Bookmark: T.Tsikerdekis.2013
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Social Interaction Design for Social Media: The Case of Groupthink and Aggression
Author: Tsikerdekis, Michail
Editor: Zlatuš, Jirí
Date: 2013
Pages: 154
City: Brno, Czech Republic
Publisher: Masaryk University, Computer Science
Weblink: is.muni.cz/th/346392/fi_d/fithesis.pdf
Weblink: is.muni.cz/th/346392/
Absract: Social media today play an increasingly important role in computer science, the information technologies industry and society at large, changing people's everyday communication and interaction. The domain of social media encompasses a variety of services, such as social networking services, collaborative projects, microblogging services and even virtual social worlds and virtual game worlds. There are long established principles, guidelines, and heuristics that apply to social media design and are part of the foundations of human-computer interaction (HCI). For example, in interaction design two set of goals guide the design of systems, usability goals and user experience goals.However, current design and development frameworks are still ill-equipped for the ever-changing online world. Ironically, they fail to take into account the social dimension of social media software. Cracks in the social fabric of a community operating under social media software may have devastating effects, not only to the evolution of the community but also to the longevity of the social media service. As such, social media cannot be developed in isolation, without taking into consideration the social experiences of users. Psychological and sociological principles should become part of the design process of modern social media. My research contributes to this endeavor by focusing on the design and engineering of social experiences on social media services. In my dissertation, I propose that an additional layer be added to the usability and user experience goals. The new layer includes social experience goals, which are further classified as desirable, undesirable and neutral. I produced a new definition for social interaction design that incorporates social experience goals. Building upon previously developed frameworks and models for interaction design, I demonstrated how social interaction design applies to activities such as needfinding, developing alternative designs using prototyping and modeling, developing interactive versions of design and evaluating designs. I presented the benefits of using such framework by focusing on two showcase phenomena deeply rooted in social behaviors -- aggression and groupthink. The aim was to demonstrate that social media design and development could be driven by goals that aim to increase collaboration and decrease conflict in a community. I analyzed the effects of different features found in social media today in respect to aggression and groupthink, and found positive evidence to suggest that social interaction, behavior, attitudes and phenomena can be affected by social media design. By examining two vastly diverse social experience goals using quantitative as well as qualitative research methods currently used in HCI, I demonstrated the usefulness of social interaction design in various classifications of social media services such as collaborative projects, social networking sites and even virtual game worlds. In short, I argue that social experience could be engineered through software using the framework I provide for social interaction design.

Bookmark: T.Kothaneth.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The relationship between organizational culture, usability, and instructional technology acceptance
Author: Kothaneth, Shreya
Editor: Scales, Glenda R.
Editor: Smith-Jackson, Tonya L.
Date: 2012-09-05
City: Blacksburg, Virginia
Publisher: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 815724023
Keywords: usability
Keywords: instructional technology acceptance
Keywords: organizational culture
Weblink: scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-09212012-145321
Absract: The advent of technology has put a number of institutions in a state of reform (Wolcott, 1997). In fact, it was predicted that technology would completely transform higher education by the end of the twentieth century (Sculley, 1989). Aside from the demographic make-up of the majority of current students (Howe & Strauss, 2000), moving away from the traditional lecture-format to one with the integration of instructional technology can enhance the teaching/learning environment (Bolger & Sprow, 2002). However, instructional technology has still not been completely integrated into the higher education curriculum and students reported that only about 20% of instructors were found to use technology effectively ("How Students Rate Instructors' Use of Information Technology in Courses", 2011). Educators continue to face a number of barriers to adoption and many institutions are still investigating ways to provide a more effective learning and teaching environment using efficient use of instructional technology. This research used the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech as a test bed and conducted a set of three studies following a mixed methodology. The first study elicited both quantitative and qualitative data from faculty members who used instructional technology in the classroom. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between organizational culture, usability, and instructional technology acceptance and found a significant, positive relationship between usability and instructional technology acceptance, and a positive relationship between organizational culture and instructional technology acceptance. The second study gained more insight into the relationship by collecting qualitative data in the form of focus group interviews. Results of Study 2 indicated that collaborative and innovative organizational cultures, coupled with instructional technologies that have low learnability, high efficiency, high effectiveness, and high satisfaction can facilitate instructional technology acceptance. Based on the results, a set of recommendations to facilitate instructional technology acceptance were developed. The third and final study consisted of a summative evaluation of the recommendations by a panel of experts using the Delphi technique. The overall outcome of this research effort was the development of recommendations and guidelines to facilitate instructional technology acceptance and the description of a comprehensive framework for effective instructional technology use

Bookmark: T.Taylor.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Designing from within: exploring experience through interactive performance
Author: Taylor, Robyn
Editor: Boulanger, Pierre
Date: 2012-08-09
Pages: 234
City: Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Publisher: University of Alberta, Computing Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 807321612
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: User-centered system design
Keywords: Interactive art
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/10402/era.28403
Absract: This thesis describes a practice-based methodology in which an interdisciplinary team of computer scientists and musicians create, enact, and iteratively refine a series of technologically mediated participatory performances structured to investigate HCI research questions surrounding participant engagement with technological interfaces in public settings. We choose to "design from within" by taking active roles as performers in each piece, experiencing the performance alongside participants within an authentic public use context. We draw upon McCarthy and Wright's pragmatic approach towards experience-centered design and evaluation, using their theoretical framework to interrogate the sensual, emotional, spatio-temporal and compositional aspects of collaborative behaviour through felt, lived experience. This self-situated manner of practice allows us to experience the enactment of our design interventions firsthand, and develop understanding of the performance scenario through our own personal processes of sense-making. Our participatory installations are intended for public consumption, meaning the works must always maintain production quality suitable for professional exhibition. However, they are intentionally implemented so that they may be constantly refined and re-configured, changing and developing as our understanding of and relationship to them grows over time. In this thesis, we describe the creation, performance, and evaluation of three interactive works: dream.Medusa (2007), humanaquarium (2009) and Nightingallery (2011). We explain how our experiences with the performances revealed insight into engagement with technologically mediated interaction in public spaces, allowing us to investigate how modifying performance design affected experiential issues such as the reduction of stage fright, the encouragement of collaboration, and the exploration of the relationship between legibility and expressivity. The novelty of our approach lies in how we have taken an active role as performer/designers within the use context of a series of performances, each subsequent performance being inspired by the research undertaken throughout the investigative trajectory. We draw upon personal, autobiographical experiences with the projects to develop understanding of public engagement with creative technologies, allowing our experiences with the projects to inspire avenues of HCI design intervention and research. Our method of investigation leverages interdisciplinary practice and expertise to inform interaction design for playful, ludic systems in a holistic, pragmatic, experience-centered way.

Bookmark: T.Yang.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Predictive models for online human activities
Author: Yang, Shuang-Hong
Editor: Zha, Hongyuan
Date: 2012-04-04
Pages: 102
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Computing
Standard number: oclcnum: 810436399
Keywords: Data mining
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: User-generated content
Keywords: Behavior-relation interplay
Keywords: Content mining
Keywords: User cognitive aspects
Keywords: Language gap
Keywords: Online human activities
Keywords: Redictive models
Keywords: User-generated data
Keywords: Behavior prediction
Keywords: Social ties
Keywords: Collaborative competitive filtering
Keywords: Social contagion
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/43689
Absract: The availability and scale of user generated data in online systems raises tremendous challenges and opportunities to analytic study of human activities. Effective modeling of online human activities is not only fundamental to the understanding of human behavior, but also important to the online industry. This thesis focuses on developing models and algorithms to predict human activities in online systems and to improve the algorithmic design of personalized/socialized systems (e.g., recommendation, advertising, Web search systems). We are particularly interested in three types of online user activities, i.e., decision making, social interactions and user-generated contents. Centered around these activities, the thesis focuses on three challenging topics: 1. Behavior prediction, i.e., predicting users' online decisions. We present Collaborative-Competitive Filtering, a novel game-theoretic framework for predicting users' online decision making behavior and leverage the knowledge to optimize the design of online systems (e.g., recommendation systems) in respect of certain strategic goals (e.g., sales revenue, consumption diversity). 2. Social contagion, i.e., modeling the interplay between social interactions and individual behavior of decision making. We establish the joint Friendship-Interest Propagation model and the Behavior-Relation Interplay model, a series of statistical approaches to characterize the behavior of individual user's decision making, the interactions among socially connected users, and the interplay between these two activities. These techniques are demonstrated by applications to social behavior targeting. 3. Content mining, i.e., understanding user generated contents. We propose the Topic-Adapted Latent Dirichlet Allocation model, a probabilistic model for identifying a user's hidden cognitive aspects (e.g., knowledgability) from the texts created by the user. The model is successfully applied to address the challenge of "language gap" in medical information retrieval

Bookmark: T.Vig.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Intelligent tagging systems: machine learning for novel systems: machine learning for novel interaction
Author: Vig, Jesse
Editor: Riedl, John
Date: 2012-04
Pages: 111
Publisher: University of Minnesota, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 800011155
Keywords: Data mining
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Machine learning
Keywords: Recommender systems
Keywords: Social computing
Keywords: Tagging
Weblink: purl.umn.edu/127348
Absract: The Web puts a vast repository of information at users' fingertips, but the size and complexity of this information space can easily overwhelm users. Recommender systems and tagging systems represent two very different approaches to addressing this information overload. Recommender systems use machine learning and statistical models to automatically retrieve the items of most interest to a particular user. Tagging systems leverage the community's collective knowledge to help users explore the information space themselves. While both approaches can be very effective, they each have limitations. Recommender systems require little effort from users, but they leave users with little control over the recommendation process. Tagging systems put control in the hands of the user, but -- because tags are applied by humans -- tagging systems often suffer from issues of tag sparsity. This thesis explores intelligent tagging systems that combine the machine intelligence of recommender systems with the user control and comprehensibility of tagging systems. We first present Tagsplanations, tag-based explanations that help users understand why an item was recommended to them. We then introduce the Tag Genome, a novel data structure that uses machine learning to augment human judgments of the relationships between tags and items. Next we discuss Movie Tuner, a conversational recommender system based on the Tag Genome that enables users to provide multifaceted feedback using tags. For each system, we outline the design space of the problem and discuss our design decisions. We evaluate each system using both offline analyses as well as field studies involving thousands of users from MovieLens, a movie recommender system that also supports tagging of movies. Finally, we draw conclusions for the broader space of related applications.

Bookmark: T.Sushmita.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Study of result presentation and interaction for aggregated search
Author: Sushmita, Shanu
Editor: Mounia, Lalmas
Editor: Joemon, M. Jose
Date: 2012-03-12
Pages: 200
Publisher: University of Glasgow, College of Science and Engineering, School of Computing Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 785989146
Keywords: Information retrieval
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: theses.gla.ac.uk/3289/
Absract: The World Wide Web has always attracted researchers and commercial search engine companies due to the enormous amount of information available on it. "Searching" on web has become an integral part of today's world, and many people rely on it when looking for information. The amount and the diversity of information available on the Web has also increased dramatically. Due to which, the researchers and the search engine companies are making constant efforts in order to make this information accessible to the people effectively. Not only there is an increase in the amount and diversity of information available online, users are now often seeking information on broader topics. Users seeking information on broad topics, gather information from various information sources (e.g, image, video, news, blog, etc). For such information requests, not only web results but results from different document genre and multimedia contents are also becoming relevant. For instance, users' looking for information on "Glasgow" might be interested in web results about Glasgow, Map of Glasgow, Images of Glasgow, News of Glasgow, and so on. Aggregated search aims to provide access to this diverse information in a unified manner by aggregating results from different information sources on a single result page. Hence making information gathering process easier for broad topics. This thesis aims to explore the aggregated search from the users' perspective. The thesis first and foremost focuses on understanding and describing the phenomena related to the users' search process in the context of the aggregated search. The goal is to participate in building theories and in understanding constraints, as well as providing insights into the interface design space. In building this understanding, the thesis focuses on the click-behavior, information need, source relevance, dynamics of search intents. The understanding comes partly from conducting users studies and, from analyzing search engine log data. While the thematic (or topical) relevance of documents is important, this thesis argues that the "source type" (source-orientation) may also be an important dimension in the relevance space for investigating in aggregated search. Therefore, relevance is multi-dimensional (topical and source-orientated) within the context of aggregated search. Results from the study suggest that the effect of the source-orientation was a significant factor in an aggregated search scenario. Hence adds another dimension to the relevance space within the aggregated search scenario. The thesis further presents an effective method which combines rule base and machine learning techniques to identify source-orientation behind a user query. Furthermore, after analyzing log-data from a search engine company and conducting user study experiments, several design issues that may arise with respect to the aggregated search interface are identified. In order to address these issues, suitable design guidelines that can be beneficial from the interface perspective are also suggested. To conclude, aim of this thesis is to explore the emerging aggregated search from users' perspective, since it is a very important for front-end technologies. An additional goal is to provide empirical evidence for influence of aggregated search on users searching behavior, and identify some of the key challenges of aggregated search. During this work several aspects of aggregated search will be uncovered. Furthermore, this thesis will provide a foundations for future research in aggregated search and will highlight the potential research directions.

Bookmark: T.Williamson.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: User experience, performance and social acceptability: usable multimodal mobile interaction
Author: Williamson, Julie R.
Editor: Brewster, Stephen
Date: 2012-03-12
Pages: 165
Publisher: University of Glasgow, College of Science and Engineering, School of Computing Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 781993776
Keywords: Machine learning
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Automatic speech recognition
Keywords: Natural language processing (Computer science)
Keywords: Speech processing systems
Weblink: theses.gla.ac.uk/3260/
Absract: This thesis explores the social acceptability of multimodal interaction in public places with respect to acceptance, adoption and appropriation. Previous work in multimodal interaction has mainly focused on recognition and detection issues without thoroughly considering the willingness of users to adopt these kinds of interactions in their everyday lives. This thesis presents a novel approach to user experience that is theoretically motivated by phenomenology, practiced with mixed-methods, and analysed based on dramaturgical metaphors. In order to explore the acceptance of multimodal interfaces, this thesis presents three studies that look at users' initial reactions to multimodal interaction techniques: a survey study focusing on gestures, an on-the-street user study, and a follow-up survey study looking at gesture and voice-based interaction. The investigation of multimodal interaction adoption is explored through two studies: an in situ user study of a performative interface and a focus group study using experience prototypes. This thesis explores the appropriation of multimodal interaction by demonstrating the complete design process of a multimodal interface using the performative approach to user experience presented in this thesis. Chapter 3 looks at users' initial reactions to and acceptance of multimodal interactions. The results of the first survey explored location and audience as factors the influence how individuals behave in public places. Participants in the on-the-street study described the desirable visual aspects of the gestures as playful, cool, or embarrassing aspects of interaction and how gestures could be hidden as everyday actions. These results begin to explain why users accepted or rejected the gestures from the first survey. The second survey demonstrated that the presence of familiar spectators made interaction significantly more acceptable. This result indicates that performative interaction could be made more acceptable by interfaces that support collaborative or social interaction. Chapter 4 explores how users place interactions into a usability context for use in real world settings. In the first user study, participants took advantage of the wide variety of possible performances, and created a wide variety of input, from highly performative to hidden actions, based on location. The ability of this interface to support flexible interactions allowed users to demonstrate the purposed of their actions differently based on the immediately co-located spectators. Participants in the focus group study discussed how they would go about placing multimodal interactions into real world contexts, using three approaches: relationship to the device, personal meaning, and relationship to functionality. These results demonstrate how users view interaction within a usability context and how that might affect social acceptability. Chapter 5 examines appropriation of multimodal interaction through the completion of an entire design process. The results of an initial survey were used as a baseline of comparison from which to design the following focus group study. Participants in the focus groups had similar motives for accepting multimodal interactions, although the ways in which these were expressed resulted in very different preferences. The desire to use technology in a comfortable and satisfying way meant different things in these different settings. During the 'in the wild' user study, participants adapted performance in order to make interaction acceptable in different contexts. In some cases, performance was hidden in public places or shared with familiar spectators in order to successfully incorporate interaction into public places.

Bookmark: T.Lunsford.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Toward improving dialogue coordination in spoken dialogue systems
Author: Lunsford, Rebecca
Editor: Heeman, Peter A.
Date: 2012-03
Pages: 143
Publisher: Oregon Health & Science University, Computer Science & Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 794597223
Keywords: User-Computer Interface
Keywords: Computer Simulation
Keywords: Communication
Keywords: Language Development Disorders
Keywords: Autistic Disorder
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Computer simulation
Keywords: Language disorders
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders
Weblink: drl.ohsu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/etd/id/1048
Absract: When engaged in a conversation, speakers use both verbal and non-verbal mechanisms to help coordinate the dialogue, ensuring that, at each point, the other is engaged in the dialogue, and is capable of hearing, understanding and responding to the speaker. The problem is that current Spoken Dialog Systems (SDSs) do not take full advantage of dialogue coordination mechanisms, which can lead to interactions that are unnatural and inefficient. However, we posit that an SDS should anticipate, recognize and potentially emulate the full richness of dialogue coordination mechanisms. In this dissertation research, we aim to further understand dialogue coordination mechanisms, and to assess how they might be used to ease human-computer interaction. We start by investigating what cues a human speaker uses to differentiate computer-directed speech from self-directed speech, and from human-directed speech, finding that in both cases speech directed to the computer is much louder. We next conduct a perceptual study to determine what cues people attend to when determining whether a speaker is addressing a computer or nearby human. Here we found that people tended to rely on the direction of the speaker's gaze, although this led to systematic errors in their judgments of addressee. We next investigate whether 'um' and 'uh' result from the same, or different cognitive processes, using human-human interaction data collected while clinicians interacted with children with typical development, autism, or developmental language disorder. Here we found that 'um' appears to be listener-oriented, and 'uh' speaker-oriented. Next, again using the data from above, we investigated what factors impact the length of inter-turn gaps, and whether there is an interaction between gaps, disuencies and social pressure to respond. Here we found that, after a question, speakers tend to respond more quickly, are more likely to start their speech with a disuency, and that the likelihood of a disuency increased with the length of the gap. Finally, we conduct a simulation study, using Reinforcement Learning, to demonstrate that dialogue policies can be created that take advantage of dialogue coordination mechanisms.

Bookmark: T.Michael.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A face tracking system for dynamic event recognition: application to continuous recognition of non-manual markers of American sign language and to deception detection by kinesic analysis
Author: Michael, Nicholas
Editor: Metaxas, Dimitris N.
Date: 2012-01
Pages: 124
Publisher: Rutgers University
Standard number: oclcnum: 785706216
Keywords: Computer Science
Keywords: Face perception
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: American Sign Language
Keywords: Facial expression
Weblink: hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.1/rucore10001600001.ETD.000064148
Absract: Face tracking has numerous applications in the field of Human Computer Interaction and behavior understanding in general. Yet, face tracking is a difficult problem because the tracker must generalize to new faces, adapt to changing illumination, keep up with fast motions and pose changes, and tolerate target occlusion. We first present our efforts to develop a system for probabilistic face tracking, using anthropometric and appearance constraints. We then move onto the focus of our work, which is the application of the face tracker to two interesting recognition problems. Firstly, given that sign language is used as a primary means of communication by deaf individuals and as augmentative communication by hearing individuals with a variety of disabilities, the development of robust, real-time sign language recognition technologies would be a major step forward in making computers equally accessible to everyone. However, most research in the field of sign language recognition has focused on the manual component of signs, despite the fact that there is critical grammatical information expressed through facial expressions and head gestures. Therefore, we present our novel framework for robust tracking and analysis of facial expressions and head gestures, by means of a dynamic feature descriptor, a 3D face model and temporal models, with an application to sign language recognition. We apply it to successful continuous recognition of six different classes of non-manual grammatical expressions. Secondly, deception is present in our everyday social and professional lives and its detection can be beneficial, not only to us individually but to our society as a whole. For example, accurate deception detection can aid law enforcement officers in solving a crime. It can also help border control agents to detect potentially dangerous individuals during routine screening interviews. Therefore, we also present two novel methods for deception detection, using only visual cues extracted from our face tracker and a skin blob tracker, both with promising results. One is based on a novel kernel density descriptor of human behavior, which can differentiate normal behavior profiles from over-controlled and agitated ones, using nearest neighbor search. The other is based on the notion of subject-interviewer synchrony.

Bookmark: T.Tung.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: An approach to the usability evaluation of the human-computer interaction of a heterogeneous safety-critical complex socio-technical system
Author: Tung, Yip Wai
Date: 2012
Pages: 196
City: Hong Kong
Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Computing In this thesis a Usability Evaluation Approach (UEA) is presented. The purpose of UEA is to analyze and evaluate the human-computer interaction (HCI) design for a heterogeneous safety-critical complex socio-technical (CST) system. Heterogeneous safety-critical CST systems play an important part in the operations of socially important infrastructure, such as a mass-transit railway system. CST systems mostly consist of heterogeneous domain specific systems, mainly due to the enormous scale of complexity and other commercial considerations. A CST system typically operates in an interactive environment with safety-critical context. Safety is a property of a system that it will not endanger human life or the environment; safety-critical context assures the safety of equipment within the system is demonstrated. Usability is defined as the extent to which a product can be used by specific users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. In the context of a heterogeneous safety-critical CST system, operability is defined as the ability of human operators to cope with various operational conditions (normal and emergency) without endangering the safety of the system when working together as a unified system; this definition implies the conformance of safety and usability requirements. Compliance to operability is happening to be a common criterion for CST system certification. With few exceptions, the design of individual domain specific systems is aimed to comply with technology-driven functional requirements; HCI of each domain specific system may well satisfy its own design guidelines and usability criteria, but there is no guarantee they can meet the overall operability requirements when working together as a unified CST system
Standard number: oclcnum: 815716008
Keywords: Computer software
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/6589
Absract: UEA aims to facilitate HCI experts, system operators and safety specialists to analyze HCI requirements and formulate evaluation criteria for heterogeneous HCI design. By discovering interaction problems, UEA seeks to identify design aspects that can be improved, to set priorities, and guidance for how to make changes to a design that confirms the coherence of heterogeneous HCI. UEA extends the usage of scenario concept from the Usability Engineering and further considers human factors and situation awareness perspectives, to create a Unified HCI Requirements Analysis Framework (UHRAF), which generates Problem Scenarios, Network of Scenarios and associated Interaction Models for requirements analysis, and a Safety and Usability Model (SUM) as evaluation criteria, for which the heterogeneous HCI are assessed for compliance to operability. UEA addresses the heterogeneous HCI from three major Building Blocks: (i) Characteristics of Work Environment; (ii) Human Performance and Hazard; and (iii) Cognitive Characteristics of Human Operators. Each Building Block consists of aspects for evaluation criteria from safety and usability perspectives. The benefit of UEA is that it does not prescribe specific analysis tools; instead it enables common analysis tools to be deployed for analysis and evaluation. A usability test is illustrated to analyze HCI requirements and assess the design of heterogeneous HCI for the control room of a mass-transit railway system. The results suggest that UEA is capable of analyzing and evaluating heterogeneous HCI issues in complex environment.

