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ACHI Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions

Fullname:Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions
Editors:Leslie Miller; Alma Leora Culén
Location:Lisbon, Portugal
Dates:2015-Feb-23 to 2015-Feb-27
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-61208-382-7
Links:Conference Website | Proceedings
  1. Principles, theories, and models
  2. Interaction & interface design & evaluation
  3. Interfaces
  4. Computer games and gaming
  5. Human-computer interaction in education and training
  6. Usability and universal accessibility
  7. Interactive systems
  8. Applications
  9. User modeling and user focus
  10. Interaction devices

Principles, theories, and models

UI Delegation: The 3rd Dimension for Cross-Platform User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  Dagmawi Lemma Gobena; Abel Gomes; Dejene Ejigu
Two of the prominent dimensions behind the development of cross-platform UIs are the UI distribution and UI migration. In UI distribution, since UI elements of a given application has to be distributed across more than one device, some UI elements can be even duplicated. In UI migration, the description and construction of UI elements are centralized using a client-server model of computing over a computer network. Thus, we end up having limitations with respect to scalability and maintainability of the computing environment. Also, UI distribution and migration mostly support explicit HCI for interactive systems. However, in ubiquitous computing, implicit HCI is the most desired interaction approach. In this paper, we present the theoretical concept of UI delegation as the third dimension that ideally supports implicit HCI and trans-modality by assuring autonomy of the platforms using a peer-to-peer model.
Keywords: cross-platform UI; multi-platform UI; user interface design; ubiquitous computing
Human Input about Linguistic Summaries in Time Series Forecasting BIBAKFull-Text 9-13
  Katarzyna Kaczmarek; Olgierd Hryniewicz; Rudolf Kruse
Finding an appropriate predictive model for time series and formulating its assumptions may become very challenging task. We propose to represent time series in a human-consistent way using linguistic summaries. Such summaries describe general trends in time series and are easily interpretable for decision makers. The aim of this contribution is to show that the linguistic summaries may be successfully applied to support the analysis and forecasting of time series. Information about trends is first retrieved from experts, and then, processed with soft computing tools. The performance of the approach is verified on the real-world datasets from the M3-Competition. Users are asked to evaluate linguistic summaries that are intuitive and easy for interpretation. This paper shows that human-consistent summaries deliver new knowledge for forecasting.
Keywords: information retrieval; human-computer interaction; time series and sequence models; Bayesian methods; supervised learning
Modelling Volo, an Augmentative and Alternative Communication application BIBAKFull-Text 14-19
  Antonina Dattolo; Flaminia Luccio
In this paper, we present a formal representation of an Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) application, called Volo, for users with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We discuss existing AAC applications and present a formal visualisation model of Volo based on zz-structures, hyper-orthogonal, non-hierarchical structures for storing, linking and manipulating data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to give a formal model to AAC techniques. We finally present the prototype of this new Volo application.
Keywords: Zz-structures; mobile app; Augmentative and Alternative Communication; Autism Spectrum Disorders
Experiments and Applications of Support System for Caregivers with Optical Fiber Sensor and Cleaning Robot BIBAKFull-Text 20-23
  Junko Ichikawa; Norihiko Shinomiya; Tetsuya Kon
This research aims to propose a supporting system with sensor network technology and cleaning robots to alleviate workload of caregivers in welfare facilities. Our focus is to reduce the labor load of nurses that has increased with elderly population growth. On the basis of the system requirements clarified from a site survey in a nursing facility, this paper proposes an integration method of sensors that keeps monitoring situations in a facility and cleaning robots that can approach an incident location detected by the sensing system to confirm safety of facility residents.
Keywords: monitoring system; sensor network; cleaning robot; nursing

