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AmI Tables of Contents: 101112131415

Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Ambient Intelligence

Fullname:AmI 2015: 12th European Conference on Ambient Intelligence
Editors:Boris De Ruyter; Achilles Kameas; Periklis Chatzimisios; Irene Mavrommati
Location:Athens, Greece
Dates:2015-Nov-11 to 2015-Nov-13
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9425
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-26005-1 hcibib: AmI15; ISBN: 978-3-319-26004-4 (print), 978-3-319-26005-1 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. 12B Ambient Intelligence for Internet of Things
  2. 12D Keynote Lecture
  3. 12E Smart Environments
  4. 12F Ambient Intelligent for Well-being
  5. 13B Ambient Assisted Living
  6. 13D New and Emerging Themes 1
  7. 13E New and Emerging Themes 2

12B Ambient Intelligence for Internet of Things

Designing an Application Store for the Internet of Things: Requirements and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 313-327
  Simon Stastny; Babak A. Farshchian; Thomas Vilarinho
Although things in the Internet of Things contain considerable amounts of software, developers of such software have no standardized means of maintaining, improving and sharing this software as they can do, e.g., with applications on a smart phone. This limitation can hamper user-driven innovation. In this paper we evaluate the usefulness of the "app store" metaphor as a means of sharing and deploying Internet of Things software among makers. We did a set of interviews and a questionnaire-based survey with a sample of makers in various maker communities. We used this data to extract requirements for an application store, using the common "app store" metaphor as a starting point. The app store concept was developed as a proof of concept implementation, and evaluated through feasibility evaluation and focus group evaluation methods. Our findings show that although the app store metaphor is familiar and easy to grasp, there are some fundamental challenges when adapting the metaphor: (1) The difficulty of supporting the diversity in the software and hardware vendor market, (2) The tension between context awareness and the need for pre-configuration and pre-packaging, and (3) usability challenges related to the number of devices and apps.
Keywords: Internet of things; IoT; App store; Application repository; App installation; App deployment; App sharing; Ambient intelligence; Ubiquitous computing; Pervasive computing
Lighten Up! -- An Ambient Light Progress Bar Using Individually Controllable LEDs BIBAFull-Text 109-124
  Heiko Müller; Anastasia Kazakova; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Ambient light displays can be used to convey information to office workers in the periphery of their attention without cluttering their computer monitor or distracting users from their primary task. In this paper we report on a user study evaluating "Lighten Up", an ambient light display to give information about secondary task progress over time. We explored the design space with 42 light patterns. We chose two for a study comparing Lighten Up against a state-of-the-art on-screen progress bar. Our results suggest that users prefer Lighten Up over the on-screen display, if the ambient light display uses a stepwise increase in illumination. Increasing brightness in steps gives users a sense of rhythm and helps them keep track of the progress from the corner of their eye.
Web Based Monitoring and Irrigation System with Energy Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network for Precision Agriculture BIBAKFull-Text 361-370
  Georgios Mitralexis; Christos Goumopoulos
The use of Precision Agriculture systems is in its infancy in Greece, because of the high fragmented land and the adherence of farmers to traditional farming methods. This paper presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of an integrated agricultural monitoring and irrigation system using energy-autonomous wireless sensors and actuators. Monitoring and irrigation of the field are carried out through a web application that collects data from a Wireless Sensor Network deployed in a cultivation and displays relative information in real time. Furthermore, the system can operate proactively based on user-defined rules that can decide when the farm should be irrigated. The system is easy to use by farmers who look for a first contact with Precision Agriculture applications. Our results have revealed the possibility to develop a robust, fully-automated, solar powered, and low cost monitoring and irrigation system that suits to the socio-economic conditions of small scale farms in countries like Greece.
Keywords: Wireless sensor/actuator network; Precision agriculture; Rule based irrigation; Outdoor deployment; Energy harvesting
Knowledge vs. Support BIBAFull-Text 93-108
  Jasper van de Ven; Frank Dylla
Privacy is recognized as one of the key factors regarding the acceptance of ambient intelligence (AmI). However, privacy is neglected in many projects. We address a formal representation of AmI allowing to model systems including privacy expectations and assumptions. In order to be able to compare systems, either existing or theoretically defined, we develop a benchmark framework that is based on this formal representation. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach with a system implementing two different privacy settings.