Bookmark: T.Huang.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Are icons pictures or logographical words: Statistical, behavioral, and neuroimaging measures of semantic interpretations of four types of visual information
Author: Huang, Sheng-Cheng
Editor: Bias, Randolph
Date: 2012
Pages: 234
City: Austin, Texas
Publisher: University of Texas at Austin
Standard number: oclcnum: 798944264
Keywords: Benchmarking; Normative ratings; Graphical user interfaces (GUI); Measurement; Experimentation; Human factors; Human-computer interaction (HCI); Icon recognition; Semiotics; Neuroimaging; Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Weblink: repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/ETD-UT-2012-05-5430/HUANG-DISSERTATION.pdf
Absract: This dissertation is composed of three studies that use statistical, behavioral, and neuroimaging methods to investigate Chinese and English speakers' semantic interpretations of four types of visual information including icons, single Chinese characters, single English words, and pictures. The goal is to examine whether people cognitively process icons as logographical words. By collecting survey data from 211 participants, the first study investigated how differently these four types of visual information can express specific meanings without ambiguity on a quantitative scale. In the second study, 78 subjects participated in a behavioral experiment that measured how fast people could correctly interpret the meaning of these four types of visual information in order to estimate the differences in reaction times needed to process these stimuli. The third study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 20 participants selected from the second study to identify brain regions that were needed to process these four types of visual information in order to determine if the same or different neural networks were required to process these stimuli. Findings suggest that 1) similar to pictures, icons are statistically more ambiguous than English words and Chinese characters to convey the immediate semantics of objects and concepts; 2) English words and Chinese characters are more effective and efficient than icons and pictures to convey the immediate semantics of objects and concepts in terms of people's behavioral responses, and 3) according to the neuroimaging data, icons and pictures require more resources of the brain than texts, and the pattern of neural correlates under the condition of reading icons is different from the condition of reading Chinese characters. In conclusion, icons are not cognitively processed as logographical words like Chinese characters although they both stimulate the semantic system in the brain that is needed for language processing. Chinese characters and English words are more evolved and advanced symbols that are less ambiguous, more efficient and easier for a literate brain to understand, whereas graphical representations of objects and concepts such as icons and pictures do not always provide immediate and unambiguous access to meanings and are prone to various interpretations.

Bookmark: T.Shang.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Facial expression analysis with graphical models
Author: Shang, Lifeng
Date: 2012
Pages: 106
Publisher: University of Hong Kong
Standard number: oclcnum: 798203815
Keywords: Face perception
Keywords: Image processing
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: sunzi.lib.hku.hk/ER/detail/cof/4784948

Bookmark: T.Stach.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Heart rate balancing for multiplayer exergames
Author: Stach, Tadeusz B
Editor: Graham, Nicholas
Date: 2012
Pages: 159
City: Kingston, Ontario
Publisher: Queen's University, Computing
Standard number: oclcnum: 815723944
Keywords: Exergames
Keywords: Exercise video game
Keywords: Heart rate
Keywords: Biofeedback
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1974/7525
Absract: Exergames combine physical activity and entertainment in an effort to increase people's motivation to exercise. Multiplayer exergames attempt to include the motivating aspects of group activity by allowing two or more people to play together. In most multiplayer exergames, a player's in-game performance is limited by her physical abilities. Less fit players are demotivated by repeated losses to more fit opponents, while fitter players face a lack of competition from unfit opponents. This situation makes it difficult for people of disparate physical abilities to play exergames together. This research presents heart rate balancing, a novel player balancing technique to better support engaging experiences in multiplayer exergames. Heart rate balancing bases players' in-game performance on their effort relative to fitness level rather than their raw power. More specifically, heart rate monitoring is used to set in-game performance based on how closely a person adheres to her target heart rate. Experiments with heart rate balancing show that the technique improves competition between players. A strong correlation was found between people's perceived effort and their in-game performance with heart rate balancing. The degree to which players noticed the balancing mechanism varied depending on game type. However, heart rate balancing did not interfere with people's ability to play exergames. These results indicate that the heart rate balancing technique is a promising approach for improving enjoyment and engagement in multiplayer exergames

Bookmark: T.Chen.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Multiple object retrieval in image databases using hierarchical segmentation tree
Author: Chen, Wei-Bang
Editor: Zhang, Chengcui
Date: 2012
Pages: 180
City: Birmingham, Alabama
Publisher: University of Alabama at Birmingham, Computer and Information Sciences
Standard number: oclcnum: 812182881
Keywords: Digital images
Keywords: Content-based image retrieval
Keywords: Image analysis
Keywords: Image processing
Keywords: Information storage and retrieval systems
Keywords: Decision trees
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Content-based image retrieval; Multi-resolution image segmentation; Hierarchical segmentation tree; Multiple object retrieval; Relevance feedback
Weblink: www.mhsl.uab.edu/dt/2012p/chen.pdf
Absract: The purpose of this research is to develop a new visual information analysis, representation, and retrieval framework for automatic discovery of salient objects of user's interest in large-scale image databases. In particular, this dissertation describes a content-based image retrieval framework which supports multiple-object retrieval. The proposed research, unlike most existing works that are designed for single object retrieval or adopt heuristic multiple object matching scheme, aims at contributing to this field through the development of an image retrieval system that enables effective and efficient multiple-object retrieval and automatic discovery of the objects of interest through users' relevance feedback. The key to achieving the above goal is a new systematic and hierarchical image representation, and a related learning and retrieval framework, the combination of which makes it possible for a machine to interpret an image in terms of its containing regions and their relationships. In this dissertation, an efficient and accurate hierarchical image segmentation algorithm based on multi-resolution analysis is developed to alleviate the over- and/or under-segmentation problems through the preservation of associative relationships between image regions in a hierarchical regiontree. This algorithm is designed in a way to simultaneously produce image segmentation results and hierarchical region-tree representations, which are typically obtained through two separate processes in existing approaches, so as to reduce the time complexity. With hierarchical region-tree representations, the relevance of an image to the query image is thus measured according to the sub-tree comparison. As a full comparison of all sub-trees is unlikely to be feasible, an efficient strategy for selecting and comparing proper subtrees is designed and developed. Another key contribution of this research is the seamless integration of users' relevance feedback (RF) with the proposed multiple object retrieval system, which allows automatic discovery of the objects of users' interest and is expected to improve the retrieval accuracy through feedback-retrieval loops. While there is a clear indication of needs for such interactive learning capabilities, we believe this is the first systematic attempt to formulate a comprehensive, intelligent, and interactive framework for multiple object retrieval in image databases that takes full advantage of a hierarchical region-tree representation.

Bookmark: T.Aytes.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The "Other" in the machine: oriental automata and the mechanization of the mind
Author: Aytes, Ayhan
Editor: Serlin, David
Editor: Tanaka, Stefan
Date: 2012
Pages: 221
City: La Jolla, California
Publisher: University of California, San Diego, Communication and Cognitive Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 770422794
Keywords: Automata theory, Cognitive labor, Cybernetics, Media archaeology, Orientalism, Post humanism, Mind
Keywords: Other (Philosophy)
Keywords: Orientalism
Keywords: Artificial intelligence
Keywords: Automaton chess players
Keywords: Human-machine systems
Keywords: Cognitive learning
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: wwwlib.umi.com/cr/fullcit
Absract: This dissertation project is a media archaeological inquiry into a long-term cultural dialectic between the rise of intelligent automata and the rise of Western discourses of Orientalism. I organize my analysis around the archetypal theme of the chess-playing machine, the Mechanical Turk, which has played many significant roles as a metaphor, as an abstract machine, as a behavioral prototype and as a thought experiment throughout the history of the mechanization of the mind. In almost every implementation of the chess-playing automaton as a conceptual device -- from the essays of Edgar Alan Poe to Claude Shannon's computer models -- there is a direct reference to its archetype, the 18th century chess-playing automaton invented by Austrian engineer Wolfgang von Kempelen. The Enlightenment chess automaton depicted a puppet dressed as an Ottoman subject who performed the role of the chess-player on behalf of the machine while secretly it was controlled by a chess-master hidden inside the cabinet. This intricate artifice designed into the chess-playing automaton is probably one of the reasons why it stayed relevant in explaining the human-machine symbiosis throughout the modern and industrial eras. This might also explain why the chess automaton became so readily applicable as a conceptual apparatus throughout the history of the mechanization of the mind. My initial approach, borne out in the following chapters, is to show how that this particular human-machine configuration can be seen as the physical embodiment of the irreconcilable contradictions of the Enlightenment's ideological presumptions. Through the historical analysis of this configuration, I particularly aim to investigate the interaction between the cultural "Other" as a systematic epistemological design and the technological "Other" of the European mind. These converge in the archetypal apparatus of the mechanized mind concept, which, as I will argue, become crucially active in later industrial and postindustrial configurations such as the cybernetic apparatus of the 20th Century and the contemporary distributed cognitive labor platforms of the early 21st Century.

Bookmark: T.Peng.2012
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Understanding and utilizing user preferences
Author: Peng, Yu
Editor: Wong, Raymond
Date: 2012
Pages: 154
Publisher: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Computer Science and Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 810842004
Keywords: World Wide Web
Keywords: Data mining
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Absract: With the rapid growth of web-based applications, mining personalized preferences for promotion becomes a hot topic. In this thesis, we focus on two problems related to user preferences: understanding user preferences and utilizing user preferences. In understanding user preferences, we propose two sub-problems when we consider temporal user preferences. The first sub-problem is called attribute-based subsequence matching (ASM) : given a query sequence and a set of sequences, considering the attributes of elements, we want to find all the sequences which are matched by this query sequence. We propose an efficient algorithm for problem ASM by applying the Chinese Remainder Theorem. The second sub-problem is to find all the attribute-based frequent subsequences. We adapt an existing efficient algorithm for this second subproblem to show that we can use the algorithm developed for the first sub-problem. Experimental results show that frequent subsequences reflect user preferences, and our algorithms are scalable in large datasets. This work can stimulate a lot of existing data mining problems which are fundamentally based on subsequence matching. In utilizing user preferences, we identify and tackle three sub-problems, finding top-k profitable products, finding top-k popular products, and finding K-dominating competitive price. The former two sub-problems are about designing new products, while the latter one is about pricing new products. In finding top-k profitable products, we consider generalized user preferences, derived from the skyline concept. We propose a dynamic programming approach which can find the optimal solution when there are two attributes to be considered. We show that this problem is NP-hard when there are more than two attributes. Two greedy algorithms are proposed and one of them has theoretical bounds. We also consider this problem on dynamic datasets and propose update algorithms for different update operations. We extend this problem by considering another form of customer preferences, namely tolerant customer preferences in finding top-k popular products. We prove that this problem is NP-hard and propose a 0.63-approximate algorithm for this problem. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness and efficiency of our approaches on both synthetic and real datasets. In finding K-dominating competitive price in which we consider generalized user preferences only, we propose an efficient algorithm. We utilize spatial properties for pruning to speed up our algorithm. An extensive performance study using both synthetic and real datasets is reported to verify its effectiveness and efficiency. We also provide a real case study to show how our algorithm works in reality.

Bookmark: T.Metsis.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A computational framework for Human-Centered multimodal data analysis
Author: Metsis, Vangelis
Editor: Makedon, Fillia
Editor: Huang, Heng
Date: 2011-12
Pages: 103
Publisher: University of Texas at Arlington, Computer Science & Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 794809011
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Medical care
Keywords: System design
Weblink: dspace.uta.edu/handle/10106/9588
Absract: Human-Centered computing defines a field of study in which computational processes affect the human being, either through ubiquitous and pervasive use of devices or any effect that improves the human condition. Human-Centered Computing applications face serious challenges in the handling of data collection, modeling, and analysis. Traditionally, the analysis of different aspects of human well-being derives from a variety of non-interrelated methods which has made it difficult to correlate and compare the different experimental findings for an accurate assessment of the contributing factors. This dissertation describes new algorithms that enable more accurate and efficient multimodal data analysis of Human-Centered computing applications in order to improve decision-making in healthcare. In particular, this work provides a theoretical framework for multimodal and inter-related data analysis and demonstrates the theory in different cases where the purpose is to (a) monitor the health condition of the human subject, and (b) to improve the quality of life through the understanding of a subject's behaviors. Our computational framework can efficiently analyze and interpret data of different modalities coming from the same human subjects. Emphasis is put on the evaluation of feature selection and classification techniques and their use for heterogeneous data fusion in order to improve the accuracy of the obtained results. Our experimental results show that the same basic methods can be used to analyze data regarding both the physiological and behavioral properties of a human subject, and to correlate the different findings into more meaningful and reliable information.

Bookmark: T.Dwyer.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Traces of digital trust: an interactive design perspective
Author: Dwyer, Natasha
Editor: Clark, Tom
Editor: Randall, Dave
Date: 2011-11-28
Pages: 281
City: Melbourne, Australia
Publisher: Victoria University
Standard number: oclcnum: 769974201
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Trust
Keywords: Computer software
Keywords: Electronic data processing
Keywords: Online social networks
Weblink: eprints.vu.edu.au/17663
Absract: This thesis explores ways that the complex concept of trust functions between users in digital environments who are strangers. Although it can and has been argued that 'trust' is central to the functioning of society (Watson 2009), it is difficult to apply a static and complete definition of the term. I argue that trust is neither a fully objective nor subjective state but is formed through interaction. If users are to communicate via the mediation of digital environments, how will trust relationships form? In this thesis, I draw on a recent theory of trust: the enablement of trust. The agenda of trust enablement allows users to reach and maintain trust or distrust on their own terms. The means of studying trust need to meet what I argue is the context-dependent and interactive nature of trust. To study trust, I argue, requires an investigation of users' practice. Ethnomethodology and critical interactive design offer research approaches that suit the exploration of trust enablement. I also draw on the enquiry mode of 'research through design' (Forlizzi et al. 2009), a research approach that seeks to problematise a design context. As a result of my explorations in this thesis, I argue that digital environments that allow users to share context are a solution to the problem of trust enablement. Trust (or distrust) is only possible in a familiar world, and thus the process by which users create familiarity is the key to understanding how trust is enabled. Shared contexts enable trust because they allow participants to seek the trust evidence most important to them in a specific context and also shape how communications are understood. A shared context also attempts to enable equal and negotiated relations between users instead of reinforcing hierarchies between different types of users.

Bookmark: T.Szigeti.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The Challenge of Web Design Guidelines: Investigating Issues of Awareness, Interpretation, and Efficacy
Author: Szigeti, Stephen James
Editor: Cherry, Joan
Date: 2011-11-25
Pages: 283
City: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Publisher: University of Toronto, Information Studies
Keywords: Design Guidelines
Keywords: Steve Szigeti
Weblink: tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/32908
Absract: Guidelines focusing on web interface design allow for the dissemination of complex and multidisciplinary research to communities of practice. Motivated by the desire to better understand how research evidence can be shared with the web design community, this dissertation investigates the role guidelines play in the design process, the attitudes designers hold regarding guidelines, and whether evidence based guidelines can be consistently interpreted by designers. Guidelines are a potential means to address the knowledge gap between research and practice, yet we do not have a clear understanding of the relationship between research evidence, guideline sets and web design practitioners. In order to better understand how design guidelines are used by designers in the practice of web interface design, four sequential studies were designed; the application of a guideline subset to a design project by 16 students, the assessment of ten health information websites by eight designers using a guideline subset, a web based survey of 116 designers, and interviews with 20 designers. The studies reveal that guideline use is dependent on the perceived trustworthiness of the guideline, its source and the alignment between guideline advice and designer experience. The first two studies found that guidelines are inconsistently interpreted. One third of the guidelines used in the second study were interpreted differently by participants, an inconsistency which represents a critical problem in guideline use. Findings showed no difference in the characteristics of guidelines which were consistently interpreted and those for which interpretation was the most inconsistent. Further, research evidence was not a factor in guideline use, less than half the designers are aware of evidence-based guideline sets, and guidelines are predominantly used as memory aids. Ultimately alternatives to guidelines, such as checklists or pattern libraries, may yield the best results in our efforts to share research knowledge with communities of practice.

Bookmark: T.An.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Intuitive user-guided appearance editing
Author: An, Xiaobo
Editor: Pellacini, Fabio
Date: 2011-11
Pages: 87
Publisher: Dartmouth College, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 742057595
Keywords: Image processing
Keywords: Computer algorithms
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/75/3475118.html
Absract: We present new appearance editing algorithms that allow artists to perform complex editing operations on spatially-varying appearance datasets such as images and measured materials, in an intuitive and efficient manner. The goal is to develop editing frameworks that require minimal user input while allowing maximal artistic freedom, and generate editing results that respect user intentions while exhibiting no visual artifacts. These algorithms employ the same fundamental principle that regions of similar appearance should be edited in a similar way, which has proven to be crucial for meaningful appearance editing. In this context, this thesis includes the following appearance editing algorithms: (1) AppProp: an efficient and general edit propagation framework where users specify "rough" adjustments to different regions of appearance datasets, while our algorithm automatically refines these edits interactively. (2) Ucct: a new user-driven framework to perform tonal and color adjustments in images by using color references. (3) AppWarp: a novel framework for editing measured materials where the desired edits are implicitly defined by template measured materials. We have tested the proposed frameworks on a variety of appearance datasets, and performed stability and performance analysis on all the algorithms presented.

Bookmark: T.Cooper.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Computational affect detection for education and health
Author: Cooper, David G.
Editor: Siegelmann, Hava T.
Editor: Woolf, Beverly Park
Editor: Barto, Andrew G.
Date: 2011-09
Pages: 102
City: Amherst, Massachusetts
Publisher: University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 777559100
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems
Keywords: Computer-assisted instruction
Keywords: affect detection, intelligent tutoring systems, linear classifiers, multimodal sensors, speech prosody, visual tracking
Weblink: scholarworks.umass.edu/open_access_dissertations/437
Absract: Emotional intelligence has a prominent role in education, health care, and day to day interaction. With the increasing use of computer technology, computers are interacting with more and more individuals. This interaction provides an opportunity to increase knowledge about human emotion for human consumption, well-being, and improved computer adaptation. This thesis explores the efficacy of using up to four different sensors in three domains for computational affect detection. We first consider computer-based education, where a collection of four sensors is used to detect student emotions relevant to learning, such as frustration, confidence, excitement and interest while students use a computer geometry tutor. The best classier of each emotion in terms of accuracy ranges from 78% to 87.5%. We then use voice data collected in a clinical setting to differentiate both gender and culture of the speaker. We produce classifiers with accuracies between 84% and 94% for gender, and between 58% and 70% for American vs. Asian culture, and we find that classifiers for distinguishing between four cultures do not perform better than chance. Finally, we use video and audio in a health care education scenario to detect students' emotions during a clinical simulation evaluation. The video data provides classifiers with accuracies between 63% and 88% for the emotions of confident, anxious, frustrated, excited, and interested. We find the audio data to be too complex to single out the voice source of the student by automatic means. In total, this work is a step forward in the automatic computational detection of affect in realistic settings.

Bookmark: T.Miner.2011
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: What Is Simple Is Usable: Is Beauty Truly A Predictor Of Perceived Usability?
Author: Miner, William George
Editor: Feathers, David Joseph
Date: 2011-08-31
Pages: 139
City: Ithaca, New York
Publisher: Cornell University
Standard number: oclcnum: 798092861
Keywords: Usability
Keywords: Aesthetics
Keywords: Simplicity
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1813/29509
Absract: For more than a decade, the correlation between beauty and perceived usability has been a popular topic of focus in both Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Human Factors (HF) circles. As opposed to previous research that has mainly looked at how attractive designs can increase usability (Tractinsky, 2000), this thesis explores the directionality of the correlation between beauty and perceived usability. Specifically, to what extent does attractiveness increase and unattractiveness decrease perceived usability? It was hypothesized that a bad design would have more of an impact on perceived usability than a good one. Thus, based on the phenomenon of "negativity bias" (Baumeister et al., 2001; Rozin & Royzman, 2001; Griffin & Langlois, 2006), an experiment was designed to test if an "ugly" design had more of an effect on usability, in the negative direction, than a "beautiful" design had in the positive direction. Additionally, it was hypothesized that this perception of usability may change over time. Similar to the methods used by Tractinsky (2000) and Soderegger & Sauer (2010), measures were taken before and after using a blogging website. A preliminary study (N=48) was conducted to determine which of the 12 researcher generated layouts were the most beautiful, ugly, and aesthetically neutral. The 3 layouts that were selected -- "beautiful", "ugly", and "neutral" -- were then applied to three different blogs that had identical structure, content, and usability. In a second, separate "main study" experiment, participants (N=69) were first presented with a static image of their assigned blog/beauty level. They then completed an abbreviated version of the System Usability Scale (SUS) and the Standardized Universal Percentile Rank Questionnaire (SUPR-Q). Next, the users were allowed five minutes to "surf" the website before they completed a second SUS and SUPR-Q. Overall, the main study experiment was a between subjects 3 x 2 factorial design with the independent variable of aesthetic level (beautiful, ugly, neutral) crossed with the independent variable of time (pre-use and post-use). The dependent variable was usability, as recorded by a System Usability Scale (SUS) and Standardized Universal Percentile Rank Questionnaire (SUPR-Q). The results of the experiment did not support Tractinsky's (2000) findings that the more beautiful a design is, the higher it's perceived usability will be. Rather, the "neutral" blog received significantly higher (p<.05) ratings of perceived usability that both the beautiful and ugly designs -- which had significantly similar (p>.05) rated usability. In agreement with Tractinsky (2000) however, there was a significant increase in rating between pre and post use of the blogs. Overall, these results suggest that beauty may not intrinsically influence perceived usability. In fact, it may be that simplicity -- as seen in design of the "neutral" blog -- is the true influencer of perceived usability and "beautiful" designs are merely predisposed to be more "simple" than ugly ones. Because of these and other novel results, further research is needed to tease out the true effect of beauty and simplicity on usability.