Interaction & interface design & evaluation

Evaluation of a Vibrotactile Device For Outdoor and Public Transport Pedestrian Navigation Using Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 24-32
  Olivier Hugues; Lucie Brunet; Christine Megard; Philippe Fuchs
t can be difficult to find your way in public transport, especially when the journey combines indoor and outdoor transportation. We designed an innovative vibrotactile device dedicated to guide a pedestrian in public transport. This multi-modal interface can be used to guide a pedestrian in unknown public transport. The device can be used by visually impaired person. The device has been tested during two main phases. The first step was to test the device using virtual reality while the second step test was to test the device in a real environment. This paper presents the first part of the evaluation of the device. We have developed a virtual reality scenario to assess the objective and subjective utility of the device. The results showed that the device could properly guide users. We also evaluated the usefulness of a warning vibration preceding a message. It was found that the vibration seems to introduce confusion to the pattern recognition by the user.
Keywords: Vibrotactile device evaluation; multi-modal interface; tourism mobile device; public transport; virtual reality
One Hand or Two Hands? 2D Selection Tasks With the Leap Motion Device BIBAKFull-Text 33-38
  Manuel Seixas; Jorge Cardoso; Maria Dias
In this paper, we present the results from an experiment designed to compare two selection gestures (hand grab and screen tap) for the Leap Motion controller in 2D pointing tasks. We used the ISO 9241-9 multi-directional tapping test for comparing the devices, and we analyze the results using standard throughput and error rate measures as well as additional accuracy measures. We also present the results from the ISO 9241-9 assessment of comfort questionnaire. To complement this analysis, the computer mouse was also evaluated in order to serve as a comparison. Results indicate that the hand grab gesture performs better than the screen tap.
Keywords: Interaction Device; Leap Motion; HCI; Pointing devices; Performance evaluation; Selection tasks
Developing Evaluation Matrix of Digital Library Interface by Analyzing Bloopers of Korean National Digital Library Sites BIBAKFull-Text 39-42
  Miah Kam; Jee Yeon Lee
The importance of digital libraries is increasing with the advancement and proliferation of networked online services. This work in progress focuses on developing an evaluation model for analyzing the real-world cases. Firstly, the web bloopers of the Korean digital libraries were identified, then heuristic evaluations were applied to categorize the bloopers into five types, which occur in three main components of the digital libraries. The resulting evaluation matrix consists of one axis for the web blooper types and the other for the digital library components. Each matrix cell has different weighting derived from the heuristic evaluation of the digital libraries in service. Digital library developers, managers, and subject matter experts should be able to consult the evaluation matrix to improve the usability and accessibility of their libraries. Our digital library evaluation matrix, based on the heuristic evaluation model, should raise the efficiency of digital library user interface evaluation.
Keywords: Digital Library User Interface; Library Service Components; Web Bloopers; Heuristic Evaluation; Evaluation Matrix
Implementing the Tactile Detection Task in a Real Road Experiment to Assess a Traffic Light Assistant BIBAKFull-Text 43-48
  Michael Krause; Verena Knott; Klaus Bengler
The tactile detection task (TDT), a vibrating detection response task (DRT), was used to assess the mental demand of an in-vehicle information system (IVIS), which recommends a driving speed to the driver on a smartphone. In the experiment, the TDT was recorded as a single task, with the driving task as a baseline as well as with additional IVIS task, and with a cognitive task as reference and control. Results show that IVIS use did not significantly prolong the TDT reaction times, which can be interpreted as no increase in mental workload caused by the IVIS. The control task increased the reaction times significantly. The data of the real road experiment are analyzed in terms of correlations showing that the TDT was a reliable cognitive workload measurement tool in the experiment. Sideline: Driven speed revealed no correlation with TDT reaction times when the vehicle was in motion.
Keywords: DRT, TDT, TDRT, IVIS, detection response task; smartphone; cognitive workload
Perspective and Use of Empathy in Design Thinking BIBAKFull-Text 49-54
  Andrea Gasparini
The paper takes a closer look into one of the main attributes of Design Thinking: Empathy. The motivation for doing so has its roots in the post Design Thinking period, which we are entering now, following a rich decade of use of this approach to innovation. Approaching a Designerly Thinking perspective of what designer do in practice, five different epistemological paths will give an understanding of the effects empathy has in the design process. Empathy is addressed by exploring two main aspects, the emotional and the cognitive. The theoretical perspective of Design Thinking, seen as a reflexive practice, or as creator of meaning, or even as a problem solving activity, is used to understand how empathy can be used in a design contexts. This aspect is then further analyzed using the results of a large workshop where Design Thinking was used.
Keywords: Empathy; Design Thinking; Designerly Thinking; Service Design
Modified Betweenness to Analyze Relay Nodes to Identify Relay Nodes in Data Networks BIBAKFull-Text 55-56
  Masaaki Miyashita; Norihiko Shinomiya
Several types of data networks require relay nodes to transmit data because the nodes would impact on services with the networks. Betweenness centrality is one of the measures that reveal important nodes for a network topology. However, the measure does not specialized in relay nodes of survivable networks. This paper proposes a evaluation method to designate the relay nodes in the network modifying betweenness centrality for relay nodes and survivability. In our simulation, we used two routing algorithms for the survivability of the network and compared the modified measure applying each algorithm with original betweenness centrality. The simulation results show that our approach estimates features different from the original does. The different implies that our method is effective to identify relay nodes.
Keywords: Betweenness centrality, Graph theory, Data networks
User Interface Development of a COPD Remote Monitoring Application BIBAKFull-Text 57-62
  Berglind Smaradottir; Martin Gerdes; Rune Fensli; Santiago Martinez
The Norwegian Health sector is undergoing changes at all levels due to recent health reforms. Services traditionally offered by specialized health care are being transferred to primary health care managed by municipalities. In this context, telemedicine technology is introduced to facilitate new services that support communication across local borders, optimizing resources and increasing cost effectiveness. This study focuses on the user-centred design, iterative development and evaluation of the user interface of a mobile application to be used in a new telemedicine service for remote monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms. The research is a result of the cooperation between a municipality and a hospital as part of the European Commission project United4Health. Through a user-centred design approach, the tablet device application was developed based on information gathered in a workshop and group interviews where the end-users, patients and health professionals, described their preferred way of interacting with the telemedicine technology. User evaluations reported positive results on the ease of use and user satisfaction with the interaction with the application. Iterative application's user interface refinements were made through several end-users' evaluations, resulting in a fully developed system suitable for remote monitoring.
Keywords: user-centred design; remote monitoring; usability evaluation; patient empowerment; telemedicine
Field Evaluation of a New Railway Dispatching Software BIBAKFull-Text 63-68
  Isabel Schütz; Anselmo Stelzer
In this paper, we present a program which assists in choosing the right evaluation methods. The Test Selection Program contains a four step method for choosing evaluation methods: describing important boundary conditions of the study, defining important evaluation criteria, choosing evaluation methods and deciding on the right order in time. As a practical example, connection dispatching will be introduced and used to illustrate the functionality of this program.
Keywords: evaluation methods; connection dispatching; usability; railway engineering
Inversus -- The Sensitive Machine BIBAKFull-Text 69-71
  Luís Leite; Verónica Orvalho
Inversus is a digital interactive installation that explores the relationship between user actions with common objects: lamps, speakers and fans. It is an interactive machine that shifts the conceptual understanding a user traditionally has about a specific object, making people wonder: why should a lamp be used only to illuminate? In fact, lamps, speakers or fans are commonly used as output interfaces, imagine now, what would happen if we turn the output into an input interface? This machine explores an inversion on this relationship by using lamps as light sensors, speakers as pressure sensors and fans as blowing sensors.
Keywords: HCI, audiovisual instrument, DIY, user experience, interactive installations
Instruments for Collective Design in a Professional Context: Digital Format or New Processes? BIBAKFull-Text 72-79
  Samia Ben Rajeb; Pierre Leclercq
This article reports on different collective practices and their instruments observed in the context of professional design activities. Based on interviews and in situ observations of customs in six architecture, engineering, and design agencies, it shows the diversity of typologies of collective activity, identifies the main factors of collaboration, and concludes on the needs for the instrumentation of professional practice. Is it a matter of building higher and higher performance digital formats for a shared modeling of the project or to lean instead towards the creation of new processes of group management and remote work by several people? From the results of this observation of collective practices in design, this article allows one to highlight the real needs of the agencies and to help their teamwork. These needs consist of: 1) facilitating reflection, 2) managing changing dynamics, 3) allowing the reflective exploration by several persons between space and time, and finally 4) guaranteeing a common progressive and exploratory strategy between actors whose expertise and commitment differ within the same process.
Keywords: collaborative design; professional practice; observations; tools and processes