12D Keynote Lecture

An Ecological View of Smart Home Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 1-16
  James L. Crowley; Joelle Coutaz
In this paper we propose an ecological view in which a smart home is seen as an interconnected collection of smart objects that work together to provide services to inhabitants. We review home technologies in a historical context in which the home is a personal habitat that provides services to inhabitants, and draw lessons from the profusion of new services that were made possible by the introduction of electricity in the home during the 20th century. We examine possible metaphors for smart homes, including the smart home as an inside-out autonomous robot, and the smart home as an ecosystem of smart objects providing services. We propose a taxonomy for smart home services and discuss examples for each class of service. We conclude with a discussion of required system qualities and potential show-stoppers.
Keywords: Smart objects; Smart home; Ecological view; Domotics; Intelligent home services; Human computer interaction; Ambient intelligence

12E Smart Environments

Augmented Home Inventories BIBAKFull-Text 34-47
  Konstantinos Grivas; Stelios Zerefos
Normally, households comprise of people and their material possessions, where persons exercise exclusive agency. The digital augmentation of domestic environment transforms the constitution of households, populating them with new types of entities, namely connected and 'smart' objects/devices and distributed services. These new "players" operating within the household, are complex in nature, responsive, adaptive, blurring the given distinction between household members and their stuff, and evading a simplified classification. We consider the augmented home environment as an ecosystem which humans occupy among other interacting entities or parties which are actively affiliated to other networks and environments. Starting with the premise that a household inventory is one way to formally describe and define the household, we examine the contents and structure of traditional home inventories, and then elaborate on the potential evolution of the augmented home inventories as new types of interacting entities are introduced. Thus, we observe a shift from static and place-bound to dynamic classifications, allowing for diverse groupings of home-stuff. We contemplate on the possibility of integrating all parts of the household ecosystem into one unified classification and ontological system. We, also, acknowledge that the exponential growth of IoT will put increasing pressure for managing the huge volumes of data generated from connected households, on which an effective, meaningful, and socially compatible classification system is required. Finally, we highlight several challenges to the augmented home inventory.
Keywords: Home inventory; Augmented home; Home ecosystem; Home ontology; Classification of home entities; AmI environments
Person Identification by Analyzing Door Accelerations in Time and Frequency Domain BIBAKFull-Text 60-76
  Hristijan Gjoreski; Rok Piltaver; Matjaz Gams
The paper describes an approach for recognizing a person entering a room using only door accelerations. The approach analyzes the acceleration signal in time and frequency domain. For each domain two types of methods were developed: (i) feature-based -- use features to describe the acceleration and then uses classification method to identify the person; (ii) signal-based -- use the acceleration signal as input and finds the most similar ones in order to identify the person. The four methods were evaluated on a dataset of 1005 entrances recorded by 12 people. The results show that the time-domain methods achieve significantly higher accuracy compared to the frequency-domain methods, with signal-based method achieving 86% accuracy. Additionally, the four methods were combined and all 15 combinations were examined. The best performing combined method increased the accuracy to 90%. The results confirm that it is possible to identify a person entering a room using the door's acceleration.
Keywords: Unobtrusive person identification; Door; Acceleration; Machine learning; Dynamic time warping
Continuous Gait Velocity Analysis Using Ambient Sensors in a Smart Home BIBAKFull-Text 219-235
  Ahmed Nait Aicha; Gwenn Englebienne; Ben Kröse
We present a method for measuring gait velocity using data from an existing ambient sensor network. Gait velocity is an important predictor of fall risk and functional health. In contrast to other approaches that use specific sensors or sensor configurations our method imposes no constraints on the elderly. We studied different probabilistic models for the description of the sensor patterns. Experiments are carried out on 15 months of data and include repeated assessments from an occupational therapist. We showed that the measured gait velocities correlate with these assessments.
Keywords: Ambient assisted living (AAL); Gait; Smart homes
The SOCIAL Project BIBAFull-Text 171-186
  Jasper van de Ven; Dimitra Anastasiou; Frank Dylla; Susanne Boll; Christian Freksa
The aim of the project SOCIAL is to explore possibilities to facilitate spontaneous and informal communication in spatially distributed groups by exploiting ambient intelligence and smart environments. Spontaneous and informal communication has a strong impact on the productivity, social identity, and wellbeing of work groups. The spatial distance between peers plays a key role in successfully establishing and maintaining such communication. In co-located teams, spontaneous communication occurs daily: People occasionally meet on office floors, at the coffee corner, or have lunch together. Today, due to globalization we often encounter distributed work settings that impede spontaneous communication between co-workers, as teams are distributed over branch offices located in different cities and countries. We propose to approach this problem by (1) detecting situations with the potential for spontaneous informal communication, (2) representing and raising awareness for these situations appropriately, and (3) enabling users to engage seamlessly in spontaneous communication spanning spatially separated locations. In this paper we focus on the second aspect. A pilot study is described with results on combining various interaction modalities in order to raise awareness for communication. In addition, we describe a formal representation for ambient intelligence incorporating situational context and the system itself.

