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CHASE Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2015 International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering

Fullname:CHASE'15: 8th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering
Editors:Andrew Begel; Rafael Prikladnicki; Yvonne Dittrich; Cleidson R. B. de Souza; Anita Sarma; Sandeep Athavale
Location:Florence, Italy
Dates:2015-May-16 to 2015-May-24
Standard No:ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CHASE15
Links:Workshop Webpage | Umbrella Conference Website
  1. Long papers
  2. Short papers
  3. Notes

Long papers

An empirical investigation of personality traits of software testers BIBAFull-Text 1-7
  Tanjila Kanij; Robert Merkel; John Grundy
Software testing is the process of an execution-based investigation of some aspects of the software's quality. The efficiency of the process depends on the methods and technologies used, but crucially also on the human testers. Software testers typically attempt to anticipate and expose ways software may be defective, a fundamentally different task set to those of other software development practitioners. This raises the question of whether the personality of software testers may be different to other people involved in software development. To test this hypothesis, we collected personality profiles using the big five factor model of around 200 software development practitioners. Analysis of this data indicates that software testers are significantly higher on the conscientiousness factor than other software development practitioners, while other factors remain broadly consistent.
Animating organizational patterns BIBAFull-Text 8-14
  Tomáš Frt'ala; Valentino Vranic
Organizational patterns are the key to a stepwise adoption of agile and lean approaches and to a piecemeal growth of agile and lean organization of work. However, their text description is not easy to comprehend. In this paper, we introduce our initial efforts towards establishing an approach to animate organizational patterns as text adventure games. Players pass through a series of scenes described using Erickson's conversational hypnosis language patterns in order to better evoke their experience. The game scenario space is expressed using UML state machine diagrams. The approach is presented on adventure games we created for the Architect Also Implements organizational pattern.
Characteristics of sustainable OSS projects: a theoretical and empirical study BIBAFull-Text 15-21
  Hideaki Hata; Taiki Todo; Saya Onoue; Kenichi Matsumoto
How can we attract developers? What can we do to incentivize developers to write code? We started the study by introducing the population pyramid visualization to software development communities, called software population pyramids, and found a typical pattern in shapes. This pattern comes from the differences in attracting coding contributors and discussion contributors. To understand the causes of the differences, we then build game-theoretical models of the contribution situation. Based on these results, we again analyzed the projects empirically to support the outcome of the models, and found empirical evidence. The answers to the initial questions are clear. To incentivize developers to code, the projects should prepare documents, or the projects or third parties should hire developers, and these are what sustainable projects in GitHub did in reality. In addition, making innovations to reduce the writing costs can also have an impact in attracting coding contributors.
Evaluation of the simulated application of the UCD-LSI method: the iPeople case study BIBAFull-Text 22-28
  Ulrike Abelein; Barbara Paech; Michael Kern; Maria Woydich
In previous work we showed in a systematic mapping study that there is no method to enhance user-developer communication (UDC) in the design and implementation phase of large-scale IT projects (LSI). We then defined the UDC-LSI method. It is substantial especially for newly designed methods to evaluate them within a real-world context. As it is difficult to find a company willing to apply an untested method, as a first step to full evaluation we present in this work a case study where we study the utility and acceptance of a simulated application of the UDC-LSI method. To make the simulation as real as possible we first thoroughly analyzed the as-is status of the iPeople project. Then we simulated an instantiation of the UDC-LSI method for the iPeople project and we evaluated this instantiation with project participants. The case study showed that it is possible to instantiate the method for the project under study. The evaluation confirmed a positive effect of the UDC-LSI method on system success (effectiveness), the feasibility and high acceptance of the method and a positive effort-benefit ratio (efficiency).
