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CHI Tables of Contents: 05-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-114-215-1

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceeding of the twenty-eighth international conference on Human factors in computing systems
Note:We Are CHI
Editors:Elizabeth Mynatt; Don Schoner; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Scott Hudson; Keith Edwards; Tom Rodden
Location:Atlanta, Georgia
Dates:2010-Apr-10 to 2010-Apr-15
Standard No:ISBN 1-60558-929-2, 978-1-60558-929-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI10-1
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2010-04-10 Volume 1
    1. EPIC #FAIL
    2. Exploratory search
    3. Making meaning in large displays
    4. Multitasking
    5. Organizations and communities
    6. Privacy awareness and attitudes
    7. Social support for cancer patients
    8. Visualization
    9. Games and players
    10. Interfaces and visualization
    11. Language 2.0
    12. Market models for Q&A services
    13. Mobile device interaction
    14. Privacy behaviors
    15. The age of searching
    16. The infrastructure problem in HCI
    17. Computing on the body
    18. Dance, dust, and drama: designing design
    19. End-user programming I
    20. Organizing and organizations
    21. Performance, stagecraft, and magic
    22. Speech and touch
    23. Writing in the real world
    24. At home with computing
    25. Browsing
    26. End-user programming II
    27. HCI and India
    28. Sharing in social media
    29. Tactile interaction
    30. User characteristics and large-scale tracking
    31. Brains and brawn
    32. Gesturing and drawing
    33. Medical exploration
    34. Sense and sustainability
    35. Sharing content and searches
    36. Tagging
    37. Understanding and supporting programming
    38. Avatars and virtual environments
    39. Crisis informatics
    40. Input, security, and privacy policies
    41. Seniors using technologies
    42. Tangible UI
    43. Understanding comments
    44. Caring for ourselves
    45. Communicating
    46. Driving, interrupted
    47. HCI for all
    48. Interaction techniques
    49. Machine learning and web interactions
    50. Pointing and selecting
    51. Bang a table
    52. Expressing and understanding opinions in social media
    53. Humans and sociability
    54. Looking with video
    55. Pixels and perception
    56. Privacy
    57. Storytelling
    58. Classroom technologies
    59. Devising input
    60. Expertise
    61. Interactions in the world
    62. Sound and speech
    63. Using your social network
    64. Working with medical records
    65. Bikes and buses
    66. Death and fear
    67. Earth, wind, and flyer
    68. Medical data
    69. Social media users
    70. Subtle expressions through sound and text
    71. Tools affecting the enterprise
    72. Mapping the landscape of sustainable HCI
    73. Home eco behavior
    74. On the phone
    75. Remember and reflect
    76. Sharing in specific communities
    77. Something eye catching
    78. Therapy and rehabilitation
    79. Everyday gestures
    80. HCI in China
    81. Multitouch
    82. Perspectives on design
    83. Public displays
    84. Sensing
    85. Usability methods and new domains
    86. We are family
    87. 1001 users
    88. Cooking, classrooms, and craft
    89. Displays where you least expect them
    90. Domestic life
    91. Finding your mojo and doing some good
    92. Software understanding and maintenance
    93. Users and attention on the web
    94. Going to the mall: shopping and product design
    95. Graphs
    96. HCI and the developing world
    97. No touch

CHI 2010-04-10 Volume 1


Estimating residual error rate in recognized handwritten documents using artificial error injection BIBAKFull-Text 1-4
  Edward Lank; Ryan Stedman; Michael Terry
Both handwriting recognition systems and their users are error prone. Handwriting recognizers make recognition errors, and users may miss those errors when verifying output. As a result, it is common for recognized documents to contain residual errors. Unfortunately, in some application domains (e.g. health informatics), tolerance for residual errors in recognized handwriting may be very low, and a desire might exist to maximize user accuracy during verification. In this paper, we present a technique that allows us to measure the performance of a user verifying recognizer output. We inject artificial errors into a set of recognized handwritten forms and show that the rate of injected errors and recognition errors caught is highly correlated in real time. Systems supporting user verification can make use of this measure of user accuracy in a variety of ways. For example, they can force users to slow down or can highlight injected errors that were missed, thus encouraging users to take more care.
Keywords: artificial error, handwriting recognition, residual error
Predicting the cost of error correction in character-based text entry technologies BIBAKFull-Text 5-14
  Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Researchers have developed many models to predict and understand human performance in text entry. Most of the models are specific to a technology or fail to account for human factors and variations in system parameters, and the relationship between them. Moreover, the process of fixing errors and its effects on text entry performance has not been studied. Here, we first analyze real-life text entry error correction behaviors. We then use our findings to develop a new model to predict the cost of error correction for character-based text entry technologies. We validate our model against quantities derived from the literature, as well as with a user study. Our study shows that the predicted and observed cost of error correction correspond well. At the end, we discuss potential applications of our new model.
Keywords: cognitive model, error correction, error rate, hand-held devices, mobile phone, performance metric, prediction, text entry
SHRIMP: solving collision and out of vocabulary problems in mobile predictive input with motion gesture BIBAKFull-Text 15-24
  Jingtao Wang; Shumin Zhai; John Canny
Dictionary-based disambiguation (DBD) is a very popular solution for text entry on mobile phone keypads but suffers from two problems: 1. the resolution of encoding collision (two or more words sharing the same numeric key sequence) and 2. entering out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words. In this paper, we present SHRIMP, a system and method that addresses these two problems by integrating DBD with camera based motion sensing that enables the user to express preference through a tilting or movement gesture. SHRIMP (Small Handheld Rapid Input with Motion and Prediction) runs on camera phones equipped with a standard 12-key keypad. SHRIMP maintains the speed advantage of DBD driven predictive text input while enabling the user to overcome DBD collision and OOV problems seamlessly without even a mode switch. An initial empirical study demonstrates that SHRIMP can be learned very quickly, performed immediately faster than MultiTap and handled OOV words more efficiently than DBD.
Keywords: camera phones, dictionary-based disambiguation, gestures, mobile devices, mobile phones, multitap, predictive input, t9, text input

Exploratory search

Reactive information foraging for evolving goals BIBAKFull-Text 25-34
  Joseph Lawrance; Margaret Burnett; Rachel Bellamy; Christopher Bogart; Calvin Swart
Information foraging models have predicted the navigation paths of people browsing the web and (more recently) of programmers while debugging, but these models do not explicitly model users' goals evolving over time. We present a new information foraging model called PFIS2 that does model information seeking with potentially evolving goals. We then evaluated variants of this model in a field study that analyzed programmers' daily navigations over a seven-month period. Our results were that PFIS2 predicted users' navigation remarkably well, even though the goals of navigation, and even the information landscape itself, were changing markedly during the pursuit of information.
Keywords: field study, information foraging theory, programming
How does search behavior change as search becomes more difficult? BIBAKFull-Text 35-44
  Anne Aula; Rehan M. Khan; Zhiwei Guan
Search engines make it easy to check facts online, but finding some specific kinds of information sometimes proves to be difficult. We studied the behavioral signals that suggest that a user is having trouble in a search task. First, we ran a lab study with 23 users to gain a preliminary understanding on how users' behavior changes when they struggle finding the information they're looking for. The observations were then tested with 179 participants who all completed an average of 22.3 tasks from a pool of 100 tasks. The large-scale study provided quantitative support for our qualitative observations from the lab study. When having difficulty in finding information, users start to formulate more diverse queries, they use advanced operators more, and they spend a longer time on the search result page as compared to the successful tasks. The results complement the existing body of research focusing on successful search strategies.
Keywords: behavioral signals, difficult search tasks, search engines, search strategies, web search
Effects of popularity and quality on the usage of query suggestions during information search BIBAKFull-Text 45-54
  Diane Kelly; Amber Cushing; Maureen Dostert; Xi Niu; Karl Gyllstrom
Many search systems provide users with recommended queries during online information seeking. Although usage statistics are often used to recommend queries, this information is usually not displayed to the user. In this study, we investigate how the presentation of this information impacts use of query suggestions. Twenty-three subjects used an experimental search system to find documents about four topics. Eight query suggestions were provided for each topic: four were high quality queries and four were low quality queries. Fake usage information indicating how many other people used the queries was also provided. For half the queries this information was high and for the other half this information was low. Results showed that subjects could distinguish between high and low quality queries and were not influenced by the usage information. Qualitative data revealed that subjects felt favorable about the suggestions, but the usage information was less important for the search task used in this study.
Keywords: query popularity, query quality, query recommendation, query suggestion, search behavior, social search, usage

Making meaning in large displays

Space to think: large high-resolution displays for sensemaking BIBAKFull-Text 55-64
  Christopher Andrews; Alex Endert; Chris North
Space supports human cognitive abilities in a myriad of ways. The note attached to the side of the monitor, the papers spread out on the desk, diagrams scrawled on a whiteboard, and even the keys left out on the counter are all examples of using space to recall, reveal relationships, and think. Technological advances have made it possible to construct large display environments in which space has real meaning. This paper examines how increased space affects the way displays are regarded and used within the context of the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. A pair of studies were conducted demonstrating how the spatial environment supports sensemaking by becoming part of the distributed cognitive process, providing both external memory and a semantic layer.
Keywords: high-resolution displays, large
Effects of interior bezels of tiled-monitor large displays on visual search, tunnel steering, and target selection BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  Xiaojun Bi; Seok-Hyung Bae; Ravin Balakrishnan
Tiled-monitor large displays are widely used in various application domains. However, how their interior bezels affect user performance and behavior has not been fully understood. We conducted three controlled experiments to investigate effects of tiled-monitor interior bezels on visual search, straight-tunnel steering, and target selection tasks. The conclusions of our paper are: 1) interior bezels do not affect visual search time nor error rate; however, splitting objects across bezels is detrimental to search accuracy, 2) interior bezels are detrimental to straight-tunnel steering, but not to target selection. In addition, we discuss how interior bezels affect user behaviors, and suggest guidelines for effectively using tiled-monitor large displays and designing user interfaces suited to them.
Keywords: interior bezels, target selection, tiled-monitor large display, tunnel steering, visual search
Let's go from the whiteboard: supporting transitions in work through whiteboard capture and reuse BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Stacy Branham; Gene Golovchinsky; Scott Carter; Jacob T. Biehl
The use of whiteboards is pervasive across a wide range of work domains. But some of the qualities that make them successful -- an intuitive interface, physical working space, and easy erasure -- inherently make them poor tools for archival and reuse. If whiteboard content could be made available in times and spaces beyond those supported by the whiteboard alone, how might it be appropriated? We explore this question via ReBoard, a system that automatically captures whiteboard images and makes them accessible through a novel set of user-centered access tools. Through the lens of a seven week workplace field study, we found that by enabling new workflows, ReBoard increased the value of whiteboard content for collaboration.
Keywords: information reuse and sharing, whiteboards, workflow


Multitasking and monotasking: the effects of mental workload on deferred task interruptions BIBAKFull-Text 85-88
  Dario D. Salvucci; Peter Bogunovich
Recent research has found that forced interruptions at points of higher mental workload are more disruptive than at points of lower workload. This paper investigates a complementary idea: when users experience deferrable interruptions at points of higher workload, they may tend to defer processing of the interruption until times of lower workload. In an experiment, users performed a mail-browser primary task while being occasionally interrupted by a secondary chat task, evenly distributed between points of higher and lower workload. Analysis showed that 94% of the time, users switched to the interrupting task during periods of lower workload, versus only 6% during periods of higher workload. The results suggest that when interruptions can be deferred, users have a strong tendency to ''monotask'' until primary-task mental workload has been minimized.
Keywords: attention, chat, instant messaging, interruption, multitasking, problem state
On reconstruction of task context after interruption BIBAKFull-Text 89-92
  Dario D. Salvucci
Theoretical accounts of task resumption after interruption have almost exclusively argued for resumption as a primarily memory-based process. In contrast, for many task domains, resumption can more accurately be represented in terms of a process of reconstruction-perceptual re-encoding of the information necessary to perform the task. This paper discusses a theoretical, computational framework in which one can represent these reconstruction processes and account for aspects of performance, such as measures of resumption lag. The paper also describes computational models of two sample task domains that illustrate the sometimes complex relationship between reconstruction and more general human cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes.
Keywords: attention, interruption, multitasking, problem state
Evaluating cues for resuming interrupted programming tasks BIBAKFull-Text 93-102
  Chris Parnin; Robert DeLine
Developers, like all modern knowledge workers, are frequently interrupted and blocked in their tasks. In this paper we present a contextual inquiry into developers' current strategies for resuming interrupted tasks and investigate the effect of automated cues on improving task resumption. We surveyed 371 programmers on the nature of their tasks, interruptions, task suspension and resumption strategies and found that they rely heavily on note-taking across several types of media. We then ran a controlled lab study to compare the effects of two different automated cues to note taking when resuming interrupted programming tasks. The two cues differed in (1) whether activities were summarized in aggregate or presented chronologically and (2) whether activities were presented as program symbols or as code snippets. Both cues performed well: developers using either cue completed their tasks with twice the success rate as those using note-taking alone. Despite the similar performance of the cues, developers strongly preferred the cue that presents activities chronologically as code snippets.
Keywords: cues, interruptions, task resumption
Multitasking bar: prototype and evaluation of introducing the task concept into a browser BIBAKFull-Text 103-112
  Qing Wang; Huiyou Chang
This paper clarifies two common patterns of multitasking on the Web, namely Multiple Tasks (MT) and Multiple Session Task (MST). To support both of these, the task concept needs to be introduced into a browser. An online pilot survey has revealed which attributes of the task concept are most significant to Web users and as a result a simple prototype, the Multitasking Bar (MB), is proposed based on these findings. The MB copes with the multitasking needs of both MT and MST in the browser by providing functions for task related Web page management and task schedule management. A two-session controlled experiment has been conducted to evaluate the MB and to compare user performance and experience when multitasking on the Web with and without support for MT and MST. Results show that support for both MST and MT significantly improves user task performance efficiency and greatly enhances the user experience when multitasking on the Web.
Keywords: browser, multiple sessions task, multitasking, revisitation, tasks

Organizations and communities

Across boundaries of influence and accountability: the multiple scales of public sector information systems BIBAKFull-Text 113-122
  Christopher A. Le Dantec; W. Keith Edwards
The use of ICTs in the public sector has long been touted for its potential to transform the institutions that govern and provide social services. The focus, however, has largely been on systems that are used within particular scales of the public sector, such as at the scale of state or national government, the scale of regional or municipal entity, or at the scale of local service providers. The work presented here takes aim at examining ICT use that crosses these scales of influence and accountability. We report on a year long ethnographic investigation conducted at a variety of social service outlets to understand how a shared information system crosses the boundaries of these very distinct organizations. We put forward that such systems are central to the work done in the public sector and represent a class of collaborative work that has gone understudied.
Keywords: cooperative work, field study, organizational boundaries, public sector
A case study of micro-blogging in the enterprise: use, value, and related issues BIBAKFull-Text 123-132
  Jun Zhang; Yan Qu; Jane Cody; Yulingling Wu
This is a case study about the early adoption and use of micro-blogging in a Fortune 500 company. The study used several independent data sources: five months of empirical micro-blogging data, user demographic information from corporate HR records, a web based survey, and targeted interviews. The results revealed that users vary in their posting activities, reading behaviors, and perceived benefits. The analysis also identified barriers to adoption, such as the noise-to-value ratio paradoxes. The findings can help both practitioners and scholars build an initial understanding of how knowledge workers are likely to use micro-blogging in the enterprise.
Keywords: enterprise, micro-blogging, social media, twitter, yammer
Student socialization in the age of Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Louise Barkhuus; Juliana Tashiro
Most research regarding online social networks such as Facebook, MySpace, Linked-In and Friendster has looked at these networks in terms of activity within the online network, such as profile management and friending behavior. In this paper we are instead focusing on offline socializing structures around an online social network (exemplified by Facebook) and how this can facilitate in-person social life for students. Because students lead nomadic lives, they find Facebook a particularly useful tool for initiating and managing social gatherings, and as they adopt mobile technologies that can access online social networks, their ad-hoc social life is further enabled. We conclude that online social networks are a powerful tool for encouraging peripheral friendships, important in particular to students. We emphasize that the use of online social networks must be viewed from a perspective of use that involves both mobile and stationary platforms and that it is important to relate online and offline social practices.
Keywords: Facebook, mobile applications, social networking, ubiquitous computing

Privacy awareness and attitudes

Independence and interaction: understanding seniors' privacy and awareness needs for aging in place BIBAKFull-Text 143-152
  Jeremy Birnholtz; McKenzie Jones-Rounds
As America's baby boom population gets older, aging in place -- the idea that seniors can remain independent in a comfortable home environment while being monitored and receiving care from family and caregivers living elsewhere -- has received significant attention. Fostering a sense of independence while simultaneously enabling monitoring and frequent interaction can seem paradoxical, however. This raises questions of how we can design technologies that help seniors retain their independence and a sense of comfort, while still interacting with and being monitored regularly by others. We present results from an interview study of 30 seniors, caregivers and relatives in which we sought to understand how they managed their interactions, availability, privacy and independence. Results suggest that they rely on attributes of the physical environment, temporal structures such as routine conversations and activities, and technological mediation.
Keywords: aging in place, awareness, home, privacy, seniors
Contravision: exploring users' reactions to futuristic technology BIBAKFull-Text 153-162
  Clara Mancini; Yvonne Rogers; Arosha K. Bandara; Tony Coe; Lukasz Jedrzejczyk; Adam N. Joinson; Blaine A. Price; Keerthi Thomas; Bashar Nuseibeh
How can we best explore the range of users' reactions when developing future technologies that may be controversial, such as personal healthcare systems? Our approach -- ContraVision -- uses futuristic videos, or other narrative forms, that convey either negative or positive aspects of the proposed technology for the same scenarios. We conducted a user study to investigate what range of responses the different versions elicited. Our findings show that the use of two systematically comparable representations of the same technology can elicit a wider spectrum of reactions than a single representation can. We discuss why this is so and the value of obtaining breadth in user feedback for potentially controversial technologies.
Keywords: contravision, narrative, personal technology, pervasive healthcare, representation, user studies, video
I don't mind being logged, but want to remain in control: a field study of mobile activity and context logging BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Tuula Kärkkäinen; Tuomas Vaittinen; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
People have a natural tendency to capture and share their experiences via stories, photos and other mementos. As users are increasingly carrying the enabling devices with them, capturing life events is becoming more spontaneous. The automatic and persistent collecting of information about one's life and behavior is called lifelogging. Lifelogging relieves the user from manually capturing events but also poses many challenges from the user's perspective. We conducted a field study to explore the user experience of mobile phone activity and context logging, a technically feasible form of lifelogging. Our results indicate that users quickly stop to pay attention to the logging, but they want to be in control of logging the most private information. Although logging personal content, such as text messages, is experienced as a possible privacy threat, browsing the content and getting insight to the revealed life patterns was considered interesting and fun.
Keywords: context, field study, lifelogging, mobile phone activity, user experience

Social support for cancer patients

Catalyzing social support for breast cancer patients BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Meredith M. Skeels; Kenton T. Unruh; Christopher Powell; Wanda Pratt
Social support is a critical, yet underutilized resource when undergoing cancer care. Underutilization occurs in two conditions: (a) when patients fail to seek out information, material assistance, and emotional support from family and friends or (b) when family and friends fail to meet the individualized needs and preferences of patients. Social networks are most effective when kept up to date on the patient's status, yet updating everyone takes effort that patients cannot always put in. To improve this situation, we describe the results of our participatory design activities with breast cancer patients. During this process, we uncovered the information a social network needs to stay informed as well as a host of barriers to social support that technology could help break down. Our resulting prototype, built using Facebook Connect, includes explicit features to reduce these barriers and thus, promote the healthy outcomes associated with strong social support.
Keywords: health consumers, participatory design, social network
Transforming clinic environments into information workspaces for patients BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Kenton T. Unruh; Meredith Skeels; Andrea Civan-Hartzler; Wanda Pratt
Although clinic environments are a primary location for exchanging information with clinicians, patients experience these spaces as harsh environments to access, use, exchange, and manage information. In this paper, we present results from an ethnographic-inspired study of breast cancer patients actively interacting with information in clinic environments. Through observations and interviews, we observed information interactions in awkward physical positions; inefficient use of existing clinical space; separation of patients from their information and lack of support for collaborative document viewing. These factors compromised patients' abilities to manage their information work when they experienced bursts of information exchange, lack of advance information, fragmented attention, and heightened stress in clinic environments. To overcome these challenges, we identify formative strategies to focus attention, encourage collaboration, and improve communication in clinical settings.
Keywords: collaboration, cscw, medical informatics, personal health informatics, surface computing
Blowing in the wind: unanchored patient information work during cancer care BIBAKFull-Text 193-202
  Predrag Klasnja; Andrea Civan Hartzler; Kent T. Unruh; Wanda Pratt
Patients do considerable information work. Technologies that help patients manage health information so they can play active roles in their health-care, such as personal health records, provide patients with effective support for focused and sustained personal health tasks. Yet, little attention has been paid to patients' needs for information management support while on the go and away from their personal health information collections. Through a qualitative field study, we investigated the information work that breast cancer patients do in such 'unanchored settings'. We report on the types of unanchored information work that patients do over the course of cancer treatment, reasons this work is challenging, and strategies used by patients to overcome those challenges. Our description of unanchored patient information work expands our understanding of patients' information practices and points to valuable design directions for supporting critical but unmet needs.
Keywords: mobile computing, personal health informatics, user study


Crowdsourcing graphical perception: using mechanical turk to assess visualization design BIBAKFull-Text 203-212
  Jeffrey Heer; Michael Bostock
Understanding perception is critical to effective visualization design. With its low cost and scalability, crowdsourcing presents an attractive option for evaluating the large design space of visualizations; however, it first requires validation. In this paper, we assess the viability of Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a platform for graphical perception experiments. We replicate previous studies of spatial encoding and luminance contrast and compare our results. We also conduct new experiments on rectangular area perception (as in treemaps or cartograms) and on chart size and gridline spacing. Our results demonstrate that crowdsourced perception experiments are viable and contribute new insights for visualization design. Lastly, we report cost and performance data from our experiments and distill recommendations for the design of crowdsourced studies.
Keywords: crowdsourcing, evaluation, experimentation, graphical perception, information visualization, mechanical turk, user study
ManyNets: an interface for multiple network analysis and visualization BIBAKFull-Text 213-222
  Manuel Freire; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman; Jen Golbeck
Traditional network analysis tools support analysts in studying a single network. ManyNets offers these analysts a powerful new approach that enables them to work on multiple networks simultaneously. Several thousand networks can be presented as rows in a tabular visualization, and then inspected, sorted and filtered according to their attributes. The networks to be displayed can be obtained by subdivision of larger networks. Examples of meaningful subdivisions used by analysts include ego networks, community extraction, and time-based slices. Cell visualizations and interactive column overviews allow analysts to assess the distribution of attributes within particular sets of networks. Details, such as traditional node-link diagrams, are available on demand. We describe a case study analyzing a social network geared towards film recommendations by means of decomposition. A small usability study provides feedback on the use of the interface on a set of tasks issued from the case study.
Keywords: exploratory analysis, graphical user interface, information visualization, interaction, network analysis, table interface
A comparative evaluation on tree visualization methods for hierarchical structures with large fan-outs BIBAKFull-Text 223-232
  Hyunjoo Song; Bohyoung Kim; Bongshin Lee; Jinwook Seo
Hierarchical structures with large fan-outs are hard to browse and understand. In the conventional node-link tree visualization, the screen quickly becomes overcrowded as users open nodes that have too many child nodes to fit in one screen. To address this problem, we propose two extensions to the conventional node-link tree visualization: a list view with a scrollbar and a multi-column interface. We compared them against the conventional tree visualization interface in a user study. Results show that users are able to browse and understand the tree structure faster with the multi-column interface than the other two interfaces. Overall, they also liked the multi-column better than others.
Keywords: browsing, evaluation, large fan-outs, multi-column layout, revisit, topology, tree visualization

Games and players

The rogue in the lovely black dress: intimacy in World of Warcraft BIBAKFull-Text 233-242
  Tyler Pace; Shaowen Bardzell; Jeffrey Bardzell
In this paper we present a critical analysis of player accounts of intimacy and intimate experiences in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game World of Warcraft (WoW). Our analysis explores four characteristics that players articulated about their virtual intimate experiences: the permeability of intimacy across virtual and real worlds, the mundane as the origin of intimacy, the significance of reciprocity and exchange, and the formative role of temporality in shaping understandings and recollections of intimate experiences. We also consider the manifest ways that WoW's software features support and encourage these characteristics.
Keywords: intimacy, massively multiplayer online games, reciprocity, sociability, virtual worlds, World of Warcraft
Physical activity motivating games: virtual rewards for real activity BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  Shlomo Berkovsky; Mac Coombe; Jill Freyne; Dipak Bhandari; Nilufar Baghaei
Contemporary lifestyle has become increasingly sedentary: little physical (sports, exercises) and much sedentary (TV, computers) activity. The nature of sedentary activity is self-reinforcing, such that increasing physical and decreasing sedentary activity is difficult. We present a novel approach aimed at combating this problem in the context of computer games. Rather than explicitly changing the amount of physical and sedentary activity a person sets out to perform, we propose a new game design that leverages user engagement to generate out of game motivation to perform physical activity while playing. In our design, players gain virtual game rewards in return for real physical activity performed. Here we present and evaluate an application of our design to the game Neverball. We adapted Neverball by reducing the time allocated to accomplish the game tasks and motivated players to perform physical activity by offering time based rewards. An empirical evaluation involving 180 participants shows that the participants performed more physical activity, decreased the amount of sedentary playing time, and did not report a decrease in perceived enjoyment of playing the activity motivating version of Neverball.
Keywords: behavioural change, game design, motivation, physical activity, serious games, user study
Understanding and evaluating cooperative games BIBAKFull-Text 253-262
  Magy Seif El-Nasr; Bardia Aghabeigi; David Milam; Mona Erfani; Beth Lameman; Hamid Maygoli; Sang Mah
Cooperative design has been an integral part of many games. With the success of games like Left4Dead, many game designers and producers are currently exploring the addition of cooperative patterns within their games. Unfortunately, very little research investigated cooperative patterns or methods to evaluate them. In this paper, we present a set of cooperative patterns identified based on analysis of fourteen cooperative games. Additionally, we propose Cooperative Performance Metrics (CPM). To evaluate the use of these CPMs, we ran a study with a total of 60 participants, grouped in 2-3 participants per session. Participants were asked to play four cooperative games (Rock Band 2, Lego Star Wars, Kameo, and Little Big Planet). Videos of the play sessions were annotated using the CPMs, which were then mapped to cooperative patterns that caused them. Results, validated through inter-rater agreement, identify several effective cooperative patterns and lessons for future cooperative game designs.
Keywords: cooperative game design, cooperative patterns, engagement, game design, testing, user experience

Interfaces and visualization

Occlusion-aware interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 263-272
  Daniel Vogel; Ravin Balakrishnan
We define occlusion-aware interfaces as interaction techniques which know what area of the display is currently occluded, and use this knowledge to counteract potential problems and/or utilize the hidden area. As a case study, we describe the Occlusion-Aware Viewer, which identifies important regions hidden beneath the hand and displays them in a non-occluded area using a bubble-like callout. To determine what is important, we use an application agnostic image processing layer. For the occluded area, we use a user configurable, real-time version of Vogel et al.'s [21] geometric model. In an evaluation with a simultaneous monitoring task, we find the technique can successfully mitigate the effects of occlusion, although issues with ambiguity and stability suggest further refinements. Finally, we present designs for three other occlusion-aware techniques for pop-ups, dragging, and a hidden widget.
Keywords: Occlusion, hand, image processing, pen
High-precision magnification lenses BIBAKFull-Text 273-282
  Caroline Appert; Olivier Chapuis; Emmanuel Pietriga
Focus+context interfaces provide in-place magnification of a region of the display, smoothly integrating the focus of attention into its surroundings. Two representations of the data exist simultaneously at two different scales, providing an alternative to classical pan & zoom for navigating multi-scale interfaces. For many practical applications however, the magnification range of focus+context techniques is too limited. This paper addresses this limitation by exploring the quantization problem: the mismatch between visual and motor precision in the magnified region. We introduce three new interaction techniques that solve this problem by
   integrating fast navigation and high-precision interaction in the magnified region. Speed couples precision to navigation speed. Key and Ring use a discrete switch between precision levels, the former using a keyboard modifier, the latter by decoupling the cursor from the lens' center. We report on three experiments showing that our techniques make interacting with lenses easier while increasing the range of practical magnification factors, and that performance can be further improved by integrating speed-dependent visual behaviors.
Keywords: focus+context, lenses, navigation, quantization, selection
Quasi-qwerty soft keyboard optimization BIBAKFull-Text 283-286
  Xiaojun Bi; Barton A. Smith; Shumin Zhai
It has been well understood that optimized soft keyboard layouts improve motor movement efficiency over the standard Qwerty layouts, but have the drawback of long initial visual search time for novice users. To ease the initial searching time on optimized soft keyboards, we explored "Quasi-Qwerty optimization" so that the resulting layouts are close to Qwerty. Our results show that a middle ground between the optimized but new, and the familiar (Qwerty) but inefficient does exist. We show that by allowing letters to move at most one step (key) away from their original positions on Qwerty in an optimization process, one can achieve about half of what free optimization could gain in movement efficiency. An experiment shows that due to users' familiarity with Qwerty, a layout with quasi Qwerty optimization could significantly reduce novice user's visual search time to a level between those of Qwerty and a freely optimized layout. The results in this work provide designers with a new quantitative understanding of the soft keyboard design space.
Keywords: optimization, qwerty, soft keyboard, touch screens

Language 2.0

An unobtrusive behavioral model of "gross national happiness" BIBAKFull-Text 287-290
  Adam D. I. Kramer
I analyze the use of emotion words for approximately 100 million Facebook users since September of 2007. "Gross national happiness" is operationalized as a standardized difference between the use of positive and negative words, aggregated across days, and present a graph of this metric. I begin to validate this metric by showing that positive and negative word use in status updates covaries with self-reported satisfaction with life (convergent validity), and also note that the graph shows peaks and valleys on days that are culturally and emotionally significant (face validity). I discuss the development and computation of this metric, argue that this metric and graph serves as a representation of the overall emotional health of the nation, and discuss the importance of tracking such metrics.
Keywords: emotion, Facebook, gross national happiness, psychology, quantitative methods, statistics
The tower of Babel meets web 2.0: user-generated content and its applications in a multilingual context BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Brent Hecht; Darren Gergle
This study explores language's fragmenting effect on user-generated content by examining the diversity of knowledge representations across 25 different Wikipedia language editions. This diversity is measured at two levels: the concepts that are included in each edition and the ways in which these concepts are described. We demonstrate that the diversity present is greater than has been presumed in the literature and has a significant influence on applications that use Wikipedia as a source of world knowledge. We close by explicating how knowledge diversity can be beneficially leveraged to create "culturally-aware applications" and "hyperlingual applications".
Keywords: explicit semantic analysis, hyperlingual, knowledge diversity, language, multilingual, semantic relatedness, wikipedia
Indexicality of language and the art of creating treasures BIBAKFull-Text 301-304
  Matti J. Rantanen
The indexicality of language refers to the linkage between the language and the situation of use for determining the meaning of what is being said. In this paper I describe how a player of a location-based treasure hunt game called geocaching uses indexicality of language in creating clues when hiding treasures. Based on this account, the skill, I argue, in creating an exciting treasure depends on understanding the disjunction between the context in which the clue is first interpreted and the context in which it receives its final meaning. An interesting clue should therefore contain both a literal or conventional meaning and a situated meaning, and the situated meaning should only arise when the player is close enough to the treasure.
Keywords: context, field study, geocache, GPS (global positioning system), indexicality, language, location-based computing