12F Ambient Intelligent for Well-being

Data-Analytics Based Coaching Towards Behavior Change for Dental Hygiene BIBAFull-Text 284-295
  Boris de Ruyter
Within the vision of Ambient Intelligence it is assumed that future electronic systems will be embedded into our lives and have different levels of intelligence. One class of systems that has reached such levels of embedding and intelligence are coaching systems for behavioral change. In this paper the findings of a field study are presented in which a coaching system is driven by data-analytics from sensor data. The study provides some first evidence that such coaching system is effective in guiding people to change their behavior. Additional, the study results enable the formulation of a statistical relationship between the test participant's behaviors and the achieved adherence to the coaching target.
ExerSeat -- Sensor-Supported Exercise System for Ergonomic Microbreaks BIBAKFull-Text 236-251
  Andreas Braun; Ingrid Schembri; Sebastian Frank
The percentage of older adult workers in Europe has been increasing in the last decades. They are an important part of the work force, highly experienced and often hard to replace. However, their productivity can be affected by health problems, such as lower back pain. This increases the cost for employers and reduces the quality of life of the office workers. Knowledge workers that spend a large part of their day in front of a screen are particularly affected by pack pain. Regular exercise can help to mitigate some of these issues. This training can be performed in microbreaks that are taken at regular intervals during the work day. In this work we present ExerSeat, a combination of a smart sensing chair that uses eight capacitive proximity sensors to precisely track the posture of persons on or near an office chair. It is augmented by a desktop training software that is able to track exercises and training units during microbreaks, by analyzing frequency and form. We have performed a pilot over eight weeks with ten office workers. They performed training units at regular intervals during their work day. We report on the findings.
Keywords: Smart furniture; Capacitive proximity sensing; Office exercise; Microbreaks; Ergonomics; New Ways of Working; Well-being
Persuasion Through an Ambient Device: Proof of Concept and Early Evaluation of CRegrette, a Smoking Cessation System BIBAKFull-Text 252-267
  Alessandro Fenicio; Gaëlle Calvary
Smoking cessation has become a real social challenge in healthcare domain and persuasive technologies combined with ambient intelligence figure as a possible approaches against this addiction. Choosing an effective persuasive design relies on different models and principles coming from several scientific contexts. We evaluate the triggers defined by the B.J.Fogg's model in different design strategies implementing three experiments: the first using smoking tools, the second with an Android application and a third one using the same application coupled with an Arduino-based ambient device. The CRegrette system's proof of concept suggests that statistics combined with an ambient device are more effective than notifications, mirroring and self-monitoring approaches. This article furthermore proposes some design strategies and research perspectives to support further research in the field of persuasion and ambient device design.
Keywords: Healthcare; Ambient intelligence; Smoking cessation; Persuasive technologies
Hidden Fatigue Detection for a Desk Worker Using Clustering of Successive Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 268-283
  Yutaka Deguchi; Einoshin Suzuki