Facilitating collaboration between COTS stakeholders via principles of advanced ISD methodologies: the vendor perspective BIBAFull-Text 29-35
  Anat Segal-Raviv; Irit Hadar; Meira Levy
Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems continue to evolve after acquisition while adapting to an ever-changing organizational environment. Many software changes are delivered through the change request (CR) knowledge-intensive process that can be viewed as a small development cycle. In this study we mapped COTS-related risks documented in literature to COTS-based systems development (CBSD) phases. We then analyzed evidence for knowledge gaps between stakeholders, such as misunderstanding systems and business aspects, which hinder CR delivery. For each gap we mapped related risks and proposed methods, taken from advanced information system development (ISD) methodologies focused on human, collaborative and knowledge aspects, as mitigation strategies. Our analysis indicates that these methods, which encourage collaboration and knowledge sharing, can serve as feasible mitigation strategies for the knowledge gaps found in the study. Taking a knowledge-centric perspective of the CBSD process by mitigating risks via human-centric development methods is the first step toward a new model for risk management in CBSD.
Geographically distributed sensemaking: developing understanding in forum-based software development teams BIBAFull-Text 36-42
  Ben Shreeve; Paul Ralph; Pete Sawyer; Patrick Stacey
Global software development is becoming increasingly popular. Working in geographically distributed teams affords advantages to both employer and employee alike. Despite this, distributed working remains a point of contention for many organisations, with some claiming it unsuitable for complex collaborative work. Many argue that the complex act of team sensemaking (the process by which a team develops an understanding of a situation or problem) can only effectively be performed in co-located environments. To investigate this assumption, we examine the communications of a geographically distributed game development team. This global team communicates entirely via forums, yet still manages complex sensemaking tasks asynchronously. We use thematic analysis to investigate how themes develop during online conversations, and use speech act sequences to explore how understanding is developed during these asynchronous conversations. Our findings demonstrate how collective sensemaking occurs within a real-world, geographically distributed team.
Human factors related challenges in software engineering: an industrial perspective BIBAFull-Text 43-49
  Per Lenberg; Robert Feldt; Lars Göran Wallgren
It is increasingly recognised that successful Software Engineering not only depends on technical or process issues, but requires attention to human factors. Researchers include such aspects which has led to both new theories and refined methods. However, it is not clear if professionals in the software industry agree that human factors are critical and what the related challenges and possibilities are. The purpose of the present study is to address this discrepancy. Using a qualitative research method, we elicited information about how and why human factors affect Software Engineering projects, which challenges are of special interest and the context in which they arise. Thematic analysis of data from interviews with nine senior software professionals in multiple Swedish software companies of differing size identified four main challenging areas. As supported by existing research, customer relations and communications were highlighted as important, but so too is the need for more holistic and multidimensional solutions and the importance of human factors in software organisational change. In addition, quantitative results indicate that the professionals see the organisational and group aspects as more important than the individual aspect. Our results can help to focus future research on matters that software practitioners consider important.
Perceptions of diversity on GitHub: a user survey BIBAFull-Text 50-56
  Bogdan Vasilescu; Vladimir Filkov; Alexander Serebrenik
Understanding one's work environment is important for one's success, especially when working in teams. In virtual collaborative environments this amounts to being aware of the technical and social attributes of one's team members. Focusing on Open Source Software teams, naturally very diverse both socially and technically, we report the results of a user survey that tries to resolve how teamwork and individual attributes are perceived by developers collaborating on GitHub, and how those perceptions influence their work. Our findings can be used as complementary data to quantitative studies of developers' behavior on GitHub.
Sketching and conceptions of software design BIBAFull-Text 57-63
  David Socha; Josh Tenenberg
In this paper, we describe a study of sketching and design within a software organization in which hundreds of hours of video of development activity in situ were captured and analyzed. We use the study as a basis from which to question how researcher conceptions of software design -- what it is, when and where it occurs, and how it is accounted -- affect the way in which design is empirically studied. When researcher conceptions of design substantially differ from the actual design practices of those who are studied, researchers are at risk of seeing only what they are looking for and in this way miss the very design practices carried out by software developers in their quotidian work that the researchers were hoping to characterize.
The "pair" as a problematic unit of analysis for pair programming BIBAFull-Text 64-70
  David Socha; Kevin Sutanto
This paper explores the problematic nature of using an isolated pair as the unit of analysis in studies and evaluations of pair programming. Using empirical data from an observational case study within a software development organization, we show pairs spending 20% of their pairing time interacting with people outside the pair. These interactions, which are encouraged by this organization as part of its highly collaborative system, represent important value exchanges with people outside the pair. This suggests that research on pairs in isolation may not be indicative of how pair programming works in situ when enacted by teams accomplished in the practice, and may misrepresent the net value proposition of pair programming.