Market models for Q&A services

Why pay?: exploring how financial incentives are used for question & answer BIBAKFull-Text 305-314
  Gary Hsieh; Robert E. Kraut; Scott E. Hudson
Electronic commerce has enabled a number of online pay-for-answer services. However, despite commercial interest, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how financial incentives support question asking and answering. Using 800 questions randomly selected from a pay-for-answer site, along with site usage statistics, we examined what factors impact askers' decisions to pay. We also explored how financial rewards affect answers, and if question pricing can help organize Q&A exchanges for archival purposes. We found that askers' decisions are two-part -- whether or not to pay and how much to pay. Askers are more likely to pay when requesting facts and will pay more when questions are more difficult. On the answer side, our results support prior findings that paying more may elicit a higher number of answers and answers that are longer, but may not elicit higher quality answers (as rated by the askers). Finally, we present evidence that questions with higher rewards have higher archival value, which suggests that pricing can be used to support archival use.
Keywords: market, pay-for-answer, q&a, question and answer, social computing
Hidden markets: UI design for a P2P backup application BIBAKFull-Text 315-324
  Sven Seuken; Kamal Jain; Desney S. Tan; Mary Czerwinski
The Internet has allowed market-based systems to become increasingly pervasive. In this paper we explore the role of user interface (UI) design for these markets. Different UIs induce different mental models which in turn determine how users understand and interact with a market. Thus, the intersection of UI design and economics is a novel and important research area. We make three contributions at this intersection. First, we present a novel design paradigm which we call hidden markets. The primary goal of hidden markets is to hide as much of the market complexities as possible. Second, we explore this new design paradigm using one particular example: a P2P backup application. We explain the market underlying this system and provide a detailed description of the new UI we developed. Third, we present results from a formative usability study. Our findings indicate that a number of users could benefit from a market-based P2P backup system. Most users intuitively understood the give & take principle as well as the bundle constraints of the market. However, the pricing aspect was difficult to discover/understand for many users and thus needs further investigation. Overall, the results are encouraging and show promise for the hidden market paradigm.
Keywords: economics, market design, p2p backup, UI design
Re-examining price as a predictor of answer quality in an online q&a site BIBAKFull-Text 325-328
  Grace YoungJoo Jeon; Yong-Mi Kim; Yan Chen
Online question-answering services provide mechanisms for knowledge exchange by allowing users to ask and answer questions on a wide range of topics. A key question for designing such services is whether charging a price has an effect on answer quality. Two field experiments using one such service, Google Answers, offer conflicting answers to this question. To resolve this inconsistency, we re-analyze data from Harper et al. [5] and Chen et al. [2] to study the price effect in greater depth. Decomposing the price effect into two different levels yields results that reconcile those of the two field experiments. Specifically, we find that: (1) a higher price significantly increases the likelihood that a question receives an answer and (2) for questions that receive an answer, there is no significant price effect on answer quality. Additionally, we find that the rater background makes a difference in evaluating answer quality.
Keywords: information exchange, information quality, knowledge market, online community, question-answering
Why users of yahoo!: answers do not answer questions BIBAKFull-Text 329-332
  David Dearman; Khai N. Truong
Posing a question to an online question and answer community does not guarantee a response. Significant prior work has explored and identified members' motivations for contributing to communities of collective action (e.g., Yahoo! Answers); in contrast it is not well understood why members choose to not answer a question they have already read. To explore this issue, we surveyed 135 active members of Yahoo! Answers. We show that top and regular contributors experience the same reasons to not answer a question: subject nature and composition of the question; perception of how the questioner will receive, interpret and react to their response; and a belief that their response will lose its meaning and get lost in the crowd if too many responses have already been given. Informed by our results, we discuss opportunities to improve the efficacy of the question and answer process, and to encourage greater contributions through improved design.
Keywords: community, motivation, q&a, question and answer

Mobile device interaction

Crosstrainer: testing the use of multimodal interfaces in situ BIBAKFull-Text 333-342
  Eve Hoggan; Stephen A. Brewster
We report the results of an exploratory 8-day field study of CrossTrainer: a mobile game with crossmodal audio and tactile feedback. Our research focuses on the longitudinal effects on performance with audio and tactile feedback, the impact of context such as location and situation on performance and personal modality preference. The results of this study indicate that crossmodal feedback can aid users in entering answers quickly and accurately using a variety of different widgets. Our study shows that there are times when audio is more appropriate than tactile and vice versa and for this reason devices should support both tactile and audio feedback to cover the widest range of environments, user preference, locations and tasks.
Keywords: audio feedback, crossmodal interaction, mobile touchscreen interaction, multimodal interaction, tactile feedback
Newport: enabling sharing during mobile calls BIBAKFull-Text 343-352
  Junius A. Gunaratne; A. J. Bernheim Brush
Newport is a collaborative application for sharing context (e.g. location) and content (e.g. photos and notes) during mobile phone calls. People can share during a phone call and sharing ends when the call ends. Newport also supports using a computer during a call to make it easier to share content from the phone or launch screen sharing if the caller is also at a computer. We describe Newport's system design and a formative evaluation with 12 participants to study their experience using Newport to share location, receive directions, share photos, and perform desktop sharing. Participants preferred using Newport to current methods for these tasks. They also preferred limiting sharing location to phone calls compared with publishing it continuously. Tying sharing to a phone call gives individuals a social sense of security, providing a mechanism for exchanging information with unknown people.
Keywords: collaboration, desktop sharing, mobile phone, sharing
Attractive phones don't have to work better: independent effects of attractiveness, effectiveness, and efficiency on perceived usability BIBAKFull-Text 353-362
  Jeffrey M. Quinn; Tuan Q. Tran
Participants sometimes rate products high in usability despite experiencing obvious usability problems (low effectiveness or efficiency). Is it possible that this occurs because high product attractiveness compensates for low effectiveness/efficiency? Previous research has not investigated the interplay between attractiveness, effectiveness, and efficiency to determine whether attractiveness accounts for additional variance in usability ratings beyond that which is explained by effectiveness and efficiency. The present research provides the first test of this idea. Using data from usability testing, we demonstrate that attractiveness, effectiveness, and efficiency each has an independent influence on usability ratings and, in the present research, attractiveness had the largest impact. We report results of quantitative analyses that suggest multiple mechanisms could be responsible for the relationship between attractiveness and usability.
Keywords: aesthetics, attractiveness, mobile phone, need for cognition, sus, system usability scale

Privacy behaviors

Using reinforcement to strengthen users' secure behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 363-372
  Ricardo Mark Villamarín-Salomón; José Carlos Brustoloni
Users have a strong tendency toward dismissing security dialogs unthinkingly. Prior research has shown that users' responses to security dialogs become significantly more thoughtful when dialogs are polymorphic, and that further improvements can be obtained when dialogs are also audited and auditors penalize users who give unreasonable responses. We contribute an Operant Conditioning model that fits these observations, and, inspired by the model, propose Security Reinforcing Applications (SRAs). SRAs seek to reward users' secure behavior, instead of penalizing insecure behavior. User studies show that SRAs improve users' secure behaviors and that behaviors strengthened in this way do not extinguish after a period of several weeks in which users do not interact with SRAs. Moreover, inspired by Social Learning theory, we propose Vicarious Security Reinforcement (VSR). A user study shows that VSR accelerates SRA benefits.
Keywords: audited dialogs, context-sensitive guidance, observational learning, operant conditioning, polymorphic dialogs, security-reinforcing application, social learning theory, vicarious learning, vicarious security reinforcement
Who falls for phish?: a demographic analysis of phishing susceptibility and effectiveness of interventions BIBAKFull-Text 373-382
  Steve Sheng; Mandy Holbrook; Ponnurangam Kumaraguru; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Julie Downs
In this paper we present the results of a roleplay survey instrument administered to 1001 online survey respondents to study both the relationship between demographics and phishing susceptibility and the effectiveness of several anti-phishing educational materials. Our results suggest that women are more susceptible than men to phishing and participants between the ages of 18 and 25 are more susceptible to phishing than other age groups. We explain these demographic factors through a mediation analysis. Educational materials reduced users' tendency to enter information into phishing webpages by 40% percent; however, some of the educational materials we tested also slightly decreased participants' tendency to click on legitimate links.
Keywords: mechanical turk, phishing, roleplay, social engineering, survey, user behavior
The true cost of unusable password policies: password use in the wild BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Philip G. Inglesant; M. Angela Sasse
HCI research published 10 years ago pointed out that many users cannot cope with the number and complexity of passwords, and resort to insecure workarounds as a consequence. We present a study which re-examined password policies and password practice in the workplace today.
   32 staff members in two organisations kept a password diary for 1 week, which produced a sample of 196 passwords. The diary was followed by an interview which covered details of each password, in its context of use.
   We find that users are in general concerned to maintain security, but that existing security policies are too inflexible to match their capabilities, and the tasks and contexts in which they operate. As a result, these password policies can place demands on users which impact negatively on their productivity and, ultimately, that of the organisation.
   We conclude that, rather than focussing password policies on maximizing password strength and enforcing frequency alone, policies should be designed using HCI principles to help the user to set an appropriately strong password in a specific context of use.
Keywords: password policy, passwords, usable security

The age of searching

Exploiting knowledge-in-the-head and knowledge-in-the-social-web: effects of domain expertise on exploratory search in individual and social search environments BIBAKFull-Text 393-402
  Ruogu Kang; Wai-Tat Fu; Thomas George Kannampallil
Our study compared how experts and novices performed exploratory search using a traditional search engine and a social tagging system. As expected, results showed that social tagging systems could facilitate exploratory search for both experts and novices. We, however, also found that experts were better at interpreting the social tags and generating search keywords, which made them better at finding information in both interfaces. Specifically, experts found more general information than novices by better interpretation of social tags in the tagging system; and experts also found more domain-specific information by generating more of their own keywords. We found a dynamic interaction between knowledge-in-the-head and knowledge-in-the-social-web that although information seekers are more and more reliant on information from the social Web, domain expertise is still important in guiding them to find and evaluate the information. Implications on the design of social search systems that facilitate exploratory search are also discussed.
Keywords: domain expertise, exploratory search, search behavior
Interactive effects of age and interface differences on search strategies and performance BIBAKFull-Text 403-412
  Jessie Chin; Wai-Tat Fu
We present results from an experiment that studied the information search behavior of younger and older adults in a medical decision-making task. To study how different combination of tasks and interfaces influenced search strategies and decision-making outcomes, we varied information structures of two interfaces and presented different task descriptions to participants. We found that younger adults tended to use different search strategies in different combination of tasks and interfaces, and older adults tended to use the same top-down strategies across conditions. We concluded that older adults were able to perform mental transformation of medical terms more effectively than younger adults. Thus older adults did not require changing strategies to maintain the same level of performance.
Keywords: age differences, cost-benefit analysis, interface affordance, knowledge structure, search strategies, web search
Children's roles using keyword search interfaces at home BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Allison Druin; Elizabeth Foss; Hilary Hutchinson; Evan Golub; Leshell Hatley
Children want to find information about their world, but there are barriers to finding what they seek. Young people have varying abilities to formulate multi-step queries and comprehend search results. Challenges in understanding where to type, confusion about what tools are available, and frustration with how to parse the results page all have led to a lack of perceived search success for children 7-11 years old. In this paper, we describe seven search roles children display as information seekers using Internet keyword interfaces, based on a home study of 83 children ages 7, 9, and 11. These roles are defined not only by the children's search actions, but also by who influences their searching, their perceived success, and trends in age and gender. These roles suggest a need for new interfaces that expand the notion of keywords, scaffold results, and develop a search culture among children.
Keywords: children, internet, query formulation, search, search engine, search results, typing

The infrastructure problem in HCI

The infrastructure problem in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 423-432
  W. Keith Edwards; Mark W. Newman; Erika Shehan Poole
HCI endeavors to create human-centered computer systems, but underlying technological infrastructures often stymie these efforts. We outline three specific classes of user experience difficulties caused by underlying technical infrastructures, which we term constrained possibilities, unmediated interaction, and interjected abstractions. We explore how prior approaches in HCI have addressed these issues, and discuss new approaches that will be required for future progress. We argue that the HCI community must become more deeply involved with the creation of technical infrastructures. Doing so, however, requires a substantial expansion to the methodological toolbox of HCI.
Keywords: human-centered design, infrastructure, toolkits

Computing on the body

BuzzWear: alert perception in wearable tactile displays on the wrist BIBAKFull-Text 433-442
  Seungyon Claire Lee; Thad Starner
We present two experiments to evaluate wrist-worn wearable tactile displays (WTDs) that provide easy to perceive alerts for on-the-go users. The first experiment (2304 trials, 12 participants) focuses on the perception sensitivity of tactile patterns and reveals that people discriminate our 24 tactile patterns with up to 99% accuracy after 40 minutes of training. Among the four parameters (intensity, starting point, temporal pattern, and direction) that vary in the 24 patterns, intensity is the most difficult parameter to distinguish and temporal pattern is the easiest. The second experiment (9900 trials, 15 participants) focuses on dual task performance, exploring users' abilities to perceive three incoming alerts from two mobile devices (WTD and mobile phone) with and without visual distraction. The second experiment reveals that, when visually distracted, users' reactions to incoming alerts become slower for the mobile phone but not for the WTD.
Keywords: attention, tactile display, wearable computing
i*CATch: a scalable plug-n-play wearable computing framework for novices and children BIBAKFull-Text 443-452
  Grace Ngai; Stephen C. F. Chan; Vincent T. Y. Ng; Joey C. Y. Cheung; Sam S. S. Choy; Winnie W. Y. Lau; Jason T. P. Tse
There has been much recent work in wearable computing that is directed at democratization of the field, to make it more accessible to the general public and more easily used by the hobbyist user. As the field becomes more diversified, there has also been a shift away from the highly specialized functionality of earlier applications towards aesthetics, creativity, design and self-expression, as well as a push towards using wearable computing as an outreach tool to broaden interest and exposure in engineering and computing.
   This paper presents the design and development of the i*CATch wearable computing framework, which was developed specifically for children and novices to the field. The i*CATch framework is based upon a bus-based architecture, and is more scalable than the current alternatives. It consists of a set of plug-and-play components, a construction platform with a standardized interface, and an easy-to-use hybrid text-graphical integrated development environment. We will also present results of the evaluation of the i*CATch framework in real teaching environments.
Keywords: computational textiles, construction kits, e-textiles, electronic textiles, i*catch, smart textiles, wearable computing
Skinput: appropriating the body as an input surface BIBAKFull-Text 453-462
  Chris Harrison; Desney Tan; Dan Morris
We present Skinput, a technology that appropriates the human body for acoustic transmission, allowing the skin to be used as an input surface. In particular, we resolve the location of finger taps on the arm and hand by analyzing mechanical vibrations that propagate through the body. We collect these signals using a novel array of sensors worn as an armband. This approach provides an always available, naturally portable, and on-body finger input system. We assess the capabilities, accuracy and limitations of our technique through a two-part, twenty-participant user study. To further illustrate the utility of our approach, we conclude with several proof-of-concept applications we developed.
Keywords: audio interfaces, bio-acoustics, buttons, finger input, gestures, on-body interaction, projected displays

Dance, dust, and drama: designing design

Hand in hand with the material: designing for suppleness BIBAKFull-Text 463-472
  Petra Sundström; Kristina Höök
Designing for a supple interaction, involving users bodily and emotionally into a 'dance' with a system is a challenging task. Any break-ups in interaction become fatal to the sensual, fluent, bodily and social experience sought. A user-centered, iterative design cycle is therefore required.
   But getting to know the affordances of the digital material used to build the application plays an equally important role in the design process. The 'feel' of the digital material properties sometimes even determines what the design should be. We describe three situations in which the properties and affordances of sensor network technologies guided our design process of FriendSense -- a system for expressing friendship and emotional closeness through movement. We show how the sensor node look and feel, choice of sensors, limitations of the radio signal strength and coverage, as well as iterative prototyping to properly exploit the software/algorithmic possibilities guided our design process.
Keywords: computer material, design, emotions, friends, movement interaction, sensor network, sensor node, suppleness
The case of the disappearing Ox: a field study of mobile activity and context logging BIBAKFull-Text 473-482
  Grace de la Flor; Paul Luff; Marina Jirotka; John Pybus; Ruth Kirkham; Annamaria Carusi
There are numerous settings where people examine, scrutinize and discuss the details of images in the course of their work. In most medical domains, scans and x-rays are used in the diagnosis of cases; in most areas of science, methods of visualization have been adopted to assist in the analysis of data; and images of different kinds are critical for many research fields in the social sciences and humanities. It is not surprising that recently technologies have been proposed to assist with the analysis and examination of images. In this paper, we consider requirements for technologies in a rather distinctive domain of research, the classics. Drawing upon an analysis of the detailed ways in which classicists work with digital images, we discuss the requirements for systems to support researchers in this domain, and also provide further considerations on the general development of image processing technologies and visualization techniques.
Keywords: cscw, ethnomethodology, interaction analysis, requirements engineering, usability, workplace studies
The implications of improvisational acting and role-playing on design methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Ben Medler; Brian Magerko
For decades designers have used theatre metaphors to describe design methodologies and have used performance techniques to enhance the design process, two of which are improvisational acting and role-playing. Unfortunately, most design literature does not differentiate between these two practices even while using them in combination with various design methods. This paper discusses how improvisation and role-playing have been employed during the design process and why they are distinct from one another. The authors draw upon their current research involving improvisational acting and compare it with other role-playing research which examines role-playing from both a serious and entertainment angle. They conclude through this comparison that both performance techniques have their place in the design process and that more informed definitions of each technique can aid designers in deciding which technique's properties will benefit them the most.
Keywords: design methodologies, improvisation, performance, role-playing, theatre

End-user programming I

d.note: revising user interfaces through change tracking, annotations, and alternatives BIBAKFull-Text 493-502
  Björn Hartmann; Sean Follmer; Antonio Ricciardi; Timothy Cardenas; Scott R. Klemmer
Interaction designers typically revise user interface prototypes by adding unstructured notes to storyboards and screen printouts. How might computational tools increase the efficacy of UI revision? This paper introduces d.note, a revision tool for user interfaces expressed as control flow diagrams. d.note introduces a command set for modifying and annotating both appearance and behavior of user interfaces; it also defines execution semantics so proposed changes can be tested immediately. The paper reports two studies that compare production and interpretation of revisions in d.note to freeform sketching on static images (the status quo). The revision production study showed that testing of ideas during the revision process led to more concrete revisions, but that the tool also affected the type and number of suggested changes. The revision interpretation study showed that d.note revisions required fewer clarifications, and that additional techniques for expressing revision intent could be beneficial.
Keywords: annotation, interaction design tools, prototyping, revision
FrameWire: a tool for automatically extracting interaction logic from paper prototyping tests BIBAKFull-Text 503-512
  Yang Li; Xiang Cao; Katherine Everitt; Morgan Dixon; James A. Landay
Paper prototyping offers unique affordances for interface design. However, due to its spontaneous nature and the limitations of paper, it is difficult to distill and communicate a paper prototype design and its user test findings to a wide audience. To address these issues, we created FrameWire, a computer vision-based system that automatically extracts interaction flows from the video recording of paper prototype user tests. Based on the extracted logic, FrameWire offers two distinct benefits for designers: a structural view of the video recording that allows a designer or a stakeholder to easily distill and understand the design concept and user interaction behaviors, and automatic generation of interactive HTML-based prototypes that can be easily tested with a larger group of users as well as "walked through" by other stakeholders. The extraction is achieved by automatically aggregating video frame sequences into an interaction flow graph based on frame similarities and a designer-guided clustering process. The results of evaluating FrameWire with realistic paper prototyping tests show that our extraction approach is feasible and FrameWire is a promising tool for enhancing existing prototyping practice.
Keywords: paper prototyping, programming by demonstration
Example-centric programming: integrating web search into the development environment BIBAKFull-Text 513-522
  Joel Brandt; Mira Dontcheva; Marcos Weskamp; Scott R. Klemmer
The ready availability of online source-code examples has fundamentally changed programming practices. However, current search tools are not designed to assist with programming tasks and are wholly separate from editing tools. This paper proposes that embedding a task-specific search engine in the development environment can significantly reduce the cost of finding information and thus enable programmers to write better code more easily. This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of Blueprint, a Web search interface integrated into the Adobe Flex Builder development environment that helps users locate example code. Blueprint automatically augments queries with code context, presents a code-centric view of search results, embeds the search experience into the editor, and retains a link between copied code and its source. A comparative laboratory study found that Blueprint enables participants to write significantly better code and find example code significantly faster than with a standard Web browser. Analysis of three months of usage logs with 2,024 users suggests that task-specific search interfaces can significantly change how and when people search the Web.
Keywords: example-centric development

Organizing and organizations

Timeline collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 523-532
  Morten Bohøj; Nikolaj Gandrup Borchorst; Niels Olof Bouvin; Susanne Bødker; Pär-Ola Zander
This paper explores timelines as a web-based tool for collaboration between citizens and municipal caseworkers. The paper takes its outset in a case study of planning and control of parental leave; a process that may involve surprisingly many actors. As part of the case study, a web-based timeline, CaseLine, was designed. This design crosses the boundaries between leisure and work, in ways that are different from what is often seen in current HCI. The timeline has several roles on these boundaries: It is a shared planning and visualization tool that may be used by parents and caseworkers alone or together, it serves as a contract and a sandbox, as a record and a plan, as inspiration for planning and an authoritative road, as a common information space and a fragmented exchange. Serving all these roles does not happen smoothly, and the paper discusses the challenges of such timeline interaction in, and beyond this case.
Keywords: collaboration, social navigation, timeline interaction
Informal interactions in nonprofit networks BIBAKFull-Text 533-536
  Jennifer Stoll; W. Keith Edwards; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Nonprofit organizations often need to excel in coordinating with other organizations and must do so in a variety of contexts and levels from the informal to the formal. Their ability to accomplish their mission can critically depend on their efficacy in managing dependencies on others for tasks, accessing needed resources, raising their profile in the community, and achieving their goals. Although much research has been done to understand systems for supporting formal coordination between organizations, there is a gap in understanding how informal coordination can be supported by systems. As a first step towards addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of a network of nonprofit organizations, focusing specifically on informal interactions among them. Based on this study, we characterize informal coordination between organizations and the context for such interactions. Our findings point to a need to further explore a class of interorganizational interactions that may not be adequately explored or understood by our research community.
Keywords: informal coordination, interorganizational information systems, nonprofit organizations, organizational networks
Managing nomadic knowledge: a case study of the European social forum BIBAKFull-Text 537-546
  Saqib Saeed; Volkmar Pipek; Markus Rohde; Volker Wulf
In this paper we portray a specific type of knowledge which we term 'nomadic knowledge'. It is required periodically by different actors and travels along foreseeable paths between groups or communities of actors. This type of knowledge lets us question generally held assumptions about the way knowledge is enacted. We illustrate our point with an ethnographical field study analyzing the European Social Forum (ESF), a network of political activist organizations. In this network different actors organize a periodic (biannual) event in which some 13,000 activists participated in 2008. We investigate how knowledge about organizing and managing the ESF is transferred between two events respectively, the actors and communities involved. Our study highlights the specific challenges in sharing nomadic knowledge and the consequences of deficiencies on the organizing process. The paper contributes to a better understanding of knowledge sharing practices and opens new directions for technical support.
Keywords: community informatics, ethnographic case study, knowledge management, knowledge sharing, nomadic knowledge

Performance, stagecraft, and magic

Eliza meets the wizard-of-oz: evaluating social acceptability BIBAKFull-Text 547-556
  Steven P. Dow; Manish Mehta; Blair MacIntyre; Michael Mateas
What authoring possibilities arise by blending machine and human control of live embodied character experiences? This paper explores two different "behind-the-scenes" roles for human operators during a three-month gallery installation of an embodied character experience. In the Transcription role, human operators type players' spoken utterances; then, algorithms interpret the player's intention, choose from pre-authored dialogue based on local and global narrative contexts, and procedurally animate two embodied characters. In the Discourse role, human operators select from semantic categories to interpret player intention; algorithms use this "discourse act" to automate character dialogue and animation. We compare these two methods of blending control using game logs and interviews, and document how the amateur operators initially resisted having to learn the Discourse version, but eventually preferred having the authorial control it afforded. This paper also outlines a design space for blending machine and human control in live character experiences.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, embodied characters, interactive drama, wizard-of-oz methods
A stage-based model of personal informatics systems BIBAKFull-Text 557-566
  Ian Li; Anind Dey; Jodi Forlizzi
People strive to obtain self-knowledge. A class of systems called personal informatics is appearing that help people collect and reflect on personal information. However, there is no comprehensive list of problems that users experience using these systems, and no guidance for making these systems more effective. To address this, we conducted surveys and interviews with people who collect and reflect on personal information. We derived a stage-based model of personal informatics systems composed of five stages (preparation, collection, integration, reflection, and action) and identified barriers in each of the stages. These stages have four essential properties: barriers cascade to later stages; they are iterative; they are user-driven and/or system-driven; and they are uni-faceted or multi-faceted. From these properties, we recommend that personal informatics systems should 1) be designed in a holistic manner across the stages; 2) allow iteration between stages; 3) apply an appropriate balance of automated technology and user control within each stage to facilitate the user experience; and 4) explore support for associating multiple facets of people's lives to enrich the value of systems.
Keywords: barriers, collection, model, personal informatics, reflection
Deception and magic in collaborative interaction BIBAKFull-Text 567-576
  Joe Marshall; Steve Benford; Tony Pridmore
We explore the ways in which interfaces can be designed to deceive users so as to create the illusion of magic. We present a study of an experimental performance in which a magician used a computer vision system to conduct a series of illusions based on the well-known 'three cups' magic trick. We explain our findings in terms of the two broad strategies of misdirecting attention and setting false expectations, articulating specific tactics that were employed in each case. We draw on existing theories of collaborative and spectator interfaces, ambiguity and interpretation, and trajectories through experiences to explain our findings in broader HCI terms. We also extend and integrate current theory to provide refined sensitising concepts for analysing deceptive interactions.
Keywords: ambiguity, deception, feedthrough, interaction, magic, misdirection, performance, spectator interface, trajectories

Speech and touch

FingerCloud: uncertainty and autonomy handover incapacitive sensing BIBAKFull-Text 577-580
  Simon Rogers; John Williamson; Craig Stewart; Roderick Murray-Smith
We describe a particle filtering approach to inferring finger movements on capacitive sensing arrays. This technique allows the efficient combination of human movement models with accurate sensing models, and gives high-fidelity results with low-resolution sensor grids and tracks finger height. Our model provides uncertainty estimates, which can be linked to the interaction to provide appropriately smoothed responses as sensing performance degrades; system autonomy is increased as estimates of user behaviour become less certain. We demonstrate the particle filter approach with a map browser running with a very small sensor board, where finger position uncertainty is linked to autonomy handover.
Keywords: capacitive sensing, h-metaphor, particle filters, probabilistic interaction, uncertainty
The generalized perceived input point model and how to double touch accuracy by extracting fingerprints BIBAKFull-Text 581-590
  Christian Holz; Patrick Baudisch
It is generally assumed that touch input cannot be accurate because of the fat finger problem, i.e., the softness of the fingertip combined with the occlusion of the target by the finger. In this paper, we show that this is not the case. We base our argument on a new model of touch inaccuracy. Our model is not based on the fat finger problem, but on the perceived input point model. In its published form, this model states that touch screens report touch location at an offset from the intended target. We generalize this model so that it represents offsets for individual finger postures and users. We thereby switch from the traditional 2D model of touch to a model that considers touch a phenomenon in 3-space. We report a user study, in which the generalized model explained 67% of the touch inaccuracy that was previously attributed to the fat finger problem.
   In the second half of this paper, we present two devices that exploit the new model in order to improve touch accuracy. Both model touch on per-posture and per-user basis in order to increase accuracy by applying respective offsets. Our RidgePad prototype extracts posture and user ID from the user's fingerprint during each touch interaction. In a user study, it achieved 1.8 times higher accuracy than a simulated capacitive baseline condition. A prototype based on optical tracking achieved even 3.3 times higher accuracy. The increase in accuracy can be used to make touch interfaces more reliable, to pack up to 3.32 > 10 times more controls into the same surface, or to bring touch input to very small mobile devices.
Keywords: 6dof, fingerprint scanner, input, mobile devices, pointing, precision, targeting, touch, touch pad, touch screen
Finger-count & radial-stroke shortcuts: 2 techniques for augmenting linear menus on multi-touch surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 591-594
  Gilles Bailly; Eric Lecolinet; Yves Guiard
We propose Radial-Stroke and Finger-Count Shortcuts, two techniques aimed at augmenting the menubar on multi-touch surfaces. We designed these multi-finger two-handed interaction techniques in an attempt to overcome the limitations of direct pointing on interactive surfaces, while maintaining compatibility with traditional interaction techniques. While Radial-Stroke Shortcuts exploit the well-known advantages of Radial Strokes, Finger-Count Shortcuts exploit multi-touch by simply counting the number of fingers of each hand in contact with the surface. We report the results of an experimental evaluation of our technique, focusing on expert-mode performance. Finger-Count Shortcuts outperformed Radial-Stroke Shortcuts in terms of both easiness of learning and performance speed.
Keywords: menu techniques, multi-finger interaction, multi-touch, two-handed interaction
Speech dasher: fast writing using speech and gaze BIBAKFull-Text 595-598
  Keith Vertanen; David J. C. MacKay
Speech Dasher allows writing using a combination of speech and a zooming interface. Users first speak what they want to write and then they navigate through the space of recognition hypotheses to correct any errors. Speech Dasher's model combines information from a speech recognizer, from the user, and from a letter-based language model. This allows fast writing of anything predicted by the recognizer while also providing seamless fallback to letter-by-letter spelling for words not in the recognizer's predictions. In a formative user study, expert users wrote at 40 (corrected) words per minute. They did this despite a recognition word error rate of 22%. Furthermore, they did this using only speech and the direction of their gaze (obtained via an eye tracker).
Keywords: eye tracking, multimodal interfaces, speech recognition

Writing in the real world

NiCEBook: supporting natural note taking BIBAKFull-Text 599-608
  Peter Brandl; Christoph Richter; Michael Haller
In this paper, we present NiCEBook, a paper notebook that supports taking, structuring and reusing notes. Through a study of note-taking habits, we observed that different strategies are used to organize and share notes. Based on these observations, we developed a design for a notebook that combines different approaches to better support these activities. The details of our design were informed by an additional online survey. We emphasize the need to examine the characteristics of taking notes with paper notebooks in order to develop a digital system that resembles the quality of traditional writing. With NiCEBook, we present a solution that combines the flexibility and simplicity of taking notes on paper with the benefits of a digital representation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system through customized views, searching and sharing functionality.
Keywords: digital notebook, digital pen, note-taking, paper interface, structuring, tagging
The NICE discussion room: integrating paper and digital media to support co-located group meetings BIBAKFull-Text 609-618
  Michael Haller; Jakob Leitner; Thomas Seifried; James R. Wallace; Stacey D. Scott; Christoph Richter; Peter Brandl; Adam Gokcezade; Seth Hunter
Current technological solutions that enable content creation and sharing during group discussion meetings are often cumbersome to use, and are commonly abandoned for traditional paper-based tools, which provide flexibility in supporting a wide range of working styles and task activities that may occur in a given meeting. Paper-based tools, however, have their own drawbacks; paper-based content is difficult to modify or replicate. We introduce a novel digital meeting room design, the NiCE Discussion Room, which integrates digital and paper tools into a cohesive system with an intuitive pen-based interface. The combination of digital and paper media provides groups with a flexible design solution that enables them to create, access, and share information and media from a variety of sources to facilitate group discussions. This paper describes the design solution, along with results from a user study conducted to evaluate the usability and utility of the system.
Keywords: co-located collaboration, design, digital meeting room, interactive surfaces, multi-user input, pen-based interfaces
Weightless walls and the future office BIBAKFull-Text 619-628
  Yuichiro Takeuchi
In this paper we describe how future office environments can benefit from the addition of weightless walls virtual, sound blocking walls created using headsets. We particularly focus on exploring how different interaction techniques can be employed to efficiently create, erase, or edit the layouts of these walls, and envisioning how they could impact the overall office experience. Metaphorically, the end effect of integrating weightless walls into offices is that space will be treated in a way similar to how random access memory is treated in PCs; as a shared resource open to dynamic allocations, and whose usage is periodically optimized in real time according to the collective activities of the occupants. Furthermore, we view weightless walls as harbingers of the emergence of synthetic space the eventual fusion of the architectural environment with the distinctive properties of digital bits.
Keywords: active noise control, office design, smart furniture, synthetic space, weightless wall

At home with computing

Access control for home data sharing: evaluating social acceptability BIBAKFull-Text 645-654
  Michelle L. Mazurek; J. P. Arsenault; Joanna Bresee; Nitin Gupta; Iulia Ion; Christina Johns; Daniel Lee; Yuan Liang; Jenny Olsen; Brandon Salmon; Richard Shay; Kami Vaniea; Lujo Bauer; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Gregory R. Ganger; Michael K. Reiter
As digital content becomes more prevalent in the home, non-technical users are increasingly interested in sharing that content with others and accessing it from multiple devices. Not much is known about how these users think about controlling access to this data. To better understand this, we conducted semi-structured, in-situ interviews with 33 users in 15 households. We found that users create ad-hoc access-control mechanisms that do not always work; that their ideal policies are complex and multi-dimensional; that a priori policy specification is often insufficient; and that people's mental models of access control and security are often misaligned with current systems. We detail these findings and present a set of associated guidelines for designing usable access-control systems for the home environment.
Keywords: access control, home computing, privacy, security
Sharing conversation and sharing life: video conferencing in the home BIBAKFull-Text 655-658
  Tejinder K. Judge; Carman Neustaedter
Video conferencing is a technology that families and friends use to connect with each other over distance. However, even with such technology readily available, we still do not have a good understanding of how video conferencing systems are used by people as a part of their domestic communication practices. For this reason, we have conducted interviews with 21 adults in the United States to understand video conferencing routines in the home and to inform the design of future domestic communication technologies. Our findings illustrate the importance of discerning availability and willingness to video conference prior to calling, the need to share everyday life activities in addition to conversation, and a need for new privacy protecting strategies that focus on autonomy and solitude as opposed to confidentiality.
Keywords: domestic, families, media spaces, video conferencing
Who's hogging the bandwidth: the consequences of revealing the invisible in the home BIBAKFull-Text 659-668
  Marshini Chetty; Richard Banks; Richard Harper; Tim Regan; Abigail Sellen; Christos Gkantsidis; Thomas Karagiannis; Peter Key
As more technologies enter the home, householders are burdened with the task of digital housekeeping-managing and sharing digital resources like bandwidth. In response to this, we created and evaluated a domestic tool for bandwidth management called Home Watcher. Our field trial showed that when resource contention amongst different household members is made visible, people's understanding of bandwidth changes and household politics are revealed. In this paper, we describe the consequences of showing real time resource usage in a home, and how this varies depending on the social make up of the household.
Keywords: bandwidth monitoring, home broadband, home networks
Investigating narrative in mobile games for seniors BIBAKFull-Text 669-672
  Sharon Lynn Chu Yew Yee; Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Francis Quek
Narratives are an intimate part of our lives. Based on behavioral research suggesting that older adults tend to process text better at discourse level, this study investigates the impact of narrative structure on the enjoyment level of older game players. Two variations of a casual memory mobile game were built, one with a narrative and the other one without. Nineteen senior citizens, differentiated according to their play orientation, play-tested the games. Results show that embedding narratives in mobile games enhances the play experience of older adults, irrespective of their play style. This may have implications both for game developers and for seniors' acceptance of casual games.
Keywords: elderly, enjoyment, mobile games, narrative structure