Bookmark: T.Yang.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Graphic user interface modelling and testing automation
Author: Yang, Xuebing
Editor: Miao, Yuan
Editor: Zhang, Yanchun
Date: 2011-07-27
Pages: 203
City: Melbourne, Australia
Publisher: Victoria University, School of Engineering and Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 756742622
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces (Computer systems); testing
Keywords: graphic user interface, GUI, graphical user interface, modelling, knowledge models, testing automation, automation testing, GUI testing, Graphic User Interface Testing Automation Model, GUITAM, GUI Defect Classification, defect classification, EFG, Event Flow Graph, Long Use Case Closure Envelope Model, envelope models, task-oriented test cases, UCBB, Use Case Backbone
Weblink: eprints.vu.edu.au/16066
Absract: A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is the most widely used method whereby information systems interact with users. According to ACM Computing Surveys, on average, more than 45% of software code in a software application is dedicated to the GUI. However, GUI testing is extremely expensive. In unit testing, 10,000 cases can often be automatically tested within a minute whereas, in GUI testing, 10,000 simple GUI test cases need more than 10 hours to complete. This thesis effectively addresses the challenges of existing GUI testing methods and provides a unified solution to GUI testing automation. The three main contributions of this thesis are the proposal of the Graphic User Interface Testing Automation Model (GUITAM), the development of GUI Defect Classification and the proposal of the Long Use Case Closure Envelope Model.

Bookmark: T.Ferguson.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Mutually reinforcing systems
Author: Ferguson, John Urquhart
Editor: Chalmers, Matthew
Date: 2011-07-26
Pages: 281
Publisher: University of Glasgow, Department of Computing Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 746467452
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Human-machine systems
Keywords: Interactive multimedia
Keywords: Entertainment computing
Keywords: Diffusion of innovations
Keywords: Information technology
Keywords: mutually reinforcing systems, human computation, gwap, games with a purpose, games with by-products, mobile multi-player games, mobile multiplayer games, mobile multi player games, mobile photography, EyeSpy, Realise, subjective reward system, subjective reward systems, system design, crowdsourcing, serious games, designing against cheating
Weblink: theses.gla.ac.uk/2760
Absract: Human computation can be described as outsourcing part of a computational process to humans. This technique might be used when a problem can be solved better by humans than computers or it may require a level of adaptation that computers are not yet capable of handling. This can be particularly important in changeable settings which require a greater level of adaptation to the surrounding environment. In most cases, human computation has been used to gather data that computers struggle to create. Games with by-products can provide an incentive for people to carry out such tasks by rewarding them with entertainment. These are games which are designed to create a by-product during the course of regular play. However, such games have traditionally been unable to deal with requests for specific data, relying instead on a broad capture of data in the hope that it will cover specific needs. A new method is needed to focus the efforts of human computation and produce specifically requested results. This would make human computation a more valuable and versatile technique. Mutually reinforcing systems are a new approach to human computation that tries to attain this focus. Ordinary human computation systems tend to work in isolation and do not work directly with each other. Mutually reinforcing systems are an attempt to allow multiple human computation systems to work together so that each can benefit from the other's strengths. For example, a non-game system can request specific data from a game. The game can then tailor its game-play to deliver the required by-products from the players. This is also beneficial to the game because the requests become game content, creating variety in the game-play which helps to prevent players getting bored of the game. Mobile systems provide a particularly good test of human computation because they allow users to react to their environment. Real world environments are changeable and require higher levels of adaptation from the users. This means that, in addition to the human computation required by other systems, mobile systems can also take advantage of a user's ability to apply environmental context to the computational task. This research explores the effects of mutually reinforcing systems on mobile games with by-products. These effects will be explored by building and testing mutually reinforcing systems, including mobile games. A review of existing literature, human computation systems and games with by-products will set out problems which exist in outsourcing parts of a computational process to humans. Mutually reinforcing systems are presented as one approach of addressing some of these problems. Example systems have been created to demonstrate the successes and failures of this approach and their evolving designs have been documented. The evaluation of these systems will be presented along with a discussion of the outcomes and possible future work. A conclusion will summarize the findings of the work carried out. This dissertation shows that extending human computation techniques to allow the collection and classification of useful contextual information in mobile environments is possible and can be extended to allow the by-products to match the specific needs of another system.

Bookmark: T.Babalola.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Brain-computer interfaces for inducing brain plasticity and motor learning: implications for brain-injury rehabilitation
Author: Babalola, Karolyn Olatubosun
Editor: Butera, Robert J.
Editor: Moore-Jackson, Melody
Date: 2011-07-08
Pages: 165
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 761938847
Keywords: Cerebrovascular disease
Keywords: Robotics in medicine
Keywords: Human-robot interaction
Keywords: Brain-computer interfaces
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Sensorimotor rhythms
Keywords: Beta coherence
Keywords: Rate of learning
Keywords: Learning curves
Keywords: Robotic rehabilitation
Keywords: Brain plasticity
Keywords: Motor learning
Keywords: Motor imagery
Keywords: Brain injury
Keywords: Guided-imagery
Keywords: Closed-loop
Keywords: SMR
Keywords: Rehabilitation
Keywords: Beta
Keywords: Mu
Keywords: Stroke
Keywords: EEG
Keywords: R2
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/41164
Absract: The goal of this investigation was to explore the efficacy of implementing a rehabilitation robot controlled by a noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI) to influence brain plasticity and facilitate motor learning. The motivation of this project stemmed from the need to address the population of stroke survivors who have few or no options for therapy.: A stroke occurs every 40 seconds in the United States and it is the leading cause of long-term disability [1-3]. In a country where the elderly population is growing at an astounding rate, one in six persons above the age of 55 is at risk of having a stroke. Internationally, the rates of strokes and stroke-induced disabilities are comparable to those of the United States [1, 4-6]. Approximately half of all stroke survivors suffer from immediate unilateral paralysis or weakness, 30-60% of which never regain function [1, 6-9]. Many individuals who survive stroke will be forced to seek institutional care or long-term assistance.

Bookmark: T.Chetty.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Making infrastructure visible: a case study of home networking
Author: Chetty, Marshini
Editor: Grinter, Rebecca E.
Date: 2011-06-24
Pages: 187
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Computing
Standard number: oclcnum: 761942111
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Local area networks (Computer networks)
Keywords: Home computer networks
Keywords: Inspectability
Keywords: Visibility
Keywords: Infrastructure
Keywords: Home networking
Keywords: Human computer interaction
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/41152
Absract: In this dissertation, I examine how making infrastructure visible affects users' engagement with that infrastructure, through the case study of home networking. I present empirical evidence of the visibility issues that home networks present to users and how these results informed the design of a prototype called Kermit to visualize aspects of the home network. Through my implementation and evaluation of Kermit, I derive implications for making infrastructure visible in ways that enable end-users to manage and understand the systems they use everyday. I conclude with suggestions for future work for making home networks, and infrastructure more generally, more visible.

Bookmark: T.Calix.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Automated semantic understanding of human emotions in writing and speech
Author: Calix, Ricardo A.
Editor: Knapp, Gerald
Date: 2011-06-13
City: Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Publisher: Louisiana State University, Engineering Science (Interdepartmental Program)
Standard number: oclcnum: 768331125
Keywords: natural language processing; machine learning; human computer interaction
Weblink: etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-06292011-153733
Absract: Affective Human Computer Interaction (A-HCI) will be critical for the success of new technologies that will prevalent in the 21st century. If cell phones and the internet are any indication, there will be continued rapid development of automated assistive systems that help humans to live better, more productive lives. These will not be just passive systems such as cell phones, but active assistive systems like robot aides in use in hospitals, homes, entertainment room, office, and other work environments. Such systems will need to be able to properly deduce human emotional state before they determine how to best interact with people. This dissertation explores and extends the body of knowledge related to Affective HCI. New semantic methodologies are developed and studied for reliable and accurate detection of human emotional states and magnitudes in written and spoken speech; and for mapping emotional states and magnitudes to 3-D facial expression outputs. The automatic detection of affect in language is based on natural language processing and machine learning approaches. Two affect corpora were developed to perform this analysis. Emotion classification is performed at the sentence level using a step-wise approach which incorporates sentiment flow and sentiment composition features. For emotion magnitude estimation, a regression model was developed to predict evolving emotional magnitude of actors. Emotional magnitudes at any point during a story or conversation are determined by 1) previous emotional state magnitude; 2) new text and speech inputs that might act upon that state; and 3) information about the context the actors are in. Acoustic features are also used to capture additional information from the speech signal. Evaluation of the automatic understanding of affect is performed by testing the model on a testing subset of the newly extended corpus. To visualize actor emotions as perceived by the system, a methodology was also developed to map predicted emotion class magnitudes to 3-D facial parameters using vertex-level mesh morphing. The developed sentence level emotion state detection approach achieved classification accuracies as high as 71% for the neutral vs. emotion classification task in a test corpus of children's stories. After class re-sampling, the results of the step-wise classification methodology on a test sub-set of a medical drama corpus achieved accuracies in the 56% to 84% range for each emotion class and polarity. For emotion magnitude prediction, the developed recurrent (prior-state feedback) regression model using both text-based and acoustic based features achieved correlation coefficients in the range of 0.69 to 0.80. This prediction function was modeled using a non-linear approach based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) and performed better than other approaches based on Linear Regression or Artificial Neural Networks.

Bookmark: T.Dantec.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Community resource messenger: a mobile system and design exploration in support of the urban homeless
Author: Dantec, Christopher Alexis Le
Editor: Edwards, W. Keith
Date: 2011-06-09
Pages: 281
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Computing
Standard number: oclcnum: 761938828
Keywords: Communication and technology
Keywords: Communication
Keywords: Information technology
Keywords: Homeless persons
Keywords: Participatory design
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Values in design
Keywords: Social computing
Keywords: Urban computing
Keywords: Homeless
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/41128
Absract: Access to computers, to mobile phones, and to data connectivity has opened new avenues of interaction and created expectations about the flattening of society brought about by these new modes of production. These technologies have enabled us to recognize many forms of community -- from close knit social groups to individuals who merely co-habit public spaces -- and to support interaction with each other in novel ways. The notion that modern digital technology holds promises of democratization by expanding access to information and broadening modes of knowledge production often fails to acknowledge that these benefits rely upon devices and infrastructure whose availability reflect socioeconomic contours; that the technologies that enable information access can also reinforce rather than obviate marginality due to barriers to access and suitability. This assessment points to opportunities for better understanding and better designing technologies for the marginalized or dispossessed. The research presented in this dissertation discusses the findings from empirical, theoretical, and design based investigations of technology use with the urban homeless. The empirical work provides a foundation for understanding current technology practices among the homeless and their care providers. The theoretical investigation develops Deweyan publics as a novel frame for participatory design. The design-based investigation presents findings from the design and deployment of the Community Resource Messenger at a shelter for homeless mothers. The results of this research shed light on impact of social computing platforms on social service provision and on the ways the staff and residents used the Community Resource Messenger as a resource for identifying common issues and taking action to contend with those issues.

Bookmark: T.McBryan.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A generic approach to the evolution of interaction in ubiquitous systems
Author: McBryan, Tony
Editor: Gray, Phil D.
Date: 2011-06-02
Pages: 289
Publisher: University of Glasgow, Department of Computing Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 733242271
Keywords: Evaluation, evolution, configuration, interactive systems, dynamic, model based
Keywords: Interactive computer systems
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Interactive computer systems
Keywords: Computer software
Weblink: theses.gla.ac.uk/2620
Absract: This dissertation addresses the challenge of the configuration of modern (ubiquitous, context-sensitive, mobile et al.) interactive systems where it is difficult or impossible to predict (i) the resources available for evolution, (ii) the criteria for judging the success of the evolution, and (iii) the degree to which human judgements must be involved in the evaluation process used to determine the configuration. In this thesis a conceptual model of interactive system configuration over time (known as interaction evolution) is presented which relies upon the follow steps; (i) identification of opportunities for change in a system, (ii) reflection on the available configuration alternatives, (iii) decision-making and (iv) implementation, and finally iteration of the process. This conceptual model underpins the development of a dynamic evolution environment based on a notion of configuration evaluation functions (hereafter referred to as evaluation functions) that provides greater flexibility than current solutions and, when supported by appropriate tools, can provide a richer set of evaluation techniques and features that are difficult or impossible to implement in current systems. Specifically this approach has support for changes to the approach, style or mode of use used for configuration -- these features may result in more effective systems, less effort involved to configure them and a greater degree of control may be offered to the user. The contributions of this work include; (i) establishing the need for configuration evolution through a literature review and a motivating case study experiment, (ii) development of a conceptual process model supporting interaction evolution, (iii) development of a model based on the notion of evaluation functions which is shown to support a wide range of interaction configuration approaches, (iv) a characterisation of the configuration evaluation space, followed by (v) an implementation of these ideas used in (vi) a series of longitudinal technology probes and investigations into the approaches.

Bookmark: T.Kavathekar.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Assisting human motion-tasks with minimal, real-time feedback
Author: Kavathekar, Paritosh A.
Editor: Balkcom, Devin
Date: 2011-06
Pages: 130
Publisher: Dartmouth College, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 741517773
Keywords: Human locomotion; Computer-assisted instruction
Keywords: Real-time data processing
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~devin/papers/TR2011-695.pdf
Absract: Teaching physical motions such as riding, exercising, swimming, etc. to human beings is hard. Coaches face difficulties in communicating their feedback verbally and cannot correct the student mid-action; teaching videos are two dimensional and suffer from perspective distortion. Systems that track a user and provide him real-time feedback have many potential applications: as an aid to the visually challenged, improving rehabilitation, improving exercise routines such as weight training or yoga, teaching new motion tasks, synchronizing motions of multiple actors, etc. It is not easy to deliver real-time feedback in a way that is easy to interpret, yet unobtrusive enough to not distract the user from the motion task. I have developed motion feedback systems that provide real-time feedback to achieve or improve human motion tasks. These systems track the user's actions with simple sensors, and use tiny vibration motors as feedback devices. Vibration motors provide feedback that is both intuitive and minimally intrusive. My systems' designs are simple, flexible, and extensible to large-scale, full-body motion tasks. The systems that I developed as part of this thesis address two classes of motion tasks: configuration tasks and trajectory tasks. Configuration tasks guide the user to a target configuration. My systems for configuration tasks use a motion-capture system to track the user. Configuration-task systems restrict the user's motions to a set of motion primitives, and guide the user to the target configuration by executing a sequence of motion-primitives. Trajectory tasks assume that the user understands the motion task. The systems for trajectory tasks provide corrective feedback that assists the user in improving their performance. This thesis presents the design, implementation, and results of user experiments with the prototype systems I have developed.

Bookmark: T.Linker.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A knowledge base and question answering system based on Loglan and English
Author: Linker, Sheldon
Editor: Seals, Cheryl
Date: 2011-05-09
Pages: 156
Publisher: Auburn University, Computer Science and Software Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 756658304
Keywords: Computational linguistics
Keywords: Natural language processing (Computer science)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Knowledge base; data base; artificial intelligence
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/10415/2501
Absract: One of the "holy grails" of computational linguistics has been to have a machine carry out a conversation, and to have some idea of what it is talking about. Loglan's machine grammar was a first attempt to carry out such a project using a grammar which was unambiguous, yet able to encompass the whole of human discourse. Writing a logical, speakable language, with a SLR-1 (simple left-to-right parsing, with one look-ahead) grammar, and then reducing that to a functional form results in a language which is hard to use for spoken logic, and is hard to translate into. A more useful way to go is to use the symbols of predicate, first-order logic, second-order logic, and higher-order logic, to use the word-classes of Loglan, to build a functional form from those in combination, and then to work backward from such a functional form to a speakable language, as much like English and Loglan, in priority order, as possible. Such a language is feasible, speakable, understandable, and useful (Linker, 2007). The result was the JCB-English language. The thesis presented herein is that JBC-English can be improved by a number of means, making the language easier to learn and speak, more concise, and faster to process. The research and development projects detailed herein are to produce an improved version of the language, and the language processing system, which can be effectively used for human and machine discourse, and a demonstration system, which converses in this language, in such a way as to be useful in business and academia.

Bookmark: T.Alzomai.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Identity management: strengthening one-time password authentication through usability
Author: Alzomai, Mohammed Hamad
Editor: Jøsang, Audun
Editor: McCullagh, Adrian
Date: 2011-05
Pages: 191
City: Brisbane, Australia
Publisher: Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane
Standard number: oclcnum: 755714827
Keywords: thesis; doctoral
Keywords: one-time-password; hardware token; software token; trusted computing; display security; SMS; mobile phone; cellular network
Keywords: security; usability; identity management; authentication; authorization; scalability; online banking; password
Weblink: eprints.qut.edu.au/46213/
Absract: Usability in HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) is normally understood as the simplicity and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site is designed. Identity management systems need to provide adequate usability and should have a simple and intuitive interface. The system should not only be designed to satisfy service provider requirements but it has to consider user requirements, otherwise it will lead to inconvenience and poor usability for users when managing their identities. With poor usability and a poor user interface with regard to security, it is highly likely that the system will have poor security. The rapid growth in the number of online services leads to an increasing number of different digital identities each user needs to manage. As a result, many people feel overloaded with credentials, which in turn negatively impacts their ability to manage them securely. Passwords are perhaps the most common type of credential used today. To avoid the tedious task of remembering difficult passwords, users often behave less securely by using low entropy and weak passwords. Weak passwords and bad password habits represent security threats to online services. Some solutions have been developed to eliminate the need for users to create and manage passwords. A typical solution is based on generating one-time passwords, i.e. passwords for single session or transaction usage. Unfortunately, most of these solutions do not satisfy scalability and/or usability requirements, or they are simply insecure. In this thesis, the security and usability aspects of contemporary methods for authentication based on one-time passwords (OTP) are examined and analyzed. In addition, more scalable solutions that provide a good user experience while at the same time preserving strong security are proposed.

Bookmark: T.Bedrick.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Increasing access to medical knowledge using multilingual search interfaces
Author: Bedrick, Steven
Editor: Hersh, William R.
Date: 2011-05
Pages: 360
Publisher: Oregon Health & Science University, Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology
Standard number: oclcnum: 732686709
Keywords: Information Storage and Retrieval
Keywords: User-Computer Interface
Keywords: Translations
Keywords: Attitude to Computers
Keywords: PubMed
Keywords: Hispanic Americans
Keywords: Information storage and retrieval systems; Medicine
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Cross-language information retrieval
Keywords: Latin Americans
Weblink: drl.ohsu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/etd/id/965
Absract: Clinicians have numerous and diverse information needs, and face a similarly diverse variety of obstacles preventing those needs from being met. Some of these obstacles are technical in nature, while others are organizational or educational. For many of the world's clinicians, however, one of the most important obstacles is linguistic: the vast majority of internationally-published medical and scientific literature is written in the English language, which means that many potential users of this content are unable to do so without expending the significant additional time and effort required to read a foreign language. Machine translation and cross-language information retrieval may be able to assist non-native-English speaking clinicians who wish to make use of English-language medical literature; however, there is relatively little research about how such technologies might be adapted for use in clinical settings, or how such adaptations might be evaluated. This dissertation describes...

Bookmark: T.Holloway.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Simplifying the programming of intelligent environments
Author: Holloway, Seth Michael
Editor: Julien, Christine
Date: 2011-05
Pages: 210
City: Austin, Texas
Publisher: University of Texas at Austin
Standard number: oclcnum: 731040652
Keywords: Devices; Intelligent environments; Sensors; Actuators; Ubiquitous computing; Ubicomp; Computer programming; Smart homes; Aware homes; Aware devices; Smart devices; Usability
Weblink: repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/ETD-UT-2011-05-3368/HOLLOWAY-DISSERTATION.pdf
Absract: In the future, computers will be virtually everywhere: carried by everyone and integrated into the environment. The increased computation and communication capabilities will enable intelligent environments that react to occupants through automated decision-making. Devices (senors and actuators) are the key to making intelligent environments a reality. We believe that devices must be made more approachable for average users. Existing approaches to application development for intelligent environments require detailed knowledge about devices and their low-level programming interfaces, which greatly limits the number of potential users. Instead of limiting users, we must enable everyone to program the devices around them. Intelligent environments will not be commonplace until average people can set up and manage the hardware and software necessary for their personalized applications. In simplifying the programming of intelligent environments, we first made sensors and actuators accessible to average programmers then extended our work to end-users. We term the former contribution Sensor Enablement for Average Programmers (SEAP); the latter work is Sensor Enablement for End-Users (SEEU). In our experience, devices' disparate, niche programming languages and communication protocols presented great difficult in developing intelligent environments. To ease the development effort for average programmers, we abstracted and standardized complex sensor and actuator interactions, allowing users to instead think in terms of well-understood web applications. users have said that the SEAP is easy-to-use and exciting. But what about average people, end-users? we found that end-users are incredibly interested in intelligent environments. By engaging end-users we can create intelligent environments even faster and allow domain experts to tailor their environment. This dissertation's second contribution, Sensor Enablement for End-Users (SEEU) provides a visual programming interface that allows users to create personalized automated behaviors given available devices and data. We performed several users studies to uncover people's desire for intelligent environments and determine the best interface for managing an intelligent environment. SEEU combines an intuitive interface with the power and flexibility of SEAP. SEEU is a usable end-user programming framework that allows average people to create useful applications for their intelligent environments. With SEEU and SEAP, we simplified the development of intelligent environments, reducing barriers to adoption of emerging sensing and actuation technologies. We demonstrated the feasibility with a series of user studies.