Toward defining the role of the software architect: an examination of the soft aspects of this role BIBAFull-Text 71-76
  Sofia Sherman; Irit Hadar
Software architecture is integral part of the software development; however, its integration in the development process has become more challenging with the transition from traditional to agile development methods, and with the architects becoming much more than technological experts responsible for high-level design. Some attention has been paid in recent years to the role of the architect, seeking a contemporary and comprehensive definition of this role. This paper reports on the results of an online survey, with the participation of 104 software architects, aimed at defining the soft aspects of the software architect's role. The results reveal that architects perform a variety of human-centered activities such as mentoring, leadership, reviewing and management, Moreover, in the contexts of mentoring and leadership, software architects strive to do more than they currently do.

Short papers

An empirical study into social success factors for agile software development BIBAFull-Text 77-80
  Evelyn van Kelle; Per van der Wijst; Aske Plaat; Joost Visser
Though many warn that Agile at larger scale is problematic or at least more challenging than in smaller projects, Agile software development seems to become the norm, also for large and complex projects.
   Based on literature and qualitative interviews, we constructed a conceptual model of social factors that may be of influence on the success of software development projects in general, and of Agile projects in particular. We also included project size as a candidate success factor.
   We tested the model on a set of 40 projects from 19 Dutch organizations, comprising a total of 141 project members, Scrum Masters and product owners.
   We found that project size does not determine Agile project success. Rather, value congruence, degree of adoption of Agile practices, and transformational leadership proved to be the most important predictors for Agile project success.
Ask the engineers: exploring repertory grids and personal constructs for software data analysis BIBAFull-Text 81-84
  Lucas Layman; Carolyn Seaman; Davide Falessi; Madeline Diep
Maturity in software projects is often equated with data-driven predictability. However, data collection is expensive and measuring all variables that may correlate with project outcome is neither practical nor feasible. In contrast, a project engineer can identify a handful of factors that he or she believes influence the success of a project. The challenge is to quantify engineers' insights in a way that is useful for data analysis. In this exploratory study, we investigate the repertory grid technique for this purpose.
   The repertory grid technique is an interview-based procedure for eliciting "constructs" (e.g., adhering to coding standards) that individuals believe influence a worldly phenomenon (e.g., what makes a high-quality software project) by comparing example elements from their past (e.g., projects they have worked on). We investigate the relationship between objective metrics of project performance and repertory grid constructs elicited from eight software engineers. Our results show correlations between the engineers' subjective constructs and the objective project outcome measures. This suggests that repertory grids may be of benefit in developing models of project outcomes, particularly when project data is limited.
Fathoming software evangelists with the D-index BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Ferran Borreguero; Elisabetta Di Nitto; Dmitrii Stebliuk; Damian A. Tamburri; Chengyu Zheng
The increased importance represented by open-source and crowd-sourced software developers and software development in general, inspired us to consider the following dilemma: can we "compute" virtuous software developers? The D-Index is our preliminary attempt. Essentially, the D-Index meaningfully equates several indicators for the virtues of a developer, such as, contributed code, its quality, mentoring in online learning communities, community engagement. Our preliminary evaluation of the index suggests that establishing the virtues for certain developers eases the identification of software "evangelists", key success enablers for software communities.
Knowledge management and organizational culture in a software organization: a case study BIBAFull-Text 89-92
  Jacilane Rabelo; Edson Oliveira; Davi Viana; Luís Braga; Gleison Santos; Igor Steinmacher; Tayana Conte
Software development activities are usually knowledge intensive. Knowledge management is essential to foster improvements and innovation on software development processes. Organizational Culture (OC) is a key factor that impacts the success of knowledge management, since it influences the way employees learn and share knowledge in the organization. The Competing Values Framework (CVF) was proposed to support the definition of organization's cultural outline. CVF aims to diagnose and facilitate Organizational Culture changes. Previous researches presented a theoretical model to correlate knowledge management to the CVF. However, the existing literature does not present evidences of this correlation. The goal of this work is to identify whether this correlation exists or not in the context of a software organization by means of a case study. We performed a comparison between the values obtained and those presented in the theoretical model. The comparison output enabled us to verify that the case study results diverged from the theoretical ones. Therefore, it was not possible to observe the theoretical model's propositions on the investigated software development organization.