A study of tabbed browsing among Mozilla Firefox users BIBAKFull-Text 673-682
  Patrick Dubroy; Ravin Balakrishnan
We present a study which investigated how and why users of Mozilla Firefox use multiple tabs and windows during web browsing. The detailed web browsing usage of 21 participants was logged over a period of 13 to 21 days each, and was supplemented by qualitative data from diary entries and interviews. Through an examination of several measures of their tab usage, we show that our participants had a strong preference for the use of tabs rather than multiple windows. We report the reasons they cited for using tabs, and the advantages over multiple windows. We identify several common tab usage patterns which browsers could explicitly support. Finally, we look at how tab usage affects web page revisitation. Most of our participants switched tabs more often than they used the back button, making tab switching the second most important navigation mechanism in the browser, after link clicking.
Keywords: hypertext, tabbed document interfaces, tabs, web browser interfaces, web browsing, www
Using text animated transitions to support navigation in document histories BIBAKFull-Text 683-692
  Fanny Chevalier; Pierre Dragicevic; Anastasia Bezerianos; Jean-Daniel Fekete
This article examines the benefits of using text animated transitions for navigating in the revision history of textual documents. We propose an animation technique for smoothly transitioning between different text revisions, then present the Diffamation system. Diffamation supports rapid exploration of revision histories by combining text animated transitions with simple navigation and visualization tools. We finally describe a user study showing that smooth text animation allows users to track changes in the evolution of textual documents more effectively than flipping pages.
Keywords: animated transitions, revision control, text editing
Dynamic query interface for spatial proximity query with degree-of-interest varied by distance to query point BIBAKFull-Text 693-702
  Myoungsu Cho; Bohyoung Kim; Dong Kyun Jeong; Yeong-Gil Shin; Jinwook Seo
In this paper we present an interactive query interface called "TrapezoidBox" to support spatial proximity queries where users' degree of interest varies depending upon the degree of separation from the point of interest. Spatial proximity queries are commonly built in information seeking tasks especially on online maps. If not impossible, it is hard to formulate spatial proximity queries using existing dynamic query widgets such as range sliders. TrapezoidBox allows users to easily build spatial proximity queries by interactively adjusting a trapezoidal function. Our controlled user study results show that TrapezoidBox has several advantages over a baseline interface with range sliders.
Keywords: degree-of-interest, dynamic query interface, spatial proximity query, tab interface, visual information seeking

End-user programming II

Learning on the job: characterizing the programming knowledge and learning strategies of web designers BIBAKFull-Text 703-712
  Brian Dorn; Mark Guzdial
This paper reports on a study of professional web designers and developers. We provide a detailed characterization of their knowledge of fundamental programming concepts elicited through card sorting. Additionally, we present qualitative findings regarding their motivation to learn new concepts and the learning strategies they employ. We find a high level of recognition of basic concepts, but we identify a number of concepts that they do not fully understand, consider difficult to learn, and use infrequently. We also note that their learning process is motivated by work projects and often follows a pattern of trial and error. We conclude with implications for end-user programming researchers.
Keywords: informal learning, web development
A strategy-centric approach to the design of end-user debugging tools BIBAKFull-Text 713-722
  Valentina I. Grigoreanu; Margaret M. Burnett; George G. Robertson
End-user programmers' code is notoriously buggy. This problem is amplified by the increasing complexity of end users' programs. To help end users catch errors early and reliably, we employ a novel approach for the design of end-user debugging tools: a focus on supporting end users' effective debugging strategies. This paper makes two contributions. We first demonstrate the potential of a strategy-centric approach to tool design by presenting StratCel, an add-in for Excel. Second, we show the benefits of this design approach: participants using StratCel found twice as many bugs as participants using standard Excel, they fixed four times as many bugs, and all this in only a small fraction of the time. Other contributions included: a boost in novices' debugging performance near experienced participants' improved levels, validated design guidelines, a discussion of the generalizability of this approach, and several opportunities for future research.
Keywords: debugging strategies, debugging tools, end-user software engineering, tool design
Here's what i did: sharing and reusing web activity with ActionShot BIBAKFull-Text 723-732
  Ian Li; Jeffrey Nichols; Tessa Lau; Clemens Drews; Allen Cypher
ActionShot is an integrated web browser tool that creates a fine-grained history of users' browsing activities by continually recording their browsing actions at the level of interactions, such as button clicks and entries into form fields. ActionShot provides interfaces to facilitate browsing and searching through this history, sharing portions of the history through established social networking tools such as Facebook, and creating scripts that can be used to repeat previous interactions at a later time. ActionShot can also create short textual summaries for sequences of interactions. In this paper, we describe the ActionShot and our initial explorations of the tool through field deployments within our organization and a lab study. Overall, we found that ActionShot's history features provide value beyond typical browser history interfaces.
Keywords: ActionShot, CoScripter, reuse, sharing, social networking, web browser history

HCI and India

Avaaj Otalo: a field study of an interactive voice forum for small farmers in rural India BIBAKFull-Text 733-742
  Neil Patel; Deepti Chittamuru; Anupam Jain; Paresh Dave; Tapan S. Parikh
In this paper we present the results of a field study of Avaaj Otalo (literally, "voice stoop"), an interactive voice application for small-scale farmers in Gujarat, India. Through usage data and interviews, we describe how 51 farmers used the system over a seven month pilot deployment. The most popular feature of Avaaj Otalo was a forum for asking questions and browsing others' questions and responses on a range of agricultural topics. The forum developed into a lively social space with the emergence of norms, persistent moderation, and a desire for both structured interaction with institutionally sanctioned authorities and open discussion with peers. For all 51 users this was the first experience participating in an online community of any sort. In terms of usability, simple menu-based navigation was readily learned, with users preferring numeric input over speech. We conclude by discussing implications of our findings for designing voice-based social media serving rural communities in India and elsewhere.
Keywords: ictd, India, ivr, voice forum, voice user interface
An exploratory study of unsupervised mobile learning in rural India BIBAKFull-Text 743-752
  Anuj Kumar; Anuj Tewari; Geeta Shroff; Deepti Chittamuru; Matthew Kam; John Canny
Cellphones have the potential to improve education for the millions of underprivileged users in the developing world. However, mobile learning in developing countries remains under-studied. In this paper, we argue that cellphones are a perfect vehicle for making educational opportunities accessible to rural children in places and times that are more convenient than formal schooling. We carried out participant observations to identify the opportunities in their everyday lives for mobile learning. We next conducted a 26-week study to investigate the extent to which rural children will voluntarily make use of cellphones to access educational content. Our results show a reasonable level of academic learning and motivation. We also report on the social context around these results. Our goal is to examine the feasibility of mobile learning in out-of-school settings in rural, underdeveloped areas, and to help more researchers learn how to undertake similarly difficult studies around mobile computing in the developing world.
Keywords: cellphone, developing countries, India, informal learning, mobile learning, out-of-school learning
Where there's a will there's a way: mobile media sharing in urban India BIBAKFull-Text 753-762
  Thomas N. Smyth; Satish Kumar; Indrani Medhi; Kentaro Toyama
We present the results of a qualitative study of the sharing and consumption of entertainment media on low-cost mobile phones in urban India, a practice which has evolved into a vibrant, informal socio-technical ecosystem. This wide-ranging phenomenon includes end users, mobile phone shops, and content distributors, and exhibits remarkable ingenuity. Even more impressive is the number of obstacles which have been surmounted in its establishment, from the technical (interface complexity, limited Internet access, viruses), to the broader socioeconomic (cost, language, legality, institutional rules, lack of privacy), all seemingly due to a strong desire to be entertained.
   Our findings carry two implications for projects in HCI seeking to employ technology in service of social and economic development. First, although great attention is paid to the details of UI in many such projects, we find that sufficient user motivation towards a goal turns UI barriers into mere speed bumps. Second, we suggest that needs assessments carry an inherent bias towards what outsiders consider needs, and that identified "needs" may not be as strongly felt as perceived.
Keywords: bluetooth, mobile phone, sharing, social networking, video

Sharing in social media

Patterns of usage in an enterprise file-sharing service: publicizing, discovering, and telling the news BIBAKFull-Text 763-766
  Michael Muller; David R. Millen; Jonathan Feinberg
How do people use an enterprise file-sharing service? We describe patterns of usage in a social file-sharing service that was deployed in a large multinational enterprise. Factor analyses revealed four factors: Upload & Publicize (regarding one's own files); Annotate & Watch (add information to files and maintain awareness); Discover & Tell (find files uploaded by other users, and communicate to additional users about those files); and Refind (re-use one's own files). We explore the attributes of users who score highly on each of these factors, and we propose implications for design to encourage innovation in usage.
Keywords: enterprise, file-sharing, social-software
The life and times of files and information: a study of desktop provenance BIBAKFull-Text 767-776
  Carlos Jensen; Heather Lonsdale; Eleanor Wynn; Jill Cao; Michael Slater; Thomas G. Dietterich
In the field of Human-Computer Interaction, provenance refers to the history and genealogy of a document or file. Provenance helps us to understand the evolution and relationships of files; how and when different versions of a document were created, or how different documents in a collection build on each other through copy-paste events. Though methods for tracking provenance and the subsequent use of this meta-data have been proposed and developed into tools, there have been no studies documenting the types and frequency of provenance events in typical computer use. This is knowledge essential for the design of efficient query methods and information displays. We conducted a longitudinal study of knowledge workers at Intel Corporation tracking provenance events in their computer use. We also interviewed knowledge workers to determine the effectiveness of provenance cues for document recall. Our data shows that provenance relationships are common, and provenance cues aid recall.
Keywords: desktop search, documents, file organization, provenance
The effect of audience design on labeling, organizing, and finding shared files BIBAKFull-Text 777-786
  Emilee Rader
In an online experiment, I apply theory from psychology and communications to find out whether group information management tasks are governed by the same communication processes as conversation. This paper describes results that replicate previous research, and expand our knowledge about audience design and packaging for future reuse when communication is mediated by a co-constructed artifact like a file-and-folder hierarchy. Results indicate that it is easier for information consumers to search for files in hierarchies created by information producers who imagine their intended audience to be someone similar to them, independent of whether the producer and consumer actually share common ground. This research helps us better understand packaging choices made by information producers, and the direct implications of those choices for other users of group information systems.
Keywords: audience design, common ground, file labeling and organizing, group information management
Fitting an activity-centric system into an ecology of workplace tools BIBAKFull-Text 787-790
  Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Tara Matthews; Thomas P. Moran
Knowledge workers expend considerable effort managing fragmentation, characterized by constant switching among digital artifacts, when executing work activities. Activity-centric computing (ACC) systems attempt to address this problem by organizing activity-related artifacts together. But are ACC systems effective at reducing fragmentation? In this paper, we present a two-part study of workers using Lotus Activities, an ACC system deployed for over two years in a large company. First, we surveyed workers to understand the ecology of workplace tools they use for various tasks. Second, we interviewed 22 Lotus Activities users to investigate how this ACC tool fits amongst their ecology of existing collaboration tools and affects work fragmentation. Our results indicate that Lotus Activities works in concert with certain other tools to successfully ease fragmentation for a specific type of activity. We identify design characteristics that contribute to this result.
Keywords: activity-centric computing, cscw, office, user study, workplace

Tactile interaction

Mobile music touch: mobile tactile stimulation for passive learning BIBAKFull-Text 791-800
  Kevin Huang; Thad Starner; Ellen Do; Gil Weiberg; Daniel Kohlsdorf; Claas Ahlrichs; Ruediger Leibrandt
Mobile Music Touch (MMT) helps teach users to play piano melodies while they perform other tasks. MMT is a lightweight, wireless haptic music instruction system consisting of fingerless gloves and a mobile Bluetooth enabled computing device, such as a mobile phone. Passages to be learned are loaded into the mobile phone and are played repeatedly while the user performs other tasks. As each note of the music plays, vibrators on each finger in the gloves activate, indicating which finger is used to play each note. We present two studies on the efficacy of MMT. The first measures 16 subjects' ability to play a passage after using MMT for 30 minutes while performing a reading comprehension test. The MMT system was significantly more effective than a control condition where the passage was played repeatedly but the subjects' fingers were not vibrated. The second study compares the amount of time required for 10 subjects to replay short, randomly generated passages using passive training versus active training. Participants with no piano experience could repeat the passages after passive training while subjects with piano experience often could not.
Keywords: haptic, music, passive training, tactile, wearable
Characteristics of pressure-based input for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 801-810
  Craig Stewart; Michael Rohs; Sven Kratz; Georg Essl
We conducted a series of user studies to understand and clarify the fundamental characteristics of pressure in user interfaces for mobile devices. We seek to provide insight to clarify a longstanding discussion on mapping functions for pressure input. Previous literature is conflicted about the correct transfer function to optimize user performance. Our study results suggest that the discrepancy can be explained by different signal conditioning circuitry and with improved signal conditioning the user-performed precision relationship is linear. We also explore the effects of hand pose when applying pressure to a mobile device from the front, the back, or simultaneously from both sides in a pinching movement. Our results indicate that grasping type input outperforms single-sided input and is competitive with pressure input against solid surfaces. Finally we provide an initial exploration of non-visual multimodal feedback, motivated by the desire for eyes-free use of mobile devices. The findings suggest that non-visual pressure input can be executed without degradation in selection time but suffers from accuracy problems.
Keywords: haptic feedback, input device, interaction technique, mobile device, pressure input, pressure-based interaction, tactile feedback
LayerPaint: a multi-layer interactive 3D painting interface BIBAKFull-Text 811-820
  Chi-Wing Fu; Jiazhi Xia; Ying He
Painting on 3D surfaces is an important operation in computer graphics, virtual reality, and computer aided design. The painting styles in existing WYSIWYG systems can be awkward, due to the difficulty in rotating or aligning an object for proper viewing during the painting. This paper proposes a multi-layer approach to building a practical, robust, and novel WYSIWYG interface for efficient painting on 3D models. The paintable area is not limited to the front-most visible surface on the screen as in conventional WYSIWYG interfaces. We can efficiently and interactively draw long strokes across different depth layers, and unveil occluded regions that one would like to see or paint on. In addition, since the painting is now depth-sensitive, we can avoid various potential painting artifacts and limitations in the conventional painting interfaces. This multi-layer approach brings in several novel painting operations that contribute to a more compelling WYSIWYG 3D painting interface; this is particular useful when dealing with complicated objects with occluded parts and objects that cannot be easily parameterized. We evaluated our system with 23 users, including both artists and novice painters, and obtained positive experimental results and feedback from them. The user study results demonstrate the efficacy of our novel interface over conventional painting interfaces.
Keywords: 3d painting, depth segmentation, wysiwyg interface

User characteristics and large-scale tracking

The effects of diversity on group productivity and member withdrawal in online volunteer groups BIBAKFull-Text 821-830
  Jilin Chen; Yuqing Ren; John Riedl
The "wisdom of crowds" argument emphasizes the importance of diversity in online collaborations, such as open source projects and Wikipedia. However, decades of research on diversity in offline work groups have painted an inconclusive picture. On the one hand, the broader range of insights from a diverse group can lead to improved outcomes. On the other hand, individual differences can lead to conflict and diminished performance. In this paper, we examine the effects of group diversity on the amount of work accomplished and on member withdrawal behaviors in the context of WikiProjects. We find that increased diversity in experience with Wikipedia increases group productivity and decreases member withdrawal -- up to a point. Beyond that point, group productivity remains high, but members are more likely to withdraw. Strikingly, no such diminishing returns were observed for differences in member interest, which increases productivity and decreases member withdrawal in a linear fashion. Our results suggest that the low visibility of individual differences in online groups may allow them to harvest more of the benefits of diversity while bearing less of the cost. We discuss how our findings can inform further research of online collaboration.
Keywords: diversity, online volunteer group, performance, wikipedia
Gender demographic targeting in sponsored search BIBAKFull-Text 831-840
  Bernard J. Jansen; Lauren Solomon
In this research, we evaluate the effect of gender in analyzing the performance of sponsored search advertising. We examine a log file with data comprised of nearly 7,000,000 records spanning 33 consecutive months of a search engine marketing campaign from a major US retailer. We classify key phrases selected for the campaign with a probability of being targeted for a specific gender and then compare the consumer actions using the critical sponsored search metrics of impressions, clicks, cost-per-click, sales revenue, orders, and items sold. Findings from our analysis show that the gender-orientation of the key phrase is a significant determinant in predicting behaviors and performance, with statistically different consumer behaviors for all attributes as the probability of a male or female keyword phrase changes. However, gender neutral phrases perform the best overall, calling into question the benefits of demographic targeting. Insight from this research could result in sponsored results being more effectively targeted to searchers and potential consumers.
Keywords: gender, gender personalization, keyword advertising, pay-per-click, ppc, sponsored search, target audience description
Exploring the workplace communication ecology BIBAKFull-Text 841-850
  Thea Turner; Pernilla Qvarfordt; Jacob T. Biehl; Gene Golovchinsky; Maribeth Back
The modern workplace is inherently collaborative, and this collaboration relies on effective communication among co-workers. Many communication tools -- email, blogs, wikis, Twitter, etc. -- have become increasingly available and accepted in workplace communications. In this paper, we report on a study of communications technologies used over a one year period in a small US corporation. We found that participants used a large number of communication tools for different purposes, and that the introduction of new tools did not impact significantly the use of previously-adopted technologies. Further, we identified distinct classes of users based on patterns of tool use. This work has implications for the design of technology in the evolving ecology of communication tools.
Keywords: blogs, collaboration, communication, computer mediated communication, email, evaluation, face-to-face, instant messaging, phone, wikis

Brains and brawn

Making muscle-computer interfaces more practical BIBAKFull-Text 851-854
  T. Scott Saponas; Desney S. Tan; Dan Morris; Jim Turner; James A. Landay
Recent work in muscle sensing has demonstrated the potential of human-computer interfaces based on finger gestures sensed from electrodes on the upper forearm. While this approach holds much potential, previous work has given little attention to sensing finger gestures in the context of three important real-world requirements: sensing hardware suitable for mobile and off-desktop environments, electrodes that can be put on quickly without adhesives or gel, and gesture recognition techniques that require no new training or calibration after re-donning a muscle-sensing armband. In this note, we describe our approach to overcoming these challenges, and we demonstrate average classification accuracies as high as 86% for pinching with one of three fingers in a two-session, eight-person experiment.
Keywords: electromyography (emg), muscle-computer interface
A novel brain-computer interface using a multi-touch surface BIBAKFull-Text 855-858
  Beste F. Yuksel; Michael Donnerer; James Tompkin; Anthony Steed
We present a novel integration of a brain-computer interface (BCI) with a multi-touch surface. BCIs based on the P300 paradigm often use a visual stimulus of a flashing character to elicit an event related potential in the brain's EEG signal. Traditionally, P300-based BCI paradigms use a grid layout of visual targets, commonly an alphabet, and allow users to select targets using their thoughts. In our new system a multi-touch table senses objects placed upon its surface and the system can highlight the objects on the table by flashing an area of light around them. This allows us to construct a P300-based BCI that uses a user-assembled collection of objects as targets, rather than a pre-determined grid layout. An experiment shows that our new paradigm works just as well as the traditional paradigms, thus highlighting the potential for BCIs to be integrated in a broader range of situations.
Keywords: brain-computer interface, multi-touch interfaces, p300 evoked potential
The influence of implicit and explicit biofeedback in first-person shooter games BIBAKFull-Text 859-868
  Kai Kuikkaniemi; Toni Laitinen; Marko Turpeinen; Timo Saari; Ilkka Kosunen; Niklas Ravaja
To understand how implicit and explicit biofeedback work in games, we developed a first-person shooter (FPS) game to experiment with different biofeedback techniques. While this area has seen plenty of discussion, there is little rigorous experimentation addressing how biofeedback can enhance human-computer interaction. In our two-part study, (N=36) subjects first played eight different game stages with two implicit biofeedback conditions, with two simulation-based comparison and repetition rounds, then repeated the two biofeedback stages when given explicit information on the biofeedback. The biofeedback conditions were respiration and skin-conductance (EDA) adaptations. Adaptation targets were four balanced player avatar attributes. We collected data with psychoìphysiological measures (electromyography, respiration, and EDA), a game experience questionnaire, and game-play measures.
   According to our experiment, implicit biofeedback does not produce significant effects in player experience in an FPS game. In the explicit biofeedback conditions, players were more immersed and positively affected, and they were able to manipulate the game play with the biosignal interface. We recommend exploring the possibilities of using explicit biofeedback interaction in commercial games.
Keywords: affective computing, biofeedback, biosignals, explicit biofeedback, games, implicit biofeedback, playing
Effects of interactivity and 3D-motion on mental rotation brain activity in an immersive virtual environment BIBAKFull-Text 869-878
  Daniel Sjölie; Kenneth Bodin; Eva Elgh; Johan Eriksson; Lars-Erik Janlert; Lars Nyberg
The combination of virtual reality (VR) and brain measurements is a promising development of HCI, but the maturation of this paradigm requires more knowledge about how brain activity is influenced by parameters of VR applications. To this end we investigate the influence of two prominent VR parameters, 3d-motion and interactivity, while brain activity is measured for a mental rotation task, using functional MRI (fMRI). A mental rotation network of brain areas is identified, matching previous results. The addition of interactivity increases the activation in core areas of this network, with more profound effects in frontal and preparatory motor areas. The increases from 3d-motion are restricted to primarily visual areas. We relate these effects to emerging theories of cognition and potential applications for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Our results demonstrate one way to provoke increased activity in task-relevant areas, making it easier to detect and use for adaptation and development of HCI.
Keywords: bci, brain imaging, fMRI, reality-based interaction, virtual reality, VRfMRI

Gesturing and drawing

Scale detection for a priori gesture recognition BIBAKFull-Text 879-882
  Caroline Appert; Olivier Bau
Gesture-based interfaces provide expert users with an efficient form of interaction but they require a learning effort for novice users. To address this problem, some on-line guiding techniques display all available gestures in response to partial input. However, partial input recognition algorithms are scale dependent while most gesture recognizers support scale independence (i.e., the same shape at different scales actually invokes the same command). We propose an algorithm for estimating the scale of any partial input in the context of a gesture recognition system and illustrate how it can be used to improve users' experience with gesture-based systems.
Keywords: gesture, recognition, scale, stroke
Insight into goal-directed movement strategies BIBAKFull-Text 883-886
  Karin Nieuwenhuizen; Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Jean-Bernard Martens
The current paper proposes a novel method of analyzing goal-directed movements by dividing them into distinct movement intervals. We demonstrate how the description of the first and second most prominent movement intervals in terms of duration and length can provide insight into the applied movement strategies under different conditions. This method, although demonstrated for goal-directed movements, has the potential to be generalized to other types of movements, such as steering movements.
Keywords: computer input devices, movement analysis, pointing tasks
Usable gestures for mobile interfaces: evaluating social acceptability BIBAKFull-Text 887-896
  Julie Rico; Stephen Brewster
Gesture-based mobile interfaces require users to change the way they use technology in public settings. Since mobile phones are part of our public appearance, designers must integrate gestures that users perceive as acceptable for public use. This topic has received little attention in the literature so far. The studies described in this paper begin to look at the social acceptability of a set of gestures with respect to location and audience in order to investigate possible ways of measuring social acceptability. The results of the initial survey showed that location and audience had a significant impact on a user's willingness to perform gestures. These results were further examined through a user study where participants were asked to perform gestures in different settings (including a busy street) over repeated trials. The results of this work provide gesture design recommendations as well as social acceptability evaluation guidelines.
Keywords: design recommendations, evaluation methodology, gesture interfaces, social acceptability
iCanDraw: using sketch recognition and corrective feedback to assist a user in drawing human faces BIBAKFull-Text 897-906
  Daniel Dixon; Manoj Prasad; Tracy Hammond
When asked to draw, many people are hesitant because they consider themselves unable to draw well. This paper describes the first system for a computer to provide direction and feedback for assisting a user to draw a human face as accurately as possible from an image. Face recognition is first used to model the features of a human face in an image, which the user wishes to replicate. Novel sketch recognition algorithms were developed to use the information provided by the face recognition to evaluate the hand-drawn face. Two design iterations and user studies led to nine design principles for providing such instruction, presenting reference media, giving corrective feedback, and receiving actions from the user. The result is a proof-of-concept application that can guide a person through step-by-step instruction and generated feedback toward producing his/her own sketch of a human face in a reference image.
Keywords: assistive and corrective feedback, computer-aided instruction, pen-input computing, sketch recognition

Medical exploration

Exploring the accessibility and appeal of surface computing for older adult health care support BIBAKFull-Text 907-916
  Anne Marie Piper; Ross Campbell; James D. Hollan
This paper examines accessibility issues of surface computing with older adults and explores the appeal of surface computing for health care support. We present results from a study involving 20 older adults (age 60 to 88) performing gesture-based interactions on a multitouch surface. Older adults were able to successfully perform all actions on the surface computer, but some gestures that required two fingers (resize) and fine motor movement (rotate) were problematic. Ratings for ease of use and ease of performing each action as well as time required to figure out an action were similar to that of younger adults. Older adults reported that the surface computer was less intimidating, less frustrating, and less overwhelming than a traditional computer. The idea of using a surface computer for health care support was well-received by participants. We conclude with a discussion of design issues involving surface computing for older adults and use of this technology for health care.
Keywords: health care, multitouch, older adults, surface computing
Patients, pacemakers, and implantable defibrillators: human values and security for wireless implantable medical devices BIBAKFull-Text 917-926
  Tamara Denning; Alan Borning; Batya Friedman; Brian T. Gill; Tadayoshi Kohno; William H. Maisel
Implantable medical devices (IMDs) improve patients' quality of life and help sustain their lives. In this study, we explore patient views and values regarding their devices to inform the design of computer security for wireless IMDs. We interviewed 13 individuals with implanted cardiac devices. Key questions concerned the evaluation of 8 mockups of IMD security systems. Our results suggest that some systems that are technically viable are nonetheless undesirable to patients. Patients called out a number of values that affected their attitudes towards the systems, including perceived security, safety, freedom from unwanted cultural and historical associations, and self-image. In our analysis, we extend the Value Sensitive Design value dams and flows technique in order to suggest multiple, complementary systems; in our discussion, we highlight some of the usability, regulatory, and economic complexities that arise from offering multiple options. We conclude by offering design guidelines for future security systems for IMDs.
Keywords: defibrillators, embodied technologies, implantable medical devices, medical device security, safety, security, value dams and flows

Sense and sustainability

One size does not fit all: applying the transtheoretical model to energy feedback technology design BIBAKFull-Text 927-936
  Helen Ai He; Saul Greenberg; Elaine M. Huang
Global warming, and the climate change it induces, is an urgent global issue. One remedy to this problem, and the focus of this paper, is to motivate sustainable energy usage behaviors by people. One approach is the development of technologies that provide real-time, continuous feedback of energy usage. However, there is one problem -- most technologies use a "one-size-fits-all" solution, providing the same feedback to differently motivated individuals at different stages of readiness, willingness and ableness to change. In this paper, we synthesize a wide range of motivational psychology literature to develop a motivational framework based on the Transtheoretical (aka Stages of Behavior Change) Model. For each stage, we state the motivational goal(s), and recommendation(s) for how technologies can reach these goals. Each goal and recommendation is supported by a rationale based on motivational literature. Each recommendation is supported by a simple textual example illustrating one way to apply the recommendation.
Keywords: design, feedback, motivational theory, sustainability
Small business applications of sourcemap: a web tool for sustainable design and supply chain transparency BIBAKFull-Text 937-946
  Leonardo Bonanni; Matthew Hockenberry; David Zwarg; Chris Csikszentmihalyi; Hiroshi Ishii
This paper introduces sustainable design applications for small businesses through the Life Cycle Assessment and supply chain publishing platform Sourcemap.org. This web-based tool was developed through a year-long participatory design process with five small businesses in Scotland and in New England. Sourcemap was used as a diagnostic tool for carbon accounting, design and supply chain management. It offers a number of ways to market sustainable practices through embedded and printed visualizations. Our experiences confirm the potential of web sustainability tools and social media to expand the discourse and to negotiate the diverse goals inherent in social and environmental sustainability.
Keywords: agriculture, food and drink, hospitality, life cycle assessment, marketing, participatory design, product design, small business, social networks, supply chain, sustainability, transparency
FeedWinnower: layering structures over collections of information streams BIBAKFull-Text 947-950
  Lichan Hong; Gregorio Convertino; Bongwon Suh; Ed H. Chi; Sanjay Kairam
Information overload is a growing threat to the productivity of today's knowledge workers, who need to keep track of multiple streams of information from various sources. RSS feed readers are a popular choice for syndicating information streams, but current tools tend to contribute to the overload problem instead of solving it. We introduce FeedWinnower, an enhanced feed aggregator that helps readers to filter feed items by four facets (topic, people, source, and time), thus facilitating feed triage. The combination of the four facets provides a powerful way for users to slice and dice their personal feeds. In addition, we present a formative evaluation of the prototype conducted with 15 knowledge workers in two different organizations.
Keywords: faceted browsing, feed reader, information overload, information stream, RSS feed, RSS overload

Sharing content and searches

Tools-at-hand and learning in multi-session, collaborative search BIBAKFull-Text 951-960
  Robert Capra; Gary Marchionini; Javier Velasco-Martin; Katrina Muller
Improving search interfaces and algorithms are major foci of HCI and information retrieval (IR) research respectively. However, less attention has been given to understanding how users collect, manage, organize, and share the results they find from conducting searches on the Web and designing tools to support their needs. In this paper, we present results from a study in which we interviewed 30 people in three cohorts (academic researchers, corporate workers, and people looking for medical information) about their current practices conducting, managing, and sharing information from on-going, exploratory searches. We report results on users' current practices, tool use, areas of difficulties and associated coping strategies with emphasis on how information seekers use a variety of "tools-at-hand" beyond search engines and web browsers as they search, process, and share results, and on the learning processes that occur as they seek and use information over time.
Keywords: collaborative search, exploratory search, information seeking, personal information management
Share: a programming environment for loosely bound cooperation BIBAKFull-Text 961-970
  Yannick Assogba; Judith Donath
We introduce a programming environment entitled Share that is designed to encourage loosely bound cooperation between individuals within communities of practice through the sharing of code. Loosely bound cooperation refers to the opportunity community members have to assist and share resources with one another while maintaining their autonomy and independent practice. We contrast this model with forms of collaboration that enable large numbers of distributed individuals to collaborate on large scale works where they are guided by a shared vision of what they are collectively trying to achieve. We hypothesize that providing fine-grained, publicly visible attribution of code sharing activity within a community can provide socially motivated encouragement for code sharing. We present an overview of the design of our tool and the objectives that guided its design and a discussion of a small-scale deployment of our prototype among members of a particular community of practice.
Keywords: collaboration, community, computer supported cooperative work, cooperation, open source, programming, social software, visualization
Enhancing directed content sharing on the web BIBAKFull-Text 971-980
  Michael S. Bernstein; Adam Marcus; David R. Karger; Robert C. Miller
To find interesting, personally relevant web content, people rely on friends and colleagues to pass links along as they encounter them. In this paper, we study and augment link-sharing via e-mail, the most popular means of sharing web content today. Armed with survey data indicating that active sharers of novel web content are often those that actively seek it out, we developed FeedMe, a plug-in for Google Reader that makes directed sharing of content a more salient part of the user experience. FeedMe recommends friends who may be interested in seeing content that the user is viewing, provides information on what the recipient has seen and how many emails they have received recently, and gives recipients the opportunity to provide lightweight feedback when they appreciate shared content. FeedMe introduces a novel design space within mixed-initiative social recommenders: friends who know the user voluntarily vet the material on the user's behalf. We performed a two-week field experiment (N=60) and found that FeedMe made it easier and more enjoyable to share content that recipients appreciated and would not have found otherwise.
Keywords: blogs, friendsourcing, RSS, social link sharing