Bookmark: T.Kerr.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Appearance-design interfaces and tools for computer cinematography: evaluation and application
Author: Kerr, William B.
Editor: Pellacini, Fabio
Date: 2011-03
Pages: 127
Publisher: Dartmouth College, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 740889694
Keywords: Digital cinematography
Keywords: Cinematography
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems); evaluation
Weblink: www.cs.dartmouth.edu/reports/abstracts/TR2011-696/
Weblink: www.cs.dartmouth.edu/reports/TR2011-696.pdf
Absract: We define appearance design as the creation and editing of scene content such as lighting and surface materials in computer graphics. The appearance design process takes a significant amount of time relative to other production tasks and poses difficult artistic challenges. Many user interfaces have been proposed to make appearance design faster, easier, and more expressive, but no formal validation of these interfaces had been published prior to our body of work. With a focus on novice users, we present a series of investigations into the strengths and weaknesses of various appearance design user interfaces. In particular, we develop an experimental methodology for the evaluation of representative user interface paradigms in the areas of lighting and material design. We conduct three user studies having subjects perform design tasks under controlled conditions. In these studies, we discover new insight into the effectiveness of each paradigm for novices measured by objective performance as well as subjective feedback. We also offer observations on common workflow and capabilities of novice users in these domains. We use the results of our lighting study to develop a new representation for artistic control of lighting, where light travels along nonlinear paths.

Bookmark: T.Chenzira.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Haptic cinema: an art practice on the interactive digital media tabletop
Author: Chenzira, Ayoka
Editor: Mazalek, Ali
Date: 2011-01-31
Pages: 162
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Literature, Communication, and Culture
Standard number: oclcnum: 757710854
Keywords: Experimental films
Keywords: Touch
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Haptic devices
Keywords: Expanded cinema
Keywords: Tabletop cinema
Keywords: Interactive cinema
Keywords: Digital media
Keywords: Tabletop computing
Keywords: New media
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/39500
Absract: Common thought about cinema calls to mind an audience seated in a darkened theatre watching projected moving images that unfold a narrative onto a single screen. Cinema is much more than this. There is a significant history of artists experimenting with the moving image outside of its familiar setting in a movie theatre. These investigations are often referred to as "expanded cinema". This dissertation proposes a genre of expanded cinema called haptic cinema, an approach to interactive narrative that emphasizes material object sensing, identification and management; viewer's interaction with material objects; multisequential narrative; and the presentation of visual and audio information through multiple displays to create a sensorially rich experience for viewers. The interactive digital media tabletop is identified as one platform on which to develop haptic cinema. This platform supports a subgenre of haptic cinema called tabletop cinema. Expanded cinema practices are analyzed for their contributions to haptic cinema. Based on this theoretical and artistic research, the thesis claims that haptic cinema contributes to the historical development of expanded cinema and interactive cinema practices. I have identified the core properties of a haptic cinema practice during the process of designing, developing and testing a series of haptic cinema projects. These projects build on and make use of methods and conventions from tangible interfaces, tangible narratives and tabletop computing.

Bookmark: T.Wright.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A comparative study of hypermedia information navigation in 2D and virtual environments
Author: Wright, Kecia
Date: 2011
Pages: 128
Publisher: University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Standard number: oclcnum: 756766022
Keywords: Shared virtual environments
Keywords: Interactive multimedia
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Visualization

Bookmark: T.Xiong.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Combining subject expert experimental data with standard data in Bayesian mixture modeling
Author: Xiong, Hui
Editor: Allen, Theodore
Date: 2011
City: Columbus, Ohio
Publisher: Ohio State University, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 755555928
Keywords: Quality engineering
Keywords: Bayesian mixture model
Keywords: Topic model
Keywords: Unstructured data
Keywords: Freestyle text
Keywords: Collapsed Gibbs Sampling
Keywords: Text mining
Keywords: Data mining
Keywords: Human computer interaction
Keywords: Subject matter experT
Weblink: rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view.cgi
Absract: Engineers face many quality-related datasets containing free-style text or images. For example, a database could include summaries of complaints filed by customers, or descriptions of the causes of rework or maintenance or of the associated actions taken, or a collection of quality inspection images of welded tubes. The goal of this dissertation is to enable engineers to input a database of free-style text or image data and then obtain a set of clusters or "topics" with intuitive definitions and information about the degree of commonality that together helps prioritize system improvement. The proposed methods generate Pareto charts of ranked clusters or topics with their interpretability improved by input from the analyst or method user. The combination of subject matter expert data with standard data is the novel feature of the methods considered. Prior to the methods proposed here, analysts applied Bayesian mixture models and had limited recourse if the cluster or topic definitions failed to be interpretable or are at odds with the knowledge of subject matter experts. The associated "Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic" (SMERT) model permits on-going knowledge elicitation and high-level human expert data integration to address the issues regarding: (1) unsupervised topic models often produce results to user, and (2) to provide a "Hierarchical Analysis Designed Latency Experiment" (HANDLE) for human expert to interact with the model results. If grouping are missing key elements, so-called "boosting" these elements is possible. If certain members of a cluster are nonsensical or nonphysical, so-called "zapping" these nonsensical elements is possible. We also describe a fast Collapsed Gibbs Sampling (CGS) algorithm for SMERT method, which offers the capacity to efficiently SMERT model large datasets but which is associated with approximations in certain cases. We use three case studies to illustrate the proposed methods. The first relates to scrap text reports for a Chinese manufacturer of stone products. The second relates to laser welding of tube joints and images characterizing bead shape. The third case study relates to consumer reports text user reviews of the Toyota Camry. The user reviews cover 10 years and the widely publicized acceleration issue. In all cases, the SMERT models help provide interpretable groupings of records in a way that could facilitate data-driven prioritization of improvement actions.

Bookmark: T.Niculescu.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Conversational interfaces for task-oriented spoken dialogues: design aspects influencing interaction quality
Author: Niculescu, Andreea I.
Editor: Nijholt, Anton
Editor: van Dijk, Betsy
Date: 2011
Pages: 207
City: Enschede, Netherlands
Publisher: Universiteit Twente
Standard number: oclcnum: 792898527
Keywords: Intelligent agents (Computer software)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Artificial intelligence
Keywords: Interactive multimedia
Weblink: eprints.eemcs.utwente.nl/21313/
Absract: This dissertation focuses on the design and evaluation of speech-based conversational interfaces for task-oriented dialogues. Conversational interfaces are software programs enabling interaction with computer devices through natural language dialogue. Even though processing conversational speech is a challenging problem, mainly because users' spoken language can be extremely variable, the speech modality remains an attractive option because of its naturalness: speech is learned since childhood, that means, users neither need to learn nor to adapt to the designer's interaction style. Also, speech can be very useful in situations when users cannot use other input modalities (e.g. while driving, accessing the interfaces over the phone, using pocket size devices or when impaired). The technological growth of the past decades brought conversational interfaces to a level of maturity which allows widespread application. Examples include interactive information systems, in-car applications, smart environments, media guides, training and educational systems, social robots, and so on. Therefore, the design and evaluation of conversational interfaces towards achieving a better interaction quality are as crucial as ever.

Bookmark: T.Spencer.2011
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Evaluating trademark design
Author: Spencer, Katherine L.
Editor: Laraway, Sean
Date: 2011
Pages: 115
City: San Jose, California
Publisher: San Jose State University, Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 743225296
Keywords: Trademarks
Keywords: Graphic design (Typography)
Keywords: graphic; human factors; trademark; usability
Weblink: scholarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_theses/3954
Absract: Trademarks serve as visual representations of a company's name, product, or values. This research sought to determine the effect of the application of human factors principles and graphic design principles on trademark design. A computerized questionnaire was employed to investigate the emotional impact, comprehension, and recall of trademarks based on their type (typographic elements or graphic elements), their subject-content compatibility, and their adherence to human factors and graphic design principles. Trademark type had a significant effect on comprehension of trademarks but no significant effect on emotional impact or recall. Trademarks with high subject-content compatibility and trademarks that use visual metaphor resulted in significantly higher comprehension (as measured by ability to match trademark to company description), indicating that the graphic design community may want to consider utilizing graphics with high subject-content compatibility or visual metaphor if comprehension is determined to be an important focus during the trademark design process.

Bookmark: T.Brown.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Exploring how urban older adult participants of a computer training program learn, use, and make sense of computer technology in their everyday lives
Author: Brown, James H.
Date: 2011
Pages: 236
Publisher: University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Urban Education
Standard number: oclcnum: 793599815
Keywords: Internet and older people
Keywords: Technology and older people
Keywords: Adult learning
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Older people; Psychology
Keywords: Library outreach programs
Weblink: library.villanova.edu/Find/Summon/Record
Absract: The purpose of this qualitative interpretive study was to explore how urban older adult participants of a basic computer training program use their experiences, strategies, and perceptions so that they can learn, use, and make sense of computer technology in their everyday lives. The study context involved an urban library system computer training program offered throughout the year in each of its branch libraries. Data were collected through eight semi-structured in-depth interviews and analyzed using a qualitative methodology over a period of 18 months. Findings showed that the older adult participants employed a number of behaviors, skills, and attitudes in order to deal with the human-computer interface (screen, mouse, and keyboard). They made sense of computer technology through their use of space, place, time, and mind interrelationships. Educators can use these findings to design training interventions for older adults as well as older worker-learners who choose to remain or return to the workplace.

Bookmark: T.Pongnumkul.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Facilitating interactive video browsing through content-aware task-centric interfaces
Author: Pongnumkul, Suporn
Editor: Cohen, Michael F.
Date: 2011
Pages: 122
Publisher: University of Washington, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 805158048
Keywords: Interactive videos
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/35/01/3501686.html
Absract: Videos have evolved beyond their original model of being produced and edited by professionals, and then watched by viewers. As various technologies (such as cheap camcorders, digital cameras, screen-capture software, etc.) have made video creation cheap and easy, users have adapted videos to fit their various needs. This has resulted in the emergence of many classes of videos, such as: home videos, tour videos, tutorial videos, etc. The range of video quality has also widened. Interactive video browsing is now a common mode of video interaction, for example skimming, speeding up/slowing down, frequent pausing and playing, etc. The typical interface for viewing videos (comprising of a naive timeline slider and a few buttons), while sufficient for linearly watching a video, leaves room for improvement with respect to interacting with emerging videos. More specifically, we looked at three problems: (1) video browsing using a naive timeline slider lacks precision and presents unpleasant frame flashing for video skimming, (2) certain types of videos can be better represented with a different overview than a timeline, and (3) when video browsing is closely coupled with some other task (as in the case of tutorial videos), integrating the video browser with the task can provide video browsing automation. To overcome these problems, we built prototypes that integrate content analysis, authoring and cross-application communication. This enhances the user's video browsing experience by focusing on each task for each system.

Bookmark: T.Chawner.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Factors influencing participant satisfaction with free/libre and open source software projects
Author: Chawner, Brenda
Editor: Huff, Sid
Editor: Gorman, Gary
Date: 2011
Pages: 303
Publisher: Victoria University of Wellington, Information Systems
Standard number: oclcnum: 743217469
Keywords: Open source software; Public opinion
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Evaluation
Keywords: Satisfaction; Testing
Weblink: researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz//handle/10063/1710
Absract: The purpose of this research was to identify factors that affect participants' satisfaction with their experience of a free/libre open source software (FLOSS) project. The research built on existing models of user satisfaction from the information systems literature, and also incorporated two characteristics of FLOSS projects first identified by Ye, Nakakoji, Yamamoto, and Kishida (2005), product openness and process openness. The central research question it answered was, What factors influence participant satisfaction with a free/libre and open source application software project? Richard Stallman's reasons for setting up the GNU project and the Free Software Foundation arose from his frustration at being forced to be a passive user of software used for a Xerox printer. These suggest that being able to be an active participant in a FLOSS project is one factor that should be examined, and therefore the first sub-question this project answers is, What types of contributions do participants make to free/libre and open source software projects? Several studies have shown that the extent of participation in a FLOSS project varies from individual to individual, and this variation leads to the second sub-question, Do the factors that influence satisfaction vary for different types of participation? If so, in what way? A preliminary conceptual model of factors affecting participant satisfaction was developed, reflecting the key concepts identified in the literature. The main theoretical goal of this research was to test the model using empirical data. The research used a sequential, mixed methods approach. The first, qualitative stage involved reviewing documents from selected projects and interviewing a purposive sample of FLOSS project participants. The second, quantitative stage involved an online survey of FLOSS project participants, and the data gathered were used to test the conceptual model. The results of the first stage showed that participation in FLOSS projects was a more complex construct than previously reported in the literature. Seven distinct categories of activities were identified: * use; * interaction with code; * supporting the community; * outreach; * sponsorship; * management; and * governance. Four attributes that modified these categories were also identified: organisational focus, role formality, remuneration, and time commitment. Data from 154 responses to the online survey were used to test the model using stepwise multiple regression, which determined the effect of each of the variables on overall participant satisfaction. Moderated regression analysis was used to test the effects of three potential moderating variables. The results showed that perceived system complexity had the largest effect, decreasing satisfaction if respondents perceived that the software was complex, while project openness and perceived developer communication quality accounted for the most variance in satisfaction. The main theoretical contribution of this research lies in its extension of satisfaction studies to FLOSS communities, showing that communication and openness are more important than in conventional software projects. Its practical contribution will help people involved in the management and governance of FLOSS projects to identify ways of increasing their participants' satisfaction, which may in turn encourage them to contribute more.

Bookmark: T.Kang.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Hybrid interactive rhetorical engagements in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs): examining the role of rhetors and audiences in generative rhetorical discourses
Author: Kang, Yowei
Editor: Scenters-Zapico, John
Date: 2011
Pages: 208
Publisher: University of Texas at El Paso, English Rhetoric & Composition
Standard number: oclcnum: 805234187
Keywords: Video gamers
Keywords: Computer games
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Discourse analysis, Literary
Keywords: Persuasion (Rhetoric)
Keywords: Socialism and rhetoric
Keywords: Expression
Keywords: World of Warcraft (Game)
Weblink: digitalcommons.utep.edu/dissertations/AAI3489982/
Absract: The dissertation explores the emerging rhetorical practices in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) in general and World of Warcraft (WoW) game in particular. The study applies Kenneth Burke's rhetorical theories and concepts to examine the persuasive processes employed by both game designers and players at various stages of their gameplay experiences. The author argues that the analysis of these interactive rhetorical discourses during gameplay helps rhetorical scholars to understand the emerging rhetorical practices where the rhetors and the audiences collaborate to co-generate their hybrid intensive rhetorical engagement (H.I.R.E.). On the basis of the gaming sessions captured by the researcher as a participating gameplayer, the author explains the typology and the manipulative processes leading to the formation of H.I.R.E. The author contends that the examination of H.I.R.E. as a rhetorical domain helps game rhetorical scholars to explore a broader rhetorical phenomenon, "the rhetoric of experience."

Bookmark: T.Avraam.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Improving designs of online participatory decision support systems
Author: Avraam, Michalis
Editor: Nyerges, Timothy L.
Date: 2011
Pages: 127
Publisher: University of Washington
Standard number: oclcnum: 775676849
Keywords: Decision support systems; Design and construction
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/85/3485338.html
Absract: Online participation in Analytic-Deliberative decision systems has been increasing after renewed calls for active involvement in governance by the public. In fostering such an increase, we investigate participatory systems in light of the Participatory Interaction Life-Cycle and its components of System Use, System Development and Evaluation. The study of fostering system use has been influenced by the offline world and the theories of social capital production and civic cooperation. We recast online participatory systems as the production of a public good, and hence make use of both social capital and civic cooperation ideas in promoting the production of public goods. As we are investigating online systems, we recast those ideas online, drawing parallels to build guidelines for implementing successful online participatory analytic-deliberative systems. We continue our investigation through the development phase by investigating a multitude of structured participation techniques used in the past. We compare and contrast both offline and online techniques to distill their common characteristics. Those characteristics are classified based on their aims, which allow us to create a framework for the evaluation of participatory systems. That framework is then driven through the design of a new participatory system which is modular in nature and would allow the recreation of existing structures, but most importantly allow for the creation of new structures. As an evaluation of existing systems and validation of the framework developed, we create a mixed-methods model of participation. Using the event logs of existing systems we identify how participants interact with the systems in regards to the framework developed. We proceed by investigating the core issue of how interaction with other inputs alters the behavior of participants through ontology and relations, to reach a set of recommendations on how one can include participants' beliefs and intents in refining our model of participation.

Bookmark: T.Varcholik.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Multi-touch for general-purpose computing: an examination of text entry
Author: Varcholik, Paul David
Editor: Hughes, Charles E.
Editor: LaViola, Joseph J.
Date: 2011
Pages: 277
City: Orlando, Florida
Publisher: University of Central Florida, College of Engineering & Computer Science, Department of Modeling & Simulation
Standard number: oclcnum: 748551702
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Electronic data processing
Weblink: purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/CFE0003711
Absract: In recent years, multi-touch has been heralded as a revolution in human-computer interaction. Multi-touch provides features such as gestural interaction, tangible interfaces, pen-based computing, and interface customization -- features embraced by an increasingly tech-savvy public. However, multi-touch platforms have not been adopted as "everyday" computer interaction devices; that is, multi-touch has not been applied to general-purpose computing. The questions this thesis seeks to address are: Will the general public adopt these systems as their chief interaction paradigm? Can multi-touch provide such a compelling platform that it displaces the desktop mouse and keyboard? Is multi-touch truly the next revolution in human-computer interaction? As a first step toward answering these questions, we observe that general-purpose computing relies on text input, and ask: "Can multi-touch, without a text entry peripheral, provide a platform for efficient text entry? And, by extension, is such a platform viable for general-purpose computing?" We investigate these questions through four user studies that collected objective and subjective data for text entry and word processing tasks. The first of these studies establishes a benchmark for text entry performance on a multi-touch platform, across a variety of input modes. The second study attempts to improve this performance by examining an alternate input technique. The third and fourth studies include mouse-style interaction for formatting rich-text on a multi-touch platform, in the context of a word processing task. These studies establish a foundation for future efforts in general-purpose computing on a multi-touch platform. Furthermore, this work details deficiencies in tactile feedback with modern multi-touch platforms, and describes an exploration of audible feedback. Finally, the thesis conveys a vision for a general-purpose multi-touch platform, its design and rationale.

Bookmark: T.Leach.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Mutual shaping of gender and technology at New Brunswick's cap sites
Author: Leach, Lori
Date: 2011
Pages: 350
City: Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
Publisher: University of New Brunswick, Sociology
Standard number: oclcnum: 781900594
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Computer users
Keywords: Gender-based analysis

Bookmark: T.Froehlich.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Sensing and feedback of everyday activities to promote environmental behaviors
Author: Froehlich, Jon Edward
Editor: Landay, James A.
Editor: Patel, Shwetak N.
Date: 2011
Pages: 381
Publisher: University of Washington, Computer Science and Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 794749411
Keywords: Water consumption; Environmental aspects
Keywords: Transportation
Keywords: Feedback control systems; Design
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing
Keywords: Human behavior
Keywords: Environmental impact analysis
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/35/01/3501869.html
Weblink: Video Presentation
Absract: With population increases, global economic growth, and shifts in climate, the world is facing an unprecedented demand for resources that are becomingly increasingly scarce. Although often overlooked, our everyday activities such as commuting to work, showering, and clothes washing can have significant impact on the environment. The central problem addressed in this dissertation is not that humans negatively impact the environment -- indeed, some amount of impact is unavoidable -- but rather that we have insufficient means to monitor and understand this impact and to help change our behavior if we so desire. This dissertation focuses on creating new types of sensors to monitor and infer everyday human activity such as driving to work or taking a shower and taking this sensed information and feeding it back to the user in novel, engaging, and informative ways with the goal of increasing awareness and promoting environmentally responsible behavior. We refer to these sensing and feedback systems as eco-feedback technology. Our research takes advantage of a number of technology trends including the increasingly low cost of fast computation, advances in machine learning, and the prevalence and affordability of new types of display mediums (e.g., mobile phones) to design systems never before possible. This dissertation provides a theoretical perspective with which to guide the design of new eco-feedback systems as well as specific formative and technical contributions for eco-feedback in the domains of personal transportation any water usage. Key contributions include the invention of new low-cost sensing systems for monitoring and inferring transit routines and disaggregated water usage in the home along with eco-feedback visualizations that take advantage of this unprecedented data. The approaches, empirical findings and a design space for eco-feedback should be of interest to researchers working on eco-feedback in HCI, Ubicomp and environmental psychology, as well as to practitioners and designers tasked with constructing new types of ecofeedback systems and/or utility bills. More broadly, this dissertation also has implications for the construction of sensing and feedback technology in general, including domains such as persuasive technology, personal informatics, and health behavior change.