Icons++: An Interface that Enables Quick File Operations Using Icons BIBAKFull-Text 80-85
  Xiangping Xie; Jiro Tanaka
In graphical user interfaces, when users want to operate on a file, they usually double-click the file icon to launch the associated application and open the file. Several file operations are available in the context menu by right-clicking, such as printing and deleting. However, if the user wants to perform some simple operations, such as copying the file contents, opening the file by an application and then selecting a menu, can be cumbersome. Furthermore, operations in the context menu are limited. Thus, in this paper we present Icons++, a user interface which allows users to perform the file operations they want in a quick way by using icons. Through the use of Icons++, users can take a quick look at the file contents, and at the same time they can perform often-used file operations with only one click, without opening the file by a relevant application. In this paper we present our design of Icons++ and the user studies we performed in order to evaluate it. Studies' results show that using Icons++ is 53% faster than using an application to execute the same task, and our interface is preferred by participants.
Keywords: icon interface; preview; file operation; file manager
Designing an Adaptive User Interface According to Software Product Line Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 86-91
  Yoann Gabillon; Nicolas Biri; Benoit Otjacques
An adaptive User Interface (UI) is a UI that is able to adapt itself to a change of the context of use (user, platform, environment). Designing an adaptive UI remains a difficult and time consuming task that needs the use of common and variability parts between the different UI adaptations. Software Product Line (SPL) engineering is a software engineering approach that aims to develop a collection of similar software systems by using software assets and a variability model: the Feature Model. Dynamic Software Product Line is an adaptation of the SPL approach in order to design an adaptive software system. This paper proposes a method to design an adaptive UI according to a DSPL process. This method is implemented through the UI adaptor prototype. This first implementation underlies the several benefits of the proposed method.
Keywords: Adaptive User Interface; Software Product Line; Dynamic Software Product Line; Feature Model; Context of use
Intelligent Shop Window BIBAKFull-Text 92-95
  Reo Suzuki; Yutaka Takase; Yukiko I. Nakano
The purpose of shop windows is to attract people's attention and increase the consumers' desire to buy the merchandise. This paper proposes an "intelligent shop window" that can display merchandise information and advertisements on a large see-through display overlaid on real items or people in the shop. The system decides the target item to be advertised based on the position of the customers/shop clerks and the color of the clothes that a clerk is wearing. Then, it displays the information about the item on a window-like see-through screen through which passers-by can see the information overlaid on the situation inside the shop. As compared to the mannequins in a shop window, our system can present information dynamically. Therefore, it is expected to attract greater interest from passers-by and increase the number of customers visiting the shop.
Keywords: augmented reality; shop window, overlaid display, Kinect sensor