Real-time monitoring of neural state in assessing and improving software developers' productivity BIBAFull-Text 93-96
  Stevche Radevski; Hideaki Hata; Kenichi Matsumoto
Productivity has always been considered a crucial factor for the success of any business, and the same applies to software development. As a result of software development being almost entirely a cognitive task, problems in cognition highly correlate to problems in productivity. Being able to monitor the neural state of developers in real-time can aid in detecting and handling such cognitive problems before they occur and cause any damage. This also means aiding software developers in taking sufficient breaks, assigning tasks appropriate to their knowledge level, managing deadlines and stress, and so on.
   In this paper we propose Emendo -- a conceptual system for continuous monitoring of developers' neural state using an off-the-shelf device. Furthermore, we provide a pilot study on the usability and feasibility of the proposed device for continuous monitoring. We also provide a short discussion of the ethical and acceptance issues of monitoring systems. Our goal is to introduce the possibility of real-time neural state monitoring and its potential benefits to the research community, hopefully attracting more researchers in this research field.
Regulation as an enabler for collaborative software development BIBAFull-Text 97-100
  Maryi Arciniegas-Mendez; Alexey Zagalsky; Margaret-Anne Storey; Allyson F. Hadwin
Collaboration has become an integral aspect of software engineering. The widespread availability and adoption of social channels has led to a culture where today's developers participate and collaborate more frequently with one another. Awareness is widely accepted as an important feature of collaboration, but exactly what this encompasses and how processes and tools should be evaluated in terms of their awareness support remains an open challenge. In this paper, we borrow a theory of regulation from the Learning Science domain and show how this theory can be used to provide more detailed insights into how collaboration tools and processes can be compared and analyzed.
Soft skills in software development teams: a survey of the points of view of team leaders and team members BIBAFull-Text 101-104
  Gerardo Matturro; Florencia Raschetti; Carina Fontán
Besides technical knowledge and experience, the so-called "soft skills" of team members are also an important factor in software engineering projects. The study of this subject is gaining the attention of researchers and practitioners in recent years. In this paper we report a field study in which we interviewed 35 software engineering practitioners from software companies in Uruguay to know their points of view about what are the soft skills they consider the most valued to have by the leader and the other members of software development teams. As a result, Leadership, Communication skills, Customer orientation, Interpersonal skills, and Teamwork are the most valued for team leaders, while Analytic, problem-solving, Commitment, responsibility, Eagerness to learn, Motivation, and Teamwork are the most valued ones for team members.
The human side of software as a service: building a tighter fit between human experiences and SOA design practices BIBAFull-Text 105-108
  Victoria Karaseva; Ahmed Seffah
Software as a Service (SaaS) is now recognized as an effective model for the development, deployment, and customization of software. It has been reported that it reduces the costs as well as ensures the long-term sustainability of software systems. Monolithic software systems are seen as a set of interrelated and geographically distributed services over the Internet. Developers and providers can easily customize services while being able to accommodate a large range of stakeholders. At the core of this service orientation of the whole field of software development are the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) design principles. These principles detail what we should do, but not how and by whom it has to be done. From a human perspective -- all stakeholders -- we argue that the current SOA design principles can be linked and benefit from the user experience/user-centric design. Such combination can lead to a user experience-centric and SOA-based design approach that guarantees that SaaS is secure, yet trustable, useful, usable and accessible. In this position paper, we reviewed SOA/SaaS from the human dimension with the goal to bridging the gaps between SOA design principles and the User Experience (UX) design communities including Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and service design. One practical goal is to enhance the SOA, as a technological platform with elements of UX including the social aspects of their interactions within the organizational structure and processes.