Bookmark: T.Cangiano.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Studying episodic access to personal digital activity: activity trails prototype
Author: Cangiano, Gaston R.
Editor: Hollan, James D.
Date: 2011
Pages: 181
City: La Jolla, California
Publisher: University of California, San Diego, Cognitive Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 759436696
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Computer multitasking
Keywords: Data transmission systems
Keywords: Communication
Keywords: Memory
Keywords: Computer storage devices
Keywords: Activity trails; Activity histories; Episodic memory; Personal digital activity
Weblink: wwwlib.umi.com/cr/fullcit
Absract: It was just a generation ago that computers entered the workplace. Back then, they only represented the work we did, nothing else. But today, some sort of computing device is involved in how we play, how we communicate, how we get our news and of course, how we work. What this means is that today almost all aspects of our lives are represented in some digital form. The rapid pace of change in technology and the dramatic shift in the use of computers has a cost associated with it. The legacy design of early computer systems is still prevalent in modern devices and goes unnoticed because of our familiarity with it. The desktop metaphor with its file and folder system, and the application paradigm with its document-centric view of information, both carry the legacy of a design that has far surpassed what it was originally designed to do. Digital representations should mediate what we do in the physical world, and since we do much more now than just work through computers, we need new representations that leverage our cognitive abilities in everyday life; in particular, present day computing devices do not facilitate the use of a powerful skill we use in our personal experiences, known as episodic memory. Episodic memory is how we remember our lives through stories. The human perceptual system samples the world continuously in order for the brain to store information, organize it and later recall it efficiently. At least this is the classic view of memory. However, people also leave a physical trace behind each and every one of their actions simply as the byproduct of their interaction with the environment. Because memory is finely tuned to reconstruct the past, our perceptual skills help us make meaning out of these traces. Time, proximity and familiar surroundings provide cues that naturally trigger our recollection of the past. Episodic memory is a human skill that taps into these cues by encoding the context surrounding events therefore allowing us to re-experience the past by recalling specific instances and the context in which they were experienced. Computers, in contrast to humans, only record the consequences of our actions and in doing so, they reduce the type and quantity of the memory cues available. Things have indeed changed dramatically in the last generation. Together with the avalanche of new digital gadgets and the general overwhelming presence of computers in our lives come new opportunities for research. One new and exciting ground for research is the use of activity recordings. The main research question of my work is understanding how to design an interface using these recordings to facilitate the use of episodic memory. There is a growing interest in the field of Human-Computer Interaction in research of life-logging technologies to assist with memory and reflection. But we are only at the very onset of understanding the impact of these technologies, and more importantly, how they might fit into the fabric of our daily lives. The work I present here was motivated by a year-long ethnographic study conducted at a law office. In this study, I used desktop activity recordings as a novel methodology to learn about the nature and details of work. I learned that what is usually considered multitasking behavior in the literature, is in fact the norm in this setting. Multitasking here is not "crunch mode'' type of behavior, but is a self-selected and all together different kind of work style. This style is engendered by both the nature of the legal work and the new digital tools available, in particular communication tools such as instant messaging and email. These tools have had an impact in how paralegals and attorneys interact with clients and with one another. My ethnographic data reveals that with the increasing frequencies and flexibility of the daily interactions comes an increased fragmentation of the context of each work thread. The lack of episodic support in these tools creates a heavy load for workers. Paralegals and attorneys have to put effort to bring together the history of a case from the many separate pieces of the past (email, instant messages, database entries, and so on). In other words, workers have to build context for a case before communicating with clients and this context consists of putting together a timeline representation about the history for a case, containing a chronology of events with the client and a view of any upcoming deadlines or pending issues for the case. My argument is that the tools available presently do not support this context-building process, so in addition to supporting for multitasking and interruptions we need to design support for this process. The second portion of the work in this thesis brings my findings to bear directly on a software design problem for Human-Computer Interaction. It describes the design and implementation of a software prototype tool called Activity Trails with the goal of supporting episodic memory. The thesis ends with a study conducted with researchers at UCSD evaluating the benefits of episodic access for everyday activity through detailed case studies of usage.

Bookmark: T.Herring.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Supporting example-based ideation and assessment practices in engineering design
Author: Herring, Scarlett R.
Editor: Kirlik, Alex
Date: 2011
Pages: 185
City: Urbana, IL
Publisher: University of Illinois, Industrial & Enterprise Systems Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 774894606
Keywords: Industrial Engineering
Keywords: Engineering Design
Keywords: Human Factors
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/2142/26188
Absract: Over the past decade, examples have become the cornerstone of the design process. In essence, designers are no longer developing ideas from scratch, but instead designing through the synthesis of pre-existing design ideas. The repercussion of this new design paradigm is the quality of the design output has become increasingly dependent on the types of examples designers retrieve for inspiration. Although examples use is pervasive in many design disciplines, little research has been conducted on how and why designers use examples during the design process. This is problematic for the understanding of design activities, as well as for the development of more effective design tools. In addition, example use has not been studied outside of the idea-generation process and thus little is known about what other uses examples could have. For example, one's ability to identify high quality design examples during the design process has been linked to the designer's expertise, yet no study to date has explored how examples could be used as an assessment technique. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was two-fold. First, we sought to provide an understanding of how and why examples are used in design practice and how we can better support these methods through the enhancement of existing design tools or the creation of new ones. Next, we sought to understand how ratings of example quality can be used to predict one's design expertise in evaluating ideas, creating ideas and critiquing ideas. In total, six experiments were conducted. The results revealed several challenges to supporting example usage in design. First, the types of examples collected for inspiration can have a negative impact on the designer's ability to develop innovative solutions. As such, new computational tools are needed that help individuals collect a diverse example set and develop new design directions. In addition, assessments of student design competence are based primarily on subjective evaluations of student performance by the course instructor, a design expert. However, these experts are subject to cognitive biases based on their own beliefs and expectations. Our example-based assessment method utilizes the Bayesian Truth Serum algorithm which removes instructor bias by taking them out of the evaluation criterion. Our results show a positive correlation with student's ability to analyze and evaluate design ideas, but not their ability to generate innovative solutions. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

Bookmark: T.Lim.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The enigma of web interfaces: cultural aspects of web site design
Author: Lim, Linda Mei Luan
Editor: Sudweeks, Fay
Editor: Turk, Andrew
Date: 2011
Pages: 295
Publisher: Murdoch University, Information Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 785275021
Keywords: Websites
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Communication and culture
Weblink: researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/7685
Absract: This thesis investigates the role of cultural differences in the design and usability of web sites. Specific factors that affect localisation and internationalisation of web sites and user preferences are studied. The overarching research question is: Are there differences in usability of web sites for users from different cultures? There are three areas of interest in this research: (i) Human Computer Interaction (HCI), (ii) Culture, and (iii) Localisation/Internationalisation. HCI focuses on the cultural factors affecting the usability of web sites. Culture is discussed in the context of HCI. Geographically disparate people use the Internet through web browsers. They may come from different cultural backgrounds and are likely to have different perceptions due to their cultural influences, which may influence their preferences for aspects of web interfaces. Challenges and opportunities regarding localisation and internationalisation of web sites are also examined. The methodology for this research facilitates the study of the impacts of culture on HCI in the context of the design of web sites and usability, specifically in terms of localisation and internationalisation. An explorative pilot study of the materials, procedures and analysis techniques was undertaken. Due to the small number of participants in the pilot study, only limited statistical analyses are provided. In the main study, 301 participants were divided into three almost equal groups, based on their preferred language (Australian English; Mandarin; International [primarily American] English). Each group responded to two of three virtual restaurant web site versions constructed for the experiment: (i) a localised version for Australian English speakers, (ii) a localised version for Mandarin speakers, and (iii) an internationalised version for speakers of other languages. Detailed statistical analyses of the quantitative data were compared with results from qualitative analyses of participants' comments on experimental web site versions. The results demonstrate that a web site that uses an International version of web design, text and web interface elements is more usable to International group participants. Participants who chose Australian English or Mandarin as their Preferred Language did not display significant preference for localised versions of the web site. The participants, being experienced and heavy users of the web, were perhaps expecting to use International English, since it has traditionally been the dominant web language.

Bookmark: T.Kane.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Understanding and creating accessible touch screen interactions for blind people
Author: Kane, Shaun K.
Editor: Wobbrock, Jacob O.
Date: 2011
Pages: 169
Publisher: University of Washington
Standard number: oclcnum: 775522473
Keywords: Touch screens
Keywords: Services for Blind
Keywords: Computers and people with visual disabilities
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Assistive computer technology
Keywords: Computerized self-help devices for people with disabilities
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/85/3485410.html
Absract: Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people to use touch screens. I conducted two formative research studies to motivate and guide the design of accessible touch screens: a combined interview and diary study exploring accessibility challenges experienced by blind people when using technology in mobile contexts, including touch screens; and a lab study exploring differences in how blind and sighted people choose and perform gestures. In addition, I developed three prototypes that introduced new accessible gesture-based interaction techniques: Slide Rule, a set of accessible multi-touch interaction techniques for smartphones; Access Overlays, enhanced touch screen access techniques for large touch screens; and Access Lens, a combined software and hardware prototype that leverages computer vision to enable blind users to perform accessible gestures on uninstrumented surfaces and public touch screen kiosks. This work presents a comprehensive approach to designing new accessible touch screen interaction techniques that support blind users' needs and abilities. The thesis of the dissertation is: Accessible gesture-based interfaces, designed to support the spatial and tactile abilities of blind people, can enable blind people to effectively use touch screens, including on mobile devices, tablet and tabletop computers, and public information kiosks.

Bookmark: T.Ploderer.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Understanding participation in passion-centric social network sites
Author: Ploderer, Bernd
Editor: Howard, Steve
Editor: Thomas, Peter
Date: 2011
Pages: 455
Publisher: University of Melbourne, Dept. of Information Systems
Standard number: oclcnum: 744794170
Keywords: Online social networks
Keywords: Communities of practice
Keywords: Bodybuilding
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: online participation; passion; serious leisure; bodybuilding; amateur photography; HCI; Computer supported cooperative work; CSCW
Weblink: repository.unimelb.edu.au/10187/9798
Absract: Passion describes a strong inclination towards an activity that people like and find important. It provides people with meaningful goals, facilitates personal development, and enriches their social lives. On the other hand, passion can be a source of tension with other areas of everyday life, which demands sacrifices, risks, and sometimes even suffering. The aim of this thesis is to explore the relationship between technology and passion. In particular, this thesis addresses a gap in our understanding of participation in social network sites designed to support people's passions. While related work indicates the potential of passion-centric social network sites to enhance passion, little is known about how participation in these sites may complicate or otherwise influence passion. I conducted three empirical studies to address this gap. Study 1 and 2 examined bodybuilding and the social network site BodySpace, whereas study 3 focussed on analogue photography and Flickr. In all three studies I used a field research approach to examine passion and participation in social network sites as well as related offline settings. Study 1 identified three different categories of online participation: tool, community, and theatre. These three categories showed how passion-centric social network sites both support and constrain the development of skills, social relations, and identities related to passion. Study 2 expanded on these findings, showing how online participation and passion vary between amateurs and related professionals. Study 3 evaluated the findings from study 1 and 2 in a different context. This study refined earlier findings on participation and its influence on passion, and it showed which of these findings are applicable to different domains. Through these studies, this thesis contributes to current research in three distinct, but interrelated ways. First, the findings extend existing models of online participation by showing variations between the different categories of participation of amateurs and professionals. Second, this thesis extends current understanding of social relations on passion-centric social network sites by showing how and why users connect with different kinds of strangers as well as with groups of friends and peers. Finally, this thesis extends current understanding of passion in the context of social network sites. While existing sites support people in achieving their goals, they appear limited in mitigating sacrifices and risks, and thus they may adversely complicate passion. This thesis discusses practical implications emerging from these findings that address this challenge. It concludes with a call for novel technologies to mitigate sacrifices and to facilitate harmonious passion.

Bookmark: T.John.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Volumetric hand reconstruction and tracking to support non-verbal communication in collaborative virtual environments
Author: John, Christoph
Date: 2011
Pages: 203
City: Dunedin, New Zealand
Publisher: University of Otago, Information Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 758651072
Keywords: Shared virtual environments
Keywords: Nonverbal communication
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Virtual reality
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: otago.ourarchive.ac.nz/handle/10523/1869
Absract: The success of future teleconferencing solutions will depend on their ability to support a wide range of expressions and interactions. Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) represent a class of promising technologies to achieve this. However, in today's office situations CVE applications are usually quite limited due to the lack of appropriate interface support for gestural communication and gesture-based interaction with virtual artefacts. These tasks require the development of efficient hand tracking or hand reconstruction solutions and their integration into affordable desktop teleconferencing environments. A new vision-based tabletop interface for non-obtrusive volumetric reconstruction and tracking of hands and its integration into a CVE is presented. The application of a unified probabilistic approach for reconstruction, tracking, and hand appearance capture thereby results in an almost configuration-free system design which can even cope with uncontrolled background scenes. The proposed interface embeds users of 3D virtual teleconferencing applications into a common world frame and thereby introduces hands as an additional non-verbal communication and interaction channel. The integration is based on a new probabilistic Shape from Silhouette algorithm which employs multiple cameras to interactively reconstruct a user's body volume in a desk-based working environment. The reconstructed body volume serves as data source for hand and articulated upper body tracking and is employed alongside with tracked hand locations to interactively compute polygonal mesh descriptions of hand volumes. A reference implementation of the proposed teleconferencing solution is introduced which is exclusively based on off-the-shelf hardware components that facilitate a wide range of cost-efficient applications. Compliance with real-time constraints is thereby achieved through a massive parallel algorithmic design and Graphics Processing Unit-based (GPU) implementation of reconstruction and tracking components. As a proof of concept finally also an empirical study is presented which evaluates the developed CVE with respect to refined communication and collaboration quality. The findings of this thesis contribute to a new area of human-computer-interface and teleconferencing research by developing tools that support the consolidation of local and remote conference situations.

Bookmark: T.Johnson.2011
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: You don't know what you don't know: investigating the information needs of clients of web based public sector information services
Author: Johnson, Julie Ann
Editor: Green, Lelia
Date: 2011
Pages: 329
City: Perth, Western Australia
Publisher: Edith Cowan University, Faculty of Education and Arts
Standard number: oclcnum: 773838354
Keywords: Information behavior
Keywords: Information retrieval
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Management information systems
Keywords: Web site development
Weblink: ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/410/
Absract: This research grew from two frustrations. The first was the personal frustration experienced when attempting to find information on websites; especially government websites. Often the sites were loaded down with all sorts of information such as corporate organisation charts and press releases but lacked the information which would allow clients to interact effectively with the agency or meet their information needs and move on. The second frustration was that of Edith Cowan University students who battled with a diverse, overlapping and incomplete set of both online and paper based resources as they sought to make decisions about their selections of supporting studies. Both frustrations arose from a lack of user centeredness in the design and construction of the information services provided. A solution would be to establish an effective and efficient method to find out what information users of online information services really needed in order to solve the problems which brought them to the sites in the first place. The sense-making metatheoretic approach of Brenda Dervin with its accompanying timeline interview methodology suggested itself as an in-depth way to elicit the information needs of potential users of online information services. However, timeline interview protocols require long, complex and highly structured interviews. This study, as a result, developed as a critical review of sense-making in the context of the timeline interview by comparing the insights into information needs obtained from timeline interviews with those of three, more widely used, information gathering methods; survey, semi-structured interview and focus group. Students, mainly from the Edith Cowan University Schools of Communication and Multimedia and Computer and Information Science, were asked about their information needs in relation to choosing supporting studies as required by their course structures. All data collection methods were analysed using the same qualitative content analysis techniques. The outcome showed a high degree of consistency between the information needs elicited by all four data collection methods. In addition, the timeline interviews did not identify any major information needs not found by the alternative methods. Another notable finding was that respondents to all four data collection methods expressed a strong preference for speaking to a real live person as a way of meeting their information needs. This goes against conventional view of the technology preferences of younger people. The time and resources required to carry out and analyse the timeline interviews were also much greater than for any of the other data collection methods. The implications for the designers of online information services are that many people are perfectly capable of explicating their information needs regardless of the way in which those needs are elicited. That being the case, the cheapest and quickest method chosen is likely to provide useful insight into information needs. A final implication is that online services which provide links to real people via technologies such as social networking, voice or video contact are the most likely to give users a feeling of assurance about the information they obtain.

Bookmark: T.Goss-Grubbs.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Deep processing for a portable natural language interface to databases
Author: Goss-Grubbs, David
Editor: Bender, Emily M.
Date: 2010-12
Pages: 275
Publisher: University of Washington, Linguistics
Standard number: oclcnum: 703325359
Keywords: Natural language processing (Computer science)
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Relational databases
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/31/3431530.html
Absract: Locutus is a portable natural language interface to databases (NLIDB), allowing end users to query a relational database using unrestricted natural language questions. End-user input is parsed into syntactic analyses. Although the current implementation makes use of Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) f-structures, Locutus can be configured to use analyses from any suitably informative parser/grammar. Syntactic analyses are interpreted into semantic mobile structures (SMSs), a system of semantic representations. Mobile structures are converted into SQL queries and sent to a database management system for execution. Some effort is involved in porting Locutus to new database domains, but very good performance is achievable with a small amount of effort Additional effort can increase performance even further. Locutus maintains high precision by using high precision syntactic grammars and a resource-sensitive interpretation system. High recall is maintained through the use of broad-coverage syntactic grammars, extrinsic parse selection and word-sense disambiguation, a powerful system of interpretation rules, and a system of semantic transformations.

Bookmark: T.Kushalnagar.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Optimizing Video Presentations for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Participants in Mainstream Classrooms
Author: Kushalnagar, Raja S.
Editor: Paris, Jehan-Francois
Date: 2010-12
City: Houston, Texas, USA
Publisher: University of Houston
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/raja_s_kushalnagar.php
Absract: Deaf and hard of hearing students do not have equal access to lecture information in higher education classrooms, even with visual translation accommodations such as sign language interpreters or captioners. As a result, their learning and retention rates lag behind in comparison with their hearing peers. Research shows deaf students lose substantial lecture information due to two main factors largely unaddressed by the accommodations: cognitive limits on handling simultaneous visual translation of audio and other visual information sources, and classroom layouts that have widely dispersed information sources, viewing distances, and angles. This dissertation explores a consumer device-driven approach that is centered on multiple view perspectives (MVP). MVP improves visual access and inclusion of deaf students receiving accommodations in classrooms not designed for full visual accessibility. Approaches to enable deaf students are investigated to obtain better views of the classroom information sources, and to manage these multiple views. The first approach investigated development of a personal and flexible technology platform that uses personal mobile devices to enable deaf students to use it in a wide variety of classroom settings and layouts. Next, the scalability of multiple video streams is investigated for heterogeneous bandwidth devices in a BitTorrent simulator adapted for video streaming. Student preferences in prioritizing and consolidating widely dispersed and simultaneous multiple classroom information sources on their personal devices are investigated. Finally, consumption saving approaches in battery and processor limited personal devices are explored to more efficiently record, compress, and stream classroom video perspectives. Collectively, these investigations show that personal mobile devices can be used to improve visual accessibility and enhance classroom learning for deaf students. Unlike most classroom accessible technologies, MVP is designed to be portable, student-centered and be either used independently from the institutional network or in concert with it.

Bookmark: T.Mentis.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Emotion awareness and invisibility in an emergency room: a socio-technical dilemma
Author: Mentis, Helena Marie
Editor: Rosson, Mary Beth
Date: 2010-10-22
Pages: 228
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University
Standard number: oclcnum: 672014468
Keywords: Emotion expression; affective computing; emotional design; medical informatics
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/theses/approved/PSUonlyIndex/ETD-5017/index.html
Absract: The expression of emotion is often an overlooked aspect of work and consequently is easily neglected in the design of collaborative information systems. However, in collaborative work, emotion expressions can play an important function in how each individual works as well as how the team works together. As work environments become increasingly computerized, the unintended consequence of the introduction of information systems on emotion awareness emerges. This can be a serious issue for certain highly coordinated, information intensive critical environments such as in the healthcare field. In this dissertation, I investigate the occurrence of work-related emotion expressions in the real-world work environment of a hospital emergency room (ER). Effective communication and coordination between personnel in an ER can literally mean the difference between life and death. Due to the high rate of information sharing errors, hospitals are beginning to push for the integration of electronic patient records and other information systems in the hopes it will improve communication, and that this in turn will increase safety and efficiency. At the same time, there have been many examples of unintended consequences that have emerged as the result of the implementation of electronic patient records. A central premise of this dissertation is that the expression of emotion is one of these informal aspects of coordination that may be lost or mishandled in the move toward increased technology support. To examine the occurrence and function of emotion expressions, I conducted a six-month field study of interaction in a large urban hospital in the Northeastern United States. This field study consisted of observations of ER personnel, formal and informal interviews, artifact analysis of formal ER patient records and administrative documents, and a reflexive diary to reflect on my own emotional reactions. The first contribution of this dissertation is to explain why emotions are expressed in the ER. This includes uncovering the sources of work-related emotion in an ER, the functional roles of the expression of those emotions, and the consequence on the work of the ER. The second contribution of this dissertation is to explain how emotion expressions are modified in the ER. This contribution shows the effect of various stakeholders' constraining and enabling behaviors on the expression of emotions in the ER. The third contribution is to expand and articulate the role of emotion expression in the development of emotion awareness in work. The final contribution is to discuss how these findings can guide the design of systems for the emotion awareness in the ER as well as discuss the possible unintended consequences of a greater technology driven ER.

Bookmark: T.Robinson.2010
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Nonprofit participation in a Web 2.0 community portal
Author: Robinson, Harold R., Jr.
Editor: Carroll, John M.
Date: 2010-08
Pages: 64
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University, Information Sciences and Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 688620965
Keywords: Community Informatics; Web 2.0
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/paper/11224/
Absract: Since Putnam's observations that suggested a crisis of community was linked to communications technology uses, researchers have tried to assess the civic impact of the Internet. Though opinions have varied over time, the general consensus would seem to be that there is great potential for the Internet in that it potentially provides citizens with access to information that can support goals like civic participation. This paper introduces a design intended to leverage that potential in a geographic community. Using WiFi and location-aware technology, community information can be tied to physical locations of a geographic community in a way which increases its visibility and usefulness. The design also makes use of various Web 2.0 technologies to overcome common challenges of previous community technology designs. As key players in the local community, nonprofit organizations are interviewed about their current uses of technology and their communication practices. Implications are drawn from these interviews for the specific design as well as the use of Web 2.0 technologies for civic and community purposes.