Computer games and gaming

Human-Machine Cooperation in General Game Playing BIBAKFull-Text 96-100
  Maciej Swiechowski; Kathryn Merrick; Jacek Mandziuk; Hussein Abbass
This paper presents a framework for cooperation between a human and a general game playing agent. Cooperation is defined as two entities causing each other to modify their behaviour to achieve some mutual advantage. Such human-computer cooperation has the potential to offer insights that can help us improve the performance of artificial agents, as well as improving the performance of humans during certain kinds of strategic interactions. This paper focuses specifically on game playing as a form of strategic interaction. By proposing a framework for cooperation between a human and a general game playing agent, our aim is to create a flexible system that may be applicable to cooperation in other kinds of problem solving and strategic interactions in the future. We evaluate the framework presented in this paper by means of a human study. We observe humans playing games with and without the cooperation of a general game playing agent. We present experimental results of the pilot study as well as proposed changes in the experiment. These changes aim to verify the hypothesis that human-machine cooperation within our framework can indeed lead to mutual advantage.
Keywords: human-machine study; human-machine cooperation; General Game Playing; Monte Carlo Tree Search
Home Monitoring of Mental State With Computer Games; Solution Suggestion to the Mental Modern Pentathlon Scoring Problem BIBAKFull-Text 101-107
  Pál Breuer; Gábor Csukly; Péter Hanák; Lázló Ketskeméty; Béla Pataki
As society is aging, an increasing number of elderly people is affected by cognitive problems. Early detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is crucial for slowing down deterioration at an early stage. Improving detection would allow aging in place and thus more cost effective care. However, detection usually occurs too late. Clinical tests are expensive, not frequent enough, and give only a single snapshot of cognitive performance. Regular home monitoring of the changes in mental state would be important but clinical tests have not been developed for this purpose. In this paper, the use of computer games in measuring and maintaining mental wellness in a regular and voluntary way is proposed. Problems and potential solutions are presented, with special emphasis given on the sensor fusion problem caused by the various games present.
Keywords: mental wellness; home health monitoring; serious games, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), mixed data fusion
Exploring Facets of Playability: The Differences Between PC and Tablet Gaming BIBAKFull-Text 108-111
  Uttam Kokil; José Luis González Sánchez
With the advent of mobile devices, game consoles and computers as gaming platforms, the gaming industry is growing at exponential rates. Players are now accessing the latest video game entertainment in more than one digital medium thus expanding a player's game time and making video games the number one leisure choice. If one of the goals of the player is to derive a quality of experience that highlights enjoyment, it is important to understand the relationship between player experience and pleasurable game play, not just in terms of game play, but also, with respect to the gaming platform. This study aims to examine the difference in player experience when playing a video game on a tablet versus a personal computer. By triangulating physiological data of emotional responses using galvanic skin response, heart rate, and subjective-feelings data of facets of player experience, this paper aims to determine whether player experience is affected by two different kinds of gaming input controls, a computer keyboard with mouse, and a tablet touchscreen. Data will be analyzed and reported in future work. This paper provides an overview of the literature survey and methodology.
Keywords: Tablet gaming; player experience; gaming platforms; physiological evaluation
Physical Therapy Intervention Through Virtual Reality in Individuals With Balance Disability: a Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 112-117
  Mauro Audi; Amanda Lavagnini Barrozo; Bruna de Oliveira Perin; Lígia Maria Presumido Braccialli; Andréia Naomi Sankako
Balance is an ability found in most of the human activities and it is essential under a functioning view. When balance is impaired due to any brain injury, several tools may be used for its treatment. One of them is virtual reality, a tool which allows individuals to make use of their senses and natural movements during virtual games in order to promote interaction on a virtual environment. This study was performed with a volunteer from the neurology section of Universidade de Marília (Unimar) physical therapy clinic under ethics parameters, and its purpose was to measure the balance of an individual with traumatic brain injury who was involved in a treatment with use of virtual-reality games. An Xbox kinect® console was utilized for this intervention, and the selected games required the use of many physical abilities, including balance. The tests were recorded on video, and pictures were analyzed by two researchers and three evaluators. Score data from each game were obtained during the process. The data analysis was quantitative in relation with game scores and qualitative in relation with the test pictures. The results obtained from the analysis of the balance tests were: (a) in romberg's test with eyes open and eyes closed there were not significant changes; (b) in sensitive romberg's test there was improvement in balance with support in both legs; (c) in dynamic balance test there was improvement in balance during the straight-line walk. In the statistical analysis of game data friedman's variance was found in three levels of significance (p): for each sequence in the seven days of attendance the results were p=0.0367, p=0.0281 e p=0.0136; it was considered as p<0.05 what affected significantly the performance of the volunteer. According to the results observed in the study, it was concluded that virtual reality as a therapeutic media provided improvement of the volunteer's physical balance.
Keywords: physical therapy; balance; virtual reality