Cultural difference in image tagging BIBAKFull-Text 981-984
  Wei Dong; Wai-Tat Fu
Do people from different cultures tag digital images differently? The current study compared the content of tags for digital images created by two cultural groups: European Americans and Chinese. In line with previous findings on cultural differences in attentional patterns, we found similar cultural differences in the order of the image parts (e.g., foreground or background objects) that people tag. We found that for European Americans, the first tag was more likely assigned to the main objects than that by Chinese; but for Chinese, the first tag was more likely assigned to the overall description or relations between objects in the images. The findings had significant implications for designing cultural-sensitive tools to facilitate the tagging and search process of digital media, as well as for developing data-mining tools that identify user profiles based on their tagging patterns and cultural origins.
Keywords: annotation, attention, cultural difference, image tagging, perception, tagging
Social tagging revamped: supporting the users' need of self-promotion through persuasive techniques BIBAKFull-Text 985-994
  Mauro Cherubini; Alejandro Gutierrez; Rodrigo de Oliveira; Nuria Oliver
People share pictures online to increase their social presence. However, recent studies have shown that most of the content shared in social networks is not looked at by peers. Proper metadata can be generated and used to improve the retrieval of this content. In spite of this, we still lack solutions for collecting valid descriptors of content that can be used effectively in the context of social information navigation. In this paper, we propose a mechanism based on persuasive techniques to support peers in providing metadata for multimedia content that can be used for a person's self-promotion. Through an iterative design and experimentation process, we demonstrate how this methodology can be used effectively to increase one's social presence thus building more enjoyable, rich, and creative content that is shared in the social network. In addition, we highlight implications that inform the design of social games with a purpose.
Keywords: Facebook fatigue, information overload, metadata, mutual modeling, self-presentation, social networks
Some observations on the "live" collaborative tagging of audio conferences in the enterprise BIBAKFull-Text 995-998
  Shreeharsh Kelkar; Ajita John; Doree Duncan Seligmann
This paper describes preliminary findings related to a system for "live" collaborative tagging of enterprise meetings taking place on an audio bridge between distributed participants. Participants can apply tags to different points of the interaction as it is ongoing and can see, in near real-time, the "flow" of tags as they are being contributed. Two novel types of tags are proposed: "deep tags" that apply to a portion of the interaction and "instant tags" that apply to an instant of the interaction. Our system is being used by enterprise users and we analyze a corpus of 737 live-tags collected from 16 conversations that took place over several months. We found that the live-tags for audio have slightly different characteristics from Web 2.0 tags: they are longer and confer affordances on the audio like description and summarization. Some observations on the "cognitive cost" of live-tagging are offered.
Keywords: activity capture, annotation, audio recording, collaborative tagging, multimedia, notetaking

Understanding and supporting programming

Perceptions and practices of usability in the free/open source software (FoSS) community BIBAKFull-Text 999-1008
  Michael Terry; Matthew Kay; Ben Lafreniere
This paper presents results from a study examining perceptions and practices of usability in the free/open source software (FOSS) community. 27 individuals associated with 11 different FOSS projects were interviewed to understand how they think about, act on, and are motivated to address usability issues. Our results indicate that FOSS project members possess rather sophisticated notions of software usability, which collectively mirror definitions commonly found in HCI textbooks. Our study also uncovered a wide range of practices that ultimately work to improve software usability. Importantly, these activities are typically based on close, direct interpersonal relationships between developers and their core users, a group of users who closely follow the project and provide high quality, respected feedback. These relationships, along with positive feedback from other users, generate social rewards that serve as the primary motivations for attending to usability issues on a day-to-day basis. These findings suggest a need to reconceptualize HCI methods to better fit this culture of practice and its corresponding value system.
Keywords: bleeding edge users, core users, reference users
End-user mashup programming: through the design lens BIBAKFull-Text 1009-1018
  Jill Cao; Yann Riche; Susan Wiedenbeck; Margaret Burnett; Valentina Grigoreanu
Programming has recently become more common among ordinary end users of computer systems. We believe that these end-user programmers are not just coders but also designers, in that they interlace making design decisions with coding rather than treating them as two separate phases. To better understand and provide support for the programming and design needs of end users, we propose a design theory-based approach to look at end-user programming. Toward this end, we conducted a think-aloud study with ten end users creating a web mashup. By analyzing users' verbal and behavioral data using Schön's reflection-in-action design model and the notion of ideations from creativity literature, we discovered insights into end-user programmers' problem-solving attempts, successes, and obstacles, with accompanying implications for the design of end-user programming environments for mashups. The contribution of our work is three-fold: 1) the methodology of using a design lens to view programming, 2) evidence, through insights gained, of the usefulness of this approach, and 3) the implications themselves.
Keywords: design, end-user programming, mashups
What would other programmers do: suggesting solutions to error messages BIBAKFull-Text 1019-1028
  Björn Hartmann; Daniel MacDougall; Joel Brandt; Scott R. Klemmer
Interpreting compiler errors and exception messages is challenging for novice programmers. Presenting examples of how other programmers have corrected similar errors may help novices understand and correct such errors. This paper introduces HelpMeOut, a social recommender system that aids the debugging of error messages by suggesting solutions that peers have applied in the past. HelpMeOut comprises IDE instrumentation to collect examples of code changes that fix errors; a central database that stores fix reports from many users; and a suggestion interface that, given an error, queries the database for a list of relevant fixes and presents these to the programmer. We report on implementations of this architecture for two programming languages. An evaluation with novice programmers found that the technique can suggest useful fixes for 47% of errors after 39 person-hours of programming in an instrumented environment.
Keywords: debugging, recommender systems

Avatars and virtual environments

Where are you pointing?: the accuracy of deictic pointing in CVEs BIBAKFull-Text 1029-1038
  Nelson Wong; Carl Gutwin
Deictic reference -- pointing at things during conversation -- is ubiquitous in human communication, and should also be an important tool in distributed collaborative virtual environments (CVEs). Pointing gestures can be complex and subtle, however, and pointing is much more difficult in the virtual world. In order to improve the richness of interaction in CVEs, it is important to provide better support for pointing and deictic reference, and a first step in this support is to determine how well people can interpret the direction that another person is pointing. To investigate this question, we carried out two studies. The first identified several ways that people point towards distant targets, and established that not all pointing requires high accuracy. This suggested that natural CVE pointing could potentially be successful; but no knowledge is available about whether even moderate accuracy is possible in CVEs. Therefore, our second study looked more closely at how accurately people can produce and interpret the direction of pointing gestures in CVEs. We found that although people are more accurate in the real world, the differences are smaller than expected; our results show that deixis can be successful in CVEs for many pointing situations, and provide a foundation for more comprehensive support of deictic pointing.
Keywords: avatars, cves, gestures, pointing
Lie tracking: social presence, truth and deception in avatar-mediated telecommunication BIBAKFull-Text 1039-1048
  William Steptoe; Anthony Steed; Aitor Rovira; John Rae
The success of visual telecommunication systems depends on their ability to transmit and display users' natural nonverbal behavior. While video-mediated communication (VMC) is the most widely used form of interpersonal remote interaction, avatar-mediated communication (AMC) in shared virtual environments is increasingly common. This paper presents two experiments investigating eye tracking in AMC. The first experiment compares the degree of social presence experienced in AMC and VMC during truthful and deceptive discourse. Eye tracking data (gaze, blinking, and pupil size) demonstrates that oculesic behavior is similar in both mediation types, and uncovers systematic differences between truth telling and lying. Subjective measures show users' psychological arousal to be greater in VMC than AMC. The second experiment demonstrates that observers of AMC can more accurately detect truth and deception when viewing avatars with added oculesic behavior driven by eye tracking. We discuss implications for the design of future visual telecommunication media interfaces.
Keywords: avatar-mediated communication, deception, eye tracking, social presence, trust, video-mediated communication, virtual environments
Embodied social proxy: mediating interpersonal connection in hub-and-satellite teams BIBAKFull-Text 1049-1058
  Gina Venolia; John Tang; Ruy Cervantes; Sara Bly; George Robertson; Bongshin Lee; Kori Inkpen
Current business conditions have given rise to distributed teams that are mostly collocated except for one remote member. These "hub-and-satellite" teams face the challenge of the satellite colleague being out-of-sight and out-of-mind. We developed a telepresence device, called an Embodied Social Proxy (ESP), which represents the satellite coworker 24x7. Beyond using ESPs in our own group, we deployed an ESP in four product teams within our company for six weeks. We studied how ESP was used through ethnographic observations, surveys, and usage log data. ESP not only increased the satellite worker's ability to fully participate in meetings, it also increased the hub's attention and affinity towards the satellite. The continuous physical presence of ESP in each team improved the interpersonal social connections between hub and satellite colleagues.
Keywords: distributed collaboration, embodied video conferencing, empirical study, telepresence

Crisis informatics

MOSES: exploring new ground in media and post-conflict reconciliation BIBAKFull-Text 1059-1068
  Thomas N. Smyth; John Etherton; Michael L. Best
While the history of traditional media in post-conflict peace building efforts is rich and well studied, the potential for interactive new media technologies in this area has gone unexplored. In cooperation with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia, we have constructed a novel interactive kiosk system, called MOSES, for use in that country's post-conflict reconciliation effort. The system allows the sharing of video messages between Liberians throughout the country, despite the presence of little or no communications infrastructure. In this paper, we describe the MOSES system, including several innovative design elements. We also present a novel design methodology we employed to manage the various distances between our design team and the intended user group in Liberia. Finally, we report on a qualitative study of the system with 27 participants from throughout Liberia. The study found that participants saw MOSES as giving them a voice and connecting them to other Liberians throughout the country; that the system was broadly usable by low-literate, novice users without human assistance; that the embodied conversational agent used in our design shows considerable promise; that users generally ascribed foreign involvement to the system; and that the system encouraged heavily group-oriented usage.
Keywords: conversational agent, Liberia, new media, post-conflict reconciliation, user generated content
Blogging in a region of conflict: supporting transition to recovery BIBAKFull-Text 1069-1078
  Ban Al-Ani; Gloria Mark; Bryan Semaan
The blogosphere is changing how people experience war and conflict. We conducted an analysis of 125 blogs written by Iraqi citizens experiencing extreme disruption in their country. We used Hoffman's [8] stages of recovery model to understand how blogs support people in a region where conflict is occurring. We found that blogs create a safe virtual environment where people could interact, free of the violence in the physical environment and of the strict social norms of their changing society in wartime. Second, blogs enable a large network of global support through their interactive and personal nature. Third, blogs enable people experiencing a conflict to engage in dialogue with people outside their borders to discuss their situation. We discuss how blogs enable people to collaboratively interpret conflict through communities of interest and discussion with those who comment. We discuss how technology can better support blog use in a global environment.
Keywords: blogs, community, disrupted environment, empirical study, understanding the user
Microblogging during two natural hazards events: what twitter may contribute to situational awareness BIBAKFull-Text 1079-1088
  Sarah Vieweg; Amanda L. Hughes; Kate Starbird; Leysia Palen
We analyze microblog posts generated during two recent, concurrent emergency events in North America via Twitter, a popular microblogging service. We focus on communications broadcast by people who were "on the ground" during the Oklahoma Grassfires of April 2009 and the Red River Floods that occurred in March and April 2009, and identify information that may contribute to enhancing situational awareness (SA). This work aims to inform next steps for extracting useful, relevant information during emergencies using information extraction (IE) techniques.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, crisis informatics, disaster, emergency, hazards, microblogging, situational awareness

Input, security, and privacy policies

The secure haptic keypad: a tactile password system BIBAKFull-Text 1089-1092
  Andrea Bianchi; Ian Oakley; Dong Soo Kwon
Authentication in public spaces poses significant security risks. Most significantly, passwords can be stolen, potentially leading to fraud. A common method to steal a PIN is through an observation attack, either using a camera or through direct observation (e.g. shoulder-surfing). This paper addresses this problem by presenting the design and implementation of a novel input keypad which uses tactile cues as means to compose a password. In this system, passwords are encoded as a sequence of randomized vibration patterns, making it visually impossible for an observer to detect which items are selected. An evaluation of this system shows it outperforms previous interfaces which have used tactile feedback to obfuscate passwords.
Keywords: pin entry, security, tactile UI, user study
Multi-touch authentication on tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 1093-1102
  David Kim; Paul Dunphy; Pam Briggs; Jonathan Hook; John Nicholson; James Nicholson; Patrick Olivier
The introduction of tabletop interfaces has given rise to the need for the development of secure and usable authentication techniques that are appropriate for the co-located collaborative settings for which they have been designed. Most commonly, user authentication is based on something you know, but this is a particular problem for tabletop interfaces, as they are particularly vulnerable to shoulder surfing given their remit to foster co-located collaboration. In other words, tabletop users would typically authenticate in full view of a number of observers. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate a number of novel tabletop authentication schemes that exploit the features of multi-touch interaction in order to inhibit shoulder surfing. In our pilot work with users, and in our formal user-evaluation, one authentication scheme -- Pressure-Grid -- stood out, significantly enhancing shoulder surfing resistance when participants used it to enter both PINs and graphical passwords.
Keywords: graphical passwords, multi-touch interaction, shoulder surfing, user authentication
ColorPIN: securing PIN entry through indirect input BIBAKFull-Text 1103-1106
  Alexander De Luca; Katja Hertzschuch; Heinrich Hussmann
Automated teller machine (ATM) frauds are increasing drastically these days. When analyzing the most common attacks and the reasons for successful frauds, it becomes apparent that the main problem lies in the PIN based authentication which in itself does not provide any security features (besides the use of asterisks). That is, security is solely based on a user's behavior. Indirect input is one way to solve this problem. This mostly comes at the costs of adding overhead to the input process. We present ColorPIN, an authentication mechanism that uses indirect input to provide security enhanced PIN entry. At the same time, ColorPIN remains a one-to-one relationship between the length of the PIN and the required number of clicks. A user study showed that ColorPIN is significantly more secure than standard PIN entry while enabling good authentication speed in comparison with related systems.
Keywords: ATM, authentication, colorpin, security
Shoulder-surfing resistance with eye-gaze entry in cued-recall graphical passwords BIBAKFull-Text 1107-1110
  Alain Forget; Sonia Chiasson; Robert Biddle
We present Cued Gaze-Points (CGP) as a shoulder-surfing resistant cued-recall graphical password scheme where users gaze instead of mouse-click. This approach has several advantages over similar eye-gaze systems, including a larger password space and its cued-recall nature that can help users remember multiple distinct passwords. Our 45-participant lab study is the first evaluation of gaze-based password entry via user-selected points on images. CGP's usability is potentially acceptable, warranting further refinement and study.
Keywords: eye tracking, graphical passwords, usable security
Visual vs. compact: a comparison of privacy policy interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 1111-1114
  Heather Richter Lipford; Jason Watson; Michael Whitney; Katherine Froiland; Robert W. Reeder
In this paper, we compare the impact of two different privacy policy representations -- AudienceView and Expandable Grids -- on users modifying privacy policies for a social network site. Despite the very different interfaces, there were very few differences in user performance. However, users had clear, and different, preferences and acknowledged the tradeoffs between the two representations. Our results imply that while either interface would be a usable option for policy settings, a combination may appeal to a wider audience and offer the best of both worlds.
Keywords: access control policy, privacy, social network site

Seniors using technologies

Pointassist for older adults: analyzing sub-movement characteristics to aid in pointing tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1115-1124
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Christopher M. Nguyen; Keith B. Perry; Natalie L. Denburg
Perceptual, cognitive and motor deficits cause many older adults to have difficulty conducting pointing tasks on computers. Many strategies have been discussed in the HCI community to aid older adults and others in pointing tasks. We present a different approach in PointAssist, software that aids in pointing tasks by analyzing the characteristics of sub-movements, detecting when users have difficulty pointing, and triggering a precision mode that slows the speed of the cursor in those cases. PointAssist is designed to help maintain pointing skills, runs as a background process working with existing software, is not vulnerable to clusters of targets or targets in the way, and does not modify the visual appearance or the feel of user interfaces. There is evidence from a prior study that PointAssist helps young children conduct pointing tasks. In this paper, we present a study evaluating PointAssist with twenty older adults (ages 66-88). The study participants benefited from greater accuracy when using PointAssist, when compared to using the "enhance pointer precision" option in Windows XP. In addition, we provide evidence of correlations between neuropsychological measures, pointing performance, and PointAssist detecting pointing difficulty.
Keywords: accuracy, assistive technologies, older adults, pointing
Steadied-bubbles: combining techniques to address pen-based pointing errors for younger and older adults BIBAKFull-Text 1125-1134
  Karyn Moffatt; Joanna McGrenere
Tablet PCs are gaining popularity but many older adults still struggle with pointing, particularly with two error types: missing, landing and lifting outside the target bounds; and slipping, landing on the target, but slipping off before lifting. To solve these problems, we examined the feasibility of extending and combining existing techniques designed for younger users and the mouse, focusing our investigation on the Bubble cursor and Steady Clicks techniques. Through a laboratory experiment with younger and older adults, we showed that both techniques can be adapted for use in a pen interface, and that combining the two techniques provides greater support than either technique on its own. Though our results were especially pertinent to the older group, both ages benefited from the designs. We also found that technique performance depended on task context. From these findings we established guidelines for technique selection.
Keywords: error prevention, older adults, pen-based interaction, pointing facilitation
Learning to text: an interaction analytic study of how an interaction analytic study of how seniors learn to enter text on mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 1135-1144
  Alexandra Weilenmann
This paper is based on an interaction analysis of video recordings of seniors being instructed in the use of texting. Learning to text is a complex ordeal for the elderly, which not only involves grasping such complex phenomena as hierarchically organized menus and text prediction technology, but also more mundane and seemingly simple skills as pressing the keys. The latter is the primary focus of the analysis, as this is a common and taken for granted skill upon which many HCI systems rely. We show how the seniors struggle with learning to press in a sequence, embodying the timing and rhythm of key pressing, and orchestrating their vision and pressing. The study contributes to the general field of mobile phone design for the elderly, to our knowledge on how people appropriate and learn to use new technologies, as well as adds to models explaining novice users' mastering of text input.
Keywords: cell phone, interaction analysis, mobile phone, novice users, seniors, text input, texting, video analysis

Tangible UI

Touch-display keyboards: transforming keyboards into interactive surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 1145-1154
  Florian Block; Hans Gellersen; Nicolas Villar
In spite of many advances in GUI workstations, the keyboard has remained limited to text entry and basic command invocation. In this work, we introduce the Touch-Display Keyboard (TDK), a novel keyboard that combines the physical-ergonomic qualities of the conventional keyboard with dynamic display and touch-sensing embedded in each key. The TDK effectively transforms the keyboard into an interactive surface that is seamlessly integrated with the interaction space of GUIs, extending graphical output, mouse interaction and three-state input to the keyboard. This gives rise to an entirely new design space of interaction across keyboard, mouse and screen, for which we provide a first systematic analysis in this paper. We illustrate the emerging design opportunities with a host of novel interaction concepts and techniques, and show how these contribute to expressiveness of GUIs, exploration and learning of keyboard interfaces, and interface customization across graphics display and physical keyboard.
Keywords: gui, i/o device, interactive surface, interface customization, touch-display keyboard
iCon: utilizing everyday objects as additional, auxiliary and instant tabletop controllers BIBAKFull-Text 1155-1164
  Kai-Yin Cheng; Rong-Hao Liang; Bing-Yu Chen; Rung-Huei Laing; Sy-Yen Kuo
This work describes a novel approach to utilizing everyday objects of users as additional, auxiliary, and instant tabletop controllers. Based on this approach, a prototype platform, called iCon, is developed to explore the possible design. Field studies and user studies reveal that utilizing everyday objects such as auxiliary input devices might be appropriate under a multi-task scenario. User studies further demonstrate that daily objects can generally be applied in low precision circumstances, low engagement with selected objects, and medium-to-high frequency of use. The proposed approach allows users to interact with computers while not altering their original work environments.
Keywords: everyday object, tabletop controller, tangible user interface
Lumino: tangible blocks for tabletop computers based on glass fiber bundles BIBAKFull-Text 1165-1174
  Patrick Baudisch; Torsten Becker; Frederik Rudeck
Tabletop computers based on diffuse illumination can track fiducial markers placed on the table's surface. In this paper, we demonstrate how to do the same with objects arranged in a three-dimensional structure without modifying the table. We present lumino, a system of building blocks. In addition to a marker, each block contains a glass fiber bundle. The bundle optically guides the light reflected off markers in the higher levels down to the table surface, where the table's built-in camera reads it. While guiding marker images down, the bundle optically scales and rearranges them. It thereby fits the images of an entire vertical arrangement of markers into the horizontal space usually occupied by a single 2D marker. We present six classes of blocks and matching marker designs, each of which is optimized for different requirements. We show three demo applications. One of them is a construction kit that logs and critiques constructions. The presented blocks are unpowered and maintenance-free, keeping larger numbers of blocks manageable.
Keywords: building blocks, construction kit, fiducial markers, glass fiber bundles, stacking, tabletop, tangible

Understanding comments

Opinion space: a scalable tool for browsing online comments BIBAKFull-Text 1175-1184
  Siamak Faridani; Ephrat Bitton; Kimiko Ryokai; Ken Goldberg
Internet users are increasingly inclined to contribute comments to online news articles, videos, product reviews, and blogs. The most common interface for comments is a list, sorted by time of entry or by binary ratings. It is widely recognized that such lists do not scale well and can lead to "cyberpolarization," which serves to reinforce extreme opinions. We present Opinion Space: a new online interface incorporating ideas from deliberative polling, dimensionality reduction, and collaborative filtering that allows participants to visualize and navigate through a diversity of comments. This self-organizing system automatically highlights the comments found most insightful by users from a range of perspectives. We report results of a controlled user study. When Opinion Space was compared with a chronological List interface, participants read a similar diversity of comments. However, they were significantly more engaged with the system, and they had significantly higher agreement with and respect for the comments they read.
Keywords: collaborative filtering, comment browsing, deliberative polling, dimensionality reduction, opinion mining, opinion visualization, perceptual maps, very large scale conversations
Short and tweet: experiments on recommending content from information streams BIBAKFull-Text 1185-1194
  Jilin Chen; Rowan Nairn; Les Nelson; Michael Bernstein; Ed Chi
More and more web users keep up with newest information through information streams such as the popular micro-blogging website Twitter. In this paper we studied content recommendation on Twitter to better direct user attention. In a modular approach, we explored three separate dimensions in designing such a recommender: content sources, topic interest models for users, and social voting. We implemented 12 recommendation engines in the design space we formulated, and deployed them to a recommender service on the web to gather feedback from real Twitter users. The best performing algorithm improved the percentage of interesting content to 72% from a baseline of 33%. We conclude this work by discussing the implications of our recommender design and how our design can generalize to other information streams.
Keywords: information stream, recommender system, social filtering, topic modeling
Characterizing debate performance via aggregated twitter sentiment BIBAKFull-Text 1195-1198
  Nicholas A. Diakopoulos; David A. Shamma
Television broadcasters are beginning to combine social micro-blogging systems such as Twitter with television to create social video experiences around events. We looked at one such event, the first U.S. presidential debate in 2008, in conjunction with aggregated ratings of message sentiment from Twitter. We begin to develop an analytical methodology and visual representations that could help a journalist or public affairs person better understand the temporal dynamics of sentiment in reaction to the debate video. We demonstrate visuals and metrics that can be used to detect sentiment pulse, anomalies in that pulse, and indications of controversial topics that can be used to inform the design of visual analytic systems for social media events.
Keywords: affect, annotation, debate, journalism, sentiment, tv, video
Dandelion: supporting coordinated, collaborative authoring in Wikis BIBAKFull-Text 1199-1202
  Changyan Chi; Michelle X. Zhou; Min Yang; Wenpeng Xiao; Yiqin Yu; Xiaohua Sun
Dandelion is a tool that extends wikis to support coordinated, collaborative authoring using a tag-based approach. Specifically, users can insert tags in a wiki page to specify various co-authoring tasks. These tags can then be executed to help drive and manage the collaboration workflow, and provide content-centric collaboration awareness for all the co-authors. Four successful pilot deployments and positive user feedback show the practical value of Dandelion, especially its value in supporting a structured, collaborative authoring process often seen in business settings.
Keywords: awareness, collaborative authoring, coordination

Caring for ourselves

Constructing identities through storytelling in diabetes management BIBAKFull-Text 1203-1212
  Lena Mamykina; Andrew D. Miller; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Daniel Greenblatt
The continuing epidemics of diabetes and obesity create much need for information technologies that can help individuals engage in proactive health management. Yet many of these technologies focus on such pragmatic issues as collecting and presenting health information and modifying individuals' behavior. At the same time, researchers in clinical community argue that individuals' perception of their identity has dramatic consequences for their health behaviors. In this paper we discuss results of a deployment study of a mobile health monitoring application. We show how individuals with considerable diabetes experience found a unique way to adopt this health-monitoring application to construct and negotiate their identities as persons with a chronic disease. We argue that viewing health management from identity construction perspective opens new opportunities for research and design in technologies for health.
Keywords: chronic disease management, diabetes, learning, reflection, ubiquitous computing
Self-monitoring, self-awareness, and self-determination in cardiac rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 1213-1222
  Julie Maitland; Matthew Chalmers
The application of self-monitoring technologies to the problem of promoting health-related behavioural change has been an active area of research for many years. This paper reports on our investigations into health-related behavioural change within the context of a cardiac rehabilitation programme, and considers the role that self-monitoring currently plays and may play in the future. We carried out semi-structured interviews with nineteen cardiac rehabilitation participants. Our main findings relate to distinctions between implicit and conscious change, tensions between cardiac rehabilitation and everyday life, the importance of self-awareness and self-determination, and an overall reluctance towards unnecessary self-monitoring. In view of these findings, we then offer suggestions as to how self-monitoring technologies can be designed to suit this particular context of use.
Keywords: cardiac rehabilitation, dietary intake, health-related behavioural change, physical activity, self-monitoring
Negotiating boundaries: managing disease at home BIBAKFull-Text 1223-1232
  Rikke Aarhus; Stinne Aaløkke Ballegaard
To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.
Keywords: boundary object, boundary work, compliance, disease management, healthcare technology, home, self-care


Momentum: getting and staying on topic during a brainstorm BIBAKFull-Text 1233-1236
  Patti Bao; Elizabeth Gerber; Darren Gergle; David Hoffman
Despite the prevalent use of group brainstorming for problem solving and decision-making within organizations, brainstorming sessions often lack focus and fail to produce quality ideas. We describe Momentum, a tool that elicits topic-oriented responses prior to a group brainstorm. In an exploratory study, we found qualitative differences in task focus, quality and rate of ideation, and efficiency of storytelling between users and non-users of the tool.
Keywords: brainstorming, creativity support tools, group creativity
Layered elaboration: a new technique for co-design with children BIBAKFull-Text 1237-1240
  Greg Walsh; Allison Druin; Mona Leigh Guha; Elizabeth Foss; Evan Golub; Leshell Hatley; Elizabeth Bonsignore; Sonia Franckel
As technology for children becomes more mobile, social, and distributed, our design methods and techniques must evolve to better explore these new directions. This paper reports on "Layered Elaboration," a co-design technique created to support these evolving needs. Layered Elaboration allows design teams to generate ideas through an iterative process in which each version leaves prior ideas intact while extending concepts. Layered Elaboration is a useful technique as it enables co-design to take place asynchronously and does not require much space or many resources. Our intergenerational team, including adults and children ages 7-11 years old, used the technique to design both a game about history and a prototype of an instructional game about energy conservation.
Keywords: children, co-design, cooperative inquiry, layered elaboration, low-tech prototyping, storyboarding
Don't just stare at me! BIBAKFull-Text 1241-1250
  Ning Wang; Jonathan Gratch
Communication is more effective and persuasive when participants establish rapport. Tickle-Degnen and Rosenthal [57] argue rapport arises when participants exhibit mutual attentiveness, positivity and coordination. In this paper, we investigate how these factors relate to perceptions of rapport when users interact via avatars in virtual worlds. In this study, participants told a story to what they believed was the avatar of another participant. In fact, the avatar was a computer program that systematically manipulated levels of attentiveness, positivity and coordination. In contrast to Tickel-Degnen and Rosenthal's findings, high-levels of mutual attentiveness alone can dramatically lower perceptions of rapport in avatar communication. Indeed, an agent that attempted to maximize mutual attention performed as poorly as an agent that was designed to convey boredom. Adding positivity and coordination to mutual attentiveness, on the other hand, greatly improved rapport. This work unveils the dependencies between components of rapport and informs the design of agents and avatars in computer mediated communication.
Keywords: gaze, rapport, virtual agent
Video playdate: toward free play across distance BIBAKFull-Text 1251-1260
  Svetlana Yarosh; Kori M. Inkpen; A. J. Bernheim Brush
We present an empirical investigation of video-mediated free play between 13 pairs of friends (ages 7 and 8). The pairs spent 10 minutes playing with each of four different prototypes we developed to support free play over videoconferencing. We coded each interaction for the types of play and the amount of social play observed. The children in our study were largely successful in playing together across videoconferencing, though challenges in managing visibility, attention, and intersubjectivity made it more difficult than face-to-face play. We also found that our prototypes supported some types of play to varying degrees. Our contribution lies in identifying these design tradeoffs and providing directions for future design of video-mediated communication systems for children.
Keywords: children, cmc, free play, videoconferencing

Driving, interrupted

Where should i turn: moving from individual to collaborative navigation strategies to inform the interaction design of future navigation systems BIBAKFull-Text 1261-1270
  Jodi Forlizzi; William C. Barley; Thomas Seder
The design of in-vehicle navigation systems fails to take into account the social nature of driving and automobile navigation. In this paper, we consider navigation as a social activity among drivers and navigators to improve design of such systems. We explore the implications of moving from a map-centered, individually-focused design paradigm to one based upon collaborative human interaction during the navigation task. We conducted a qualitative interaction design study of navigation among three types of teams: parents and their teenage children, couples, and unacquainted individuals. We found that collaboration varied among these different teams, and was influenced by social role, as well as the task role of driver or navigator. We also found that patterns of prompts, maneuvers, and confirmations varied among the three teams. We identify overarching practices that differ greatly from the literature on individual navigation. From these discoveries, we present design implications that can be used to inform future navigation systems.
Keywords: GPS systems, in-car navigation, interaction design
Studying driver attention and behaviour for three configurations of GPS navigation in real traffic driving BIBAKFull-Text 1271-1280
  Brit Susan Jensen; Mikael B. Skov; Nissan Thiruravichandran
Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation systems were amongst the top selling consumer technologies in 2008 and research has indicated that such technologies could affect driving behaviour. In this paper, we study how different output configurations (audio, visual and audio-visual) of a GPS system affect driving behaviour and performance. We conducted field experiments in real traffic with 30 subjects. Our results illustrated that visual output not only causes a substantial amount of eye glances, but also led to a decrease in driving performance. Adding audio output decreased the number of eye glances, but we found no significant effects on driving performance. Although the audio configuration implied much fewer eye glances and improved driving performance, several participants expressed preference for the audio/visual output.
Keywords: driving, eye glances, field experiment, GPS, in-vehicle systems, navigation guide, output modalities
Cars, calls, and cognition: investigating driving and divided attention BIBAKFull-Text 1281-1290
  Shamsi T. Iqbal; Yun-Cheng Ju; Eric Horvitz
Conversing on cell phones while driving an automobile is a common practice. We examine the interference of the cognitive load of conversational dialog with driving tasks, with the goal of identifying better and worse times for conversations during driving. We present results from a controlled study involving 18 users using a driving simulator. The driving complexity and conversation type were manipulated in the study, and performance was measured for factors related to both the primary driving task and secondary conversation task. Results showed significant interactions between the primary and secondary tasks, where certain combinations of complexity and conversations were found especially detrimental to driving. We present the studies and analyses and relate the findings to prior work on multiple resource models of cognition. We discuss how the results can frame thinking about policies and technologies aimed at enhancing driving safety.
Keywords: attention, cell phones, driving, dual task performance

HCI for all

Homeless young people's experiences with information systems: life and work in a community technology center BIBAKFull-Text 1291-1300
  Jill Palzkill Woelfer; David G. Hendry
This paper explores how homeless young people, aged 13-25, make use of information systems in daily life. Observed in a community technology center, four different examples of uses are described: i) Using digital tools to find employment, ii) Telling stories with representations of the built world, iii) Portraying life on the street with video, and iv) Constructing online identities. From these examples and a discussion of this community, a framework of ecological considerations is proposed. This framework distinguishes between elements of 'life' on the street (Self-Reliance, Vulnerability, and Basic Needs) and 'work' in the community technology center (Conformity, Youth-Adult Relationships, and Goals). Any information system for homeless young people must engage the tensions and opportunities that arise from these two different perspectives of homelessness.
Keywords: digital media, homelessness, identity, youth
Feminist HCI: taking stock and outlining an agenda for design BIBAKFull-Text 1301-1310
  Shaowen Bardzell
Feminism is a natural ally to interaction design, due to its central commitments to issues such as agency, fulfillment, identity, equity, empowerment, and social justice. In this paper, I summarize the state of the art of feminism in HCI and propose ways to build on existing successes to more robustly integrate feminism into interaction design research and practice. I explore the productive role of feminism in analogous fields, such as industrial design, architecture, and game design. I introduce examples of feminist interaction design already in the field. Finally, I propose a set of feminist interaction design qualities intended to support design and evaluation processes directly as they unfold.
Keywords: HCI, design, feminism, feminist HCI, feminist design qualities, feminist standpoint theory, gender, interaction design
Postcolonial computing: a lens on design and development BIBAKFull-Text 1311-1320
  Lilly Irani; Janet Vertesi; Paul Dourish; Kavita Philip; Rebecca E. Grinter
As our technologies travel to new cultural contexts and our designs and methods engage new constituencies, both our design and analytical practices face significant challenges. We offer postcolonial computing as an analytical orientation to better understand these challenges. This analytic orientation inspires four key shifts in our approach to HCI4D efforts: generative models of culture, development as a historical program, uneven economic relations, and cultural epistemologies. Then, through reconsideration of the practices of engagement, articulation and translation in other contexts, we offer designers and researchers ways of understanding use and design practice to respond to global connectivity and movement.
Keywords: culture, design methods, ICT4D, postcolonial theory, STS