Bookmark: T.Karumanchi.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Off-road mobility analysis from proprioceptive feedback
Author: Karumanchi, Sisir Babu
Editor: Scheding, Steve
Editor: Bailey, Tim
Date: 2010-08
Pages: 209
Publisher: University of Sydney, Australian Centre for Field Robotics
Standard number: oclcnum: 752650831
Keywords: Robotics
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Bayesian statistical decision theory
Weblink: db.acfr.usyd.edu.au/content.php/292.html
Absract: Current terrain perception modules in unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are focused on creating an accurate internal representation of the environment. Exteroceptive parameters such as terrain colour and terrain slope have little value if the vehicle cannot associate them with a value of cost/utility of movement. This thesis investigates the problem of using proprioceptive feedback to aid decision making for UGVs operating in unstructured environments such as off-road terrain. The aim is to derive a gross assessment of utility/cost of environmental conditions given past observations of proprioceptive feedback such as wheel slip. This problem of environmental assessment is termed as Scene Interpretation and is useful for decision making tasks such as path planning that need to account for the relative difficulty between different conditions in order to choose the best possible or a feasible path between two points. The principal contribution of this thesis is a novel problem formulation using Bayesian non-parametric learning techniques that interprets sensed environmental conditions in a data-driven manner. This learning architecture does not make strong assumptions about the state of the environment. Hence, it can generalise to complex feature representations that are required in unstructured environments. In addition, proprioceptive feedback is used to minimise input from an expert in the training process which makes data collection practical by allowing self-supervision at the lowest level. The proposed proprioceptive scene interpretation strategy is demonstrated on a 8x8 skid-steered vehicle operating in complex terrain slopes. Results are shown for two scenarios: first, given measurements from ranging sensors; second, given altimetry and aerial imagery. In addition, practical process models are presented and discussed that enable estimation of key proprioceptive states (wheel slip and traction coefficients) in an unscented Kalman filter implementation.

Bookmark: T.Remmel.2010
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: The Insight Project: serverless synchronization of data for personal information management software
Author: Remmel, Ian W.
Editor: Rosson, Mary Beth
Date: 2010-06-17
Pages: 324
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University, Information Sciences and Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 688620963
Keywords: Data synchronization; personal information management
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/paper/11137/
Absract: With end-users increasingly using multiple devices to access their personal information, new solutions are required to make their information accessible. Cloud-based solutions like Gmail and its accompanying applications make data accessible to everyone but few of these provide the complete set of information management capabilities provided by software like Microsoft Exchange. Microsoft Exchange and similar commercial systems are prohibitively complex for the average user and for small businesses unable to afford a dedicated IT person. Further, cloudbased solutions have a number of privacy, security, and ownership issues that users should consider before releasing their personal information to the world. The Insight Project addresses these issues by demonstrating that personal information can be shared among computers without a central server (or cloud-based solution) and that select personal information can be shared with other users at whatever granularity is desired. Moreover, the Project will demonstrate that this result can be achieved without use of costly proprietary software and that it requires minimal technical expertise of end-users. The first portion of this work examines the issues surrounding the synchronization and distribution personal information, both on the desktop and in the cloud. Following this introductory material, I detail how personal information can be synchronized and distributed without the need of servers or cloud based services. Finally, I present several steps that will need to be taken in order to prepare The Insight Project for public use.

Bookmark: T.Ma.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Using hierarchical folders and tags for file management
Author: Ma, Shanshan
Editor: Wiedenbeck, Susan
Date: 2010-06-15
Pages: 159
City: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Drexel University
Standard number: oclcnum: 643336696
Keywords: Information science
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Information storage and retrieval systems
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1860/3271
Absract: Hierarchical folders have been widely used for managing digital files. A well constructed hierarchical structure can keep files organized. A parent folder can have several subfolders and one subfolder can only reside in one parent folder. Files are stored in folders or subfolders. Files can be found by traversing a given path, going through different levels of folders and subfolders. Folders can be moved, renamed, copied and deleted to serve the needs of the changing working environment. However, previous research has revealed several problems with hierarchical folder structures. One important problem is that users frequently have to turn to desktop search to re-find files. Tagging is the activity of applying users' own descriptors to digital objects, such as web pages, photos, and documents. Compared with traditional indexing which enforces a controlled vocabulary, tagging systems give users freedom in describing digital resources. We believe that tagging may have the potential to improve information navigation and information organization. This research aimed at exploring the possibility of incorporating tagging into the hierarchical folder structure for file management, especially for the process of file organization and file re-finding. We studied users' behavior and preference of using three file management structures, a hierarchical folder structure, a tagging structure, and a hybrid structure with both hierarchical folder and tagging functionalities. We found that using tag alone or using folder alone generated similar results in file organization time, in file re-finding time and in answer correctness. Combining folders and tags resulted in longer file organization time but no improvement in file re-finding efficiency. The tagging structure required the least number of mouse clicks in the re-finding process among the three structures. The primary contribution of the study is a comparison of three file management structures for better organizing and re-finding files in the desktop environment. Advantages and disadvantages of each structure were revealed from the study. Users' preference among the three structures was compared. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in the research. This work will provide design implications for future file management tools.

Bookmark: T.Hurst.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Using Data About Real World Pointing Performance to Improve Computer Access with Automatic Assessment
Author: Hurst, Amy
Editor: Mankoff, Jennifer
Editor: Hudson, Scott
Date: 2010-06
City: Pittsburgh, USA
Publisher: Carnegie Mellon University
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/amy_hurst.php
Absract: Accurate pointing is an obstacle to computer access for individuals with motor impairments. One of the main barriers to assisting individuals with pointing problems is a lack of frequent and low-cost assessment of those pointing problems. We are working to build technology to automatically assess pointing problems during every day (or real world) computer use. To this end, we have studied real world pointing use from older adults and individuals with motor impairments and developed novel techniques to analyze their performance. Our investigation contributes to a better understanding of real world pointing performance, and how to assess pointing performance with machine learning.

Bookmark: T.Hoggan.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Crossmodal audio and tactile interaction with mobile touchscreens
Author: Hoggan, Eve Elizabeth
Editor: Brewster, Stephen
Date: 2010-05-28
Pages: 222
Publisher: University of Glasgow
Standard number: oclcnum: 665138600
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Interactive computer systems
Keywords: Touch screens
Weblink: theses.gla.ac.uk/1863
Absract: Touchscreen mobile devices often use cut-down versions of desktop user interfaces placing high demands on the visual sense that may prove awkward in mobile settings. The research in this thesis addresses the problems encountered by situationally impaired mobile users by using crossmodal interaction to exploit the abundant similarities between the audio and tactile modalities. By making information available to both senses, users can receive the information in the most suitable way, without having to abandon their primary task to look at the device. This thesis begins with a literature review of related work followed by a definition of crossmodal icons. Two icons may be considered to be crossmodal if and only if they provide a common representation of data, which is accessible interchangeably via different modalities. Two experiments investigated possible parameters for use in crossmodal icons with results showing that rhythm, texture and spatial location are effective. A third experiment focused on learning multi-dimensional crossmodal icons and the extent to which this learning transfers between modalities. The results showed identification rates of 92% for three-dimensional audio crossmodal icons when trained in the tactile equivalents, and identification rates of 89% for tactile crossmodal icons when trained in the audio equivalent. Crossmodal icons were then incorporated into a mobile touchscreen QWERTY keyboard. Experiments showed that keyboards with audio or tactile feedback produce fewer errors and greater speeds of text entry compared to standard touchscreen keyboards. The next study examined how environmental variables affect user performance with the same keyboard. The data showed that each modality performs differently with varying levels of background noise or vibration and the exact levels at which these performance decreases occur were established. The final study involved a longitudinal evaluation of a touchscreen application, CrossTrainer, focusing on longitudinal effects on performance with audio and tactile feedback, the impact of context on performance and personal modality preference. The results show that crossmodal audio and tactile icons are a valid method of presenting information to situationally impaired mobile touchscreen users with recognitions rates of 100% over time. This thesis concludes with a set of guidelines on the design and application of crossmodal audio and tactile feedback to enable application and interface designers to employ such feedback in all systems.

Bookmark: T.Chow.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: An embodied cognition approach to the analysis and design of generative and interactive animation
Author: Chow, Ka Nin
Editor: Harrell, D. Fox
Date: 2010-05-16
Pages: 248
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Literature, Communication, and Culture
Standard number: oclcnum: 680052568
Keywords: Animation (Cinematography)
Keywords: Interactive multimedia
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Artificial intelligence
Keywords: Digital media
Keywords: Cinema
Keywords: Film
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/34695
Absract: Animation is popularly thought of as a sequence of still images or cartoons that produce an illusion of movement. However, a broader perspective of animation should encompass the diverse kinds of media artifacts imbued with the illusion of life. In many multimedia artifacts today, computational media algorithmically implement expanded illusions of life, which include images not only moving, but also showing reactions to stimuli (reactive animation), transforming according to their own internal rules (autonomous animation), evolving over a period of time (metamorphic animation), or even generating varying instances subject to user intervention or chance (contingent animation). Animation in the digital age consists of forms as varied as computer-generated imagery (CGI) in films, motion graphics on interactive multimedia websites, animated contents of video games, graphical interfaces of computer systems, and even digital signage in communal areas. With these forms, the new animation phenomena emerge from entertainment media, functional designs, and expressive works alike, all of which may engage viewers' sensory perceptions, cognitive processes, as well as motor actions. Hence, the study and creation of animation now requires an interdisciplinary framework, including (1) insights from perceptual psychology and animation studies about animacy, (2) theories of conceptual blending from cognitive science applied to understanding images, (3) notions of embodiment and temporality in phenomenological approaches to human-computer interaction (HCI), and (4) new interpretations of liveness in performance studies accounts of computer-mediated performance. These emergent ideas jointly characterize the new role of animation in media, and produce new possibilities for more embodied, evocative, and affective forms of generative and interactive animation.

Bookmark: T.Malkin.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Smoothing class transitions with hard labels
Author: Malkin, Jonathan
Editor: Bilmes, Jeffrey
Date: 2010-05
Pages: 194
Publisher: University of Washington, Electrical Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 804877023
Keywords: Machine learning
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Voice
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/06/3406833.html
Absract: Despite the variety of statistical classifiers available, many inductive classifiers are ultimately based on exponential functional forms. These models are quite versatile and perform well in a variety of situations, but they also have a strong tendency towards overconfidence. They will typically be quite sure of their predictions, whether correct or not, except when quite close to a decision boundary. This dissertation, motivated by the Vocal Joystick project, an assistive device allowing individuals with motor impairments to operate mouse pointers or other electromechanical devices using non-verbal vocalizations, examines a family of statistical classification models designed to allow smoother transitions between classes. We first present a classification model formulated as a ratio of semi-definite polynomials, which we call the ratio semi-definite classifier (RSC). The RSC allows smoother transitions across class boundaries, and does not demonstrate the overconfidence bias typical of models based on ratios of exponentials Testing on several corpora of various sizes, we find that the RSC performs well, but often has slightly lower accuracy than an exponential model such as a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). To improve the accuracy of the RSC while retaining its other properties, we propose several extensions to the model, creating a family of RSC-based classifiers. We test two other members of that family, the multi-layer RSC (ML-RSC) which adds a hidden layer to the model allowing us to learn a kernel-like feature transformation in a data-driven manner. Experimental results show that the ML-RSC provides superior accuracy compared with the original RSC and an MLP. We also propose a semi-supervised learning (SSL) framework suitable for any differentiable, parametric and optionally multiclass model. With this framework, we demonstrate improved results with semi-supervised versions of the RSC, ML-RSC and MLP on several data sets. Finally, we present a comprehensive look at the Vocal Joystick engine, describing its architecture and the various signal processing and machine learning techniques used in the system. This includes a discussion of where the RSC and ML-RSC, and adaptation of the parameters for those models, are used in the Vocal Joystick.

Bookmark: T.OBrien.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Understanding human-technology interactions: the role of prior experience and age
Author: O'Brien, Marita Anne
Editor: Rogers, Wendy
Date: 2010-05
Pages: 287
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Psychology
Standard number: oclcnum: 668110256
Keywords: Human engineering
Keywords: Human-machine systems
Keywords: Human factors
Keywords: Usability
Keywords: Aging
Keywords: Intuitive design
Keywords: Universal design
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/34000
Absract: Everyday technologies are intended for use by everyone with no specific training and minimal instructions. Prior research (e.g., Norman, 2002; Polson&Lewis, 1990) suggests that these technologies are usable if users can leverage their prior experience. However, different users will leverage difference experiences to operate the same technologies (Blackler, Popovic,& Mahar, 2003a). This dissertation systematically examined use of prior knowledge in the operation of everyday technology by diverse users, specifically users of different ages and experience levels. In Study 1 encounters with everyday technologies were self-reported by younger adults, older adults with low technology experience, and older adults with high technology experience. Comparisons of technology repertoires for each participant group indicated similar usage between younger adults and high tech older adults that differed in expected domains. Low tech older adults used fewer technologies, but overall they used more than expected across domains. Prior experience generally helped participants have successful encounters, but in some cases introduced problems. In Study 2 video recorded observations were made during participant interactions with exemplar everyday technologies. Participants with more relevant experience generally performed better. Older adults exhibited more inter-individual variability in their performance levels. Appropriate use of prior experience, an unassuming approach to the interaction, and using information on the technology generally led to more successful performance. Results from both studies can provide theoretical and practical support for more effective design that reflects how the target population will use their prior experience.

Bookmark: T.Summet.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Facilitating communication for deaf individuals with mobile technologies
Author: Summet, Valerie Henderson
Editor: Starner, Thad
Date: 2010-03-28
Pages: 163
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 671647151
Keywords: Deaf
Keywords: Computer software
Keywords: User-centered system design
Keywords: Mobile communication systems
Keywords: American Sign Language
Keywords: Cell phones
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Mobile learning
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/33878
Absract: Communication between deaf individuals and hearing individuals can be very difficult. For people who are born deaf, English is often a second language with the first language being American Sign Language (ASL). Very few hearing people in the United States sign or are aware of Deafness, Deaf culture, or how to appropriately communicate with people with hearing loss. In this thesis, I concentrate on the role that mobile technologies can play in ameliorating some of these issues. In formative work with Deaf teenagers in the metro-Atlanta area, I investigate the role that communication technologies play in the lives of many Deaf individuals and examine how these devices have effected their communication patterns and social circles. Specifically, the teens identified problems communicating with hearing individuals such as close friends and family in face-to-face situations. Having identified sign language use at home as one of the earliest interventions for Deaf children, I investigated the use of mobile phones for learning survival-level ASL. I created a prototype software application which presented short ASL lessons via either a mobile phone or desktop web-browser. The software presented the lessons via one of two different scheduling methods designed to take advantage of the spacing effect during learning. I designed and conducted a study of forty individuals with no prior ASL knowledge which compared the effects of both scheduling algorithm and platform. My results show that individuals who used a mobile phone platform and received a group of lessons at one time performed better on post-test receptive and generative ASL metrics than did participants in the three other conditions.

Bookmark: T.Lopez.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: AWA, Methodological Framework in the Accessibility Domain for Web Application Development
Author: López, Lourdes Moreno
Editor: Fernández, Paloma Martínez
Date: 2010-03-22
Pages: 395
City: Madrid, Spain
Publisher: Carlos III University of Madrid
Keywords: accessibility
Language: Spanish
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/lourdes_moreno.php
Absract: The Web is the main tool for being able to act as citizens in the Information Society in which we are immersed. Through it you access to multiple services, yet many of these services are not accessible to everyone. The accessibility barriers affect in a higher degree to people with disabilities, but there are many other user groups at risk of exclusion. The equitable use of the Web is a right for all people. Although in many countries this right is regulated by law, the data indicate that there are many web sites and applications that are not accessible. There are important initiatives, at different levels, with the goal of designing a universal and accessible Web, but obstacles have been detected in the path to obtain this goal, which are revealed in this work. As a proposed solution to this situation, from the engineering perspective, the methodological support AWA (Accessibility for Web Applications) is presented in this thesis. AWA provides a workspace in order to include the accessibility requirement in the organizations devoted to web application development. AWA provides guidance to engineering professionals to incorporate accessibility requirements from different perspectives: (a) in organizations and businesses, integrating accessibility and quality policies, (b) in the development process following a methodological approach that provides systemization in the integration of accessibility from the outset and, finally, (c) following a User-Centered Design (UCD) approach that places the user as a the main figure and makes him/she participate in the design process. All this is considered in a framework of Inclusive Design, for contemplating the disabled users, unfavorable contexts of use, in short, keeping in mind all the existing functional diversity. As a result of applying the AWA approach the final web pages and the user interface of the application will be accessible following the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). Accessibility requirements have been obtained by means of an abstraction of the WCAG in the context of the software development process. Similarly, the activities of the UCD have been adapted in the development process through the integration of various accessibility mechanisms, being the result of using in a combined way a set of techniques of usability with inclusion. Different parts of the AWA methodological framework have been applied in three real scenarios: in the design and implementation of a web site using a open source Content Management System (CMS); in the development of a customizable platform for public Internet access for people with disabilities, conducted in a software development company, following an agile approach to create dynamic web pages and, finally, carrying out a proposal of integration of AWA on the Web Engineering method OOWS (Object Oriented Web Solutions) following an MDA (Model Driven Architecture) strategy.

Bookmark: T.Harada.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Harnessing the capacity of the human voice for fluidly controlling computer interfaces
Author: Harada, Susumu
Editor: Landay, James A.
Editor: Wobbrock, Jacob O.
Date: 2010-03-19
Pages: 187
Publisher: University of Washington, Computer Science and Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 665168212
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Voice
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/06/3406108.html
Absract: The human voice still remains largely unexploited in the general computing domain as a primary or supplementary input modality despite significant advances in speech recognition technology over many years While voice input has a number of potential benefits, especially for people with motor impairments, one of the major limitations of current speech-based interaction methods is their inability to provide fluid and continuous input, akin to pointing devices such as the mouse. In this dissertation, I describe work that I have conducted as part of the Vocal Joystick project to harness the non-speech characteristics of human vocalization to enable such fluid hands-free control using the voice. The Vocal Joystick engine upon which my work is based converts various non-speech vocal features such as volume, pitch, and vowel quality into continuous as well as discrete signals 100 times a second. I conducted a number of user studies to determine the performance characteristics of using such vocal input for various tasks including target selection, steering, and rapid discrete inputs. A key result shows that with only 10 hours of practice, users can approach the level of performance comparable to a manual joystick for pointing, and exceed the performance of an existing speech-based pointer control method. I also present a number of concrete voice-driven applications that I built and evaluated to situate the study of non-speech vocal input in realistic contexts. VoiceDraw is a hands-free drawing program that enables the user to create free-hand-style drawings with dynamically-controlled stroke thickness and speed using only their voice. VoiceGame Controller rapidly transforms various vocal signals into keyboard and mouse signals making it possible to play conventional computer games hands-free. VoicePen augments digital stylus input with continuous voice input. Voice Controller seamlessly integrates voice-driven pointer control with conventional speech commands and dictation functionality, creating a powerful and practical hands-free input modality. The user studies and the applications I have built demonstrate my thesis, that: Non-speech vocal input can be used on its own and in conjunction with other input modalities to enable people -- especially those with motor disabilities -- to control computer interfaces effectively.

Bookmark: T.Biswas.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Inclusive User Modelling
Author: Biswas, Pradipta
Editor: Robinson, Peter
Date: 2010-03
City: Cambridge, UK
Publisher: University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/pradipta_biswas.php
Absract: Computers offer valuable assistance to people with physical disabilities. However designing human-computer interfaces for these users is complicated. The range of abilities is more diverse than for able-bodied users, which makes analytical modelling harder. Practical user trials are also difficult and time consuming. I have developed a simulator to help with the design and evaluation of assistive interfaces. It can predict the likely interaction patterns when undertaking a task using a variety of input devices, and estimate the time to complete the task in the presence of different disabilities and for different levels of skill. I have also addressed the shortcomings of existing HCI models and hope to develop a system that will be easier to use than the existing models and support both able-bodied and disabled users. The simulator is developed according to the concept of Model Human Processor. It consists of a Perception model, a Cognitive model and a Motor-behaviour Model. The perception model simulates the phenomenon of visual perception (like focussing and shifting attention). Currently, I have investigated eye gaze patterns (using a Tobii X120 eye tracker) of normal as well as people with visual impairment. My model can reproduce the results of previous experiments on visual perception in the context of HCI and can also simulate the effects of different visual impairments (e.g.: Wet and Dry Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy, Tunnel Vision etc.) on interaction. The cognitive model uses CPM-GOMS model to simulate expert performance. It has a novel and easy-to-use module to simulate performance of novices based on the concept of dual-space model. Finally the motor-behaviour model is developed by statistical analysis of cursor traces from motor-impaired users. Currently, I have worked on evaluating hand strength (using a Baseline 7-pc Hand Evaluation Kit) of normal and motor-impaired people and investigated how hand strength affects HCI. The main contributions of my work are: 1. Identification and calibration of two image processing algorithms to predict points of eye-gaze fixations and the corresponding fixation durations during visual search in a computer screen undertaken by people with and without visual-impairment. 2. Analysis of eye movement trajectories during visual search in a computer screen and identification of the most probable strategies to predict the actual trajectory. 3. Investigation of the effect of hand strength on human-computer interaction. Development of a statistical model to predict pointing times of motor-impaired computer users based on their hand strength. My studies are already being used to design and develop inclusive computer interfaces (e.g. accessible game, new assistive interaction technique etc.). My university has recently been awarded EU funding for the GUIDE project that will employ results from my PhD research.