Human-computer interaction in education and training

G-IM: An Input Method of Chinese Characters for Character Amnesia Prevention BIBAKFull-Text 118-124
  Kazushi Nishimoto; Jianning Wei
Character amnesia is a recent phenomenon in which native Chinese or Japanese speakers forget how to write Chinese characters (Kanji in Japanese), but maintain the ability to read them. It is generally believed that the constant use of computers and mobile phones equipped with pronunciation-based Chinese-character input systems is to blame. Therefore, particularly in China, several element-based input methods that require users to input radicals of the Chinese characters have been developed. However, these methods are not effective for learning how to write unfamiliar characters. This paper proposes a novel pronunciation-based input method called G-IM. Unlike conventional methods, G-IM sometimes outputs incorrect character shapes, which forces users to pay close attention to the character shapes and thus strengthens retention and recall. Through user studies, we confirmed that G-IM significantly strengthens the retention and recall of character shapes as compared to conventional input methods and writing by hand.
Keywords: input method of Chinese characters; character amnesia; incorrect character shapes; pronunciation-based input method; (re)building retention and recall of Chinese characters
HCI Education: Innovation, Creativity and Design Thinking BIBAKFull-Text 125-130
  Alma Leora Culén
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education needs re-thinking. In this paper, we explore how and what creativity and design thinking could contribute with, if included as a part of the HCI curriculum. The findings from courses where design thinking was included, indicate that design thinking contributed to increased focus on innovation and creativity, as well as prevented too early fixation on a single solution in the initial phases of HCI design processes, fostering increased flexibility and adaptability in learning processes. The creativity and adaptability may be the best long-term foci that HCI education can add to its curriculums and offer to students when preparing them for future work practices.
Keywords: innovation; creativity; design thinking; education
Web Based E-learning Tool for Visualization and Analysis of 3D Motion Capture Data BIBAKFull-Text 131-137
  Andraz Krašcek; Kristina Stojmenova; Sašo Tomazic; Jaka Sodnik
In this paper, we propose an e-learning tool for visualization and manipulation of 3D data on a web platform. The data is streamed in real time from an optical motion capture system Qualisys consisting of eight infrared cameras and Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) software. A WebSocket protocol and WebGL application programming interface (API) are used to visualize and to interact with the data in a browser. The tool represents a web-based extension of QTM software providing also additional features and new possibilities to manipulate and analyze the data. We report also on a user study in which we evaluated the web based application and compared it with the original desktop-based application. The proposed application proved to be fast, effective and intuitive and can be used as an e-learning tool for demonstrating and teaching techniques for visualization and analysis of motion capture data.
Keywords: Qualisys; e-learning; 3D data; AIM model; WebGL; WebSocket

Usability and universal accessibility

Orientation Aids for Mobile Maps BIBAKFull-Text 138-143
  Jussi Jokinen; Pertti Saariluoma
Using mobile maps to represent urban, work, or entertainment environments offers new possibilities to plan and carry out tasks. One potentially critical problem in mobile map usage is the misalignment between the user's frame of reference and the frame of reference of the map. In the experiment reported here, three different 'orientation aids' were tested in the context of restricted space, such as a large factory hall. The aim of the study was to find out how user interface design can help the user mentally align misaligned frames of reference for efficient mobile map use. The results of the experiment (N = 12) suggest using a 'you are here' marker and landmark highlighting, while canonical direction symbols proved to be less plausible. Further, a maximum number of seven targets on the map is suggested.
Keywords: mental spatial orientation; mental rotation; mobile maps; orientation aids; reference-frame misalignment
Understanding Map Operations in Location-based Surveys BIBAKFull-Text 144-149
  Georgi Batinov; Michelle Rusch; Tianyu Meng; Kofi Whitney; Thitivatr Patanasakpinyo; Les Miller; Sarah Nusser
Location-based surveys have been moving to handheld computing devices as the availability of such devices has become more common. The more limited screen size of the handheld devices has made the maps more difficult to use. The present work looks at the map operations of users to determine if they are having problems. Two studies have been analyzed to get an understanding of the types of patterns that might be used to identify users that are having trouble. The choice of the two studies was to find two studies that were quite different and use one of the studies to find patterns of map operations that would indicate that a user was having problems. The second study could then be used to test the relevance of the patterns in a different implementation of the same task. We have identified patterns of interest using the data from the first study and found that the same patterns were relevant in the second study.
Keywords: location-based surveys, map operations
Using Crowdsourcing to Improve Accessibility of Geographic Maps on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 150-154
  Tania Calle; Sergio Luján
The continuous growth of the use of technology and mobile applications means that more people have access to information published on the web, including geographic information. However, for visually impaired people interaction is difficult if maps are not accessible. For this reason, in this paper we analyze accessibility barriers of webpages with geographic content presented on mobile devices. With the purpose of showing an alternative to improve accessibility in these pages, this study proposes the use of a technique called crowdsourcing, i.e., a group of people that voluntarily access to webpages and provide information about physical accessibility and a general description in each map element (point, line or polygon). This description is written into the Scalable Vector Graphics Tiny (SVG Tiny) code. SVG Tiny is used to represent geographic maps with HTML. In this way, screen readers can interpret the descriptions to visually impaired people, thus making maps more accessible.
Keywords: Web accessibility, map, crowdsourcing, geographic information, SVG Tiny, mobile devices
X Sign Language (xSL) Forum: Considering Deafness as a Language Rather Than an Impairment BIBAKFull-Text 155-160
  Zahen Malla Osman; Jérôme Dupire
In this paper, we describe a video based, text free, online forum called xSL Forum. The aim of this work is to provide a tool for signing deaf people, allowing them to communicate using sign language(s). In contrast to the widely used, real time, video chat system, xSL Forum does not require people to be present at the same moment, facing their webcam, in order to communicate. Beyond a digital library, xSL Forum can be used as an asynchronous communication tool and thus, can be useful for variety of other applications such as entertainment, education, or administration.
Keywords: Deaf, Internet forum, online; video, communication, interaction, sign language
Are Current Usability Methods Viable for Maritime Operation Systems? BIBAKFull-Text 161-167
  Yushan Pan; Sisse Finken; Sashidharan Komandur
Usability is strongly linked to loss of life in many technical and incident reports. Maritime operation systems are sociomaterial systems in which many operators work cooperatively on ship bridges and decks. However, current usability methods focus more on individual interaction. Hence, applying such methods to maritime operation systems leads to several problems. Moreover, a few evaluation methods are hard to duplicate from other research fields owing to various reasons. In this paper, we indicate that maritime operation systems should consider cooperative work for providing a complete picture of interaction issues. In addition, evaluation for maritime operation systems needs deeper understanding of the relationships between human beings and systems. We discuss several usability methods that have been extracted from other close field (e.g., aviation systems, fishing systems, maritime navigation systems, and nuclear power plants) and apply insights from such fields to our case -- deep-water anchor handling operation. We assert that usability in maritime domain should be expended as interaction in ecosystems such as the maritime operation system. We suggest that interaction study in maritime operation systems can offer a path to draw and measure a complete picture of maritime operation rather than purely focusing on individual usability issues.
Keywords: Interactions; usability; maritime operations; sociomaterial systems
When Simple Technologies Make Life Difficult BIBAKFull-Text 168-177
  Suhas Govind Joshi
In this paper, we use the case of elderly living with welfare technology to demonstrate how technology intended to be simple often defeats its own end. We discuss why simplicity requires attention and consideration not only to the context-detached design but also to the design in use as applying analytic and imagined simplicity does not guarantee experienced simplicity. We provide examples and evaluation results to help argue for our perspective on simplicity and present five implications for design pursuing simplicity.
Keywords: simplicity, elderly, welfare technology
Identifying User Experience Elements for People with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 178-180
  Mingyu Lee; Sung H. Han; Hyun K. Kim; Hanul Bang
This study aims to identify the elements of the user experience (UX) of mobile products and services for people with disabilities. Although many researchers have emphasized UX in designing new products and services, common understanding of UX for those with disabilities is absent. This study identified UX elements for people with disabilities by analyzing previous studies. A total of 45 articles from the literature were analyzed, and as a result, UX elements for people with disabilities were identified. The results can be used as criteria for developing new products/services or evaluating existing products/services.
Keywords: User experience (UX); UX elements; Disabled people; Usability; Affect; User value
Adaptive Content Presentation Extension for Open edX. Enhancing MOOCs Accessibility for Users with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 181-183
  Sandra Sanchez-Gordon; Sergio Luján Mora
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) platform Open edX to enhance course content accessibility for users with disabilities. Because of their open nature and global scope, MOOCs are a great opportunity for people with disabilities that might not be able to engage in learning otherwise. The goal of the proposed extension is to enhance MOOCs' accessibility by adapting course content to student needs, preferences, skills and situations. In this approach, the user does not need to know what adaptations should be applied to the MOOC to make it more accessible for them. The user only needs to keep updated their accessibility preferences in their user profile. The extension automatically applies all the necessary adaptations as commanded by the adaptive engine and provides the presentation layer with the content best suited for the user.
Keywords: massive open online course; MOOC; accessibility; adaptive content presentation; Open edX