Towards emotion-based collaborative software engineering BIBAFull-Text 109-112
  Prasun Dewan
There is a symbiotic relationship between collaborative software engineering and the recent research in detection of four kinds of task-based emotions: interruptibility, difficulty perception, frustration, and attention. Predictions of these emotions can trigger opportunistic collaborations, make collaborations more purposeful, influence how activities are scheduled, and give implicit feedback from collaborators. Conversely, concepts from software engineering can further advance the nascent area of emotion detection by creating reusable analysis, annotation and prediction tools and architectures that make the notion of multi-iteration application- and emotion-independent prediction tractable.


Can social screencasting help developers learn new tools? BIBAFull-Text 113-114
  Kevin Lubick; Titus Barik; Emerson Murphy-Hill
An effective way to learn about software development tools is by directly observing peers' workflows. However, these tool knowledge transfer events happen infrequently because developers must be both colocated and available. We explore an online social screencasting system that removes the dependencies of colocation and availability while maintaining the beneficial tool knowledge transfer of peer observation. Our results from a formative study indicate these online observations happen more frequently than in-person observations, but their effects are only temporary. We conclude that while peer observation facilitates online knowledge transfer, it is not the only component -- other social factors may be involved.
Exploring causes of frustration for software developers BIBAFull-Text 115-116
  Denae Ford; Chris Parnin
When learning to program, frustrating experiences contribute to negative learning outcomes and poor retention in the field. Defining a common framework that explains why these experiences occur can lead to better interventions and learning mechanisms. To begin constructing such a framework, we asked 45 software developers about the severity of their frustration and to recall their most recent frustrating programming experience. As a result, 67% considered their frustration to be severe. Further, we distilled the reported experiences into 11 categories, which include issues with mapping behaviors to code and broken programming tools. Finally, we discuss future directions for defining our framework and designing future interventions.
Exploring FLOW distance in project communication BIBAFull-Text 117-118
  Kurt Schneider; Olga Liskin
Collaboration in a software project is affected by team spirit, perceived closeness or distance between team members, and by the effectiveness of working together. Communication style and the degree of indirection in communication could have an impact on all of the above-mentioned parameters. A FLOW model represents the paths, modes, and media used in the communication of a particular project. The models cover document-based as well as direct and oral communication. This paper explores ways of defining and using FLOW distance as an indicator for diagnosis and prediction of project dynamics.
Gamifying software engineering tasks based on cognitive principles: the case of code review BIBAFull-Text 119-120
  Naomi Unkelos-Shpigel; Irit Hadar
Code review is an important task in software development. However, performing code review is perceived, for the most part, as an undesired task, presenting several challenges to the required collaboration and knowledge transfer between programmers and reviewers. In order to overcome these challenges and improve the effectiveness of code review, we developed SCRUT: Social Code Review Unifying Tool. By recruiting relevant cognitive theories and implementing gamification elements to motivate collaboration and knowledge sharing between programmers and reviewers, we plan to enhance the task of code review. This paper presents our vision for enhancing software engineering via gamification, and the theoretical cognitive foundation on which this vision is based, starting with the example of code review.
Integrating usability-engineering into the software developing processes of SME: a case study of software developing SME in Germany BIBAFull-Text 121-122
  Dominik Hering; Tobias Schwartz; Alexander Boden; Volker Wulf
Usability is an important factor for product quality. For German small and medium enterprises (SME) in the software branch, cheaper producing vendors from foreign countries can be considered as serious competition. Improving the usability of software products is a good way to secure competitiveness. However, integrating usability-engineering into development is a challenge for SME. In this note, we present the empirical results of a research project study with focus on software engineering processes in German software SME and possible constraints and chances for integrating usability-engineering.
The affect of software developers: common misconceptions and measurements BIBAFull-Text 123-124
  Daniel Graziotin; Xiaofeng Wang; Pekka Abrahamsson
The study of affects (i.e., emotions, moods) in the workplace has received a lot of attention in the last 15 years. Despite the fact that software development has been shown to be intellectual, creative, and driven by cognitive activities, and that affects have a deep influence on cognitive activities, software engineering research lacks an understanding of the affects of software developers. This note provides (1) common misconceptions of affects when dealing with job satisfaction, motivation, commitment, well-being, and happiness; (2) validated measurement instruments for affect measurement; and (3) our recommendations when measuring the affects of software developers.