Bookmark: T.Ashbrook.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Enabling mobile microinteractions
Author: Ashbrook, Daniel Lee
Editor: Starner, Thad
Date: 2010-01-12
Pages: 186
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Computing
Standard number: oclcnum: 668108263
Keywords: Mobile computing
Keywords: Touch screens
Keywords: Gesture
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Wearable computers
Keywords: Wristwatch interfaces
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Wearable computing
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/33986
Absract: While much attention has been paid to the usability of desktop computers, mobile computers are quickly becoming the dominant platform. Because mobile computers may be used in nearly any situation -- including while the user is actually in motion, or performing other tasks -- interfaces designed for stationary use may be inappropriate, and alternative interfaces should be considered. In this dissertation I consider the idea of microinteractions -- interactions with a device that take less than four seconds to initiate and complete. Microinteractions are desirable because they may minimize interruption; that is, they allow for a tiny burst of interaction with a device so that the user can quickly return to the task at hand. My research concentrates on methods for applying microinteractions through wrist-based interaction. I consider two modalities for this interaction: touchscreens and motion-based gestures. In the case of touchscreens, I consider the interface implications of making touchscreen watches usable with the finger, instead of the usual stylus, and investigate users' performance with a round touchscreen. For gesture-based interaction, I present a tool, MAGIC, for designing gesture-based interactive system, and detail the evaluation of the tool.

Bookmark: T.Moffatt.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Addressing Age-Related Pen-Based Target Acquisition Difficulties
Author: Moffatt, Karyn
Editor: McGrenere, Joanna
Date: 2010-01
Pages: 225
City: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Publisher: University of British Columbia
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/karyn_moffatt.php
Absract: Technology is increasingly being promoted as a means of addressing age-related cognitive and sensory impairments and enabling seniors to live more independently. Pen-based devices such as Personal Digital Assistants and Tablet PCs are appealing platforms for these endeavors because they are small, mobile, and powerful. Relative to the mouse, pen-based devices have been shown to be particularly beneficial for older adults. However, in terms of garnering wide-spread adoption, the mouse has historically dominated, leading researchers to focus chiefly on identifying and addressing its age- and motor-related limitations. In contrast, pen-based limitations for older users have been relatively unexplored. This thesis begins to fill that gap in the literature. Our first experiment, an empirical evaluation of pen-based target acquisition across the adult lifespan, identified three main sources of pen-based target acquisition difficulty -- missing-just-below, slipping, and drifting -- and demonstrated how these difficulties vary across task situation and age. In addition, this work showed that including older adults as participants can help uncover general pen-interaction problems: the missing-just-below and drifting difficulties were evident in both younger and older users alike. We next developed seven new target acquisition techniques to improve pen-based interaction, specifically addressing the three difficulties identified, and particularly targeting older adults. Our techniques built upon existing mouse-based techniques developed for older users and pen techniques for younger users. In total, we conducted three experiments to evaluate the seven new pen-based techniques: Reassigned and Deactivated (for missing-just-below), Tap and Glide (for drifting), and Steady, Bubble, and Steadied-Bubble (for slipping). Through these evaluations, we established where our proposed designs were successful at reducing errors, and where further refinement is needed. Finally, we reflected on our findings across studies to identify age-related, contextual, and technological factors which contributed to our results. These factors help illuminate the underlying reasons for pen-based targeting difficulties and shed light onto areas still needing attention. Overall, the results of this research support our main thesis that the accessibility of pen-based interfaces can be improved for older adults by first examining the sources of age-related acquisition difficulty, and then using the results of this examination to develop improved techniques.

Bookmark: T.Moretti.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A calculation of colours: towards the automatic creation of graphical user interface colour schemes
Author: Moretti, Giovanni Serafino
Editor: Lyons, Paul
Editor: Marsland, Stephen
Date: 2010
Pages: 286
City: Palmerston North, New Zealand
Publisher: Massey University
Standard number: oclcnum: 650161409
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Color in design
Keywords: Color computer graphics
Keywords: Color
Weblink: muir.massey.ac.nz/handle/10179/1492
Absract: Interface colour scheme design is complex, but important. Most software allows users to choose the colours of single items individually and out of context, but does not acknowledge colour schemes or aid in their design. Creating colour schemes by picking individual colours can be time-consuming, error-prone, and frustrating, and the results are often mediocre, especially for those without colour design skills. Further, as colour harmony arises from the interactions between all of the coloured elements, anticipating the overall effect of changing the colour of any single element can be difficult. This research explores the feasibility of extending artistic colour harmony models to include factors pertinent to user interface design. An extended colour harmony model is proposed and used as the basis for an objective function that can algorithmically assess the colour relationships in an interface colour scheme. Its assessments have been found to agree well with human evaluations and have been used as part of a process to automatically create harmonious and usable interface colour schemes. A three stage process for the design of interface colour schemes is described. In the first stage, the designer species, in broad terms and without requiring colour design expertise, colouring constraints such as grouping and distinguishability that are needed to ensure that the colouring of interface elements reflects their semantics. The second stage is an optimisation process that chooses colour relationships to satisfy the competing requirements of harmonious colour usage, any designer-specified constraints, and readability. It produces sets of coordinates that constitute abstract colour schemes: they de fine only relationships between coloured items, not real colours. In the third and final stage, a user interactively maps an abstract scheme to one or more real colour schemes. The colours can be fine-tuned as a set (but not altered individually), to allow for such "soft" factors as personal, contextual and cultural considerations, while preserving the integrity of the design embodied in the abstract scheme. The colours in the displayed interface are updated continuously, so users can interactively explore a large number of colour schemes, all of which have readable text, distinguishable controls, and conform to the principles of colour harmony. Experimental trials using a proof-of-concept implementation called the Colour Harmoniser have been used to evaluate a method of holistic colour adjustment and the resulting colour schemes. The results indicate that the holistic controls are easy to understand and effective, and that the automatically produced colour schemes, prior to fine-tuning, are comparable in quality to many manually created schemes, and after fine-tuning, are generally better. By designing schemes that incorporate colouring constraints specified by the user prior to scheme creation, and enabling the user to interactively fine-tune the schemes after creation, there is no need to specify or incorporate the subtle and not well understood factors that determine whether any particular set of colours is "suitable". Instead, the approach used produces broadly harmonious schemes, and defers to the developer in the choice of the final colours.

Bookmark: T.Kidambi.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A human-computer integrated approach towards content based image retrieval
Author: Kidambi, Phani Nandan
Editor: Narayanan, S.
Date: 2010
Pages: 143
City: Dayton, Ohio
Publisher: Wright State University, Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 773772235
Keywords: Search engines
Keywords: Content-based image retrieval
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Annotation Based Image Retrieval
Keywords: Information Retrieval
Keywords: semantic gap
Weblink: rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view
Absract: Digital photography technologies permit quick and easy uploading of any image to the web. Millions of images being are uploaded on the World Wide Web every day by a wide range of users. Most of the uploaded images are not readily accessible as they are not organized so as to allow efficient searching, retrieval, and ultimately browsing. Currently major commercial search engines utilize a process known as Annotation Based Image Retrieval (ABIR) to execute search requests focused on retrieving an image. Even though the information sought is an image, the ABIR technique primarily relies on textual information associated with an image to complete the search and retrieval process. For the first phase of the study, using the game of cricket as the domain, this research compared the performance of three commonly used search engines for image retrieval: Google, Yahoo and MSN Live. Factors used for the evaluation of these search engines include query types, number of images retrieved, and the type of search engine. Results of the empirical evaluation show that while the Google search engine performed better than Yahoo and MSN Live in situations where there is no refiner, the performance of all three search engines dropped drastically when a refiner was added. The other methodology to search for images is Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) which searches for the images based on the image features such as color, texture, and shape is still at a nascent stage and has not been incorporated in the commercial search engines. The image features are at a low level compared to the high level textual features. The gap between the low level image features and the high level textual features is termed as Semantic Gap. Semantic gap has been the factor that limits the Content Based algorithms to perform effectively. This research addresses the issue of the image retrieval problem by systematically coupling the ABIR and the CBIR algorithms and uses the human input wherever needed to reduce the semantic gap. The key research question addressed by this study is whether a human integrated approach helps in better image retrieval. In this research, a systematic study to identify the role of human annotation in the search and retrieval of images was performed. Results showed that as long as a subject matter expert is annotating the image, there was no variability in the performance of search engines, in measures of precision and recall. Moreover, empirical results suggested that the human integrated approach results in a better performance when compared to the pure Annotation Based Image Retrieval or the Content Based Image Retrieval. Further research can be developed to slowly replace some aspects of the human input with machine learning algorithms. One of the primary contributions of the framework was to demonstrate a novel framework which systematically reduces the semantic gap by using the human input, the ABIR and the CBIR algorithms. Some of the other contributions include a methodology for systematically evaluating the effectiveness of the image search engines, and a methodology for using both generic and domain specific templates for the ABIR and the CBIR algorithms.

Bookmark: T.Eid.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Admux: an adaptive multiplexing framework for haptic-audio-visual communication
Author: Eid, Mohamad Ahmad
Date: 2010
Pages: 117
City: Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Publisher: University of Ottawa, Information Technology and Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 732957402
Keywords: Multimedia communications
Keywords: Multimedia systems
Keywords: Multiplexing; Mathematical models
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: udini.proquest.com/view/admux-an-adaptive-multiplexing-goid:822670153/
Absract: Recent trends in multimedia applications strive to incorporate multi-modal media, such as audio, video, graphics, and haptics to enhance the user's experience. Traditionally, graphic images, audio, video, text and animations define the contents used in a multimedia system. Recently, researchers have made significant progress in advanced multimedia systems by incorporating virtual reality environments, haptics, and scent into the human computer interaction paradigm. However, each media is characterized by different and sometimes conflicting communication requirements (QoS requirements) that make the communication of multiple media data a real challenge. This thesis proposes Admux, an adaptive multiplexing framework and communication protocol for multimedia applications incorporating haptic, visual, auditory, and scent data for non-dedicated networks. First, Admux provides a standard description scheme for haptic-audio-visual applications using the Haptic Applications Meta Language (HAML) to grant the application an abstract access to the networking resources. Second, Admux uses a highly adaptive multiplexing scheme that adapts according to the application requirements, the media type (haptic, audio, video, etc), and the network conditions. Finally, the proposed framework enables dynamic media prioritization based on the application requirements and events. The simulation, as well as the implementation, evaluations have shown that Admux provides dynamic bandwidth allocation based on the network conditions, media type, and application events.

Bookmark: T.Peterson.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: An efficient and general-purpose technique for grouping hand-drawn pen strokes into objects
Author: Peterson, Eric Jeffrey
Editor: Stahovich, Thomas F.
Date: 2010
Pages: 203
City: Riverside, California
Publisher: University of California, Riverside
Standard number: oclcnum: 698478393
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Pen-based computers
Keywords: Form perception
Keywords: Coding theory
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/33/3433886.html
Absract: Engineers use sketches in the early phases of design because their expressiveness and ease of creation facilitate creativity and efficient communication. Our goal is to build software that leverages these strengths and enables natural sketch-based human-computer interaction. Specifically, our work is focused on creating algorithms that group hand-drawn strokes into individual objects so that they can be recognized. Grouping strokes is a difficult problem. Many previous approaches have required the user to manually group the strokes. Others have used a search process, resulting in a computational cost that rises exponentially with the number of strokes in the sketch. In this dissertation we present a novel method for grouping strokes into objects based on a two-step algorithm that has a polynomial computational cost. In the first step, strokes are classified according to the type of object to which they belong, thus helping to create artificial separation between objects. In the second step, a pairwise classifier groups strokes of the same class into individual objects. Both steps rely on general machine learning techniques which seamlessly integrate spatial and temporal information, and which can be extended to new domains with no hand-coding. Our single-stroke classifier is the first in literature to perform multi-way classification to facilitate efficient grouping, and it performs as well as or better than previous classifiers on text vs. non-text classification. Our grouping algorithm correctly groups between 84% and 91% of the ink in diagrams from four different domains, with between 61% and 82% of objects being perfectly clustered. Our method runs in O(n²) time, where n is the number of points in the sketch. Real-world performance is improved with a conservative filter to eliminate consideration of distant strokes, and computation occurs incrementally as the sketch is constructed. Even without the filter, the computation for a large sketch containing over 700 strokes took less than 12% of the time required to draw the sketch. Experimental evaluation of our technique has shown it to be accurate and effective in four domains.

Bookmark: T.Kim.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: An environmental user interface (EUI) framework to convey environmental contexts in interactive systems design
Author: Kim, Si Jung
Editor: Smith-Jackson, Tonya L.
Editor: Winchester, Woodrow W., III
Date: 2010
Pages: 242
City: Blacksburg, Va
Publisher: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Standard number: oclcnum: 642283781
Keywords: assistive technology
Keywords: user interface
Keywords: framework
Keywords: wearable computer
Keywords: participatory design
Keywords: wayfinding
Keywords: severe visual impairment
Keywords: human computer interaction
Weblink: scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05172010-143629
Absract: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 488 million people worldwide suffer from a visual impairment and of these about 327 million have severe visual impairments. Some individuals with severe visual impairments can navigate and orient independently in well-known surroundings, but even for these people independent navigation and orientation are likely to be a challenge in unfamiliar places. To overcome these challenges, assistive technologies have been developed to support independent wayfinding tasks; however, those with severe visual impairments often experience frustration when they try to use assistive technologies since these technologies lack address the environmental factors that influence their independent wayfinding. This research developed and evaluated the efficacy of a framework called an environmental user interface (EUI). In particular, this research explored whether or not the proposed EUI framework was effective when used with user-centered design (UCD) to design a wayfinding system to capture environmental requirements, thus aiding those with severe visual impairments. Two studies, the first of which consisted of a requirements elicitation and the second usability testing, were conducted. The studies revealed that the EUI framework was indeed more effective than the conventional UCD design method alone in identifying environmental factors, and participants with severe visual impairments preferred to use the prototype designed using UCD and the EUI framework. The proposed EUI framework was found to be an effective way to enhance the design process as it played an important role in eliciting a greater number of environmental factors, and hence produced a device that was preferred by the users with visual impairments. Both prototypes influenced how well the wayfinding tasks were performed by the five participants with severe visual impairments, but the prototype implemented based on the requirements elicited by UCD and the EUI framework was much preferred by the participants.

Bookmark: T.Liao.2010
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Anomaly detection in GPS data based on visual analytics
Author: Liao, Binbin
Editor: Yu, Yizhou
Date: 2010
Pages: 40
City: Urbana, Illinois
Publisher: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 774919858
Keywords: Visual Analytics
Keywords: Anomaly Detection
Keywords: Conditional Random Fields
Keywords: Active Learning
Keywords: Information Visualization
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/2142/16162
Absract: Modern machine learning techniques provide robust approaches for data-driven modeling and critical information extraction, while human experts hold the advantage of possessing high-level intelligence and domain-specific expertise. We combine the power of the two for anomaly detection in GPS data by integrating them through a visualization and human-computer interaction interface. In this thesis we introduce GPSvas (GPS Visual Analytics System), a system that detects anomalies in GPS data using the approach of visual analytics: a conditional random field (CRF) model is used as the machine learning component for anomaly detection in streaming GPS traces. A visualization component and a user-friendly interaction interface are built to visualize the data stream, display significant analysis results (i.e., anomalies or uncertain predications) and hidden information extracted by the anomaly detection model, which enable human experts to observe the real-time data behavior and gain insights into the data flow. Human experts further provide guidance to the machine learning model through the interaction tools; the learning model is then incrementally improved through an active learning procedure.

Bookmark: T.Mueller.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Designing games: exertion games
Author: Mueller, Florian (Floyd)
Date: 2010
Pages: 295
Publisher: University of Melbourne, Dept. of Information Systems, Faculty of Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 762261733
Keywords: Exercise
Keywords: Sports
Keywords: Computer games
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Kinesiology
Keywords: Muscular sense
Keywords: exertion interface; whole-body interaction; exergame; exergaming; bodily interaction; kinaesthetic; interaction design
Weblink: repository.unimelb.edu.au/10187/9956
Absract: Exertion games are computer games that require intense physical effort from its users. Unlike traditional computer games, exertion games offer physical health benefits in addition to the social benefits derived from networked games. This thesis contributes an understanding of exertion games from an interaction design perspective to support researchers analysing and designers creating more engaging exertion games. Playing with other participants can increase engagement and hence facilitate the associated benefits. Computer technology can support such social play by expanding the range of possible participants through networking advances. However, there is a lack of understanding how technological design can facilitate the relationship between exertion and social play, especially in mediated environments. In response, this thesis establishes an understanding of how mediating technology can support social exertion play, in particular when players are in geographically distant locations. This understanding is forged through the design of three "sports over a distance" games. The experience of engaging with them was studied qualitatively to gain a rich understanding of how design facilitates social play in exertion games. The three games "Jogging over a Distance", "Table Tennis for Three", and "Remote Impact -- Shadowboxing over a Distance" allow investigating different perspectives of mediated exertion play, since they represent three categories of richness on a social play continuum across both the virtual and the physical world. Studies of the experience of engaging with the three games resulted in an exertion framework that consists of six conceptual themes framed by four perspectives on the body and three on games. A fourth study demonstrated that the understanding derived from the investigation of the use and design of the games can support designers and researchers with the analysis of existing games and aid the creative process of designing new exertion games. This thesis provides the first understanding of how technology design facilitates social play in exertion games. In doing so, it expands our knowledge of how to design for the active body, broadening the view of the role of the body when interacting with computers. Offering an increased understanding of exertion games enables game designers to create more engaging games, hence providing players more reasons to exert their bodies, supporting them in profiting from the many benefits of exertion.

Bookmark: T.Sun.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Efficient multimodal input fusion in multimodal user interfaces
Author: Sun, Yong
Date: 2010
Pages: 146
City: Sydney, Australia
Publisher: University of Sydney, Engineering & Information Technologies
Standard number: oclcnum: 712769456
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Interactive multimedia
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing

Bookmark: T.Wu.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: End-effector control for bipedal locomotion
Author: Wu, Jia-chi
Editor: Popovic, Zoran
Date: 2010
Pages: 72
Publisher: University of Washington
Standard number: oclcnum: 704364558
Keywords: Bipedalism
Keywords: Virtual reality
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Interactive computer systems
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/24/3424136.html
Absract: Biped locomotion can be formulated as goal-directed tasks in the low-dimensional end-effector space, with the upper body and the two feet as end effectors. Based on this observation and the neuroscience hypothesis about hierarchical control in human for tasks such as arm reaching and handwriting, I design a framework for the automatic synthesis of hierarchical controllers for biped locomotion. The controller consists of two components: a per-footstep end-effector path planner at the higher level, and a per-timestep generalized-force solver at the lower level. At the start of each footstep, the planner performs short-term planning in the space of end-effector trajectories. These trajectories at run-time adapt to the interactive task goals and the features of the surrounding uneven terrain in the virtual environment. Using the per-footstep plan, the generalized-force solver takes ground contacts into consideration and solves a quadratic program at each simulation timestep to obtain joint torques that drive the biped. The framework solves for the parameters of the planner and the generalized-force solver for different tasks in offline optimizations. I demonstrate the capabilities of the controllers in navigation tasks where they perform gradual and sharp turns and transition between moving forwards, backwards, and sideways on uneven terrain according to the interactive task goals. I show that the resulting controllers are capable of handling certain morphology changes to the character. To verify that such hierarchical end-effector controllers can potentially be used in real-world mechanical systems, I also show that the controllers are robust to disturbances such as actuator and sensor noise, and changes in the friction coefficient. Because human locomotion is routinely subject to these disturbances, robustness against these disturbances also suggests that the hierarchical control hypothesis about human arm reaching and handwriting control may be a good candidate hypothesis for human locomotion control as well.

Bookmark: T.Bate.2010p
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Enhanced performance of delayed teleoperator systems operating within nondeterministic environments
Author: Bate, Laurence
Editor: Cook, Chris
Editor: Li, Zheng
Date: 2010
Pages: 193
Publisher: University of Wollongong, Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 682972558
Keywords: Touch
Keywords: Haptic devices
Keywords: Robots
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Remote control
Keywords: Internet
Keywords: Surgical robots
Keywords: Surgery
Weblink: ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3163/
Absract: Bilateral force feedback teleoperation provides the operator with an enhanced realtime understanding of the remote slave environment. It is common for an uncompensated delay within a closed loop path to lead to system instability. The control problem becomes significantly more complex when the delay conditions are not foreseeable. A good example of such conditions is when the feedback control loop includes the internet, as in remotely controlled teleoperators. Closed loop bilateral teleoperation via a communications path which has no clearly defined or predictable delay time presents difficulty in maintaining both robust stability and adequate system performance for all delay conditions. In light of this researchers have developed a new transmission line based control law through the introduction of the 'Wave Variable' to enable stable teleoperator systems in the presence of network delays. However wave variables, by their inherent scattering design introduce reflections at the wave junctions. These reflections can prove very disorientating for the operator of a wave based teleoperator. In this research the existing wave variable teleoperator architecture is augmented to establish stable robust bilateral teleoperator operation which minimizes the return wave based reflections, thus facilitating good teleoperator performance characteristics to allow operation in nonlinear environments. The work presented in this thesis results in a new teleoperator architecture which: 1) improves wave based teleoperator transient response for the tasks of position tracking and contact stability without the need for prior knowledge of the remote environment wave reflections; 2) enhances force feedback fidelity, with particular focus on the ability to use the teleoperator in complex nonlinear environments such as stick-slip friction; 3) guarantees stable operation of the teleoperation without prior knowledge of the communications delay. The new delayed bilateral teleoperator architecture is tested by simulations, and experimentally and comprehensively verified on two different teleoperator systems. One of these is a bilateral single degree of freedom teleoperator which consists of Master and Slave manipulators of identical characteristics; the other test bed consists of a Slave manipulator built specifically for non linear stick-slip control experiments.