To detect fatigue of a desk worker, this paper focuses on fatigue hidden in smiling and neutral faces and employs a periodic short time monitoring setting. In contrast to continual monitoring, the setting assumes that each short-time monitoring (in this paper, it is called a task) is conducted only during a break time. However, there are two problems: the small number of data in each task and the increasing number of tasks. To detect fatigue, the authors propose a method which is a combination of multi-task learning, clustering and anomaly detection. For the first problem, the authors employ multi-task learning which builds a specific classifier to each task efficiently by using information shared among tasks. Since clustering gathers similar tasks into a cluster, it mitigates the influence of the second problem. Experiments show that the proposed method exhibits a high performance in a long-term monitoring.
Keywords: Face monitoring; Anomaly detection; Incremental clustering; Multi-task learning
Experience-Driven Design of Ambiences for Future Pop Up Workspaces BIBAKFull-Text 296-312
  Aino Ahtinen; Jenni Poutanen; Maiju Vuolle; Kaisa Väänänen; Sanna Peltoniemi
Knowledge work is in transformation and new means for supporting workers' wellbeing and productivity are needed. Pop Up workspaces are temporary and often social working environments where people can modify their environment to suit their current work mode. The aim of the present research was to explore the opportunities of future Pop Up workspaces, and specifically their technology-mediated ambiences that can provide meaningful experiences for the workers. We employed the Experience-Driven Design (EDD) approach to gain insights of the desired experiences in Pop Up workspaces. We first conducted three participatory group sessions to ideate experience types for Pop Up workspaces. We then run a multidisciplinary concepting workshop in which we designed concepts for technology-mediated ambiences. Five experience categories for worker mindsets were identified, namely Liberty, Fellowship, Determination, Retreat and Recovery. We present ambience concepts that utilise the mindsets and related target experiences, and how they can be supported by ambient technologies.
Keywords: Pop up workspaces; Knowledge work; Workspace ambiences; Experience-driven design; User experience; Space design; Ambient technologies
Standalone Sound-Based Mobile Activity Recognition for Ambient Assistance in a Home Environment BIBAKFull-Text 349-352
  Svilen Dimitrov; Norbert Schmitz; Didier Stricker
Developments of ambient assistance systems and energy consumption optimization in home environments are one of the main goals of ambient intelligent systems. In this work we propose a wearable standalone solution, which combines the assistance task and the energy optimization task. For this purpose we develop a real-time mobile sound-based device and activity recognizer that senses the audible part of the environment to support its owner during his daily tasks and to help him optimize them in terms of resource consumption.
Keywords: Smart home; Sound-based recognition; Wearable; Ambient intelligence; Ambient assistance; Power optimization
Happy Running? BIBAKFull-Text 357-360
  Joey van der Bie; Ben Kröse
This paper explores a method for deducing the affective state of runners using his/her movements. The movements are measured on the arm using a smartphone's built-in accelerometer. Multiple features are derived from the measured data. We studied which features are most predictive for the affective state by looking at the correlations between the features and the reported affect. We found that changes in runners' movement can be used to predict change in affective state.
Keywords: Affect; Emotion; Accelerometer; Smartphone; Physical activity