Interaction techniques

Integrating text with video and 3D graphics: documenting patient encounter during trauma resuscitation BIBAKFull-Text 1321-1330
  Jacek Jankowski; Krystian Samp; Izabela Irzynska; Marek Jozwowicz; Stefan Decker
There have been many studies of computer based text reading. However, only a few have considered text integrated with video and 3D graphics. This paper presents an investigation into the effects of varying (a) text drawing style (plain, billboard, Anti-Interference, shadow), (b) image polarity (positive and negative), and (c) background style (video and 3D) on text readability. Reading speed and accuracy were measured and subjective views of participants recorded.
   Results showed that: (a) there was little difference in reading performance for the video and 3D backgrounds; (b) the negative presentation outperformed the positive presentation; (c) the billboard drawing styles supported the best performance; subjective comments showed a preference for the billboard style. We therefore suggest, for reading tasks, that designers of interfaces for games, video, and augmented reality provide billboard style to maximize readability for the widest range of applications.
Keywords: 3d graphics, aesthetics, augmented reality, image polarity, legibility, readability, text drawing styles
Apatite: a new interface for exploring APIs BIBAKFull-Text 1331-1334
  Daniel S. Eisenberg; Jeffrey Stylos; Brad A. Myers
We present Apatite, a new tool that aids users in learning and understanding a complex API by visualizing the common associations between its various components. Current object-oriented API documentation is usually navigated in a fixed tree structure, starting with a package and then filtering by a specific class. For large APIs, this scheme is overly restrictive, because it prevents users from locating a particular action without first knowing which class it belongs to. Apatite's design instead enables users to search across any level of an API's hierarchy. This is made possible by the introduction of a novel interaction technique that presents popular items from multiple categories simultaneously, determining their relevance by approximating the strength of their association using search engine data. The design of Apatite was refined through iterative usability testing, and it has been released publicly as a web application.
Keywords: api documentation, browsing, search tools, visualizations, web applications
Push-and-pull switching: window switching based on window overlapping BIBAKFull-Text 1335-1338
  Quan Xu; Géry Casiez
We propose Push-and-Pull Switching, a window switching technique using window overlapping to implicitly define groups. Push-and-Pull Switching enables switching between groups and restacking the focused window to any position to change its group membership. The technique was evaluated in an experiment which found that Push-and-Pull Switching improves switching performance by more than 50% compared to other switching techniques in different scenarios. A longitudinal user study indicates that participants invoked this switching technique 15% of the time on single monitor displays and that they found it easy to understand and use.
Keywords: overlapping, window management, window switching
Animated UI transitions and perception of time: a user study on animated effects on a mobile screen BIBAKFull-Text 1339-1342
  Jussi Huhtala; Ari-Heikki Sarjanoja; Jani Mäntyjärvi; Minna Isomursu; Jonna Häkkilä
The capability to present advanced graphics in the present mobile devices can be utilized to improve their usability and overall user experience. Mobile devices have limitations compared to PCs due to their inferior computing power and small screens, but a successful design of animated transitions can hide processing delays and make the user experience smoother. In this paper, we describe the design of animated transitions and present a user study on how they are perceived. The results show that in the transition between two images, bringing up the next image earlier dominates the perception of a fast transition over other variables examined in the study.
Keywords: UI animations, UI design, UI transitions, user studies

Machine learning and web interactions

Interactive optimization for steering machine classification BIBAKFull-Text 1343-1352
  Ashish Kapoor; Bongshin Lee; Desney Tan; Eric Horvitz
Interest has been growing within HCI on the use of machine learning and reasoning in applications to classify such hidden states as user intentions, based on observations. HCI researchers with these interests typically have little expertise in machine learning and often employ toolkits as relatively fixed "black boxes" for generating statistical classifiers. However, attempts to tailor the performance of classifiers to specific application requirements may require a more sophisticated understanding and custom-tailoring of methods. We present ManiMatrix, a system that provides controls and visualizations that enable system builders to refine the behavior of classification systems in an intuitive manner. With ManiMatrix, users directly refine parameters of a confusion matrix via an interactive cycle of re-classification and visualization. We present the core methods and evaluate the effectiveness of the approach in a user study. Results show that users are able to quickly and effectively modify decision boundaries of classifiers to tailor the behavior of classifiers to problems at hand.
Keywords: decision theory, interactive machine learning, interactive optimization, visualization
A longitudinal study of how highlighting web content change affects people's web interactions BIBAKFull-Text 1353-1356
  Jaime Teevan; Susan T. Dumais; Daniel J. Liebling
The Web is constantly changing, but most tools used to access Web content deal only with what can be captured at a single instance in time. As a result, Web users may not have a good understanding of the changes that occur. In this paper we show that making Web content change explicitly visible allows people to interact with the Web in new ways. We present a longitudinal study in which 30 people used a Web browser plug-in that caches visited pages and highlights text changes to those pages when revisited. We used a survey to capture their understanding of Web page change and their own revisitation patterns at the beginning of use and after one month. For a majority of the participants, we also logged their Web page visits and associated content change. Exposing change is more valuable to our participants than initially expected, making them aware of how dynamic content they visit is and changing their interactions with it.
Keywords: longitudinal study, re-finding, revisitation, web dynamics
Examining multiple potential models in end-user interactive concept learning BIBAKFull-Text 1357-1360
  Saleema Amershi; James Fogarty; Ashish Kapoor; Desney Tan
End-user interactive concept learning is a technique for interacting with large unstructured datasets, requiring insights from both human-computer interaction and machine learning. This note re-examines an assumption implicit in prior interactive machine learning research, that interaction should focus on the question "what class is this object?". We broaden interaction to include examination of multiple potential models while training a machine learning system. We evaluate this approach and find that people naturally adopt revision in the interactive machine learning process and that this improves the quality of their resulting models for difficult concepts.
Keywords: end-user interactive concept learning
Signed networks in social media BIBAKFull-Text 1361-1370
  Jure Leskovec; Daniel Huttenlocher; Jon Kleinberg
Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the classical theory of structural balance tends to capture certain common patterns of interaction, but that it is also at odds with some of the fundamental phenomena we observe -- particularly related to the evolving, directed nature of these on-line networks. We then develop an alternate theory of status that better explains the observed edge signs and provides insights into the underlying social mechanisms. Our work provides one of the first large-scale evaluations of theories of signed networks using on-line datasets, as well as providing a perspective for reasoning about social media sites.
Keywords: positive and negative edges, signed networks, status theory, structural balance, trust and distrust

Pointing and selecting

Why it's quick to be square: modelling new and existing hierarchical menu designs BIBAKFull-Text 1371-1380
  David Ahlström; Andy Cockburn; Carl Gutwin; Pourang Irani
We consider different hierarchical menu and toolbar-like interface designs from a theoretical perspective and show how a model based on visual search time, pointing time, decision time and expertise development can assist in understanding and predicting interaction performance. Three hierarchical menus designs are modelled -- a traditional pull-down menu, a pie menu and a novel Square Menu with its items arranged in a grid -- and the predictions are validated in an empirical study. The model correctly predicts the relative performance of the designs -- both the eventual dominance of Square Menus compared to traditional and pie designs and a performance crossover as users gain experience. Our work shows the value of modelling in HCI design, provides new insights about performance with different hierarchical menu designs, and demonstrates a new high-performance menu type.
Keywords: hierarchical menus, menus, performance models.
pCubee: a perspective-corrected handheld cubic display BIBAKFull-Text 1381-1390
  Ian Stavness; Billy Lam; Sidney Fels
In this paper, we describe the design of a personal cubic display that offers novel interaction techniques for static and dynamic 3D content. We extended one-screen Fish Tank VR by arranging five small LCD panels into a box shape that is light and compact enough to be handheld. The display uses head-coupled perspective rendering and a real-time physics simulation engine to establish an interaction metaphor of having real objects inside a physical box that a user can hold and manipulate. We evaluated our prototype as a visualization tool and as an input device by comparing it with a conventional LCD display and mouse for a 3D tree-tracing task. We found that bimanual interaction with pCubee and a mouse offered the best performance and was most preferred by users. pCubee has potential in 3D visualization and interactive applications such as games, storytelling and education, as well as viewing 3D maps, medical and architectural data.
Keywords: 3d visualization, fish tank vr, handheld device, multi-screen display, physical interaction, user evaluation, user interface
Bias towards regular configuration in 2D pointing BIBAKFull-Text 1391-1400
  Huahai Yang; Xianggang Xu
Extending Fitts' law to more than one dimension has been recognized as having important implications for HCI. In spite of the progress made over the years, however, it is still far from a resolved issue. Our work approaches this problem from the viewpoint of a configuration space, which has served as a useful conceptual framework for understanding human preference in perception. Notably, human are found to be biased towards regular configurations. In this work, we extended the configuration space framework to the domain of motor behavior, analyzed 2D pointing, and developed five models to account for the performance. An extensive experiment was conducted to measure the fit of the derived models and that of three previous models. Consistent with our hypothesis, the model reflecting a bias towards regular configuration was found to have the most satisfactory fit with the data. The paper concludes with discussions on improving understanding of Fitts' law and the implications for HCI.
Keywords: 2d pointing, configuration space, fitts' law

Bang a table

Digital drumming: a study of co-located, highly coordinated, dyadic collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 1417-1426
  Bobby Beaton; Steve Harrison; Deborah Tatar
Collaborative drumming is a creative human activity that requires a high degree of coordination among the participants. In this study, inexperienced drummer and experienced drummer participants were paired with a computer or experienced human drummer counterpart and given the task of producing musical rhythms on the fly. We found differing patterns of music production across the computer and human conditions. Participants intentionally and unintentionally assumed leadership roles depending on the dyad dynamic. Also noted were differences in the needs of inexperienced and experienced participants for visual and verbal cues for coordination. In our study, participants did not treat computers as other humans, but seemed to engage a more complex evaluation of the situation. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on how people respond to and interact with technology to accomplish complex, collaborative tasks.
Keywords: collaboration, computer agent, coordination, drumming, turn taking
G-nome surfer: a tabletop interface for collaborative exploration of genomic data BIBAKFull-Text 1427-1436
  Orit Shaer; Guy Kol; Megan Strait; Chloe Fan; Catherine Grevet; Sarah Elfenbein
Molecular and computational biologists develop new insights by gathering heterogeneous data from genomic databases and leveraging bioinformatics tools. Through a qualitative study with 17 participants, we found that molecular and computational biologists experience difficulties interpreting, comparing, annotating, sharing, and relating this vast amount of biological information. We further observed that such interactions are critical for forming new scientific hypotheses. These observations motivated the creation of G-nome Surfer, a tabletop interface for collaborative exploration of genomic data that implements multi-touch and tangible interaction techniques. G-nome Surfer was developed in close collaboration with domain scientists and is aimed at lowering the threshold for using bioinformatics tools. A first-use study with 16 participants found that G-nome Surfer enables users to gain biological insights that are based on multiple forms of evidence with minimal overhead.
Keywords: bioinformatics, genome browser, reality-based interaction, tabletop interaction

Expressing and understanding opinions in social media

America is like Metamucil: fostering critical and creative thinking about metaphor in political blogs BIBAKFull-Text 1437-1446
  Eric P. S. Baumer; Jordan Sinclair; Bill Tomlinson
Blogs are becoming an increasingly important medium -- socially, academically, and politically. Much research has involved analyzing blogs, but less work has considered how such analytic techniques might be incorporated into tools for blog readers. A new tool, metaViz, analyzes political blogs for potential conceptual metaphors and presents them to blog readers. This paper presents a study exploring the types of critical and creative thinking fostered by metaViz as evidenced by user comments and discussion on the system. These results indicate the effectiveness of various system features at fostering critical thinking and creativity, specifically in terms of deep, structural reasoning about metaphors and creatively extending existing metaphors. Furthermore, the results carry broader implications beyond blogs and politics about exploring alternate configurations between computation and human thought.
Keywords: blog readers, computational metaphor identification, creativity, critical thinking, metaphor, political blogs
Understanding dispute resolution online: using text to reflect personal and substantive issues in conflict BIBAKFull-Text 1447-1456
  Matt Billings; Leon A. Watts
Conflict is a natural part of human communication with implications for the work and well-being of a community. It can cause projects to stall or fail. Alternatively new insights can be produced that are valuable to the community, and membership can be strengthened. We describe how Wikipedia mediators create and maintain a 'safe space'. They help conflicting parties to express, recognize and respond positively to their personal and substantive differences. We show how the 'mutability' of wiki text can be used productively by mediators: to legitimize and restructure the personal and substantive issues under dispute; to actively and visibly differentiate personal from substantive elements in the dispute, and to maintain asynchronous engagement by adjusting expectations of timeliness. We argue that online conflicts could be effectively conciliated in other text-based web communities, provided power differences can be controlled, by policies and technical measures for maintaining special 'safe' conflict resolution spaces.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, conflict, online dispute resolution, virtual communities, wikipedia
Presenting diverse political opinions: how and how much BIBAKFull-Text 1457-1466
  Sean A. Munson; Paul Resnick
Is a polarized society inevitable, where people choose to be exposed to only political news and commentary that reinforces their existing viewpoints? We examine the relationship between the numbers of supporting and challenging items in a collection of political opinion items and readers' satisfaction, and then evaluate whether simple presentation techniques such as highlighting agreeable items or showing them first can increase satisfaction when fewer agreeable items are present. We find individual differences: some people are diversity-seeking while others are challenge-averse. For challenge-averse readers, highlighting appears to make satisfaction with sets of mostly agreeable items more extreme, but does not increase satisfaction overall, and sorting agreeable content first appears to decrease satisfaction rather than increasing it. These findings have important implications for builders of websites that aggregate content reflecting different positions.
Keywords: design, diversity, news, news aggregators, opinion, politics, preferences, presentation, selective exposure

Humans and sociability

Propitious aggregation: reducing participant burden in ego-centric network data collection BIBAKFull-Text 1467-1470
  Derek Lackaff
One of the central challenges of ego-centric or personal social network research is minimizing the quantity of data that is requested from research participants while ensuring high data accuracy and validity. In general, collecting data about increasingly larger ego-centric networks places an increasing burden on respondents. The web-based Propitious Aggregation of Social Networks (PASN, http://pro.pitio.us) survey instrument reduces this burden by leveraging network data already available in the context of social network websites, and by providing an intuitive click-and-drag interface for survey responses. An experiment was conducted (N = 85), and the PASN method was found to produce networks which were significantly larger and more diverse than those produced using standard survey methods, yet required significantly lower time investments from participants.
Keywords: computer-assisted self interviews, methods, social network sites, social networks, user interfaces
Trying too hard: effects of mobile agents' (Inappropriate) social expressiveness on trust, affect and compliance BIBAKFull-Text 1471-1474
  Henriette Cramer; Vanessa Evers; Tim van Slooten; Mattijs Ghijsen; Bob Wielinga
Mobile services can provide users with information relevant to their current circumstances. Distant services in turn can acquire local information from people in an area of interest. Socially expressive agent behaviour has been suggested as a way to build reciprocal relationships and to increase user response to such requests. This between-subject, Wizard-of-Oz experiment aimed to investigate the potential of such behaviours. 44 participants performed a search task in an urgent context while being interrupted by a mobile agent that both provided and requested information. The socially expressive behaviour shown in this study did not increase compliance to requests; it instead reduced trust in provided information and compliance to warnings. It also negatively impacted the affective experience of users scoring lower on empathy as a personality trait. Inappropriate social expressiveness can have serious consequences; we here elaborate on the reasons for our negative results.
Keywords: autonomy, mobile interaction, social expressiveness, trust
A simple index for multimodal flexibility BIBAKFull-Text 1475-1484
  Antti Oulasvirta; Joanna Bergstrom-Lehtovirta
Most interactive tasks engage more than one of the user's exteroceptive senses and are therefore multimodal. In real world situations with multitasking and distractions, the key aspect of multimodality is not which modalities can be allocated to the interactive task but which are free to be allocated to something else. We present the multiìmodal flexibility index (MFI), calculated from changes in users' performance induced by blocking of sensory modalities. A high score indicates that the highest level of performance is achievable regardless of the modalities available and, conversely, a low score that performance will be severely hampered unless all modalities are allocated to the task. Various derivatives describe unimodal and bimodal effects. Results from a case study (mobile text entry) illustrate how an interface that is superior to others in absolute terms is the worst from the multimodal flexibility perspective. We discuss the suitability of MFI for evaluation of interactive prototypes.
Keywords: attention, mobile human-computer interaction, modality allocation, multimodal interaction, multitasking
Social gravity: a virtual elastic tether for casual, privacy-preserving pedestrian rendezvous BIBAKFull-Text 1485-1494
  John Williamson; Simon Robinson; Craig Stewart; Roderick Murray-Smith; Matt Jones; Stephen Brewster
We describe a virtual "tether" for mobile devices that allows groups to have quick, simple and privacy-preserving meetups. Our design provides cues which allow dynamic coordination of rendezvous without revealing users' positions. Using accelerometers and magnetometers, combined with GPS positioning and non-visual feedback, users can probe and sense a dynamic virtual object representing the nearest meeting point. The Social Gravity system makes social bonds tangible in a virtual world which is geographically grounded, using haptic feedback to help users rendezvous. We show dynamic navigation using this physical model-based system to be efficient and robust in significant field trials, even in the presence of low-quality positioning. The use of simulators to build models of mobile geolocated systems for pre-validation purposes is discussed, and results compared with those from our trials. Our results show interesting behaviours in the social coordination task, which lead to guidelines for geosocial interaction design. The Social Gravity system proved to be very successful in allowing groups to rendezvous efficiently and simply and can be implemented using only commercially available hardware.
Keywords: geosocial interaction, GPS, mobile, navigation, vibrotactile

Looking with video

Temporal hybridity: footage with instant replay in real time BIBAKFull-Text 1495-1504
  Arvid Engström; Oskar Juhlin; Mark Perry; Mathias Broth
In this paper we explore the production of streaming media that involves live and recorded content. To examine this, we report on how the production practices and process are conducted through an empirical study of the production of live television, involving the use of live and non-live media under highly time critical conditions. In explaining how this process is managed both as an individual and collective activity, we develop the concept of temporal hybridity to explain the properties of these kinds of production system and show how temporally separated media are used, understood and coordinated. Our analysis is examined in the light of recent developments in computing technology and we present some design implications to support amateur video production.
Keywords: collaborative search, control room, editing, media production, social interaction, streaming, television, video
Experience, adjustment, and engagement: the role of video in law enforcement BIBAKFull-Text 1505-1514
  Joe Tullio; Elaine Huang; David Wheatley; Harry Zhang; Claudia Guerrero; Amruta Tamdoo
Questions about the effectiveness of increasingly ubiquitous video technology in law enforcement have prompted an examination of the practices surrounding this technology. We present the results of a multi-site study aimed at understanding the use of video in several phases of law enforcement, from crime prevention and response to investigation and prosecution. Our findings show that while video has provided numerous benefits to law enforcement agencies, in many cases the technology either fails to support key facets of work or introduces new tasks that present an additional burden to workers. We discuss the need to incorporate human experience and tacit knowledge, operator engagement, and the greater ecosystem of work into video deployments.
Keywords: contextual inquiry, law enforcement, qualitative studies, surveillance, ubiquitous computing, video technologies
ToolClips: an investigation of contextual video assistance for functionality understanding BIBAKFull-Text 1515-1524
  Tovi Grossman; George Fitzmaurice
We investigate the use of on-line contextual video assistance to improve the learnability of software functionality. After discussing motivations and design goals for such forms of assistance, we present our new technique, ToolClips. ToolClips augment traditional tooltips to provide users with quick and contextual access to both textual and video assistance. In an initial study we found that users successfully integrated ToolClip usage into the flow of their primary tasks to overcome learnability difficulties. In a second study, we found that with ToolClips, users successfully completed 7 times as many unfamiliar tasks, in comparison to using a commercial professionally developed on-line help system. Users also retained the information obtained from ToolClips, performing tasks significantly faster one week later.
Keywords: balloon help, help, learnability, toolclips, tooltips, understanding, video tool tips

Pixels and perception

Prefab: implementing advanced behaviors using pixel-based reverse engineering of interface structure BIBAKFull-Text 1525-1534
  Morgan Dixon; James Fogarty
Current chasms between applications implemented with different user interface toolkits make it difficult to implement and explore potentially important interaction techniques in new and existing applications, limiting the progress and impact of human-computer interaction research. We examine an approach based in the single most common characteristic of all graphical user interface toolkits, that they ultimately paint pixels to a display. We present Prefab, a system for implementing advanced behaviors through the reverse engineering of the pixels in graphical interfaces. Informed by how user interface toolkits paint interfaces, Prefab features a separation of the modeling of widget layout from the recognition of widget appearance. We validate Prefab in implementations of three applications: target-aware pointing techniques, Phosphor transitions, and Side Views parameter spectrums. Working only from pixels, we demonstrate a single implementation of these enhancements in complex existing applications created in different user interface toolkits running on different windowing systems.
Keywords: pixel-based reverse engineering, prefab, user interface toolkits
GUI testing using computer vision BIBAKFull-Text 1535-1544
  Tsung-Hsiang Chang; Tom Yeh; Robert C. Miller
Testing a GUI's visual behavior typically requires human testers to interact with the GUI and to observe whether the expected results of interaction are presented. This paper presents a new approach to GUI testing using computer vision for testers to automate their tasks. Testers can write a visual test script that uses images to specify which GUI components to interact with and what visual feedback to be observed. Testers can also generate visual test scripts by demonstration. By recording both input events and screen images, it is possible to extract the images of components interacted with and the visual feedback seen by the demonstrator, and generate a visual test script automatically. We show that a variety of GUI behavior can be tested using this approach. Also, we show how this approach can facilitate good testing practices such as unit testing, regression testing, and test-driven development.
Keywords: gui automation, gui testing, test by demonstration
Faster progress bars: manipulating perceived duration with visual augmentations BIBAKFull-Text 1545-1548
  Chris Harrison; Zhiquan Yeo; Scott E. Hudson
Human perception of time is fluid, and can be manipulated in purposeful and productive ways. In this note, we propose and evaluate variations on two visual designs for progress bars that alter users' perception of time passing, and "appear" faster when in fact they are not. As a baseline, we use standard, solid-color progress bars, prevalent in many user interfaces. In a series of direct comparison tests, we are able to rank how these augmentations compare to one another. We then show that these designs yield statistically significantly shorter perceived durations than progress bars seen in many modern interfaces, including Mac OSX. Progress bars with animated ribbing that move backwards in a decelerating manner proved to have the strongest effect. In a final experiment, we measured the effect of this particular progress bar design and showed that it reduces the perceived duration among our participants by 11%.
Keywords: induced motion, perceived performance, percent-done indicators, perception, progress bars
Evaluation of progressive image loading schemes BIBAKFull-Text 1549-1552
  Chris Harrison; Anind K. Dey; Scott E. Hudson
Although network bandwidth has increased dramatically, high-resolution images often take several seconds to load, and considerably longer on mobile devices over wireless connections. Progressive image loading techniques allow for some visual content to be displayed prior to the whole file being downloaded. In this note, we present an empirical evaluation of popular progressive image loading methods, and derive one novel technique from our findings. Results suggest a spiral variation of bilinear interlacing can yield an improvement in content recognition time.
Keywords: downloading, progressive image loading, web browsing


Friends only: examining a privacy-enhancing behavior in Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 1553-1562
  Fred Stutzman; Jacob Kramer-Duffield
Privacy practices in social network sites often appear paradoxical, as content-sharing behavior stands in conflict with the need to reduce disclosure-related harms. In this study we explore privacy in social network sites as a contextual information practice, managed by a process of boundary regulation. Drawing on a sample survey of undergraduate Facebook users, we examine a particular privacy-enhancing practice: having a friends-only Facebook profile. Particularly, we look at the association between network composition, expectancy violations, interpersonal privacy practices and having a friends-only profile. We find that expectancy violations by weak ties and increased levels of interpersonal privacy management are positively associated with having a friends-only profile. We conclude with a discussion of how these findings may be integrated into the design of systems to facilitate interaction while enhancing individual privacy.
Keywords: behavioral modeling, communication, Facebook, privacy, social network sites, social networking
Moving beyond untagging: photo privacy in a tagged world BIBAKFull-Text 1563-1572
  Andrew Besmer; Heather Richter Lipford
Photo tagging is a popular feature of many social network sites that allows users to annotate uploaded images with those who are in them, explicitly linking the photo to each person's profile. In this paper, we examine privacy concerns and mechanisms surrounding these tagged images. Using a focus group, we explored the needs and concerns of users, resulting in a set of design considerations for tagged photo privacy. We then designed a privacy enhancing mechanism based on our findings, and validated it using a mixed methods approach. Our results identify the social tensions that tagging generates, and the needs of privacy tools to address the social implications of photo privacy management.
Keywords: Facebook, photo sharing, privacy, social network sites
Standardizing privacy notices: an online study of the nutrition label approach BIBAKFull-Text 1573-1582
  Patrick Gage Kelley; Lucian Cesca; Joanna Bresee; Lorrie Faith Cranor
Earlier work has shown that consumers cannot effectively find information in privacy policies and that they do not enjoy using them. In our previous research we developed a standardized table format for privacy policies. We compared this standardized format, and two short variants (one tabular, one text) with the current status quo: full text natural-language policies and layered policies. We conducted an online user study of 764 participants to test if these three more-intentionally designed, standardized privacy policy formats, assisted by consumer education, can benefit consumers. Our results show that standardized privacy policy presentations can have significant positive effects on accuracy and speed of information finding and on reader enjoyment of privacy policies.
Keywords: information design, p3p, policy, privacy, standardization


Family story play: reading with young children (and Elmo) over a distance BIBAKFull-Text 1583-1592
  Hayes Raffle; Rafael Ballagas; Glenda Revelle; Hiroshi Horii; Sean Follmer; Janet Go; Emily Reardon; Koichi Mori; Joseph Kaye; Mirjana Spasojevic
We introduce Family Story Play, a system that supports grandparents to read books together with their grandchildren over the Internet. Family Story Play is designed to improve communication across generations and over a distance, and to support parents and grandparents in fostering the literacy development of young children. The interface encourages active child participation in the book reading experience by combining a paper book, a sensor-enhanced frame, video conferencing technology, and video content of a Sesame Street Muppet (Elmo). Results with users indicate that Family Story Play improves child engagement in long-distance communication and increases the quality of interaction between young children and distant grandparents. Additionally, Family Story Play encourages dialogic reading styles that are linked with literacy development. Ultimately, reading with Family Story Play becomes a creative shared activity that suggests a new kind of collaborative story telling.
Keywords: agent, children, dialogic reading, family communication, grandparents, literacy, reading, video conferencing
Designing with mobile digital storytelling in rural Africa BIBAKFull-Text 1593-1602
  Nicola J. Bidwell; Thomas Reitmaier; Gary Marsden; Susan Hansen
We reflect on activities to design a mobile application to enable rural people in South Africa's Eastern Cape to record and share their stories, which have implications for 'cross-cultural design,' and the wider use of stories in design. We based our initial concept for generating stories with audio and photos on cell-phones on a scenario informed by abstracting from digital storytelling projects globally and our personal experience. But insights from ethnography, and technology experiments involving storytelling, in a rural village led us to query our grounding assumptions and usability criteria. So, we implemented a method using cell-phones to localise storytelling, involve rural users and probe ways to incorporate visual and audio media. Products from this method helped us to generate design ideas for our current prototype which offers great flexibility. Thus we present a new way to depict stories digitally and a process for improving such software.
Keywords: cross-cultural, dialogical approach to design, digital storytelling, ict4d, mobile devices, oral knowledge, rural
Let's play Chinese characters: mobile learning approaches via culturally inspired group games BIBAKFull-Text 1603-1612
  Feng Tian; Fei Lv; Jingtao Wang; Hongan Wang; Wencan Luo; Matthew Kam; Vidya Setlur; Guozhong Dai; John Canny
In many developing countries such as India and China, low educational levels often hinder economic empowerment. In this paper, we argue that mobile learning games can play an important role in the Chinese literacy acquisition process. We report on the unique challenges in the learning Chinese language, especially its logographic writing system. Based on an analysis of 25 traditional Chinese games currently played by children in China, we present the design and implementation of two culturally inspired mobile group learning games, Multimedia Word and Drumming Strokes. These two mobile games are designed to match Chinese children's understanding of everyday games. An informal evaluation reveals that these two games have the potential to enhance the intuitiveness and engagement of traditional games, and children may improve their knowledge of Chinese characters through group learning activities such as controversy, judgments and self-correction during the game play.
Keywords: Chinese education, Chinese literacy, developing countries, ict4d, literacy acquisition, mobile games, traditional games

Classroom technologies

Expressive robots in education: varying the degree of social supportive behavior of a robotic tutor BIBAKFull-Text 1613-1622
  Martin Saerbeck; Tom Schut; Christoph Bartneck; Maddy D. Janse
Teaching is inherently a social interaction between teacher and student. Despite this knowledge, many educational tools, such as vocabulary training programs, still model the interaction in a tutoring scenario as unidirectional knowledge transfer rather than a social dialog. Therefore, ongoing research aims to develop virtual agents as more appropriate media in education. Virtual agents can induce the perception of a life-like social interaction partner that communicates through natural modalities such as speech, gestures and emotional expressions. This effect can be additionally enhanced with a physical robotic embodiment.
   This paper presents the development of social supportive behaviors for a robotic tutor to be used in a language learning application. The effect of these behaviors on the learning performance of students was evaluated. The results support that employing social supportive behavior increases learning efficiency of students.
Keywords: education, human-robot interaction, social interaction, tutoring
Exploring affective technologies for the classroom with the subtle stone BIBAKFull-Text 1623-1632
  Madeline Balaam; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Judith Good; Rosemary Luckin
Constructive emotional experiences are strongly related to effective learning. Yet, it is challenging for teachers, researchers and students alike to understand the emotions experienced in the classroom setting. Advances in wireless and sensor technologies open up possibilities for better supporting emotions. However, little work has explored how affective technologies in the classroom might operate. This paper describes a study where 15 high school students used the Subtle Stone: a tangible technology designed to support students' active emotional communication in the classroom. We report on how the students used and experienced this technology, and the values they demonstrated through this use: flexibility, privacy, agency, voice and reflection. We conclude by examining future possibilities for affective technologies in the classroom.
Keywords: affect, affective technologies, classroom, emotion, emotional communication, learning, subtle stone
vSked: evaluation of a system to support classroom activities for children with autism BIBAKFull-Text 1633-1642
  Sen H. Hirano; Michael T. Yeganyan; Gabriela Marcu; David H. Nguyen; Lou Anne Boyd; Gillian R. Hayes
Visual schedules -- the use of symbols to represent a series of activities or steps -- have been successfully used by caregivers to help children with autism to understand, structure, and predict activities in their daily lives. Building from in-depth fieldwork and participatory design sessions, we developed vSked, an interactive and collaborative visual scheduling system designed for elementary school classrooms. We evaluated vSked in situ in one autism-specific classroom over three weeks. In this paper, we present the design principles, technical solution, and results from this successful deployment. Use of vSked resulted in reductions in staff effort required to use visual supports. vSked also resulted in improvements in the perceived quality and quantity of communication and social interactions in the classroom.
Keywords: assistive technology, autism, education, visual supports

Devising input

Comparing user performance with single-finger, whole-hand, and hybrid pointing devices BIBAKFull-Text 1643-1646
  Xiang Cao; Nicolas Villar; Shahram Izadi
Researchers have explored pointing devices operated by a single finger, but their advantage was not clear compared to conventional mice controlled by the whole hand. To incorporate the benefits of both, we prototyped hybrid pointing devices that combined both finger and hand movement to control the cursor, and experimentally compared their performance with single-finger and whole-hand devices. Results showed that such hybrid devices have the potential to improve pointing performance in terms of time, error, and bandwidth, especially for precise pointing.
Keywords: experimental study, finger, hand, hybrid, mouse, pointing
How users manipulate deformable displays as input devices BIBAKFull-Text 1647-1656
  Sang-Su Lee; Sohyun Kim; Bipil Jin; Eunji Choi; Boa Kim; Xu Jia; Daeeop Kim; Kun-pyo Lee
This study is aimed at understanding deformation-based user gestures by observing users interacting with artificial deformable displays with various levels of flexibility. We gained user-defined gestures that would help with the design and implementation of deformation-based interface, without considering current technical limitations. We found that when a display material gave more freedom from deformation, the level of consensus of gestures among the users as well as the intuitiveness and preferences were all enhanced. This study offers implications for deformation-based interaction which will be helpful for both designers and engineers who are trying to set the direction for future interface and technology development.
Keywords: deformation, flexible display, gestures, organic user interface, user interface
Cord input: an intuitive, high-accuracy, multi-degree-of-freedom input method for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 1657-1660
  Julia Schwarz; Chris Harrison; Scott Hudson; Jennifer Mankoff
A cord, although simple in form, has many interesting physical affordances that make it powerful as an input device. Not only can a length of cord be grasped in different locations, but also pulled, twisted and bent -- four distinct and expressive dimensions that could potentially act in concert. Such an input mechanism could be readily integrated into headphones, backpacks, and clothing. Once grasped in the hand, a cord can be used in an eyes-free manner to control mobile devices, which often feature small screens and cramped buttons. In this note, we describe a proof-of-concept cord-based sensor, which senses three of the four input dimensions we propose. In addition to a discussion of potential uses, we also present results from our preliminary user study. The latter sought to compare the targeting performance and selection accuracy of different cord-based input modalities. We conclude with brief set of design recommendations drawn upon results from our study.
Keywords: cord-based input, mobile interaction, wearable computing
Minput: enabling interaction on small mobile devices with high-precision, low-cost, multipoint optical tracking BIBAKFull-Text 1661-1664
  Chris Harrison; Scott E. Hudson
We present Minput, a sensing and input method that enables intuitive and accurate interaction on very small devices -- ones too small for practical touch screen use and with limited space to accommodate physical buttons. We achieve this by incorporating two, inexpensive and high-precision optical sensors (like those found in optical mice) into the underside of the device. This allows the entire device to be used as an input mechanism, instead of the screen, avoiding occlusion by fingers. In addition to x/y translation, our system also captures twisting motion, enabling many interesting interaction opportunities typically found in larger and far more complex systems.
Keywords: gestures, input, mobile devices, optical tracking, pointing, sensors, spatially aware displays, touch screens