Interactive systems

Expressive Humanoid Face: a Preliminary Validation Study BIBAKFull-Text 184-189
  Nicole Lazzeri; Daniele Mazzei; Antonio Lanatá; Alberto Greco; Annalisa Rotesi; Danilo Emilio De Rossi
Non-verbal signals expressed through body language play a crucial role in our daily communications. Facial expressions, in particular, are the most universal signs to express innate emotional cues. Human faces convey important information in social interactions, which help us to better understand our interlocutor. Nowadays, humanoids and social robots are becoming increasingly similar to humans both aesthetically and expressively. However, their visual expressiveness is a crucial issue in making these robots more realistic and intuitively perceived as human-like. This paper presents a preliminary study aimed at evaluating the capability of a humanoid to perform facial expressions in terms of recognition rate and response time in comparison with humans' ability. Results showed that the recognition rate of human and robot expressions did not reveal differences while the physical robot can convey expressions better than its 2D photos and its 3D models. Moreover, the results showed that both human and robot positive expressions were better recognized than the negative ones.
Keywords: Facial expressions; emotion perception; humanoid robot; expression recognition; social robots
A User-Centered Approach for Social Recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 190-193
  Francesco Colace; Massimo De Santo; Luca Greco; Flora Amato; Vincenzo Moscato; Fabio Persia; Antonio Picariello
Recommender Systems represent useful tools helping users to find "what they need" from a very large number of candidates and supporting people in making decisions in several contexts. In this paper, we propose a novel user-centered and social recommendation approach in which several aspects related to users, i.e., preferences, opinions, behavior, feedbacks, are considered and integrated together with items' features and context information within a general framework that can support different applications using proper customizations (e.g., recommendation of news, photos, movies, travels, etc.). Preliminary experiments on system accuracy show how our approach provides very promising and interesting results.
Keywords: Recommender Systems; Sentiment Analysis; Context-Awareness
Scalable Projection-type Three-dimensional Display by Using Compensation of Geometric Distortion BIBAKFull-Text 194-197
  Youngmin Kim; Sunghee Hong; Sangkyun Kim; Hyunmin Kang; Jisoo Hong; Sangwon Lee; Hoonjong Kang
We proposed an image compensation method of geometric distortion in multi-projection-type three-dimensional display. Projected images from optical modules could be distorted by toed-in configuration of array; we analyzed this relationship by using homography matrix. To verify our method, we designed zigzag configuration of multiprojectors and applied our proposed method. Experimental results will be provided to verify the proposed method.
Keywords: Three-dimensional display, geometrical optics
Distributed Collaborative Construction in Mixed Reality BIBAKFull-Text 198-202
  Christian Blank; Malte Eckhoff; Iwer Petersen; Raimund Wege; Birgit Wendholt
Distributed collaboration, portable mobile applications, natural user interfaces and comprehensive systems have been identified as future research directions in recent reviews about mixed reality in construction. On the other hand, current research in the mixed reality field addresses movement and anthropometric realism as critical success factors for an immersive virtual environment. Advances in object tracking, online (human) 3D reconstruction and gestural interfaces accompanied by wearable mobile displays provide us with the technological base to contribute to the challenges in both areas. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive immersive environment for a distributed collaborative construction process in a mixed reality setup. Participants on remote sites, solely equipped with smart see-through glasses, are cooperating in the construction of a virtual 3D model combining real (tangibles) and virtual objects. We consider our solution to give most suitable support for a distributed collaborative construction task by increasing the immersion of the environment, i.e.: (1) creating the impression of real collaboration by mirroring the behavior of participants in a common virtual scene; (2) providing more natural interaction through freehand gestures; (3) increasing the physical experience of the user through wearable 3D displays and construction with tangibles.
Keywords: Mixed Reality, Computer Supported Collaborative Work, Natural User Interaction