13B Ambient Assisted Living

Why Should I Use This? Identifying Incentives for Using AAL Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 155-170
  Christina Jaschinski; Somaya Ben Allouch
Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies have the potential to target the challenges of our aging population. However, little is known about what motivates older adults to adopt these new technologies. Most research in this area relies on single cases with a specific AAL application and a limited number of users. To fill this gap, a content analyses of 35 AAL reports was conducted. The aim was to provide a comprehensive overview of potential incentives for using AAL technologies. The data was coded using the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). In total 13 incentives could be identified, which were grouped into six categories: (1) social incentives, (2) health and safety incentives, (3) activity incentives, (4) novel sensory incentives, (5) status incentives and (6) self-reactive incentives. Within these categories 'social connectedness' and 'health and safety' were the most important incentives. These results provide a comprehensive and theoretically grounded understanding of what motivates older adults to adopt AAL technologies.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living (AAL); Older adults; Technology adoption; Social cognitive theory
Ambient Intelligence from Senior Citizens' Perspectives: Understanding Privacy Concerns, Technology Acceptance, and Expectations BIBAKFull-Text 48-59
  Florian Kirchbuchner; Tobias Grosse-Puppendahl; Matthias R. Hastall; Martin Distler; Arjan Kuijper
Especially for seniors, Ambient Intelligence can provide assistance in daily living and emergency situations, for example by automatically recognizing critical situations. The use of such systems may involve trade-offs with regard to privacy, social stigmatization, and changes of the well-known living environment. This raises the question of how older adults perceive restrictions of privacy, accept technology, and which requirements are placed on Ambient Intelligent systems. In order to better understand the related concerns and expectations, we surveyed 60 senior citizens. The results show that experience with Ambient Intelligence increases technology acceptance and reduces fears regarding privacy violations and insufficient system reliability. While participants generally tolerate a monitoring of activities in their home, including bathrooms, they do not accept commercial service providers as data recipients. A comparison between four exemplary systems shows that camera-based solutions are perceived with much greater fears than wearable emergency solutions. Burglary detection was rated as similarly important assigned as health features, whereas living comfort features were considered less useful.
Keywords: Privacy concerns; Older adults; Perception of privacy; Technology acceptance
Modeling and Assessing Young Children Abilities and Development in Ambient Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 17-33
  Emmanouil Zidianakis; Danai Ioannidi; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
This paper presents a novel framework, called Bean, which aims to monitor, evaluate and enhance pre-school children's skills and abilities through playing in Ambient Intelligence environments. The framework includes: (i) a model of children development based on the ICF-CY model and the Denver-II assessment tool, aiming at early detection of children's potential developmental issues to be further investigated and addressed if necessary; (ii) a reasoning mechanism for the automated extraction of child development knowledge, based on interaction monitoring, targeted to model relevant aspects of child's developmental stage, maturity level and skills; (iii) content editing tools and reporting facilities for parents and therapists. The framework has been implemented in the context of an AmI environment for supporting children play in AmI, deploying a collection of augmented artifacts, as well as a collection of digital reproductions of popular games.
Keywords: Child play; Development; Ambient intelligence; Evaluation process and/or assessment
Evaluation of a Mobile Home Care Platform BIBAKFull-Text 328-343
  Christos Panagopoulos; Eirini Kalatha; Panayiotis Tsanakas; Ilias Maglogiannis
As the population of the industrialized world is aging, the field that deals with seniors' adoption of technology has gained ground in the scientific community. Recent advances in technology have allowed the development of sophisticated telecare systems that support the independent living of seniors, with communication, remote health monitoring and emergency response services. However, usability issues often prevent elderly people from enjoying the benefits of modern technology, despite the amount of research to understand their needs in system design. In this work, we have performed a usability assessment of the "BioAssist" system, which is an integrated home care platform that incorporates both communication and health monitoring features. A comparative evaluation with the "iTriage" application, followed by a series of interviews and qualitative analysis have provided us with valuable insights and guidelines for designing home care systems for seniors.
Keywords: Home care; Usability; Older adults; Technology adoption
Smart Tales: An Awareness Game for Ambient Assisted Living BIBAFull-Text 187-204
  Paolo Sernani; Fabiano Dalpiaz; Aldo Franco Dragoni; Sjaak Brinkkemper
Despite the progress in ambient assisted living (AAL), the general audience is still mostly unaware of this term as well as of its purpose, enabling technologies, and potential. As a consequence, there are often misconceptions about AAL and smart homes, and the acceptance of AAL technologies is still too low. To cope with these problems, this paper presents a publicly available awareness game called Smart Tales, whose goal is to enhance the familiarity of its players with the notion and core concepts of AAL. In Smart Tales, the player has the role of an assisted patient in a smart home, and gets to learn about AAL and its technologies while trying to cheat the sensors that are placed in the house. In addition to presenting the design of the game following the Serious Games Design Assessment framework from the literature, we present results on engagement and learning that we obtained through a formative evaluation with ten users.