How power users help and hinder open bug reporting BIBAKFull-Text 1665-1674
  Andrew J. Ko; Parmit K. Chilana
Many power users that contribute to open source projects have no intention of becoming regular contributors; they just want a bug fixed or a feature implemented. How often do these users participate in open source projects and what do they contribute? To investigate these questions, we analyzed the reports of Mozilla contributors who reported problems but were never assigned problems to fix. These analyses revealed that over 11 years and millions of reports, most of these 150,000 users reported non-issues that devolved into technical support, redundant reports with little new information, or narrow, expert feature requests. Reports that did lead to changes were reported by a comparably small group of experienced, frequent reporters, mostly before the release of Firefox 1. These results suggest that the primary value of open bug reporting is in recruiting talented reporters, and not in deriving value from the masses.
Keywords: bugzilla, Firefox, Mozilla, open source software
Bringing the field into focus: user-centered design of a patient expertise locator BIBAKFull-Text 1675-1684
  Andrea Civan-Hartzler; David W. McDonald; Chris Powell; Meredith M. Skeels; Marlee Mukai; Wanda Pratt
Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients.
Keywords: collaboration, cscw, expertise locating, personal health informatics, recommendation systems, user-centered design
What do you know?: experts, novices and territoriality in collaborative systems BIBAKFull-Text 1685-1694
  Jennifer Thom-Santelli; Dan Cosley; Geri Gay
When experts participate in collaborative systems, tension may arise between them and novice contributors. In particular, when experts perceive novices as a bother or a threat, the experts may express territoriality: behaviors communicating ownership of a target of interest. In this paper, we describe the results of a user study of a mobile social tagging system deployed within a museum gallery to a group of novices and experts collaboratively tagging part of the collection. We observed that experts express greater feelings of ownership towards their contributions to the system and the museum in general. Experts were more likely than novices to participate at higher rates and to negatively evaluate contributions made by others. We suggest a number of design strategies to balance experts' expressions of territoriality so as to motivate their participation while discouraging exclusionary behaviors.
Keywords: collaboration, experts, novices, territoriality

Interactions in the world

An empirical task analysis of warehouse order picking using head-mounted displays BIBAKFull-Text 1695-1704
  Kimberly A. Weaver; Hannes Baumann; Thad Starner; Hendrick Iben; Michael Lawo
Evaluations of task guidance systems often focus on evaluations of new technologies rather than comparing the nuances of interaction across the various systems. One common domain for task guidance systems is warehouse order picking. We present a method involving an easily reproducible ecologically motivated order picking environment for quantitative user studies designed to reveal differences in interactions. Using this environment, we perform a 12 participant within-subjects experiment demonstrating the advantages of a head-mounted display based picking chart over a traditional text-based pick list, a paper-based graphical pick chart, and a mobile pick-by-voice system. The test environment proved sufficiently sensitive, showing statistically significant results along several metrics with the head-mounted display system performing the best. We also provide a detailed analysis of the strategies adopted by our participants.
Keywords: head-mounted display, order picking, wearable computers
Where is my team: supporting situation awareness with tactile displays BIBAKFull-Text 1705-1714
  Martin Pielot; Oliver Krull; Susanne Boll
A group of friends visiting a crowded and noisy music festival is an example of a situation where knowing the location of other people is important, but where external factors, such as darkness or noise, can limit the ability to keep track of the others. By combining theories about situation awareness and cognitive processing we inferred that communicating information via the sense of touch is a promising approach in such situations. We therefore investigated how to present the location of several people using a tactile torso display. In particular we focused on encoding spatial distances in the tactile signals. We experimentally compared encoding spatial distances in the rhythm, duration, and intensity of a tactile signal. Our findings show that all parameters are suited to encode distances. None of it was clearly outperformed. We then embedded our tactile location encoding into a fast-paced 3D multiplayer game. In this game, team play and the awareness of the team members' locations are crucial for the success in the game. The results provides evidence that the locations of the team members could be processed effectively despite the game's high cognitive demands. In addition, the team equipped with the tactile display showed a better team play and a higher situation awareness.
Keywords: situation awareness, spatial information encoding, tactile user interface

Sound and speech

Clutching at straws: using tangible interaction to provide non-visual access to graphs BIBAKFull-Text 1715-1724
  David McGookin; Euan Robertson; Stephen Brewster
We present a tangible user interface (TUI) called Tangible Graph Builder, that has been designed to allow visually impaired users to access graph and chart-based data. We describe the current paper-based materials used to allow independent graph construction and browsing, before discussing how researchers have applied virtual haptic and non-speech audio techniques to provide more flexible access. We discuss why, although these technologies overcome many of the problems of non-visual graph access, they also introduce new issues and why the application of TUIs is important. An evaluation of Tangible Graph Builder with 12 participants (8 sight deprived, 4 blind) revealed key design requirements for non-visual TUIs, including phicon design and handling marker detection failure. We finish by presenting future work and improvements to our system.
Keywords: graphs, haptic interaction, tangible user interface, visual impairment
Effects of automated transcription quality on non-native speakers' comprehension in real-time computer-mediated communication BIBAKFull-Text 1725-1734
  Yingxin Pan; Danning Jiang; Lin Yao; Michael Picheny; Yong Qin
Despite the availability of other mobile messaging applications, SMS has kept its position as a heavily used communication technology. However, there are many situations in which it is inconvenient or inappropriate to check a message's content immediately. In this paper, we introduce the concept of audio previews of SMS. Based on a real-time analysis of the content of a message, we provide auditory cues in addition to the notification tone upon receiving an SMS. We report on a field trial with 20 participants and show that the use of audio-enhanced SMS affects the reading and writing behavior of users. Our work is motivated by the results of an online survey among 347 SMS users of whose we analyzed 3400 text messages.
Keywords: auditory UI, emoticon, mobile phone, SMS, user studies
Understanding the impact of abstracted audio preview of SMS BIBAKFull-Text 1735-1738
  Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Ari-Heikki Sarjanoja; Florian Alt; Albrecht Schmidt; Jonna Hkkilä
Real-time transcription has been shown to be valuable in facilitating non-native speakers' comprehension in real-time communication. Automated speech recognition (ASR) technology is a critical ingredient for its practical deployment. This paper presents a series of studies investigating how the quality of transcripts generated by an ASR system impacts user comprehension and subjective evaluation. Experiments are first presented comparing performance across three different transcription conditions: no transcript, a perfect transcript, and a transcript with Word Error Rate (WER) =20%. We found 20% WER was the most likely critical point for transcripts to be just acceptable and useful. Then we further examined a lower WER of 10% (a lower bound for today's state-of-the-art systems) employing the same experimental design. The results indicated that at 10% WER comprehension performance was significantly improved compared to the no-transcript condition. Finally, implications for further system development and design are discussed.
Keywords: automated speech recognition, cmc, experiment, non-native speakers, real-time transcription

Using your social network

What do people ask their social networks, and why?: a survey study of status message q&a behavior BIBAKFull-Text 1739-1748
  Meredith Ringel Morris; Jaime Teevan; Katrina Panovich
People often turn to their friends, families, and colleagues when they have questions. The recent, rapid rise of online social networking tools has made doing this on a large scale easy and efficient. In this paper we explore the phenomenon of using social network status messages to ask questions. We conducted a survey of 624 people, asking them to share the questions they have asked and answered of their online social networks. We present detailed data on the frequency of this type of question asking, the types of questions asked, and respondents' motivations for asking their social networks rather than using more traditional search tools like Web search engines. We report on the perceived speed and quality of the answers received, as well as what motivates people to respond to questions seen in their friends' status messages. We then discuss the implications of our findings for the design of next-generation search tools.
Keywords: q&a, social networks, social search, web search
Affirming the self through online profiles: beneficial effects of social networking sites BIBAKFull-Text 1749-1752
  Catalina L. Toma
Self-affirmation is the process of bringing to awareness important aspects of the self, such as values, goals, and treasured characteristics. When affirmed, individuals are more open-minded and less defensive. This study examines whether social networking tools, such as Facebook, have self-affirming value. Participants were asked to either spend time on their own Facebook profiles, or on a stranger's profile. Afterwards, they were given negative feedback on a task. Participants who spent time on their own profiles were more accepting of the feedback, and less likely to engage in ego-protective mechanisms, such as derogating the task or the evaluator. In fact, they behaved identically to participants who completed a classic self-affirmation manipulation. The theoretical contributions of this paper include (1) identifying intrapersonal effects of online self-presentation and (2) extending self-affirmation theory to include social media use.
Keywords: media effects, self-affirmation, self-presentation, social networking sites
Improving social game engagement on Facebook through enhanced socio-contextual information BIBAKFull-Text 1753-1756
  Ben Kirman; Shaun Lawson; Conor Linehan; Francesco Martino; Luciano Gamberini; Andrea Gaggioli
In this paper we describe the results of a controlled study of a social game, Magpies, which was built on the Facebook Online Social Network (OSN) and enhanced with contextual social information in the form of a variety of social network indices. Through comparison with a concurrent control trial using an identical game without the enhanced social information, it was shown that the additional contextual data increased the frequency of social activity between players engaged in the game. Despite this increase in activity, there was little increase in growth of the player-base when compared to the control condition. These findings corroborate previous work that showed how socio-contextual enhancement can increase performance on task-driven games, whilst also suggesting that it can increase activity and engagement when provided as context for non task-driven game environments.
Keywords: mediated interaction, social context, social gaming, social network analysis, social visualisations
The role of community and groupware in geocache creation and maintenance BIBAKFull-Text 1757-1766
  Carman Neustaedter; Anthony Tang; Judge K. Tejinder
Applications that provide location-based experiences are an increasingly viable design space given the proliferation of GPS-enabled mobile devices. However, these applications are in their infancy, and we do not yet know what design factors will contribute to their success. For this reason, we have studied the well-established location-based experience of geocaching. We report on the results of a survey of geocachers along with observations from our own in-depth geocaching activities. Our findings illustrate that geocaching permits users to create a range of experiences for others within a permeable yet restricted culture of norms. Once created, geocaches are maintained by the community of geocachers through a well-designed groupware system. Here maintenance acts can be performed "in the small," given their lightweight and well-defined nature, and become less about maintenance and more about personal participation. These findings provide insight into how community and groupware can be leveraged to support applications for location-based experiences.
Keywords: geocaching, global positioning system (GPS), location-based experiences

Working with medical records

Doctors and psychosocial information: records and reuse in inpatient care BIBAKFull-Text 1767-1776
  Xiaomu Zhou; Mark S. Ackerman; Kai Zheng
We conducted a field-based study at a large teaching hospital to examine doctors' use and documentation of patient care information, with a special focus on a patient's psychosocial information. We were particularly interested in the gaps between the medical work and any representations of the patient. The paper describes how doctors record this information for immediate and long-term use. We found that doctors documented a considerable amount of psychosocial information in their electronic health records (EHR) system. Yet, we also observed that such information was recorded selectively, and a medicalized view-point is a key contributing factor. Our study shows how missing or problematic representations of a patient affect work activities and patient care. We accordingly suggest that EHR systems could be made more usable and useful in the long run, by supporting both representations of medical processes and of patients.
Keywords: CSCW, EHR, electronic patient records, health informatics, medical records, organizational memory, physician information needs, psychosocial information
Supporting coordination in surgical suites: physical aspects of common information spaces BIBAKFull-Text 1777-1786
  Peter G. Scupelli; Yan Xiao; Susan R. Fussell; Sara Kiesler; Mark D. Gross
To accommodate frequent emergencies, interruptions, and delays, hospital staff continually make and coordinate changes to the surgery schedule. The technical and social aspects of coordination in surgical suites have been described by prior studies. This paper addresses an understudied aspect of coordination: the physical environment. Based on a field study of four surgical suites in two large academic centers, we show how the physical layout of hallways and rooms, and barriers and spaces around displays and key coordinators, support or fail to support the common information spaces used for coordination. We use the concept "information hotspots" to represent how physical places and their characteristics facilitate coordination. We developed design principles based on the concept of information hotspots that should guide architectural considerations for coordination in dynamic environments such as hospitals.
Keywords: coordination, electronic scheduling, physical environment, shared displays, whiteboards
Documenting transitional information in EMR BIBAKFull-Text 1787-1796
  Yunan Chen
An observational study was conducted to examine EMR-based documentation in an Emergency Department (ED), with an emphasis on computerized documentation activities in the complex flow of clinical processes. This study revealed a gap between the formal EMR documentation and the actual clinical workflow, which leads ED staff to rely on intermediate -- transitional artifacts to facilitate their work. The analysis of these transitional artifacts in four different clinical workflows shows that the EMR system's inability to document procedural information, capture key information, and present information according to the actual clinical workflow are accountable for leading to the use of transitional artifacts. The findings of this study call for designing EMR system not only for keeping patients' formal records, but also for documenting transitional information in the chart-writing process.
Keywords: clinical documentation, clinical workflow, EMR, medical records, transitional artifacts

Bikes and buses

Understanding the space for co-design in riders' interactions with a transit service BIBAKFull-Text 1797-1806
  Daisy Yoo; John Zimmerman; Aaron Steinfeld; Anthony Tomasic
The recent advances in web 2.0 technologies and the rapid adoption of smart phones raises many opportunities for public services to improve their services by engaging their users (who are also owners of the service) in co-design: a dialog where users help design the services they use. To investigate this opportunity, we began a service design project investigating how to create repeated information exchanges between riders and a transit agency in order to create a virtual "place" from which the dialog on services could take place. Through interviews with riders, a workshop with a transit agency, and speed dating of design concepts, we have developed a design direction. Specifically, we propose a service that combines vehicle location and "fullness" ratings provided by riders with dynamic route change information from the transit agency as a foundation for a dialog around riders conveying input for continuous service improvement.
Keywords: public service, research through design, service design, social computing, transit, web 2.0
OneBusAway: results from providing real-time arrival information for public transit BIBAKFull-Text 1807-1816
  Brian Ferris; Kari Watkins; Alan Borning
Public transit systems play an important role in combating traffic congestion, reducing carbon emissions, and promoting compact, sustainable urban communities. The usability of public transit can be significantly enhanced by providing good traveler information systems. We describe OneBusAway, a set of transit tools focused on providing real-time arrival information for Seattle-area bus riders. We then present results from a survey of OneBusAway users that show a set of important positive outcomes: strongly increased overall satisfaction with public transit, decreased waiting time, increased transit trips per week, increased feelings of safety, and even a health benefit in terms of increased distance walked when using transit. Finally, we discuss the design and policy implications of these results and plans for future research in this area.
Keywords: health, mobile devices, public transit, real-time information, safety, sustainability, walking
Biketastic: sensing and mapping for better biking BIBAKFull-Text 1817-1820
  Sasank Reddy; Katie Shilton; Gleb Denisov; Christian Cenizal; Deborah Estrin; Mani Srivastava
Bicycling is an affordable, environmentally friendly alternative transportation mode to motorized travel. A common task performed by bikers is to find good routes in an area, where the quality of a route is based on safety, efficiency, and enjoyment. Finding routes involves trial and error as well as exchanging information between members of a bike community. Biketastic is a platform that enriches this experimentation and route sharing process making it both easier and more effective. Using a mobile phone application and online map visualization, bikers are able to document and share routes, ride statistics, sensed information to infer route roughness and noisiness, and media that documents ride experience. Biketastic was designed to ensure the link between information gathering, visualization, and bicycling practices. In this paper, we present architecture and algorithms for route data inferences and visualization. We evaluate the system based on feedback from bicyclists provided during a two-week pilot.
Keywords: location based services, map visualization, mobile sensing systems, participatory sensing

Death and fear

A death in the family: opportunities for designing technologies for the bereaved BIBAKFull-Text 1821-1830
  Michael Massimi; Ronald M. Baecker
Following the death of a loved one, bereaved family members use technology in several ways to respond to their loss. However, very little is known about how technology intersects with the lives of the bereaved. We present a survey and interview study which examines how the bereaved inherit personal digital devices, use technology to remember the deceased, and reflect on their own digital estates. The study provides one of the first characterizations of technology use by the bereaved, and presents a set of empirically-grounded design opportunities and challenges.
Keywords: bereaved, death, inheritance, memory, thanatosensitive design
Passing on & putting to rest: understanding bereavement in the context of interactive technologies BIBAKFull-Text 1831-1840
  William Odom; Richard Harper; Abigail Sellen; David Kirk; Richard Banks
While it can be a delicate and emotionally-laden topic, new technological trends compel us to confront a range of problems and issues about death and bereavement. This area presents complex challenges and the associated literature is extensive. In this paper we offer a way of slicing through several perspectives in the social sciences to see clearly a set of salient issues related to bereavement. Following this, we present a theoretical lens to provide a way of conceptualizing how the HCI community could begin to approach such issues. We then report field evidence from 11 in-depth interviews conducted with bereaved participants and apply the proposed lens to unpack key emergent problems and tensions. We conclude with a discussion on how the HCI design space might be sensitized to better support the social processes that unfold when bereavement occurs.
Keywords: bereavement, digital persistence, understanding people
Fear and the city: role of mobile services in harnessing safety and security in urban use contexts BIBAKFull-Text 1841-1850
  Jan Blom; Divya Viswanathan; Mirjana Spasojevic; Janet Go; Karthik Acharya; Robert Ahonius
This paper describes investigation of a mobile communication system that helps alleviate fear experienced in the urban context. In order to obtain empirically grounded insights for the concept design, urban females in their twenties and thirties and living in Bangalore, New Delhi and San Francisco, were studied. More than 200 females filled in an online survey. Extensive qualitative data for 13 participants were collected through week long diaries, semi-structured interviews, and situated participative enactment of scenarios. Fear-related concerns were voiced both in India and the U.S., suggesting that reducing fear, particularly in a pedestrian context after the onset of darkness, could be a globally applicable need. User research findings into subjective experiences of fear, contexts in which they occur, and behavioral strategies were used to design a mobile service titled ComfortZones. This concept was developed to the level of a high fidelity prototype and tested in a field trial in India. The investigation highlights further opportunities for design, particularly the notion of emphasizing positive and socially successful qualities of cities to communities concerned with their safety and security.
Keywords: user interfaces, user-centered design

Earth, wind, and flyer

UpStream: motivating water conservation with low-cost water flow sensing and persuasive displays BIBAKFull-Text 1851-1860
  Stacey Kuznetsov; Eric Paulos
Water is our most precious and most rapidly declining natural resource. We explore pervasive technology as an approach for promoting water conservation in public and private spaces. We hope to motivate immediate reduction in water use as well as higher-order behaviors (seeking new information, etc) through unobtrusive low-cost water flow sensing and several persuasive displays. Early prototypes were installed at public faucets and a private (shared) shower, logging water usage first without and then with ambient displays. This pilot study led to design iterations, culminating in long-term deployment of sensors in four private showers over the course of three weeks. Sensors first logged baseline water usage without visualization. Then, two display styles, ambient and numeric, were deployed in random order, each showing individual and average water consumption. Quantitative data along with participants' feedback contrast the effectiveness of numeric displays against abstract visualization in this very important domain of water conservation and public health.
Keywords: ambient displays, persuasive technology, sustainability
InAir: sharing indoor air quality measurements and visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 1861-1870
  Sunyoung Kim; Eric Paulos
This paper describes inAir, a tool for sharing measurements and visualizations of indoor air quality within one's social network. Poor indoor air quality is difficult for humans to detect through sight and smell alone and can contribute to the development of chronic diseases. Through a four-week long study of fourteen households as six groups, we found that inAir (1) increased awareness of, and reflection on air quality, (2) promoted behavioral changes that resulted in improved indoor air quality, and (3) demonstrated the persuasive power of sharing for furthering improvements to indoor air quality in terms of fostering new social awareness and behavior changes as well as strengthening social bonds and prompting collaborative efforts across social networks to improve human health and well being.
Keywords: air quality, domestic technology, environment, health, iPhone, persuasive technology, sensors, sustainability
Exploring sustainable design with reusable paper BIBAKFull-Text 1871-1874
  Julie Wagner; Wendy Mackay
This paper explores the need for sustainable design with paper: how people really print and how we can take advantage of novel, reusable paper technology. We conducted two studies to investigate user's printing behavior. A key finding of the first study was that users often need an intermediate state between the electronic and physical forms of their documents. The second study examined users' predictions of which types of documents required this intermediate state. We formulate these findings into design guidelines that take into account: examination phase, transitions, cognitive and emotional reasons, and task- and event-relevant documents. Finally, we discuss how the different physical characteristics of reusable paper affect the user interface and could effectively support sustainable design.
Keywords: printing, reusable paper, sustainability, sustainable design
Finding the lost treasure: understanding reuse of used computing devices BIBAKFull-Text 1875-1878
  Jina Huh; Kevin Nam; Nikhil Sharma
In this paper, we report our findings on the adoption practices of used personal digital assistants (PDAs) to inform reuse of outdated computing products. Our interviews with 12 eBay users who bought used PDAs showed a variety of ways in which users indirectly supported sustainability. This allowed us to re-examine sustainability as something that is dynamically and arbitrarily shaped by the users and not just dependent on the sustainable feature of the product. We end with design implications for supporting users' shaping of sustainability.
Keywords: reuse, situated sustainability, sustainability, sustainable interaction design

Medical data

Physician-driven management of patient progress notes in an intensive care unit BIBAKFull-Text 1879-1888
  Lauren Wilcox; Jie Lu; Jennifer Lai; Steven Feiner; Desmond Jordan
We describe fieldwork in which we studied hospital ICU physicians and their strategies and documentation aids for composing patient progress notes. We then present a clinical documentation prototype, activeNotes, that supports the creation of these notes, using techniques designed based on our fieldwork. ActiveNotes integrates automated, context-sensitive patient data retrieval, and user control of automated data updates and alerts via tagging, into the documentation process. We performed a qualitative study of activeNotes with 15 physicians at the hospital to explore the utility of our information retrieval and tagging techniques. The physicians indicated their desire to use tags for a number of purposes, some of them extensions to what we intended, and others new to us and unexplored in other systems of which we are aware. We discuss the physicians' responses to our prototype and distill several of their proposed uses of tags: to assist in note content management, communication with other clinicians, and care delivery.
Keywords: input, interaction techniques, medical user interfaces, user interface
Mobile-izing health workers in rural India BIBAKFull-Text 1889-1898
  Divya Ramachandran; John Canny; Prabhu Dutta Das; Edward Cutrell
Researchers have long been interested in the potential of ICTs to enable positive change in developing regions communities. In these environments, ICT interventions often fail because political, social and cultural forces work against the changes ICTs entail. We argue that familiar uses of ICTs for information services in these contexts are less potent than their use for persuasion and motivation in order to facilitate change. We focus on India's rural maternal health system where health workers are employed in villages to persuade pregnant women to utilize health services. Health workers face challenges due to resistance to change in the village, and because of their limited education, training and status. These factors appear to reduce the motivation of health workers and impair their performance. For two months, we deployed short videos on mobile phones designed to persuade village women and motivate health workers. We also asked health workers to record their own videos. While our results are preliminary, they show evidence that the creation and use of videos did help (1) engage village women in dialogue, (2) show positive effects toward health worker motivation and learning, and (3) motivate key community influencers to participate in promoting the health workers.
Keywords: developing regions, health care, ictd, mobile phones, motivation, persuasion, qualitative research
"Who's scribing?": documenting patient encounter during trauma resuscitation BIBAKFull-Text 1899-1908
  Aleksandra Sarcevic
With healthcare moving towards electronic health records, it is important to understand existing work practices to design effective systems. We conducted an observational study in a Level I trauma center to examine the documentation process and the role of the nurse recorder in trauma resuscitation. We identified several difficulties with current recording practices, including the late arrival of the nurse recorder, parallel activities of the trauma team, and multitasking by the recorder. Our observations showed that the recorder's role extends beyond archival responsibilities. The recorder, with the help of a paper record, manages the resuscitation process, rather than passively documenting it. Our findings highlighted the complexity of the recorder's role and the need to consider documentation in the broader context of trauma teamwork. We proposed a set of design challenges that emphasize important aspects of trauma care to be considered when designing technologies to support the documentation process.
Keywords: collocated teams, documentation methods, medical records, trauma resuscitation

Social media users

Social network activity and social well-being BIBAKFull-Text 1909-1912
  Moira Burke; Cameron Marlow; Thomas Lento
Previous research has shown a relationship between use of social networking sites and feelings of social capital. However, most studies have relied on self-reports by college students. The goals of the current study are to (1) validate the common self-report scale using empirical data from Facebook, (2) test whether previous findings generalize to older and international populations, and (3) delve into the specific activities linked to feelings of social capital and loneliness. In particular, we investigate the role of directed interaction between pairs -- such as wall posts, comments, and "likes" -- and consumption of friends' content, including status updates, photos, and friends' conversations with other friends. We find that directed communication is associated with greater feelings of bonding social capital and lower loneliness, but has only a modest relationship with bridging social capital, which is primarily related to overall friend network size. Surprisingly, users who consume greater levels of content report reduced bridging and bonding social capital and increased loneliness. Implications for designs to support well-being are discussed.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, loneliness, social capital, social network sites
Predicting influence in an online community of creators BIBAKFull-Text 1913-1916
  Elisabeth Sylvan
This paper introduces the concept of Online Communities of Creators (OCOCs), which are a subset of social network sites in which the core activity is sharing personal, original creations. Next it defines two distinct types of influence, Project Influence and Social Influence. Project Influence is a measure of the degree to which the community recognizes members' work. Social Influence is a measure of how much a member is a social bridge between otherwise unconnected members. These two types of influence are studied in an online programming community called the Scratch Online Community. Two multiple linear regressions determine the factors that predict each of the two types of influence. The factors predicting each were distinct, suggesting that these are two distinct constructs in this community.
Keywords: content creators, influence, online communities of creators, sns, social media
Lurking? cyclopaths?: a quantitative lifecycle analysis of user behavior in a geowiki BIBAKFull-Text 1917-1926
  Katherine Panciera; Reid Priedhorsky; Thomas Erickson; Loren Terveen
Online communities produce rich behavioral datasets, e.g., Usenet news conversations, Wikipedia edits, and Facebook friend networks. Analysis of such datasets yields important insights (like the "long tail" of user participation) and suggests novel design interventions (like targeting users with personalized opportunities and work requests). However, certain key user data typically are unavailable, specifically viewing, pre-registration, and non-logged-in activity. The absence of data makes some questions hard to answer; access to it can strengthen, extend, or cast doubt on previous results. We report on analysis of user behavior in Cyclopath, a geographic wiki and route-finder for bicyclists. With access to viewing and non-logged-in activity data, we were able to: (a) replicate and extend prior work on user lifecycles in Wikipedia, (b) bring to light some pre-registration activity, thus testing for the presence of "educational lurking," and (c) demonstrate the locality of geographic activity and how editing and viewing are geographically correlated.
Keywords: geographic volunteer work, geowiki, lurking, open content, volunteered geographic information, wiki
Motivations to participate in online communities BIBAKFull-Text 1927-1936
  Cliff Lampe; Rick Wash; Alcides Velasquez; Elif Ozkaya
A consistent theoretical and practical challenge in the design of socio-technical systems is that of motivating users to participate in and contribute to them. This study examines the case of Everything2.com users from the theoretical perspectives of Uses and Gratifications and Organizational Commitment to compare individual versus organizational motivations in user participation. We find evidence that users may continue to participate in a site for different reasons than those that led them to the site. Feelings of belonging to a site are important for both anonymous and registered users across different types of uses. Long-term users felt more dissatisfied with the site than anonymous users. Social and cognitive factors seem to be more important than issues of usability in predicting contribution to the site.
Keywords: lurkers, motivation, online communities, peripheral participation

Subtle expressions through sound and text

Motivating expressive writing with a text-to-sound application BIBAKFull-Text 1937-1940
  Amy L. Gonzales; Tiffany Y. Ng; OJ Zhao; Geri Gay
Writing about emotional experiences has been shown to have long-term physical and mental health benefits, but it also creates short-term discomfort. We designed a system to motivate expressive writing by enhancing enjoyment and pleasure. Using automated language analysis, we designed a system that maps sound onto categories of language resulting in a musical interpretation of expressive writing texts. An experimental design compared the experience of 126 participants across musical and non-musical writing platforms Participants found the musical system to be more pleasurable.
Keywords: creative tool, expressive writing, health, music system, sound mapping, text analysis
Artificial subtle expressions: intuitive notification methodology of artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 1941-1944
  Takanori Komatsu; Seiji Yamada; Kazuki Kobayashi; Kotaro Funakoshi; Mikio Nakano
We describe artificial subtle expressions (ASEs) as intuitive notification methodology for artifacts' internal states for users. We prepared two types of audio ASEs; one was a flat artificial sound (flat ASE), and the other was a sound that decreased in pitch (decreasing ASE). These two ASEs were played after a robot made a suggestion to the users. Specifically, we expected that the decreasing ASE would inform users of the robot's lower level of confidence about the suggestions. We then conducted a simple experiment to observe whether the participants accepted or rejected the robot's suggestion in terms of the ASEs. The results showed that they accepted the robot's suggestion when the flat ASE was used, whereas they rejected it when the decreasing ASE was used. Therefore, we found that the ASEs succeeded in conveying the robot's internal state to the users accurately and intuitively.
Keywords: accurate, artificial subtle expressions (ases), complementary, intuitive, simple
SoundNet: investigating a language composed of environmental sounds BIBAKFull-Text 1945-1954
  Xiaojuan Ma; Christiane Fellbaum; Perry R. Cook
Auditory displays have been used in both human-machine and computer interfaces. However, the use of non-speech audio in assistive communication for people with language disabilities, or in other applications that employ visual representations, is still under-investigated. In this paper, we introduce SoundNet, a linguistic database that associates natural environmental sounds with words and concepts. A sound labeling study was carried out to verify SoundNet associations and to investigate how well the sounds evoke concepts. A second study was conducted using the verified SoundNet data to explore the power of environmental sounds to convey concepts in sentence contexts, compared with conventional icons and animations. Our results show that sounds can effectively illustrate (especially concrete) concepts and can be applied to assistive interfaces.
Keywords: assistive technologies, environmental sound, soundnet

Tools affecting the enterprise

Detecting professional versus personal closeness using an enterprise social network site BIBAKFull-Text 1955-1964
  Anna Wu; Joan M. DiMicco; David R. Millen
In this work we analyze the behavior on a company-internal social network site to determine which interaction patterns signal closeness between colleagues. Regression analysis suggests that employee behavior on social network sites (SNSs) reveals information about both professional and personal closeness. While some factors are predictive of general closeness (e.g. content recommendations), other factors signal that employees feel personal closeness towards their colleagues, but not professional closeness (e.g. mutual profile commenting). This analysis contributes to our understanding of how SNS behavior reflects relationship multiplexity: the multiple facets of our relationships with SNS connections.
Keywords: multiplexity, organizations, social media, social network sites, tie strength, workplace relationships
Lessons learned from blog muse: audience-based inspiration for bloggers BIBAKFull-Text 1965-1974
  Casey Dugan; Werner Geyer; David R. Millen
Blogging in the enterprise is increasingly popular and recent research has shown that there are numerous benefits for both individuals and the organization, e.g. developing reputation or sharing knowledge. However, participation is very low, blogs are often abandoned and few users realize those benefits. We have designed and implemented a novel system -- called Blog Muse -- whose goal is to inspire potential blog writers by connecting them with their audience through a topic-suggestion system. We describe our system design and report results from a 4-week study with 1004 users who installed our tool. Our data indicate that topics requested by users are effective at inspiring bloggers to write and lead to more social interactions around the resulting entries.
Keywords: blog, participation, recommendations, social software

Mapping the landscape of sustainable HCI

Mapping the landscape of sustainable HCI BIBAKFull-Text 1975-1984
  Carl DiSalvo; Phoebe Sengers; Hrönn Brynjarsdóttir
With the recent growth in sustainable HCI, now is a good time to map out the approaches being taken and the intellectual commitments that underlie the area, to allow for community discussion about where the field should go. Here, we provide an empirical analysis of how sustainable HCI is defining itself as a research field. Based on a corpus of published works, we identify (1) established genres in the area, (2) key unrecognized intellectual differences, and (3) emerging issues, including urgent avenues for further exploration, opportunities for interdisciplinary engagement, and key topics for debate.
Keywords: reflective hci, sustainability, sustainable hci

