a smart city that welcomes the possibility of Future Internet and related technology-driven innovations, such as Open Data, Internet of Things and Living Labs offer. The biggest challenges cities face is not the technology, but having an open mindset and a participatory attitude to rethink our future is far more challenging.
Keywords: Co-creative partnerships; empowerment; open mindset; participatory citizenship; social change; transformation design; transforming society
The Design Process of an Urban Experience BIBAKFull-Text 575-582
  Anne Nigten
In this paper we will be investigating the relevance of artistic practice-based research as a design method for interactive co-design works. Our study is based on Are You for Real?, an urban co-creation project which was developed by a cross-disciplinary project team with co-design contributions by students and youngsters. Although this case study was initially developed with and for youngsters and students of a technical vocational school, its design and creation approach addressed assumptions that are expected to be valuable for professionals as well as for educators in higher education. This study could contribute to people's understanding of 'real-life' research methods for 'real-life' situations. For our reference framework we identified two issues that were brought forward as impediments for new cross-disciplinary courses that dealt with interactive works in a public space. Following that, the lessons learned from our investigation are suggested as input for the next editions of these courses.
Keywords: Design principles and guidelines for Distributed; Ambient and Pervasive Interactions; Social Interaction; Art; Design.
Small Scale Collaborative Services: The Role of Design in the Development of the Human Smart City Paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 583-592
  Francesca Rizzo; Alessandro Deserti
Cities are facing disruptive challenges today. All these require smarter solutions and are creating pressure for the public and private sector to deliver innovative services and great expectations are put in the new Smart City paradigm. Most of these solutions keep technologies out of the urban environments, far from being considered components of the urban functioning and, furthermore, even farer from people and their urban spaces. In this framework design is today re-orienting its theories and practices to new kind of design contexts (neighborhoods, streets, squares, cities) where societal challenges are emerging that require different level of changes from everyday life to huge public institutions and complex organizations. This re-orientation is based on a different smart city paradigm that puts people at the center of the cities smartness and recognizes the need for developing micro and contextualized solutions to address larger cities problems in a sociable mode.
Keywords: Service Design; Complex Participatory Design; Human Smart City; Small Experiments; Collaborative Services
A Methodology for Gamifying Smart Cities: Navigating Human Behavior and Attitude BIBAKFull-Text 593-604
  Mizuki Sakamoto; Tatsuo Nakajima; Sayaka Akioka
We are now living in smart cities, where information technologies enhance our everyday life. For example, our energy management and traffic management have become smarter, making our daily lives more convenient and efficient. However, from a citizen's point of view, a person's happiness needs to be more important than achieving efficient and convenient smart city infrastructures. This is, in particular, an essential issue for achieving human-centered smart city design. In this paper, we present our methodology to gamify smart city services. Our methodology consists of three tools, one model and two infrastructures. The tools contain the value-based design framework, the personality-based analysis framework, and the reality-based analysis framework. The model is named the GamiMedia model, and the infrastructures include the Virtual Form infrastructure and the Digital-Physical Hybrid Role-Playing infrastructure. The methodology to gamify smart city services is extracted from our long experiences with building applications services and middleware infrastructures for ubiquitous computing environments.
Keywords: Human behavior and attitude; Agency; Immersion; Procedural rhetoric; Transmedia
U.App: An Urban Application Design Environment Based on Citizen Workshops BIBAKFull-Text 605-616
  Tomoyo Sasao; Shin'ichi Konomi
Designing usable applications for coping with civic challenges can be extremely difficult without an appropriate design environment. We explore a novel application design process based on the analysis of real citizen workshops, and propose U.App, a design environment that allows citizens to create urban applications based on the process. We expect that the proposed environment will facilitate citizens' daily activities for addressing urban issues and extend the possibility of citizen-centered mobile applications.
Keywords: urban application; citizen workshop; application design platform
Meaningful Interactions in a Smart City BIBAKFull-Text 617-628
  Peter van Waart; Ingrid Mulder
A city is a public space where people find meaning by living together. Although cities are governed by city councils, it is mainly the citizens that make their own city. The contemporary cityscape is increasingly pervaded with emerging media. Recent invasions of interactive media in the cityscape, however, are to a large extent commercial broadcasting systems that do not encourage interaction and communication among citizens. This is not trivial; the public space is the city's medium for communication with its citizens. The current work derives from the notion that interactive media can be used to enrich people's lives in a meaningful way. In three design cases is illustrated how the symbolic level of interactions is of major importance for designing meaningful interactions in cities.
Keywords: Smart city; interaction design; meaning; human values
A Smart City Case Study: Dynamic Management of Road Lanes BIBAKFull-Text 629-640
  Chen Wang; Bertrand David; René Chalon
The SMART CITY is an important field for ubiquitous computing (UC), ambient intelligence (AmI), connected vehicles (CV), and new styles of User Interfaces, mainly mobile. Data vitalization related to in-city data collection and their appropriate diffusion to city actors (private and professional) and their services (applications) is one issue. In a more precise and specific context of dynamic lane allocation system, which is presented in this paper, we describe the use of Location-Based services and Internet of Things, as well as the User Interfaces proposed. A simulation environment allows us to conduct a first validation of the system and to study acceptability of User Interfaces before in-the-field deployment.
Keywords: smart city; ambient intelligence; ubiquitous computing; data vitalization; location-based services; mobile internet; internet of things; dynamic lane allocation