13D New and Emerging Themes 1

Determining Field of View in Outdoors Augmented Reality Applications BIBAFull-Text 344-348
  Vlasios Kasapakis; Damianos Gavalas
The use of augmented reality (AR) becomes increasingly common in location based application development. A situation often encountered in AR applications is the -partial or full- occlusion of virtual objects by physical artifacts; if not appropriately handled, the visualization of occluded objects often misleads users' perception. This paper presents a Geolocative Raycasting technique aiming at assisting developers of outdoors augmented reality applications into generating a realistic field of view for the users by integrating real time building recognition, so as to address the occlusion problem.
Design Factors for Flexible Capacitive Sensors in Ambient Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 77-92
  Silvia Rus; Meltem Sahbaz; Andreas Braun; Arjan Kuijper
Capacitive sensors in both touch and proximity varieties are becoming more common in many industrial and research applications. Each sensor requires one or more electrodes to create an electric field and measure changes thereof. The design and layout of those electrodes is crucial when designing applications and systems. It can influence range, detectable objects, or refresh rate. In the last years, new measurement systems and materials, as well as advances in rapid prototyping technologies have vastly increased the potential range of applications using flexible capacitive sensors. This paper contributes an extensive set of capacitive sensing measurements with different electrode materials and layouts for two measurement modes -- self-capacitance and mutual capacitance. The evaluation of the measurement results reveals how well-suited certain materials are for different applications. We evaluate the characteristics of those materials for capacitive sensing and enable application designers to choose the appropriate material for their application.
Keywords: Capacitive sensing; Conductive materials; eTextiles
The Interactive-Token Approach to Board Games BIBAKFull-Text 138-154
  Simone Mora; Ines Di Loreto; Monica Divitini
Recent advances in interactive surfaces and Tangible User Interfaces created a new interest in digital board games, aiming at mixing the benefits of traditional board games with the interactivity of video games. Within this strand of research, we propose a new approach centered on the concepts of tokens, constraints, spatial expressions and interaction events. While mainstream solutions implement game interaction using interactive surfaces, our approach relies on physical manipulation of interactive objects on conventional surfaces. We illustrate the proposed approach by describing the design and development of a game for training of emergency workers. Building on feedbacks from user evaluation and our experience with the development, we outline design opportunities and challenges of the approach.
Keywords: Tangible user interface; Digital board game; Interactive objects

13E New and Emerging Themes 2

Use of Self-Reporting Questionnaires to Evaluate Augmented Paper Maps for Group Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 125-137
  Andreas Komninos; Jeries Besharat; John Garofalakis
One popular and widely use of augmented reality based application, is the projection of points of interests on top of the phones' camera view. In this paper we discuss the implementation of an AR application that acts as a magic lens over printed maps, overlaying POIs and routes. This method expands the information space available to members of groups during navigation, partially mitigating the issue of several group members trying to share a small screen device. Our work complements existing literature by focusing on the navigation tasks and by using self-reporting questionnaires to measure affective state and user experience. We evaluate this system with groups of real tourists in a preliminary field trial and report our findings.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Group navigation; Mobile maps; Tourism; Augmented maps
Gamification Techniques for Rule Management in Ambient Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 353-356
  Francesco Benzi; Federico Cabitza; Daniela Fogli; Rosa Lanzilotti; Antonio Piccinno
This paper discusses the application of gamification techniques in the Ambient Intelligence context. A three-layer framework for ambient intelligence based on the concept of interconnection among all actors involved in the intelligent environment is first delineated. Then, mechanisms for user-driven creation and modification of environment behavior are advocated in the user layer. For this purpose, event-condition-action rules are promoted in literature. With this position paper we would like to suggest that user interfaces for rule construction must be integrated with proper techniques for user engagement and motivation, such as those proposed in the gamification theory.
Keywords: Rule-based system; Smart home; Sustainability; Gamification
Context Recognition: Towards Automatic Query Generation BIBAKFull-Text 205-218
  Marjan Alirezaie; Federico Pecora; Amy Loutfi
In this paper, we present an ontology-based approach in designing knowledge model for context recognition (CR) systems. The main focus in this paper is on the use of an ontology to facilitate the generation of user-based queries to the CR system. By leveraging from the ontology, users need not know about sensor details and the structure of the ontology in expressing queries related to events of interest. To validate the approach and demonstrate the flexibility of the ontology for query generation, the ontology has been integrated in two separate application domains. The first domain considers a health care system implemented for the GiraffPlus project where the query generation process is automated to request information about activities of daily living. The second application uses the same ontology for an air quality monitoring application in the home. Since these two systems are independently developed for different purposes, the ease of applying the ontology upon them can be considered as a credit for its generality.
Keywords: Query generation; Context recognition; OWL-DL ontology