Perceptional Approach to Design of Industrial Plant Monitoring Systems BIBAKFull-Text 203-208
  Mehmet Gokturk; Mustafa Bakir; Burak Aydogan; Mehmet Aydin
In this paper, we have investigated the perceptional attitudes of a massive scale industrial plant staff towards process monitoring systems and focused on human factors that are influential in design of plant monitoring systems. The study is a part of a plant-wide monitoring system which is under development, aimed to help staff to monitor processes and plant performance in detail. The paper first gives focused introduction on large scale enterprise and plant monitoring and management information systems, then discusses human machine interaction relevance of these systems to the staff performance and perception. Examples from the literature and previous work are presented. Primary human factors in proactive monitoring and highly automated systems are briefly discussed. A design survey study follows the introduction and relevant literature sections. The survey is designed to collect perceptional status of the staff against such systems, including the perception of their current performance. Results are analyzed and discussed in order to enhance system design decisions in such plant monitoring systems. We believe that such perceptual studies, performed before attempting to implement large scale monitoring systems that are highly interactive to the existing staff, should be considered as essential part of the design process. The results of this study is being used as inputs in implementation of a recent petroleum plant monitoring system.
Keywords: Plant Monitoring Systems; Management Information System; Perception, Human Performance
Web-based Immersive Panoramic Display Systems for Mining Applications and Beyond BIBAKFull-Text 209-210
  Tomasz Bednarz; Eleonora Widzyk-Capehart
The mining industry is interested in novel visualization systems to improve operational efficiency. Technologies to enhance the operator's experience are advancing but there is a lack of evidence supporting the extent to which these emerging technologies positively affect user experience and performance. In this paper, we describe initiative of web based immersive panoramic display system that could be used in mining context. This idea represents a step towards new platforms that will increase the efficiency and safety of the mining operations by video monitoring with annotations of information coming from analytics engines.
Keywords: Panorama; VR; AR; WebGL; 3-D Annotations
Combining Image Databases for Affective Image Classification BIBAKFull-Text 211-212
  Hye-Rin Kim; In-Kwon Lee
Affective image classification has attracted much attention in recent years. However, the production of more exact classifiers depends on the quality of the sample database. In this study, we analyzed various existing databases used for affective image classification and we tried to improve the quality of the learning data by combining existing databases in several different ways. We found that existing image databases cannot cover the overall range of the arousal-valence plane. Thus, to obtain a wider distribution of emotion labels from images, we conducted a crowd-sourcing-based user study with Amazon Mechanical Turk. We aimed to construct several different versions of affective image classifiers by using different combinations of existing databases, instead of using one. We used low-level features in our classification experiments to explore the discriminatory properties of emotion categories. We report the results of intermediate comparisons using different combinations of databases to evaluate the performance of this approach.
Keywords: image emotion; emotion-based classification; affective