Home eco behavior

Home, habits, and energy: examining domestic interactions and energy consumption BIBAKFull-Text 1985-1994
  James Pierce; Diane J. Schiano; Eric Paulos
This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of people's everyday interactions with energy-consuming products and systems in the home. Initial results from a large online survey are also considered. This research focuses not only on "conservation behavior" but importantly investigates interactions with technology that may be characterized as "normal consumption" or "over-consumption." A novel vocabulary for analyzing and designing energy-conserving interactions is proposed based on our findings, including: cutting, trimming, switching, upgrading, and shifting. Using the proposed vocabulary, and informed by theoretical developments from various literatures, this paper demonstrates ways in which everyday interactions with technology in the home are performed without conscious consideration of energy consumption but rather are unconscious, habitual, and irrational. Implications for the design of energy-conserving interactions with technology and broader challenges for HCI research are proposed.
Keywords: energy, sustainability, sustainable interaction design
Studying always-on electricity feedback in the home BIBAKFull-Text 1995-1998
  Yann Riche; Jonathan Dodge; Ronald A. Metoyer
The recent emphasis on sustainability has made consumers more aware of their responsibility for saving resources, in particular, electricity. Consumers can better understand how to save electricity by gaining awareness of their consumption beyond the typical monthly bill. We conducted a study to understand consumers' awareness of energy consumption in the home and to determine their requirements for an interactive, always-on interface for exploring data to gain awareness of home energy consumption. In this paper, we describe a three-stage approach to supporting electricity conservation routines: raise awareness, inform complex changes, and maintain sustainable routines. We then present the findings from our study to support design implications for energy consumption feedback interfaces.
Keywords: behavior change, electricity feedback, home, participatory design
The design of eco-feedback technology BIBAKFull-Text 1999-2008
  Jon Froehlich; Leah Findlater; James Landay
Eco-feedback technology provides feedback on individual or group behaviors with a goal of reducing environmental impact. The history of eco-feedback extends back more than 40 years to the origins of environmental psychology. Despite its stated purpose, few HCI eco-feedback studies have attempted to measure behavior change. This leads to two overarching questions: (1) what can HCI learn from environmental psychology and (2) what role should HCI have in designing and evaluating eco-feedback technology? To help answer these questions, this paper conducts a comparative survey of eco-feedback technology, including 89 papers from environmental psychology and 44 papers from the HCI and UbiComp literature. We also provide an overview of predominant models of proenvironmental behaviors and a summary of key motivation techniques to promote this behavior.
Keywords: eco-feedback, environmental hci, reflective hci, survey

On the phone

Mobile taskflow in context: a screenshot study of smartphone usage BIBAKFull-Text 2009-2018
  Amy K. Karlson; Shamsi T. Iqbal; Brian Meyers; Gonzalo Ramos; Kathy Lee; John C. Tang
The impact of interruptions on workflow and productivity has been extensively studied in the PC domain, but while fragmented user attention is recognized as an inherent aspect of mobile phone usage, little formal evidence exists of its effect on mobile productivity. Using a survey and a screenshot-based diary study we investigated the types of barriers people face when performing tasks on their mobile phones, the ways they follow up with such suspended tasks, and how frustrating the experience of task disruption is for mobile users. From 386 situated samples provided by 12 iPhone and 12 Pocket PC users, we distill a classification of barriers to the completion of mobile tasks. Our data suggest that moving to a PC to complete a phone task is common, yet not inherently problematic, depending on the task. Finally, we relate our findings to prior design guidelines for desktop workflow, and discuss how the guidelines can be extended to mitigate disruptions to mobile taskflow.
Keywords: cross-device tasks, diary study, mobile taskflow
An adaptive speed-call list algorithm and its evaluation with ESM BIBAKFull-Text 2019-2022
  Seunghwan Lee; Jungsuk Seo; Geehyuk Lee
We designed an algorithm to build a speed-call list adaptively based on mobile phone call logs. Call logs provide the time-dependent calling patterns of mobile phone users, and therefore a speed-call list based on them will be more successful in recommending a desired number than a speed-call list based on recent calls only. This paper presents the design process of our algorithm for an adaptive speed-call list, its verification result with recorded call logs, and in-situ evaluation results of the algorithm using an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) system.
Keywords: adaptive speed-call list, call recommendation, calling pattern, experience sampling method
Evaluation of text entry methods for Korean mobile phones, a user study BIBAKFull-Text 2023-2026
  Ivaylo Ilinkin; Sunghee Kim
This paper reports the results of a user study designed to evaluate text entry methods for mobile phones used in Korea. At present the keypad layout for Korean mobile phones has not been standardized and different manufacturers produce phones with different layouts. Included in the evaluation are three of the dominant text entry methods: Chon-ji-in, EZ-Hangul, and SKY. The metrics used in the analysis are key strokes per character, words per minute, and total error rate. The results suggest that SKY offers a good balance between speed, effort, and accuracy. The paper also introduces a phrase set that has high correlation with the Korean language and could be used in other experiments on Korean text entry methods.
Keywords: evaluation, hangul, Korean text entry, mobile phones

Remember and reflect

Pensieve: supporting everyday reminiscence BIBAKFull-Text 2027-2036
  S. Tejaswi Peesapati; Victoria Schwanda; Johnathon Schultz; Matt Lepage; So-yae Jeong; Dan Cosley
Reminiscing is a valuable activity that people of all ages spontaneously and informally partake in as part of their everyday lives. This paper discusses the design and use of Pensieve, a system that supports everyday reminiscence by emailing memory triggers to people that contain either social media content they previously created on third-party websites or text prompts about common life experiences. We discuss how the literature on reminiscence informed Pensieve's design, then analyze data from 91 users over five months. We find that people value spontaneous reminders to reminisce as well as the ability to write about their reminiscing. Shorter, more general triggers draw more responses, as do triggers containing people's own photos-although responses to photos tended to contain more metadata elements than storytelling elements. We compare these results to data from a second, Pensieve-like system developed for Facebook, and suggest a number of important aspects to consider for both designers and researchers around technology and reminiscence.
Keywords: autobiographical memory, episodic memory, reminiscence, social media
Involving reflective users in design BIBAKFull-Text 2037-2040
  Paula M. Bach; Michael Twidale
We draw on the idea of the reflective practitioner to consider how end users can directly contribute to user experience design discussions in open source projects. People with expertise in their own use context but without programming or user experience analysis and design skills can provide reflections on personal experiences.
Keywords: floss, reflective practitioner, user experience
Designing games for learning: insights from conversations with designers BIBAKFull-Text 2041-2044
  Katherine Isbister; Mary Flanagan; Chelsea Hash
This paper presents insights about design practices that can lead to effective and fun games for learning, gleaned from interviews with experienced game developers. We based our approach on Schön's notion of practitioners evolving shared 'appreciation systems' for discussing and critiquing work, and aimed to gather and share some of game designers' 'appreciation system' for games and learning. The resulting insights provide valuable pointers to other designers in the CHI community crafting game-like experiences.
Keywords: appreciation system, design patterns, design practice, game design, games and education, games for learning
Now let me see where i was: understanding how lifelogs mediate memory BIBAKFull-Text 2045-2054
  Vaiva Kalnikaite; Abigail Sellen; Steve Whittaker; David Kirk
Lifelogging technologies can capture both mundane and important experiences in our daily lives, resulting in a rich record of the places we visit and the things we see. This study moves beyond technology demonstrations, in aiming to better understand how and why different types of Lifelogs aid memory. Previous work has demonstrated that Lifelogs can aid recall, but that they do many other things too. They can help us look back at the past in new ways, or to reconstruct what we did in our lives, even if we don't recall exact details. Here we extend the notion of Lifelogging to include locational information. We augment streams of Lifelog images with geographic data to examine how different types of data (visual or locational) might affect memory. Our results show that visual cues promote detailed memories (akin to recollection). In contrast locational information supports inferential processes -- allowing participants to reconstruct habits in their behaviour.
Keywords: geo-visual lifelogging, GPS, lifelogging, memory, psychology, remembering, sensecam, wearable data capture

Sharing in specific communities

The prayer companion: openness and specificity, materiality and spirituality BIBAKFull-Text 2055-2064
  William Gaver; Mark Blythe; Andy Boucher; Nadine Jarvis; John Bowers; Peter Wright
In this paper we describe the Prayer Companion, a device we developed as a resource for the spiritual activity of a group of cloistered nuns. The device displays a stream of information sourced from RSS news feeds and social networking sites to suggest possible topics for prayers. The nuns have engaged with the device enthusiastically over the first ten months of an ongoing deployment, and, notwithstanding some initial irritation with the balance of content, report that it plays a significant and continuing role in their prayer life. We discuss how we balanced specificity in the design with a degree of openness for interpretation to create a resource that the nuns could both understand and appropriate, describe the importance of materiality to the device's successful adoption, consider its implications as a design for older people, and reflect on the example it provides of how computation may serve spirituality.
Keywords: interaction design, interpretability, materiality, older people, research through design, spirituality
What's your idea?: a case study of a grassroots innovation pipeline within a large software company BIBAKFull-Text 2065-2074
  Brian P. Bailey; Eric Horvitz
Establishing a grassroots innovation pipeline has come to the fore as strategy for nurturing innovation within large organizations. A key element of such pipelines is the use of an idea management system that enables and encourages community ideation on defined business problems. The value of these systems can be highly sensitive to design choices, as different designs may influence participation. We report the results of a case study examining the use of one particular idea management system and pipeline. We analyzed the content, interaction, and participation from three creativity challenges organized via the pipeline and conducted interviews with users to uncover motivations for participating and perceptions of the outcomes. Additional interviews were conducted with senior managers to learn about the objectives, successes, and unique nature of the pipeline. From the results, we formulate recommendations for improving the design of idea management systems and execution of the pipelines within organizations.
Keywords: creativity, idea management, innovation, organizations
Asl-stem forum: enabling sign language to grow through online collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 2075-2078
  Anna C. Cavender; Daniel S. Otero; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Richard E. Ladner
American Sign Language (ASL) currently lacks agreed-upon signs for complex terms in scientific fields, causing deaf students to miss or misunderstand course material. Furthermore, the same term or concept may have multiple signs, resulting in inconsistent standards and strained collaboration. The ASL-STEM Forum is an online, collaborative, video forum for sharing ASL signs and discussing them. An initial user study of the Forum has shown its viability and revealed lessons in accommodating varying user types, from lurkers to advanced contributors, until critical mass is achieved.
Keywords: american sign language, deaf, forum, stem, video
Curator: a game with a purpose for collection recommendation BIBAKFull-Text 2079-2082
  Greg Walsh; Jennifer Golbeck
Collection recommender systems suggest groups of items that work well as a whole. The interaction effects between items is an important consideration, but the vast space of possible collections makes it difficult to analyze. In this paper, we present a class of games with a purpose for building collections where users create collections and, using an output agreement model, they are awarded points based on the collections that match. The data from these games will help researchers develop guidelines for collection recommender systems among other applications. We conducted a pilot study of the game prototype which indicated that it was fun and challenging for users, and that the data obtained had the characteristics necessary to gain insights into the interaction effects among items. We present the game and these results followed by a discussion of the next steps necessary to bring games to bear on the problem of creating harmonious groups.
Keywords: games with a purpose, human computation, recommender systems, serious games

Something eye catching

Modeling dwell-based eye pointing target acquisition BIBAKFull-Text 2083-2092
  Xinyong Zhang; Xiangshi Ren; Hongbin Zha
We propose a quantitative model for dwell-based eye pointing tasks. Using the concepts of information theory to analogize eye pointing, we define an index of difficulty (IDeye) for the corresponding tasks in a similar manner to the definition that Fitts made for hand pointing. According to our validations in different situations, IDeye, which takes account of the distinct characteristics of rapid saccades and involuntary eye jitters, can accurately and meaningfully describe eye pointing tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first successful attempt to model eye gaze interactions.
Keywords: eye pointing, fitts' law, information theory, modeling
Gazemarks: gaze-based visual placeholders to ease attention switching BIBAKFull-Text 2093-2102
  Dagmar Kern; Paul Marshall; Albrecht Schmidt
Many tasks require attention switching. For example, searching for information on one sheet of paper and then entering this information onto another one. With paper we see that people use fingers or objects as placeholders. Using these simple aids, the process of switching attention between displays can be simplified and speeded up. With large or multiple visual displays we have many tasks where both attention areas are on the screen and where using a finger as a placeholder is not suitable. One way users deal with this is to use the mouse and highlight their current focus. However, this also has its limitations -- in particular in environments where there is no pointing device. Our approach is to utilize the user's gaze position to provide a visual placeholder. The last area where a user fixated on the screen (before moving their attention away) is highlighted; we call this visual reminder a Gazemark. Gazemarks ease orientation and the resumption of the interrupted task when coming back to this display. In this paper we report on a study where the effectiveness of using Gazemarks was investigated, in particular we show how they can ease attention switching. Our results show faster completion times for a resumed simple visual search task when using this technique. The paper analyzes relevant parameters for the implementation of Gazemarks and discusses some further application areas for this approach.
Keywords: attention switching, eye-gaze interaction, gazemarks
Knowing where and when to look in a time-critical multimodal dual task BIBAKFull-Text 2103-2112
  Anthony J. Hornof; Yunfeng Zhang; Tim Halverson
Human-computer systems intended for time-critical multitasking need to be designed with an understanding of how humans can coordinate and interleave perceptual, memory, and motor processes. This paper presents human performance data for a highly-practiced time-critical dual task. In the first of the two interleaved tasks, participants tracked a target with a joystick. In the second, participants keyed-in responses to objects moving across a radar display. Task manipulations include the peripheral visibility of the secondary display (visible or not) andàthe presence or absence of auditory cues to assist with the radar task. Eye movement analyses reveal extensive coordination and overlapping of human information processes and the extent to which task manipulations helped or hindered dual task performance. For example, auditory cues helped only a little when the secondary display was peripherally visible, but they helped a lot when it was not peripherally visible.
Keywords: auditory displays, cognitive strategies, eye tracking, multimodal, multitasking, visual displays

Therapy and rehabilitation

Towards customizable games for stroke rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 2113-2122
  Gazihan Alankus; Amanda Lazar; Matt May; Caitlin Kelleher
Stroke is the leading cause of long term disability among adults in industrialized nations. The partial paralysis that stroke patients often experience can make independent living difficult or impossible. Research suggests that many of these patients could recover by performing hundreds of daily repetitions of motions with their affected limbs. Yet, only 31% of patients perform the exercises recommended by their therapists. Home-based stroke rehabilitation games may help motivate stroke patients to perform the necessary exercises to recover. In this paper, we describe a formative study in which we designed and user tested stroke rehabilitation games with both stroke patients and therapists. We describe the lessons we learned about what makes games useful from a therapeutic point of view.
Keywords: design, stroke rehabilitation, video games
Designing patient-centric information displays for hospitals BIBAKFull-Text 2123-2132
  Lauren Wilcox; Dan Morris; Desney Tan; Justin Gatewood
Electronic medical records are increasingly comprehensive, and this vast repository of information has already contri-buted to medical efficiency and hospital procedure. However, this information is not typically accessible to patients, who are frequently under-informed and unclear about their own hospital courses. In this paper, we propose a design for in-room, patient-centric information displays, based on iterative design with physicians. We use this as the basis for a Wizard-of-Oz study in an emergency department, to assess patient and provider responses to in-room information displays. 18 patients were presented with real-time information displays based on their medical records. Semi-structured interviews with patients, family members, and hospital staff reveal that subjective response to in-room displays was overwhelmingly positive, and through these interviews we elicited guidelines regarding specific information types, privacy, use cases, and information presentation techniques. We describe these findings, and we discuss the feasibility of a fully-automatic implementation of our design.
Keywords: electronic medical records, patient awareness
Supporting sandtray therapy on an interactive tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 2133-2142
  Mark Hancock; Thomas ten Cate; Sheelagh Carpendale; Tobias Isenberg
We present the iterative design of a virtual sandtray application for a tabletop display. The purpose of our prototype is to support sandtray therapy, a form of art therapy typically used for younger clients. A significant aspect of this therapy is the insight gained by the therapist as they observe the client interact with the figurines they use to create a scene in the sandtray. In this manner, the therapist can gain increased understanding of the client's psyche. We worked with three sandtray therapists throughout the evolution of our prototype. We describe the details of the three phases of this design process: initial face-to-face meetings, iterative design and development via distance collaboration, and a final face-to-face feedback session. This process revealed that our prototype was sufficient for therapists to gain insight about a person's psyche through their interactions with the virtual sandtray.
Keywords: children, cooperative design, multitouch, sandtray, sticky tools, surface, tabletop display, therapy

Everyday gestures

MAGIC: a motion gesture design tool BIBAKFull-Text 2159-2168
  Daniel Ashbrook; Thad Starner
Devices capable of gestural interaction through motion sensing are increasingly becoming available to consumers; however, motion gesture control has yet to appear outside of game consoles. Interaction designers are frequently not expert in pattern recognition, which may be one reason for this lack of availability. Another issue is how to effectively test gestures to ensure that they are not unintentionally activated by a user's normal movements during everyday usage. We present MAGIC, a gesture design tool that addresses both of these issues, and detail the results of an evaluation.
Keywords: gesture
Protractor: a fast and accurate gesture recognizer BIBAKFull-Text 2169-2172
  Yang Li
Protractor is a novel gesture recognizer that can be easily implemented and quickly customized for different users. Protractor uses a nearest neighbor approach, which recognizes an unknown gesture based on its similarity to each of the known gestures, e.g., training samples or examples given by a user. In particular, it employs a novel method to measure the similarity between gestures, by calculating a minimum angular distance between them with a closed-form solution. As a result, Protractor is more accurate, naturally covers more gesture variation, runs significantly faster and uses much less memory than its peers. This makes Protractor suitable for mobile computing, which is limited in processing power and memory. An evaluation on both a previously published gesture data set and a newly collected gesture data set indicates that Protractor outperforms its peers in many aspects.
Keywords: gesture recognition, gesture-based interaction, nearest neighbor approach, template-based approach
GesText: accelerometer-based gestural text-entry systems BIBAKFull-Text 2173-2182
  Eleanor Jones; Jason Alexander; Andreas Andreou; Pourang Irani; Sriram Subramanian
Accelerometers are common on many devices, including those required for text-entry. We investigate how to enter text with devices that are solely enabled with accelerometers. The challenge of text-entry with such devices can be overcome by the careful investigation of the human limitations in gestural movements with accelerometers. Preliminary studies provide insight into two potential text-entry designs that purely use accelerometers for gesture recognition. In two experiments, we evaluate the effectiveness of each of the text-entry designs. The first experiment involves novice users over a 45 minute period while the second investigates the possible performance increases over a four day period. Our results reveal that a matrix-based text-entry system with a small set of simple gestures is the most efficient (5.4wpm) and subjectively preferred by participants.
Keywords: accelerometers, gestural input, mid-air, text-entry

HCI in China

Predicting Chinese text entry speeds on mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 2183-2192
  Ying Liu; Kari Jouko Räihä
Chinese text entry on mobile phones is critical considering the large number of Chinese speakers worldwide and as a key task in many core applications. But there is still a lack of both empirical data and predictive models that explore the pattern of user behavior in the process. We propose a model to predict user performance with two types of Chinese pinyin input methods on mobile phones. The model integrates a language model (digraph probability) with Fitts' law for key presses, a keystroke-level model for navigation, and a linear model for visual search in pinyin marks and Chinese characters. We tested the model by comparing its predictions with the empirical measures. The predictions are satisfactory and the percentage differences are all within 4% of the empirical results, suggesting that the model can be used to evaluate user performance of Chinese pinyin text entry solutions on mobile phones.
Keywords: Chinese, mobile, model, performance, speed, text entry
Chinese online communities: balancing managementcontrol and individual autonomy BIBAKFull-Text 2193-2202
  Qinying Liao; Yingxin Pan; Michelle X. Zhou; Fei Ma
Existing studies of online social communities mainly focus on communities in the United States. Since Chinese social beliefs and behaviors largely differ from that of Americans, we hypothesize that Chinese online communities also greatly differ from their U.S. counterparts. In particular, we believe that Chinese online communities must balance management control and individual autonomy to accommodate both Chinese tradition and the social nature of online societies. In this paper, we present three studies to test our hypothesis. First, we use a structured observation (Study I) to examine community governance practices of 32 Chinese and American social sites. Based on the identified community governance practices, we use a cross-cultural survey of 208 Chinese and Americans (Study II) to learn about their behavior and attitude toward these practices. Finally, we interview 38 Chinese users (Study III) to help us further understand how Chinese online communities balance the needs of management and users. Not only do the studies confirm our hypothesis, but they also help us abstract two key design implications of social software to meet the needs of Chinese.
Keywords: China, community management, online communities, online governance, social software
How socio-economic structure influences rural users' acceptance of mobile entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 2203-2212
  Jun Liu; Ying Liu; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Hui Li; Xia Wang; Dingjun Li
Mobile entertainment services are rapidly and widely developing. However, in emerging markets like Chinese rural area, entertainment related services are still not fully accepted by mobile phone users. This primary research aimed to study Chinese rural people's acceptance for mobile entertainment, to provide comprehensive models, and to explain the problem from its socio-economic roots. Interview and survey data were collected. Using explorative factor analysis method, two mobile entertainment acceptance models were built: one for rural people in North China and the other in East China. The models show that "social influence" is the most influential factor for north rural users while users' "self efficacy" carries the largest weight in East China. Both factors are more important than "product and service quality". The socio-economic roots of the results were analyzed from the differences between the traditional interdependent society in North China and the more independent society in East China. It primarily reveals the possibility to predict users' technology acceptance with socio-economic variables. Implications for mobile entertainment design were discussed.
Keywords: Chinese rural people, explorative factor analysis, mobile entertainment, socio-economic structure, technology acceptance


Multi-touch techniques for exploring large-scale 3D astrophysical simulations BIBAKFull-Text 2213-2222
  Chi-Wing Fu; Wooi-Boon Goh; Junxiang Allen Ng
Enabling efficient exploration of large-scale virtual environments such as those simulating astrophysical environments is highly challenging. Astrophysical virtual worlds span exceptionally large spatial scales occupied mostly by empty space, and this makes it difficult for the user to comprehend the spatial context during exploratory navigation. Public exhibits, where novice users have little experience using complicated virtual navigation interfaces, pose additional challenges.
   To address these issues, we propose multi-touch techniques to deliver an effective interface to navigate the unique features of large-scale 3D environments such as astrophysical simulations. In this work, we carefully study conventional multi-touch methods and adapt them to the practical requirements of this application. A novel technique called the powers-of-ten ladder is introduced to support efficient movement across huge spatial scales using multi-touch interactions. We also investigate user experiences with various multi-touch finger gestures on our prototype digital planetarium.
Keywords: astronomy, large spatial scale, multi-touch interaction, navigation control
Graspables revisited: multi-touch vs. tangible input for tabletop displays in acquisition and manipulation tasks BIBAKFull-Text 2223-2232
  Philip Tuddenham; David Kirk; Shahram Izadi
We present an experimental comparison of multi-touch and tangible user interfaces for basic interface actions. Twelve participants completed manipulation and acquisition tasks on an interactive surface in each of three conditions: tangible user interface; multi-touch; and mouse and puck. We found that interface control objects in the tangible condition were easiest to acquire and, once acquired, were easier/more accurate to manipulate. Further qualitative analysis suggested that in the evaluated tasks tangibles offer greater adaptability of control and specifically highlighted a problem of exit error that can undermine fine-grained control in multi-touch interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for interface design.
Keywords: input, interactive surface, multi-touch, tangible, TUI
The design and evaluation of multitouch marking menus BIBAKFull-Text 2233-2242
  G. Julian Lepinski; Tovi Grossman; George Fitzmaurice
Despite the considerable quantity of research directed towards multitouch technologies, a set of standardized UI components have not been developed. Menu systems provide a particular challenge, as traditional GUI menus require a level of pointing precision inappropriate for direct finger input. Marking menus are a promising alternative, but have yet to be investigated or adapted for use within multitouch systems. In this paper, we first investigate the human capabilities for performing directional chording gestures, to assess the feasibility of multitouch marking menus. Based on the positive results collected from this study, and in particular, high angular accuracy, we discuss our new multitouch marking menu design, which can increase the number of items in a menu, and eliminate a level of depth. A second experiment showed that multitouch marking menus perform significantly faster than traditional hierarchal marking menus, reducing acquisition times in both novice and expert usage modalities.
Keywords: marking menus, multi-finger input, multi-touch displays

Perspectives on design

Multi-lifespan information system design: a research initiative for the hci community BIBAKFull-Text 2243-2246
  Batya Friedman; Lisa P. Nathan
This CHI Note proposes a new research initiative for the HCI community: multi-lifespan information system design. The central idea begins with the identification of categories of problems that are unlikely to be solved within a single human lifespan. Three such categories are proposed: limitations of the human psyche, limitations of the structure of society, and slower moving natural time-scales. We then examine possible opportunities and roles for information systems to help construct longer-term solutions to such problems and, in turn, identify key challenges for such systems. Finally, we conclude by discussing significant real world problems that would benefit from a multi-lifespan design approach and point to open questions. This CHI Note's key contribution entails the articulation of a promising new research initiative for the HCI community.
Keywords: design approach, multi-lifespan information system design, research initiative
Designing interactivity in media interfaces: a communications perspective BIBAKFull-Text 2247-2256
  S. Shyam Sundar; Qian Xu; Saraswathi Bellur
Interactivity has become ubiquitous in the digital media landscape. Numerous interactive tools are designed, tested, deployed and evaluated. Yet, we do not have generalizable knowledge about the larger concept of interactivity and its psychological impact on user experience. As a first step toward a theory of interface interactivity, this paper identifies three species of interactivity corresponding to three central elements of communication -- source, medium, and message. Interactivity situated in any of these three loci of communication can provide cues and affordances that operate either individually or together to capture users' attention and determine the nature and depth of their processing of online content as well as contribute to their perceptions, attitudes and behavioral intentions. This paper discusses psychological mechanisms by which the three classes of interactivity tools affect users, with the specific purpose of drawing out design implications and outlining UI challenges for strategic development of interactive interfaces.
Keywords: customization, interactivity, modality, online sources, perceptual bandwidth, user engagement
Designing with interactive example galleries BIBAKFull-Text 2257-2266
  Brian Lee; Savil Srivastava; Ranjitha Kumar; Ronen Brafman; Scott R. Klemmer
Designers often use examples for inspiration; examples offer contextualized instances of how form and content integrate. Can interactive example galleries bring this practice to everyday users doing design work, and does working with examples help the designs they create? This paper explores whether people can realize significant value from explicit mechanisms for designing by example modification. We present the results of three studies, finding that independent raters prefer designs created with the aid of examples, that examples may benefit novices more than experienced designers, that users prefer adaptively selected examples to random ones, and that users make use of multiple examples when creating new designs. To enable these studies and demonstrate how software tools can facilitate designing with examples, we introduce interface techniques for browsing and borrowing from a corpus of examples, manifest in the Adaptive Ideas Web design tool. Adaptive Ideas leverages a faceted metadata interface for viewing and navigating example galleries.
Keywords: design thinking, examples

Public displays

Worlds of information: designing for engagement at a public multi-touch display BIBAKFull-Text 2267-2276
  Giulio Jacucci; Ann Morrison; Gabriela T. Richard; Jari Kleimola; Peter Peltonen; Lorenza Parisi; Toni Laitinen
In designing for engagement at a public multi-touch installation, we identified supporting multiple users and allowing for gradual discovery as challenges. In this paper, we present Worlds of Information, a multi-touch application featuring 3D Worlds, which provide access to different content. These 3D widgets gradually unfold and allow for temporal navigation of multimedia in parallel, while also providing a 2D plane where media can be shared. We report on a field trial at an exhibition using questionnaires and video ethnography. We studied engagement through questions adapted from Flow, Presence and Intrinsic Motivation questionnaires, which showed that users, overall, had a positive and social experience with the installation. The worlds effectively invited multiple users and provided for parallel interaction. While functionality was discovered gradually through social learning, the study demonstrates the challenges of designing multi-touch applications for walk-up-and-use displays.
Keywords: 3d multi-touch, design for engagement, field trial., multi-touch interface, parallel interaction, public display
Designing urban media façades: cases and challenges BIBAKFull-Text 2277-2286
  Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov
Media façades comprise a category of urban computing concerned with the integration of displays into the built environment, including buildings and street furniture. This paper identifies and discusses eight challenges faced when designing urban media façades. The challenges concern a broad range of issues: interfaces, physical integration, robustness, content, stakeholders, situation, social relations, and emerging use. The challenges reflect the fact that the urban setting as a domain for interaction design is characterized by a number of circumstances and socio-cultural practices that differ from those of other domains. In order to exemplify the challenges and discuss how they may be addressed, we draw on our experiences from five experimental design cases, ranging from a 180 m2 interactive building façade to displays integrated into bus shelters.
Keywords: interaction design, media facades, public space, urban
Touch projector: mobile interaction through video BIBAKFull-Text 2287-2296
  Sebastian Boring; Dominikus Baur; Andreas Butz; Sean Gustafson; Patrick Baudisch
In 1992, Tani et al. proposed remotely operating machines in a factory by manipulating a live video image on a computer screen. In this paper we revisit this metaphor and investigate its suitability for mobile use. We present Touch Projector, a system that enables users to interact with remote screens through a live video image on their mobile device. The handheld device tracks itself with respect to the surrounding displays. Touch on the video image is "projected" onto the target display in view, as if it had occurred there. This literal adaptation of Tani's idea, however, fails because handheld video does not offer enough stability and control to enable precise manipulation. We address this with a series of improvements, including zooming and freezing the video image. In a user study, participants selected targets and dragged targets between displays using the literal and three improved versions. We found that participants achieved highest performance with automatic zooming and temporary image freezing.
Keywords: augmented reality, input device, interaction techniques, mobile device, multi-display environments, multi-touch


High accuracy position and orientation detection in two-dimensional communication network BIBAKFull-Text 2297-2306
  Kei Nakatsuma; Hiroyuki Shinoda
In this paper we describe a method of high accuracy device position and orientation detection for HCI environments. Our position and orientation detection is an additional function to the Two-Dimensional Communication technology, which enables devices placed on a thin sheet to achieve two key functions for ubiquitous computing, to communicate one another and to receive electricity through the sheet wirelessly. This paper discusses the method developed to specify the positions and orientation of devices placed on the sheet. It evaluates the accuracy of obtained position and orientation through an experiment using a prototype of our positioning sensor.
Keywords: capacitance sensing, device localization, surface-like device, two-dimensional communication (2dc), ubiquitous computing
Rethinking RFID: awareness and control for interaction with RFID systems BIBAKFull-Text 2307-2316
  Nicolai Marquardt; Alex S. Taylor; Nicolas Villar; Saul Greenberg
People now routinely carry radio frequency identification (RFID) tags -- in passports, driver's licenses, credit cards, and other identifying cards -- from which nearby RFID readers can access privacy-sensitive information. The problem is that people are often unaware of security and privacy risks associated with RFID, likely because the technology remains largely invisible and uncontrollable for the individual. To mitigate this problem, we introduce a collection of novel yet simple and inexpensive tag designs. Our tags provide reader awareness, where people get visual, audible, or tactile feedback as tags come into the range of RFID readers. Our tags also provide information control, where people can allow or disallow access to the information stored on the tag by how they touch, orient, move, press or illuminate the tag.
Keywords: awareness, control, feedback, privacy, RFID, sensors
SensorTune: a mobile auditory interface for DIY wireless sensor networks BIBAKFull-Text 2317-2326
  Enrico Costanza; Jacques Panchard; Guillaume Zufferey; Julien Nembrini; Julien Freudiger; Jeffrey Huang; Jean-Pierre Hubaux
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) allow the monitoring of activity or environmental conditions over a large area, from homes to industrial plants, from agriculture fields to forests and glaciers. They can support a variety of applications, from assisted living to natural disaster prevention. WSNs can, however, be challenging to setup and maintain, reducing the potential for real-world adoption. To address this limitation, this paper introduces SensorTune, a novel mobile interface to support non-expert users in iteratively setting up a WSN. SensorTune uses non-speech audio to present to its users information regarding the connectivity of the network they are setting up, allowing them to decide how to extend it. To simplify the interpretation of the data presented, the system adopts the metaphor of tuning a consumer analog radio, a very common and well known operation. A user study was conducted in which 20 subjects setup real multi-hop networks inside a large building using a limited number of wireless nodes. Subjects repeated the task with SensorTune and with a comparable mobile GUI interface. Experimental results show a statistically significant difference in the task completion time and a clear preference of users for the auditory interface.
Keywords: mobile hci, network deployment, sonification, user study, wireless sensor network

Usability methods and new domains

API usability peer reviews: a method for evaluating the usability of application programming interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 2327-2336
  Umer Farooq; Leon Welicki; Dieter Zirkler
We describe a usability inspection method to evaluate Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). We found the method useful as it identified usability defects in Microsoft's .NET Framework, of which 59% were new and 21% were fixed. Based on a comparison of usability defects identified between API usability peer reviews and API usability tests, API usability tests were found to expose design issues related to actually using an API whereas API usability peer reviews were found to expose the design rationale of an API. We reflect on the efficiency and productivity of each method: each API usability test is equivalent to 16 API usability peer reviews with the former having a 2.5x productivity advantage. We discuss how API usability peer reviews can be used in conjunction with API usability tests to increase usability coverage on APIs.
Keywords: API usability, software bugs, usability breakdowns, usability evaluation method (UEM), usability inspection
Understanding usability practices in complex domains BIBAKFull-Text 2337-2346
  Parmit K. Chilana; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Andrew J. Ko
Although usability methods are widely used for evaluating conventional graphical user interfaces and websites, there is a growing concern that current approaches are inadequate for evaluating complex, domain-specific tools. We interviewed 21 experienced usability professionals, including in-house experts, external consultants, and managers working in a variety of complex domains, and uncovered the challenges commonly posed by domain complexity and how practitioners work around them. We found that despite the best efforts by usability professionals to get familiar with complex domains on their own, the lack of formal domain expertise can be a significant hurdle for carrying out effective usability evaluations. Partnerships with domain experts lead to effective results as long as domain experts are willing to be an integral part of the usability team. These findings suggest that for achieving usability in complex domains, some fundamental educational changes may be needed in the training of usability professionals.
Keywords: collaboration models, complex domains, usability research, usability testing and evaluation
Average task times in usability tests: what to report? BIBAKFull-Text 2347-2350
  Jeff Sauro; James R. Lewis
The distribution of task time data in usability studies is positively skewed. Practitioners who are aware of this positive skew tend to report the sample median. Monte Carlo simulations using data from 61 large-sample usability tasks showed that the sample median is a biased estimate of the population median. Using the geometric mean to estimate the center of the population will, on average, have 13% less error and 22% less bias than the sample median. Other estimates of the population center (trimmed, harmonic and Winsorized means) had worse performance than the sample median.
Keywords: geometric mean, median, monte carlo simulations, task times, usability evaluation

We are family

Designing a technological playground: a field study of the emergence of play in household messaging BIBAKFull-Text 2351-2360
  Siân E. Lindley; Richard Harper; Abigail Sellen
We present findings from a field study of Wayve, a situated messaging device for the home that incorporates handwriting and photography. Wayve was used by 24 households (some of whom were existing social networks of family and friends) over a three-month period. We consider the various types of playfulness that emerged during the study, both through the sending of Wayve messages and through the local display of photos and notes. The findings are explored in the context of the literature on play, with the aim of identifying aspects of Wayve's design, as well as the context in which it was used, that engendered playfulness. We also highlight the role of play in social relationships, before concluding with design implications.
Keywords: communication, family, friendship, games, messaging, photography, play, scribble, situated display
The family window: the design and evaluation of a domestic media space BIBAKFull-Text 2361-2370
  Tejinder K. Judge; Carman Neustaedter; Andrew F. Kurtz
Families have a strong need to connect with their loved ones over distance. However, most technologies do not provide the same feelings of connectedness that one feels from seeing remote family members. Hence our goal was to understand if a video connection, in the form of a media space, could help families feel more connected and what design factors would be critical for its success. To answer this, we designed a video media space called the Family Window and deployed it within the homes of two families for eight months and four families for five weeks. Our results show that always-on video can lead to an increase in feelings of connectedness by providing availability awareness and opportunities for sharing everyday life. However usage and value of such media spaces hinges on close-knit relationships and control over one's autonomy.
Keywords: awareness, domestic, families, media spaces, video
FM radio: family interplay with sonic mementos BIBAKFull-Text 2371-2380
  Daniela Petrelli; Nicolas Villar; Vaiva Kalnikaite; Lina Dib; Steve Whittaker
Digital mementos are increasingly problematic, as people acquire large amounts of digital belongings that are hard to access and often forgotten. Based on fieldwork with 10 families, we designed a new type of embodied digital memento, the FM Radio. It allows families to access and play sonic mementos of their previous holidays. We describe our underlying design motivation where recordings are presented as a series of channels on an old fashioned radio. User feedback suggests that the device met our design goals: being playful and intriguing, easy to use and social. It facilitated family interaction, and allowed ready access to mementos, thus sharing many of the properties of physical mementos that we intended to trigger.
Keywords: audio, mementos, memories, narrative, tangible interaction.