User modeling and user focus

Automatic Creation of a HLA Simulation Infrastructure for Simulation-Based UI Evaluation in Rapid UI Prototyping Processes BIBAKFull-Text 213-218
  Bertram Wortelen; Christian van Göns
Evaluating user interfaces with virtual user models is a means for rapid prototyping. Setting up a simulation environment for virtual user models often requires high effort due to the heterogeneous simulation tools. Furthermore the frequent reconfigurations of the simulation due to the rapid changes of the user interface prototypes impose a high amount of workload upon the user. In particular the manual reconfiguration of the communication between the simulation components is very complex and error prone. Small changes to the user interface often results in changes in the communication of several components. Our solution is the automatic generation of the communication data description for all simulation components. The solution is illustrated with two scenarios from the maritime domain. These scenarios deal with collision avoidance strategies and new concepts for route exchanges between ships and vessel traffic service centres. With the automated generation process it is more efficient to evaluate rapidly build user interface prototypes. Furthermore it facilitates handling the emerging changes, that are required in the complex simulation configurations.
Keywords: rapid prototyping; virtual user models; co-simulation; user interface evaluation
Sentiment Classification for Chinese Microblog BIBAKFull-Text 219-223
  Wen-Hsing Lai; Chang-Hsun Li
A sentiment classification method for Chinese microblog is presented. For short sentence microblog, it is very challenging because the information of emotion is very limited. First, an emotion lexicon is built from training corpus. A simple measure -- difference ratio is used to choose words from lexicon as features for classification. Support vector machine and voting on counts and accumulated difference ratio are jointly combined as classification method. The experimental results show that our recognition rate is better than the popular method using collocation strength. Our recognition improvement is about 2.06% in testing. Therefore, the difference ratio measure we used and the tactic in constructing the lexicon are proved very effective.
Keywords: sentiment classification; emotion; support vector machine; microblog; emoticon
Two Dimentional Shapes for Emotional Interfaces: Assessing the Influence of Angles, Curvature, Symmetry and Movement BIBAKFull-Text 224-228
  Daniel Pacheco; Sylvain Le Groux; Paul F. M. J. Verschure
Recent investigations aiming to identify which are the most influential parameters of graphical representations on human emotion have presented mixed results. In this study, we manipulated four emotionally relevant geometric and kinematic characteristics of non symbolic bidimensional shapes and animations, and evaluated their specific influence in the affective state of human observers. The controlled modification of basic geometric and cinematic features of such shapes (i.e., angles, curvature, symmetry and motion) led to the generation of a variety of forms and animations that elicited significantly different self-reported affective states in the axes of valence and arousal. Curved shapes evoked more positive and less arousing emotional states than edgy shapes, while figures translating slowly were perceived as less arousing and more positive than those translating fast. In addition, we found significant interactions between angles and curvature factors both in the valence and the arousal scales. Our results constitute a direct proof of the efficacy of abstract, non-symbolic shapes and animations to evoke emotion in a parameterized way, and can be generalized for the development of real-time, emotionally aware user interfaces.
Keywords: Affective Computing; Emotional interfaces; Graphical User Interfaces; Emotional Design; Expressive Interfaces

Interaction devices

You Do Not Miss Advice from Mentor during Presentation: Recognizing Vibrating Rhythms BIBAKFull-Text 229-233
  Ali Mehmood Khan; Michael Lawo
The haptic technology takes into consideration the human sense of touch and gives a new dimension to the way people communicate. In this work, we examined how a mentor could advise speakers to control their voice pitch and volume like speak slowly, speak fast, speak loudly and speak softly using haptic feedback during their speech. We made four vibrating rhythms and conducted a user study on different people in order to know whether they can feel the difference among four vibrating patterns or not. We used mobile's phone vibrating motor, for this purpose, which was meant to give a haptic feedback to participants. Our results show that participants were able to judge the vibrating rhythms with high accuracy.
Keywords: Actuator, Wearable computing, Haptic feedback
The Effect of Touch-key Size and Shape on the Usability of Flight Deck MCDU BIBAKFull-Text 234-238
  Lijing Wang; Qiyan Cao; Jiaming Chang; Chaoyi Zhao
This paper focuses on the effect of touch-key size and shape on the usability of the multifunction control display unit (MCDU) of the flight deck. A total of thirty subjects participated in the trials on the touchscreen-MCDU to perform the task of preflight preparation. The sizes of the touch-key were 7mm, 10mm, 13mm, 16mm, 19mm and 22mm; the touch-keys were divided into two shapes: rectangle and square ones. The completion time of the task, the error rate and participants' subjective ratings were collected as the indicators of the usability, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done to test the data. Results showed that both touch-key size and shape affected the usability. The usability of the touchscreen-MCDU increased as the touch-key size increased up to a certain size (19 mm in this study), at which they reached asymptotes. The square touch-keys provided a better usability than the rectangle ones when the width was the same. However, when the width reached 19mm, the usability stayed the same for both shapes.
Keywords: touch screen; flight deck; MCDU; touch-key size; interface
A Literature Review: Form Factors and Sensor Types of Wearable Devices BIBAKFull-Text 239-241
  Dong Yeong Jeong; Sung H. Han; Joohwan Park; Hyun K. Kim; Heekyung Moon; Bora Kang
Wearable devices provide a new way to recognize the users context with high accuracy. Selecting suitable form factors and sensors are important to recognize users' contexts. In this study, the form factors and sensor types of released, prototype, and concept products were explored. A total of 175 literatures were collected and analyzed in terms of sensor and form factor. Thirty sensors were collected and classified according to measurands. Twenty-three form factors were listed by nine applicable body parts.
Keywords: wearable device, form factor, sensor, body part
Identifying Interaction Problems on Web Applications due to the Change of Input Modality BIBAKFull-Text 242-246
  Andre da Silva; André Luis Viana; Samuel de Lima
New equipments and software for providing different modes for user interaction emerged and became popular in the last decade; they are used in various devices, such as mobile and game consoles, which can display Web pages due to the increasing of the processing power in these devices. Since interaction with each mode has peculiarities, when a user is interacting with a mode not considered in the design time, she might have interaction problems. Here, we present our work about Web navigation with motion sensors; we chose Google Maps, Google Street View, and TelEduc, which is an e-learning environment, to evaluate the use of WiiMote, the motion sensor of Wii console. In this paper, we analyze data from the first case study (Google Maps and Google Street View) and preliminary results from the second one (TelEduc). The collected data confirm our previous findings; adaptations are necessary to users have a good experience when navigating through web pages using a motion sensor.
Keywords: Multimodality; Usability Evaluation; Web Applications