1001 users

Think-aloud protocols: a comparison of three think-aloud protocols for use in testing data-dissemination web sites for usability BIBAKFull-Text 2381-2390
  Erica L. Olmsted-Hawala; Elizabeth D. Murphy; Sam Hawala; Kathleen T. Ashenfelter
We describe an empirical, between-subjects study on the use of think-aloud protocols in usability testing of a federal data-dissemination Web site. This double-blind study used three different types of think-aloud protocols: a traditional protocol, a speech-communication protocol, and a coaching protocol. A silent condition served as the control. Eighty participants were recruited and randomly pre-assigned to one of four conditions. Accuracy and efficiency measures were collected, and participants rated their subjective satisfaction with the site. Results show that accuracy is significantly higher in the coaching condition than in the other conditions. The traditional protocol and the speech-communication protocol are not statistically different from each other with regard to accuracy. Participants in the coaching condition are more satisfied with the Web site than participants in the traditional or speech-communication condition. In addition, there are no significant differences with respect to efficiency (time-on-task). This paper concludes with recommendations for usability practitioners.
Keywords: experimental design, think aloud, usability testing, user testing, user-centered design, verbalization
Powerful and consistent analysis of Likert-type ratingscales BIBAKFull-Text 2391-2394
  Maurits Clemens Kaptein; Clifford Nass; Panos Markopoulos
Likert-type scales are used extensively during usability evaluations, and more generally evaluations of interactive experiences, to obtain quantified data regarding attitudes, behaviors, and judgments of participants. Very often this data is analyzed using parametric statistics like the Student t-test or ANOVAs. These methods are chosen to ensure higher statistical power of the test (which is necessary in this field of research and practice where sample sizes are often small), or because of the lack of software to handle multi-factorial designs nonparametrically. With this paper we present to the HCI audience new developments from the field of medical statistics that enable analyzing multiple factor designs nonparametrically. We demonstrate the necessity of this approach by showing the errors in the parametric treatment of nonparametric data in experiments of the size typically reported in HCI research. We also provide a practical resource for researchers and practitioners who wish to use these new methods.
Keywords: nonparametric statistics, researchmethods, usability evaluation
Measuring the user experience on a large scale: user-centered metrics for web applications BIBAKFull-Text 2395-2398
  Kerry Rodden; Hilary Hutchinson; Xin Fu
More and more products and services are being deployed on the web, and this presents new challenges and opportunities for measurement of user experience on a large scale. There is a strong need for user-centered metrics for web applications, which can be used to measure progress towards key goals, and drive product decisions. In this note, we describe the HEART framework for user-centered metrics, as well as a process for mapping product goals to metrics. We include practical examples of how HEART metrics have helped product teams make decisions that are both data-driven and user-centered. The framework and process have generalized to enough of our company's own products that we are confident that teams in other organizations will be able to reuse or adapt them. We also hope to encourage more research into metrics based on large-scale behavioral data.
Keywords: log analysis, metrics, web analytics, web applications
Are your participants gaming the system?: screening mechanical turk workers BIBAKFull-Text 2399-2402
  Julie S. Downs; Mandy B. Holbrook; Steve Sheng; Lorrie Faith Cranor
In this paper we discuss a screening process used in conjunction with a survey administered via Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk. We sought an easily implementable method to disqualify those people who participate but don't take the study tasks seriously. By using two previously pilot tested screening questions, we identified 764 of 1,962 people who did not answer conscientiously. Young men seem to be most likely to fail the qualification task. Those that are professionals, students, and non-workers seem to be more likely to take the task seriously than financial workers, hourly workers, and other workers. Men over 30 and women were more likely to answer seriously.
Keywords: crowdsourcing, mechanical turk, screening, survey
Trained to accept?: a field experiment on consent dialogs BIBAKFull-Text 2403-2406
  Rainer Böhme; Stefan Köpsell
A typical consent dialog was shown in 2 x 2 x 3 experimental variations to 80,000 users of an online privacy tool. We find that polite requests and button texts pointing to a voluntary decision decrease the probability of consent -- in contrast to findings in social psychology. Our data suggests that subtle positive effects of polite requests indeed exist, but stronger negative effects of heuristic processing dominate the aggregated results. Participants seem to be habituated to coercive interception dialogs -- presumably due to ubiquitous EULAs -- and blindly accept terms the more their presentation resembles a EULA. Response latency and consultation of online help were taken as indicators to distinguish more systematic from heuristic responses.
Keywords: an.on/jondonym, default button, EULA, field experiment, informed consent, privacy notices, user behavior

Cooking, classrooms, and craft

Spyn: augmenting the creative and communicative potential of craft BIBAKFull-Text 2407-2416
  Daniela K. Rosner; Kimiko Ryokai
We present data collected from a field study of 12 needle-crafters introduced to Spyn-mobile phone software that associates digital records (audio/visual media, text, and geographic data) with locations on fabric. We observed leisure needle-crafters use Spyn to create one or more handmade garments over two to four weeks and then give those garments to friends, partners, and family members. Using Spyn, creators left behind digital and physical traces that heightened recipients' appreciation for the gift and enabled a diverse set of meanings to emerge. Digital engagements with Spyn became a means for unraveling the value of the gift: recipients used digital information associated with the physical objects to interpret the story behind the objects and their creators. We discuss the nature of this relationship between digital and physical material and its implications for craft.
Keywords: craft, creativity, crochet, design process, gift exchange, knitting, material, process, storytelling, tangibility
Toque: designing a cooking-based programming language for and with children BIBAKFull-Text 2417-2426
  Sureyya Tarkan; Vibha Sazawal; Allison Druin; Evan Golub; Elizabeth M. Bonsignore; Greg Walsh; Zeina Atrash
An intergenerational design team of children (ages 7-11 years old) along with graduate students and faculty in computer science and information studies developed a programming language for children, Toque. Concrete real-world cooking scenarios were used as programming metaphors to support an accessible programming learning experience. The Wiimote and Nunchuk were used as physical programming input devices. The programs that were created were pictorial recipes which dynamically controlled animations of an on-screen chef preparing virtual dishes in a graphical kitchen environment. Through multiple design sessions, programming strategies were explored, cooking metaphors were developed and, prototypes of the Toque environment were iterated. Results of these design experiences have shown us the importance of pair-programming, programming by storytelling, parallel programming, function-argument relationships, and the role of tangibility in overcoming challenges with constraints imposed by the system design.
Keywords: children, design, education, programming languages, tangible uis
Cooking with robots: designing a household system working in open environments BIBAKFull-Text 2427-2430
  Yuta Sugiura; Diasuke Sakamoto; Anusha Withana; Masahiko Inami; Takeo Igarashi
We propose a cooking system that operates in an open environment. The system cooks a meal by pouring various ingredients into a boiling pot on an induction heating cooker and adjusts the heating strength according to the user's instructions. We then describe how the system incorporates robotic- and human-specific elements in a shared workspace so as to achieve a cooperative rudimentary cooking capability. First, we use small mobile robots instead of built-in arms to save space, improve flexibility and increase safety. Second, we use detachable visual markers to allow the user to easily configure the real-world environment. Third, we provide a graphical user interface to display detailed cooking instructions to the user. We hope insights obtained in this experiment will be useful for the design of other household systems in the future.
Keywords: cooking interface, cooking procedure, cooking with robots, human-robot interaction

Displays where you least expect them

LensMouse: augmenting the mouse with an interactive touch display BIBAKFull-Text 2431-2440
  Xing-Dong Yang; Edward Mak; David McCallum; Pourang Irani; Xiang Cao; Shahram Izadi
We introduce LensMouse, a novel device that embeds a touch-screen display -- or tangible 'lens' -- onto a mouse. Users interact with the display of the mouse using direct touch, whilst also performing regular cursor-based mouse interactions. We demonstrate some of the unique capabilities of such a device, in particular for interacting with auxiliary windows, such as toolbars, palettes, pop-ups and dialog-boxes. By migrating these windows onto LensMouse, challenges such as screen real-estate use and window management can be alleviated. In a controlled experiment, we evaluate the effectiveness of LensMouse in reducing cursor movements for interacting with auxiliary windows. We also consider the concerns involving the view separation that results from introducing such a display-based device. Our results reveal that overall users are more effective with LenseMouse than with auxiliary application windows that are managed either in single or dual-monitor setups. We conclude by presenting other application scenarios that LensMouse could support.
Keywords: input device, mouse and lens, mouse augmented display, tangible lens, touch display on mouse, touch mouse
Pacer: fine-grained interactive paper via camera-touch hybrid gestures on a cell phone BIBAKFull-Text 2441-2450
  Chunyuan Liao; Qiong Liu; Bee Liew; Lynn Wilcox
PACER is a gesture-based interactive paper system that supports fine-grained paper document content manipulation through the touch screen of a cameraphone. Using the phone's camera, PACER links a paper document to its digital version based on visual features. It adopts camera-based phone motion detection for embodied gestures (e.g. marquees, underlines and lassos), with which users can flexibly select and interact with document details (e.g. individual words, symbols and pixels). The touch input is incorporated to facilitate target selection at fine granularity, and to address some limitations of the embodied interaction, such as hand jitter and low input sampling rate. This hybrid interaction is coupled with other techniques such as semi-real time document tracking and loose physical-digital document registration, offering a gesture-based command system. We demonstrate the use of PACER in various scenarios including work-related reading, maps and music score playing. A preliminary user study on the design has produced encouraging user feedback, and suggested future research for better understanding of embodied vs. touch interaction and one vs. two handed interaction.
Keywords: camera, cell phone, embodied interface., fine-grained, gesture, paper interface, touch
MouseLight: bimanual interactions on digital paper using a pen and a spatially-aware mobile projector BIBAKFull-Text 2451-2460
  Hyunyoung Song; François Guimbretière; Tovi Grossman; George Fitzmaurice
MouseLight is a spatially-aware standalone mobile projector with the form factor of a mouse that can be used in combination with digital pens on paper. By interacting with the projector and the pen bimanually, users can visualize and modify the virtually augmented contents on top of the paper, and seamlessly transition between virtual and physical information. We present a high fidelity hardware prototype of the system and demonstrate a set of novel interactions specifically tailored to the unique properties of MouseLight. MouseLight differentiates itself from related systems such as PenLight in two aspects. First, MouseLight presents a rich set of bimanual interactions inspired by the ToolGlass interaction metaphor, but applied to physical paper. Secondly, our system explores novel displaced interactions, that take advantage of the independent input and output that is spatially aware of the underneath paper. These properties enable users to issue remote commands such as copy and paste or search. We also report on a preliminary evaluation of the system which produced encouraging observations and feedback.
Keywords: digital pen input, mobile projector, spatially-aware display

Domestic life

How routine learners can support family coordination BIBAKFull-Text 2461-2470
  Scott Davidoff; John Zimmerman; Anind K. Dey
Researchers have detailed the importance of routines in how people live and work, while also cautioning system designers about the importance of people's idiosyncratic behavior patterns and the challenges they would present to learning systems. We wish to take up their challenge, and offer a vision of how simple sensing technology could capture and model idiosyncratic routines, enabling applications to solve many real world problems.
   To identify how a simple routine learner can demonstrate this in support of family coordination, we conducted six months of nightly interviews with six families, focusing on how they make and execute plans. Our data reveals that only about 40% of events unfold in a routine manner. When deviations do occur, family members often need but do not have access to accurate information about their routines. With about 90% of their content concerning deviations, not routines, families do not rely on calendars to support them during these moments. We discuss how coordination tools, like calendars and reminder systems, would improve coordination and reduce stress when augmented with routine information, and how commercial mobile phones can support the automatic creation of routine models.
Keywords: calendar, learning, location, mobile, planning, reminder
The design and evaluation of an end-user-deployable, whole house, contactless power consumption sensor BIBAKFull-Text 2471-2480
  Shwetak N. Patel; Sidhant Gupta; Matthew S. Reynolds
We present the design, development, and evaluation of an end-user installable, whole house power consumption sensing system capable of gathering accurate real-time power use that does not require installing a current transformer around the electrical feeds in a home. Rather, our sensor system offers contactless operation by simply placing it on the outside of the breaker panel in a home. Although there are a number of existing commercial systems for gathering energy use in a home, almost none can easily and safely be installed by a homeowner (especially for homes in the U.S.). Our approach leverages advances in magnetoresistive materials and circuit design to allow contactless operation by reliably sensing the magnetic field induced by the 60 Hz current and a closed loop circuit allows us to precisely infer the power consumption in real-time. The contribution of this work is an enabling technology for researchers in the fields of Ubiquitous Computing and Human-Computer Interaction wanting to conduct practical large-scale deployments of end-user-deployable energy monitoring applications. We discuss the technical details, the iterative design, and end-user evaluations of our sensing approach.
Keywords: energy monitoring, sensing, smart home, sustainability, ubiquitous computing
InPhase: evaluation of a communication system focused on "happy coincidences" of daily behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 2481-2490
  Hitomi Tsujita; Koji Tsukada; Siio Itiro
To supplement existing forms of communication such as telephone and e-mail, this research proposes a new method of communicating "awareness" between people who are separated by long distances. In this paper, we investigate cases where coincidences in daily activities lead to casual conversation and thus intimacy and togetherness. We propose a new method of communicating these "happy coincidences" between a pair of remotely located locations. By equipping furniture and appliances such as doors, sofas, refrigerators and televisions with sensors, we developed a system wherein these items are connected to remote equivalents and their near simultaneous use is communicated. We conducted a two month field test of the system in a laboratory setting and a three month field test in an actual home. The study showed that the participant felt the presence of other people and thought about, imagined or even confirmed the habits of others by intentionally triggering the coincidence notification.
Keywords: awareness, coincidences, communication, synchronization

Finding your mojo and doing some good

O job can you return my mojo: improving human engagement and enjoyment in routine activities BIBAKFull-Text 2491-2498
  Dvijesh Shastri; Yuichi Fujiki; Ross Buffington; Panagiotis Tsiamyrtzis; Ioannis Pavlidis
Unlike machines, we humans are prone to boredom when we perform routine activities for long periods of time. Workers' mental engagement in boring tasks diminishes, which eventually, compromises their performance. The result is a double-whammy because the workers do not get job satisfaction and their employers do not receive optimal return on investment. This paper proposes a novel way for improving workers' mental engagement and hence, enjoyment, in routine activities. Specifically, we propose to blend in routine tasks mild mental/physical challenges. To test our hypothesis, we chose to experiment on a monitoring task typical of security guard operations. We combined this routine task with an iPhone-based game to make it more enjoyable. The results from 10 participants show that their mental engagement and enjoyment were significantly higher during the combined task.
Keywords: computer games, human engagement and performance, human-computer interaction, stress monitoring, thermal imaging
Identifying drivers and hindrances of social user experience in web services BIBAKFull-Text 2499-2502
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Minna Wäljas; Jarno Ojala; Katarina Segerståhl
Social activity is becoming a central contributor to user experience (UX) in many modern Web services. The motivations, norms and rules of online communities have been widely researched, however, social activity and its UX in modern Web services is a less studied area. We conducted a four-week-long field study with three Web services -- Facebook, Nokia Sports Tracker and Dopplr -- which all support social activity. The aim of this study was to identify the central drivers and hindrances of social UX, user experience of online social activity. Our results show that the main drivers of social UX include self-expression, reciprocity, learning and curiosity, whereas unsuitability of content and functionality, incompleteness of user networks and lack of trust and privacy are often experienced as hindrances for social UX. Our findings also reveal the pragmatic and hedonic nature of the drivers and hindrances. The results can be used to inform design and evaluation of social UX in Web services.
Keywords: social activity, user experience (UX), web services

Software understanding and maintenance

Code bubbles: a working set-based interface for code understanding and maintenance BIBAKFull-Text 2503-2512
  Andrew Bragdon; Robert Zeleznik; Steven P. Reiss; Suman Karumuri; William Cheung; Joshua Kaplan; Christopher Coleman; Ferdi Adeputra; Joseph J., Jr. LaViola
Developers spend significant time reading and navigating code fragments spread across multiple locations. The file-based nature of contemporary IDEs makes it prohibitively difficult to create and maintain a simultaneous view of such fragments. We propose a novel user interface metaphor for code understanding based on collections of lightweight, editable fragments called bubbles, which form concurrently visible working sets. We present the results of a qualitative usability evaluation, and the results of a quantitative study which indicates Code Bubbles significantly improved code understanding time, while reducing navigation interactions over a widely-used IDE, for two controlled tasks.
Keywords: bubbles, java, multi-view, simultaneous views, source code
How to support designers in getting hold of the immaterial material of software BIBAKFull-Text 2513-2522
  Fatih Kursat Ozenc; Miso Kim; John Zimmerman; Stephen Oney; Brad Myers
When designing novel GUI controls, interaction designers are challenged by the "immaterial" materiality of the digital domain; they lack tools that effectively support a reflecting conversation with the material of software as they attempt to conceive, refine, and communicate their ideas. To investigate this situation, we conducted two participatory design workshops. In the first workshop, focused on conceiving, we observed that designers want to invent controls by exploring gestures, context, and examples. In the second workshop, on refining and communicating, designers proposed tools that could refine movement, document context through usage scenarios, and support the use of examples. In this workshop they struggled to effectively communicate their ideas for developers because their ideas had not been fully explored. In reflecting on this struggle, we began to see an opportunity for the output of a design tool to be a boundary object that would allow for an ongoing conversation between the design and the material of software, in which the developer acts as a mediator for software.
Keywords: communication, design process, interactive controls, tools

Users and attention on the web

Enhancing web page readability for non-native readers BIBAKFull-Text 2523-2532
  Chen-Hsiang Yu; Robert C. Miller
Readers face many obstacles on today's Web, including distracting content competing for the user's attention and other factors interfering with comfortable reading. On today's primarily English-language Web, non-native readers encounter even more problems, even if they have some fluency in English. In this paper, we focus on the presentation of content and propose a new transformation method, Jenga Format, to enhance web page readability. To evaluate the Jenga Format, we conducted a user study on 30 Asian users with moderate English fluency and the results indicated that the proposed transformation method improved reading comprehension without negatively affecting reading speed. We also describe Froggy, a Firefox extension which implements the Jenga format.
Keywords: readability enhancement, reading comprehension, web page customization

Going to the mall: shopping and product design

Countertop responsive mirror: supporting physical retail shopping for sellers, buyers and companions BIBAKFull-Text 2533-2542
  Maurice Chu; Brinda Dalal; Alan Walendowski; Bo Begole
We examine opportunities for ubiquitous technologies in retail shopping, jewelry shopping in this case, to supplement the unique information needs inherent to physical trials of tactile products. We describe an iterative design approach to develop a mirror system that records and matches images across jewelry trials called the Countertop Responsive Mirror. The key technological distinction of our system from prior technologies is the use of "matched access," which automatically retrieves images that match a scene shown in separately accessed images. This not only helps shoppers compare jewelry but also promotes interactions among all parties during shopping. We report qualitative findings from multiple field trials of the system. This paper contributes to a body of research on the design and introduction of new technologies into retail shopping that provide value to all users without disruption to their normative practices and behaviors.
Keywords: camera system, computer vision application, digital mirror, implicit interaction, jewelry, matched access, retail, shopping
Investigating the opportunity for a smart activity bag BIBAKFull-Text 2543-2552
  Sun Young Park; John Zimmerman
As long as people have traveled, they have constructed bags to help them carry more items than their hands will hold. While quite effective at keeping things together, bags do a poor job of communicating when something is missing. We propose that there exists an opportunity for the HCI community to improve the quality of people's lives by creating bags that have knowledge of people's schedules and equipment needs, can sense their contents, and can communicate when something has been forgotten. To investigate this opportunity, we conducted a field study with six dual-income families. Through interviews and observations we investigated their experiences using bags to organize equipment needed for children's enrichment activities. Based on the findings we generated 100 concepts and conducted a needs validation session to better understand the best opportunity to improve people's lives with technical intervention. This paper reports on our field study and needs validation session, and shares insights on the opportunities and implications of a smart activity bag.
Keywords: dual-income family, mobile devices, needs validation., reminders, research through design, smart bag, speed dating, ubiquitous computing


A model of symbol size discrimination in scatterplots BIBAKFull-Text 2553-2562
  Jing Li; Jean-Bernard Martens; Jarke J. van Wijk
Symbols are used in scatterplots to encode data in a way that is appropriate for perception through human visual channels. Symbol size is believed to be the second dominant channel after color. We study symbol size perception in scatterplots in the context of analytic tasks requiring size discrimination. More specifically, we performed an experiment to measure human performance in three visual analytic tasks. Circles are used as the representative symbol, with eight, linearly varying radii; 24 persons, divided across three groups, participated; and both objective and subjective measures were obtained. We propose a model to describe the results. The perception of size is assumed to be an early step in the complex cognitive process to mediate discrimination, and psychophysical laws are used to describe this perceptual mapping. Different mapping schemes are compared by regression on the experimental data. The results show that approximate homogeneity of size perception exists in our complex tasks and can be closely described by a power law transformation with an exponent of 0.4. This yields an optimal scale for symbol size discrimination.
Keywords: graphical encoding, quantitative model, scatterplots, size discrimination, symbol size, user experiment., visual analytic task
Individual models of color differentiation to improve interpretability of information visualization BIBAKFull-Text 2563-2572
  David R. Flatla; Carl Gutwin
Color is commonly used to represent categories and values in many computer applications, but differentiating these colors can be difficult in many situations (e.g., for users with color vision deficiency (CVD), or in bright light). Current solutions to this problem can adapt colors based on standard simulations of CVD, but these models cover only a fraction of the ways in which color perception can vary. To improve the specificity and accuracy of these approaches, we have developed the first ever individualized model of color differentiation (ICD). The model is based on a short calibration performed by a particular user for a particular display, and so automatically covers all aspects of the user's ability to see and differentiate colors in an environment. In this paper we introduce the new model and the manner in which differentiability limits are predicted. We gathered empirical data from 16 users to assess the model's accuracy and robustness. We found that the model is highly effective at capturing individual differentiation abilities, works for users with and without CVD, can be tuned to balance accuracy and color availability, and can serve as the basis for improved color adaptation schemes.
Keywords: assistive technology, color blindness, color differentiation, color vision deficiency, visualization
Useful junk?: the effects of visual embellishment on comprehension and memorability of charts BIBAKFull-Text 2573-2582
  Scott Bateman; Regan L. Mandryk; Carl Gutwin; Aaron Genest; David McDine; Christopher Brooks
Guidelines for designing information charts (such as bar charts) often state that the presentation should reduce or remove 'chart junk' -- visual embellishments that are not essential to understanding the data. In contrast, some popular chart designers wrap the presented data in detailed and elaborate imagery, raising the questions of whether this imagery is really as detrimental to understanding as has been proposed, and whether the visual embellishment may have other benefits. To investigate these issues, we conducted an experiment that compared embellished charts with plain ones, and measured both interpretation accuracy and long-term recall. We found that people's accuracy in describing the embellished charts was no worse than for plain charts, and that their recall after a two-to-three-week gap was significantly better. Although we are cautious about recommending that all charts be produced in this style, our results question some of the premises of the minimalist approach to chart design.
Keywords: charts, imagery, information visualization, memorability

HCI and the developing world

Intermediated technology use in developing communities BIBAKFull-Text 2583-2592
  Nithya Sambasivan; Ed Cutrell; Kentaro Toyama; Bonnie Nardi
We describe a prevalent mode of information access in low-income communities of the developing world -- intermediated interactions. They enable persons for whom technology is inaccessible due to non-literacy, lack of technology-operation skills, or financial constraints, to benefit from technologies through digitally skilled users -- thus, expanding the reach of technologies. Reporting the results of our ethnography in two urban slums of Bangalore, India, we present three distinct intermediated interactions: inputting intent into the device in proximate enabling, interpretation of device output in proximate translation, and both input of intent and interpretation of output in surrogate usage. We present some requirements and challenges in interface design of these interactions and explain how they are different from direct interactions. We then explain the broader effects of these interactions on low-income communities, and present some implications for design.
Keywords: hci4d, human-mediated computer interaction, ict4d, intermediated interactions, urban slums
Deliberate interactions: characterizing technology use in Nairobi, Kenya BIBAKFull-Text 2593-2602
  Susan P. Wyche; Thomas N. Smyth; Marshini Chetty; Paul M. Aoki; Rebecca E. Grinter
We present results from a qualitative study examining how professionals living and working in Nairobi, Kenya regularly use ICT in their everyday lives. There are two contributions of this work for the HCI community. First, we provide empirical evidence demonstrating constraints our participants encountered when using technology in an infrastructure-poor setting. These constraints are limited bandwidth, high costs, differing perceptions of responsiveness, and threats to physical and virtual security. Second, we use our findings to critically evaluate the "access, anytime and anywhere" construct shaping the design of future technologies. We present an alternative vision called deliberate interactions -- a planned and purposeful interaction style that involves offline preparation and discuss ways ICT can support this online usage behavior.
Keywords: Kenya, everyday technology, hci4d, urban computing
After access: challenges facing mobile-only internet users in the developing world BIBAKFull-Text 2603-2606
  Shikoh Gitau; Gary Marsden; Jonathan Donner
This study reports results of an ethnographic action research study, exploring mobile-centric internet use. Over the course of 13 weeks, eight women, each a member of a livelihoods collective in urban Cape Town, South Africa, received training to make use of the data (internet) features on the phones they already owned. None of the women had previous exposure to PCs or the internet. Activities focused on social networking, entertainment, information search, and, in particular, job searches. Results of the exercise reveal both the promise of, and barriers to, mobile internet use by a potentially large community of first-time, mobile-centric users. Discussion focuses on the importance of self-expression and identity management in the refinement of online and offline presences, and considers these forces relative to issues of gender and socioeconomic status.
Keywords: developing world, hci4d, ict4d, mobile internet
ViralVCD: tracing information-diffusion paths with low cost media in developing communities BIBAKFull-Text 2607-2610
  Nithya Sambasivan; Ed Cutrell; Kentaro Toyama
We describe ViralVCD: a low cost method for tracing paths of information diffusion in developing communities using physical media. We instituted a participatory video framework for creation and dissemination of developmental videos in seven urban slums and peri-urban communities of Bangalore, India. By combining a call-in contest with Video CDs, we were able to measure developmental impact as well as elicit data on social networks and technology usage practices. In particular, our technique was able to extract data from multiple layers-social, technological, and developmental. ViralVCD allowed us to identify key actors and map information diffusion, as well as technology ownership and access. These findings have implications for HCI initiatives targeting low income locales and populations.
Keywords: diffusion, hci4d, low-cost media, methods, tracking

No touch

Interactivity and non-interactivity on tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 2611-2614
  Kenton O'Hara
In the growing field of tabletop computing research, there has been an understandable focus on interactive aspects of tabletop use, in terms of technology, design, and behavioural analysis. In this paper, I highlight the importance of considering also non-interactive aspects of tabletop computing and the mutually dependent relationship between interactive and non-interactive. We illustrate aspects of this relationship using findings from a deployment of an interactive tabletop in a public setting. The findings highlight how consequences of interaction can impact on non-interactive behaviours and intentions and how non-interactive actions can constrain interactive behaviours on the tabletop. In doing this we aim to raise more awareness of the relationship between interactivity and non-interactivity within tabletop computing research.
Keywords: interactivity, non-interactivity, tabletops
Clutch-free panning and integrated pan-zoom control on touch-sensitive surfaces: the cyclostar approach BIBAKFull-Text 2615-2624
  Sylvain Malacria; Eric Lecolinet; Yves Guiard
This paper introduces two novel navigation techniques, CycloPan, for clutch-free 2D panning and browsing, and CycloZoom+, for integrated 2D panning and zooming. These techniques instantiate a more generic concept which we call Cyclo* (CycloStar). The basic idea is that users can exert closed-loop control over several continuous variables by voluntarily modulating the parameters of a sustained oscillation. Touch-sensitive surfaces tend to offer impoverished input resources. Cyclo* techniques seem particularly promising on these surfaces because oscillations have multiple geometrical and kinematic parameters many of which may be used as controls. While CycloPan and CycloZoom+ are compatible with each other and with much of the state of the art, our experimental evaluations suggest that these two novel techniques outperform flicking and rubbing techniques.
Keywords: elliptic gestures, input techniques, multi-scale navigation, oscillatory motion, panning, touch screens, touchpads, zooming
Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays BIBAKFull-Text 2625-2634
  Li-Wei Chan; Hui-Shan Kao; Mike Y. Chen; Ming-Sui Lee; Jane Hsu; Yi-Ping Hung
In this paper, we explore the challenges in applying and investigate methodologies to improve direct-touch interaction on intangible displays. Direct-touch interaction simplifies object manipulation, because it combines the input and display into a single integrated interface. While traditional tangible display-based direct-touch technology is commonplace, similar direct-touch interaction within an intangible display paradigm presents many challenges. Given the lack of tactile feedback, direct-touch interaction on an intangible display may show poor performance even on the simplest of target acquisition tasks. In order to study this problem, we have created a prototype of an intangible display. In the initial study, we collected user discrepancy data corresponding to the interpretation of 3D location of targets shown on our intangible display. The result showed that participants performed poorly in determining the z-coordinate of the targets and were imprecise in their execution of screen touches within the system. Thirty percent of positioning operations showed errors larger than 30mm from the actual surface. This finding triggered our interest to design a second study, in which we quantified task time in the presence of visual and audio feedback. The pseudo-shadow visual feedback was shown to be helpful both in improving user performance and satisfaction.
Keywords: direct-touch interaction, intangible display, virtual panel