Bookmark: T.Murshed.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Exploring organizational communication networks during crisis: a multitheoretical and multilevel approach
Author: Murshed, Shahriar Tanvir Hasan
Date: 2010
Pages: 232
Publisher: University of Sydney, Civil Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 756486679
Keywords: Communication
Keywords: Topology
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: trove.nla.gov.au/work/157477857

Bookmark: T.Ali-Hassan.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Exploring organizational social computing dimensions and impact on employee's job performance
Author: Ali-Hassan, Hossam
Date: 2010
Pages: 181
Publisher: York University
Publisher: Graduate Programme in
Standard number: oclcnum: 761171528
Keywords: Computer networks
Keywords: Computer science
Keywords: Human behavior
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: udini.proquest.com/view/exploring-organizational-social-goid:816904098/
Absract: Social computing, a relatively new and very popular phenomenon referring to the use of software applications as an intermediary for social relations, is infiltrating companies but with no proven benefits. Moreover, there is a lack of agreement on what defines social computing, preventing theorizing about its organizational impact. This dissertation addressed two gaps in literature and aimed at identifying the key characteristics that assimilate/differentiate between the diverse social computing tools and then study the potential organizational impacts of social computing, particularly on knowledge workers job performance. In the first phase of this dissertation, two studies were conducted to identify the key characteristics along which social computing tools vary. A Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) study found that thirteen representative exemplar tools differ over three dimensions representing usage of the technology. A Property Fitting (ProFit) study confirmed the interpretation that social computing use may be differentiated along three dimensions: building and maintaining social relations versus links to information sources, obtaining hedonic pleasures versus utilitarian benefits, and creating rich collaborative content versus lean informative content. In the second phase, a conceptual model linking the use of organizational social computing for social relations, entertainment and content creation and sharing, to individual employees' innovative and in-role job performance was developed and empirically tested. Social computing was hypothesized to enhance job performance through two mechanisms: social capital, in the form of expressive ties and shared trust, and access to knowledge, in the form of expertise location and access to codified information. Data from a cross sectional survey, at a community of interest in an international Information Technology company, was analyzed using PLS. The findings suggested that the three key uses of organizational social computing were, in varying degrees, positively associated with access to knowledge and social capital. In turn these were positively related to job performance. Moreover, social computing for hedonic purposes was negatively associated with in-role job performance. Hence, despite its potential negative impact, organizational social computing has been shown to be indirectly positively associated with individual knowledge employee job performance. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, as were directions for future research.

Bookmark: T.Sakr.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Haptic data reduction and protection in multimodal virtual environments
Author: Sakr, Nizar
Editor: Georganas, Nicolas D.
Editor: Zhao, Jiying
Date: 2010
Pages: 186
City: Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Publisher: University of Ottawa, Information Technology and Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 781256875
Keywords: Haptic devices
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Virtual reality
Absract: The emerging field of haptics, which enables the sensing and manipulation of virtual environments through touch, is recognized as an important element in the area of human computer interaction. Many of its applications, including medical training, rehabilitation, security, entertainment, etc. involve the transmission, storage, protection, and analysis of haptic information. However, the multi-dimensional and time-varying nature of haptic data along with the fact that high sampling frequencies are required when generating haptic signals, motivate the research of haptic data reduction. This thesis discusses two important and related topics: data reduction and protection in multimodal visual-haptic virtual environments. The focus of the first topic is on the design, evaluation, and analysis of haptic data reduction techniques in order to: (1) Improve packet transmission in telehaptic systems, and (2) reduce the dimensionality of the inherently large haptic datasets. In the former case, robust perception-based data reduction methods in 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom telehaptic systems are derived. The proposed techniques are evaluated in different experimental settings, including a haptic-enabled telesurgery simulation, and demonstrate a significant reduction in haptic data traffic while maintaining a high-quality telehaptic experience. In the latter case, data reduction in haptic information analysis problems is investigated. Specifically, data reduction methods are presented within the context of haptic data mining and knowledge discovery to help facilitate the analysis of the inherently high-dimensional haptic datasets. Experiments using datasets of haptic-based handwritten signatures demonstrate the accuracy of the techniques in reducing the high dimensionality of haptic feature spaces. The protection of haptic information through digital watermarking is also investigated in this thesis due to its conceptual similarity to haptic data reduction and compression. A foundational study is conducted to examine the role of multisensory feedback in the perception of a watermark embedded in a haptic-enabled 3D virtual surface. In particular, the analysis aims to answer numerous important questions in this brand-new research area, including: Do watermarks inspected using multimodal feedback (vision + haptic) result in very different detection thresholds from those detected using a single sensory modality; or more importantly, whether multimodal visual-haptic feedback improves the perception of watermarks embedded in 3D meshes.

Bookmark: T.Kukenys.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Human face detection with support vector machines
Author: Kukenys, Ignas
Editor: McCane, Brendan
Editor: Wyvill, Geoff
Date: 2010
Pages: 143
City: Dunadin, New Zealand
Publisher: University of Otago, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 680488686
Keywords: Optical pattern recognition
Keywords: Face perception
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Machine learning
Keywords: Image processing
Weblink: otago.ourarchive.ac.nz/handle/10523/402
Absract: The computer vision problem of face detection has over the years become a common high-requirements benchmark for machine learning methods. In the last decade, highly efficient face detection systems have been developed that extensively use the nature of the image domain to achieve accurate real-time performance. However, the effectiveness of such systems would not be possible without the progress in the underlying machine learning and classification methods. Support vector machine learning is a relatively recent method that offers a good generalisation performance. As with other methods, SVM learning has been applied to the task of face detection, where the drawbacks of the technique became evident. Research focusing on accuracy found that competitive performance is possible but training on adequately large datasets is hard. Others tackled the speed issue and while various approximation methods made interactive response times possible, those generally came at a price of reduced accuracy. This thesis holds the position that SVM learning can be extended in ways that make it an adequate approach to high-requirements problems such as face detection. An SVM-based face detection system is described that uses the three main contributions of the research: a combination of a novel dataset upscale method and an improved large training algorithm to obtain highly accurate SVM classifiers and a new strategy to produce highly efficient classifier cascades. The resulting face detection system is shown to achieve competitive results both accuracy and speed-wise, and the new methods are demonstrated to be more generally applicable to other computer vision problems -- a system for mouth state estimation in video sequences is presented that demonstrates real-time performance at a 94% classification rate.

Bookmark: T.Wilkinson.2010o
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Interactions in light-weight, far-field augmented reality applications
Author: Wilkinson, Brett Graham
Date: 2010
Pages: 247
Publisher: Flinders University, School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics
Standard number: oclcnum: 755714897
Keywords: Virtual reality
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Portable computers
Keywords: Wearable computers
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: trove.nla.gov.au/work/156937540

Bookmark: T.Holland.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Knowledge-driven identity resolution for longitudinal education data
Author: Holland, Greg
Editor: Talburt, John R.
Date: 2010
Pages: 115
Publisher: University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Standard number: oclcnum: 639354329
Keywords: Identity (Philosophical concept)
Keywords: Student records
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Education
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/13/3413936.html
Absract: Data sets containing information for an overlapping group of real-world identities present a very high likelihood that the identifying attributes and attribute values for these identities may be inconsistent between the data sets. Differences in the types of identifying attributes or attribute values inhibit proper record linkage and identity resolution. Traditional approaches to record linkage are commonly utilized however the results from these approaches do not demonstrate the highest possible levels of confidence and utility. Syntax, semantics, and temporal aspects of data sets should be understood and incorporated into the methodology of heterogeneous data set integration. Domain-specific expertise is a key component of methodology development. The goal of this research is to determine a course of action which will facilitate knowledge-driven identity-resolved longitudinal data studies with optimal record linkage for data sets containing varying identifying attributes and attribute values obtained through various collection methods over a number of years. The proposed identity resolution methodology will be demonstrated with four years of actual education data for students within Arkansas Department of Education data sets. This research will facilitate a FERPA-compliant plan for resolving the representations of real-world identities across multiple longitudinal education data sets, allowing for record linkage of statewide education data and increasing the capability of various state agencies to coordinate future research efforts for education data.

Bookmark: T.Hawker.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Large scale resources for word sense disambiguation
Author: Hawker, Tobias
Date: 2010
Pages: 167
City: Sydney, Australia
Publisher: University of Sydney, Information Technologies
Standard number: oclcnum: 741935639
Keywords: Natural language processing (Computer science)
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Knowledge representation (Information theory)
Keywords: Artificial intelligence

Bookmark: T.Todd.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Learning about user interface design through the use of user interface pattern languages
Author: Todd, Elisabeth-Ann Gynn
Editor: Kemp, Elizabeth
Editor: Phillips, Chris
Date: 2010
Pages: 252
City: Palmerston North, New Zealand
Publisher: Massey University
Standard number: oclcnum: 670535940
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Software patterns
Weblink: muir.massey.ac.nz/handle/10179/1708
Absract: The focus of this research is to investigate the potential of user interface (UI) pattern languages in assisting students of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) to learn the principles of UI design. A graphical representation named a UI-pattern model was developed. It arose from the evaluation of four existing pattern languages. The UI-pattern model is an enhanced form of UI pattern list that represents a specific UI. It was recognised that the UI-pattern model has the potential to help students learn about pattern language structure. It was also realised that UI-pattern modelling can be used to incrementally improve pattern languages through the generative process proposed by Alexander (1979). A UI pattern language Maturity Model (UMM) has been developed. This model can be used by educators when selecting and/or modifying existing UI pattern languages so that they are more appropriate for student use. A method for developing detailed UI designs that utilises a UI pattern language has been developed with the aim of providing students with an 'authentic' real-world UI design experience, as envisaged by constructivist educational theory (Jonassen 1999). This UI design method (TUIPL) guides the students' development of user interface conceptual models. To establish the authenticity of TUIPL three case studies were undertaken out with developers who had differing levels of UI design experience. A series of studies investigated how HCI students used TUIPL to guide the development of UI-pattern models and canonical abstract prototypes. The studies also ascertained the students' views on using three different forms of UI pattern (illustrated, narrative and diagrammed). Data was collected by observation, questionnaires and completed exercises. The results indicate that the students developed an understanding of pattern language structure, were positive about their experience building UI-pattern models and canonical abstract prototypes, and that patterns aided communication. The learning outcomes were encouraging and students responded positively to using a UI pattern language.

Bookmark: T.Newball.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Londra, a dog facial animation model
Author: Newball, Andrés Adolfo Navarro
Editor: Wyvill, Geoff
Editor: McCane, Brendan
Date: 2010
Pages: 223
City: Dunedin, New Zealand
Publisher: University of Otago, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 704301890
Keywords: Facial expression
Keywords: Computer Animation
Keywords: Computer graphics
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: cic.javerianacali.edu.co/~anavarro/PhD/thesis.pdf
Absract: Several human facial animation models have been developed in the last 30 years. In contrast, less attention has been given to animal facial models. Animal facial anatomical features are usually humanised, oversimplified, cartoonised or ignored. With Londra, our dog facial animation model, we successfully synthesised dog facial expressions such as anger, affection, attention, fear, happiness, yawning and smelling without displaying anthropomorphic features. A preliminary validation suggested that most expressions were recognised consistently. Our contributions include: a simplified model inspired by anatomy; a new bottom up form of the layered approach for the bone, muscle, complementary, skin and fur layers; a Dog Facial Action Coding System to synthesise the expressions; and the Tabulated Sphere Subsets to provide a fast way to approximate collisions between objects with constrained motion.

Bookmark: T.Emmanuel.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Mobile phones interaction techniques for second economy people
Author: Emmanuel, Edim Azom
Date: 2010
Pages: 230
City: Alice, South Africa
Publisher: University of Fort Hare
Standard number: oclcnum: 805661206
Keywords: Rural development projects
Keywords: Poverty
Keywords: Cell phone systems
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Community development

Bookmark: T.Jia.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Multidimensional evaluation framework for virtual environment efficacy assessment
Author: Jia, Dawei
Date: 2010
Pages: 350
Publisher: Deakin University, Victoria
Standard number: oclcnum: 711456707
Keywords: User-centered system design
Keywords: User interface (Computer systems)
Keywords: Shared virtual environments
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Absract: This research is related to the user-centred design and use of Virtual Environment (VE) training systems. A multidimensional user-centred systematic training evaluation framework that combines ideas from human-computer interaction, training, education and psychology was proposed, which contributes to better design and evaluation of VE user interfaces.

Bookmark: T.Lee.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Multimodal speech-gesture interaction with 3D objects in augmented reality environments
Author: Lee, Minkyung
Editor: Billinghurst, Mark
Date: 2010
Pages: 194
Publisher: University of Canterbury, Computer Science and Software Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 680487844
Keywords: Augmented reality
Keywords: Multimodal user interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Speech and gesture
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/10092/4094
Absract: Augmented Reality (AR) has the possibility of interacting with virtual objects and real objects at the same time since it combines the real world with computer-generated contents seamlessly. However, most AR interface research uses general Virtual Reality (VR) interaction techniques without modification. In this research we develop a multimodal interface (MMI) for AR with speech and 3D hand gesture input. We develop a multimodal signal fusion architecture based on the user behaviour while interacting with the MMI that provides more effective and natural multimodal signal fusion. Speech and 3D vision-based free hand gestures are used as multimodal input channels. There were two user observations (1) a Wizard of Oz study and (2) Gesture modelling. With the Wizard of Oz study, we observed user behaviours of interaction with our MMI. Gesture modelling was undertaken to explore whether different types of gestures can be described by pattern curves. Based on the experimental observations, we designed our own multimodal fusion architecture and developed an MMI. User evaluations have been conducted to evaluate the usability of our MMI. As a result, we found that MMI is more efficient and users are more satisfied with it when compared to the unimodal interfaces. We also describe design guidelines which were derived from our findings through the user studies.

Bookmark: T.Rintel.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Novice couples coping with network trouble in personal videoconferencing: managing the intersection of interaction and technology in the collaborative achievement of conversational continuity
Author: Rintel, E. Sean
Editor: Pomerantz, Anita
Date: 2010
Pages: 318
Publisher: State University of New York at Albany, Sociology
Standard number: oclcnum: 707634028 eric: ED516899 proquest: 2037040671 ISBN: 9781109744842
Keywords: Videoconferencing
Keywords: Online dating
Keywords: Interpersonal communication
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Dating (Social customs)
Keywords: Interpersonal Relationship; Computer Networks; Teleconferencing; Cooperation; Interpersonal Communication; Communication (Thought Transfer); Synchronous Communication; Information Technology; Internet; Video Technology; Persistence
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: The limitations of home Internet connections make Personal Videoconferencing (PV) interaction vulnerable to network trouble. This dissertation explores how novice couples collaboratively manage PV network trouble so as to carry on their conversation. It is found that transmission/reception and their perturbations are material frames for participant action, but participants are free to treat this frame as an interactional resource. Couples enact both remedial and non-remedial reactions to PV network trouble, tending to emphasize conversational continuity and minimize their focus on technology unless invoking technology has a bearing on continuity. It is argued that Communication Technology research should treat network trouble as a common and fundamental constraint, and participant concern, in all CTs.

Bookmark: T.Gross.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Online identifiers in everyday life
Author: Gross, Benjamin M.
Editor: Twidale, Michael
Date: 2010
Pages: 157
Publisher: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Standard number: oclcnum: 785429098
Keywords: Online identities
Keywords: Personal information management
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Computer networks
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/30/3430867.html
Absract: Identifiers are an essential component of online communication. Email addresses and instant messenger usernames are two of the most common online identifiers. This dissertation focuses on the ways that social, technical and policy factors affect individual's behavior with online identifiers. Research for this dissertation was completed in two parts, an interview-based study drawn from two populations and an examination of the infrastructure for managing identifiers in two large consumer services. The exploratory study examines how individuals use online identifiers to segment and integrate aspects of their lives. The first population is drawn from employees of a financial service firm with substantial constraints on communication in the workplace. The second population is drawn from a design firm with minimal constraints on communication. The two populations provide the opportunity to explore the social, technical, and policy issues that arise from diverse communication needs, uses, strategies, and technologies. The examination of systems focuses on the infrastructure that Google and Yahoo! provide for individuals to manage their identifiers across multiple services, and the risks and benefits of employing single sign-on systems. This research contributes to our understanding of the ways that identifiers shape online self-representation and communication. Specifically, interview data highlight the ways in which individuals' preferences for the creation and management of identifiers conflict with external factors. These conflicts lead to frustration, arbitrary decisions, and complicated management issues. This thesis concludes with recommendations for system designers and policy implementers.

Bookmark: T.Carmona.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Priming users across countries to identify adverse Web-based contract clauses: utilizing the media naturalness theory to detect deception
Author: Carmona, Jesus S.
Date: 2010
Pages: 148
City: Laredo, Tex
Publisher: Texas A&M International University
Standard number: oclcnum: 793103809
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Computer crimes
Keywords: Internet fraud
Keywords: Internet
Keywords: Electronic information resource literacy
Keywords: Internet searching
Keywords: Deception
Keywords: Truthfulness and falsehood
Keywords: Major Management Information Systems
Absract: The ample body of research in deception detection and the truth bias indicates that the average person cannot detect deception better than chance. By the same token, web contract issuers are introducing clauses that are compromising the privacy of web users and are, in some instances, legally binding. Applying the body of research that exists in deception detection to web-based contracts and gaining knowledge of how people can learn to identify deception on such contracts are two main drivers of this research project. Although the field of deception detection has a long history, this study is unique by utilizing the media naturalness theory as means to explain differences in communication media while detecting deception. The concept of priming (warning messages) is introduced and interlaced with cognitive effort, and the effect of two countries is measured against the two main constructs of the media naturalness theory, namely: cognitive effort and ambiguity. The impact that the media naturalness theory, priming, and country effect have on deception detection are measured by an experiment that involves three factors in a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design, the three factors include: the communication media (text versus video), primed versus non-primed condition, and two countries United States and Mexico. The experimental task consists of a controlled web-based experiment in which the clauses of a contract are laid out using the two different communication media. In the experiment the subjects are asked to either accept or reject clauses from a typical software contract; the contract contains twenty clauses of which six are intentionally deceitful in nature. The results of the experiment provided support to the media naturalness theory; no support was found on priming, however, priming seems to have a positive effect on cognitive effort that in turn had a positive effect on correctly identifying deceitful clauses; finally, and as expected in this study, country effect had no significant outcome on the media naturalness theory's main constructs of cognitive effort and ambiguity.

Bookmark: T.Varma.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Prior computer experience and technology acceptance
Author: Varma, Sonali
Author: Marler, Janet H.
Date: 2010
Pages: 126
Publisher: The University at Albany. Organizational Studies Program
Standard number: oclcnum: 708036571
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Technological innovations
Keywords: Computer literacy
Keywords: Change
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/32/3432641.html
Absract: Prior computer experience with information technology has been identified as a key variable (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003) that can influence an individual's future use of newer computer technology. The lack of a theory driven approach to measuring prior experience has however led to conceptually different factors being used interchangeably in published research. As a result cumulative knowledge building from research on the understanding of the influence process of prior computer experience is impeded. This study analyses the prior research on prior experience and develops two conceptualizations of prior experience: habit and computer proficiency. Habit reflects the automatic response in the presence of a cue (e.g. a new technology) that is formed over a period of time, while computer proficiency represents the knowledge/expertise component. Based on the Employee Self Service (ESS) Model, the effects of these two proposed conceptualizations are examined empirically. The ESS model considers the usefulness and ease of use of the technology along with normative influence to be key determinants of technology acceptance. Habit and Proficiency are hypothesized to have direct effects on the usefulness and ease of use of the technology. Habit is hypothesized to also have direct effects on intentions to use a technology. Regression analysis of survey data collected from 737 students in a major university located in the Northeast who are faced with using a new class enrollment software system indicates that proficiency has direct effects on perceptions of information technology's usefulness and ease of use, with habit having curvilinear effects on adoption intentions in addition to linear effects on the two key determinants of intentions to use a technology i.e. usefulness and ease of use of the technology. The results indicate that beyond a certain level of usage, individuals may automatically reject a newer technology that required more computer use/time. Implications for future research and for practitioners are discussed.

Bookmark: T.Chen.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Probabilistic models of movement time in human-computer interaction
Author: Chen, Yu
Date: 2010
Pages: 254
Publisher: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 713010403
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Statistical methods

Bookmark: T.Soukoreff.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Quantifying text entry performance
Author: Soukoreff, Robert William
Date: 2010
Pages: 221
Publisher: York University
Standard number: oclcnum: 780033437
Keywords: Electronic data processing
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: udini.proquest.com/view/quantifying-text-entry-performance-goid:748275553/
Absract: In this dissertation a methodology pertaining to empirical text entry studies is developed. An approach to measuring errors in text entry tasks (a generalisation of typing errors), founded upon the Minimum String Distance (MSD) string comparison algorithm is proposed. The benefit of this approach is that it allows researchers to empirically examine a much more representative form of text entry that includes the error correcting processes. The MSD-based methodology is extended in several ways. A character-level error analysis scheme based upon the MSD is developed. A set of short English text phrases is provided, with the intention that standardising the set of presented text phrases will control a significant source of variability in text entry studies. The importance of the input stream (consisting of the set of action primitives employed by a person performing text entry) is acknowledged. The MSD-based error analysis methodology is further enhanced to include an analysis of the input stream, affording the researcher a deeper perspective of the text entry task under study. The idea of examining text entry outside of the laboratory is considered, and a study of freeform text entry is performed. The idea of using the information theoretic quantity throughput as a metric of human performance is considered. Estimated throughput figures calculated from data collected in two studies supports the feasibility of employing throughput as a metric of human performance in text entry studies. Finally, a rationale for the speed-accuracy trade-off is developed. It is argued that the speed-accuracy trade-off arises as a consequence of Shannon's Fundamental Theorem for a Channel with Noise, when coupled with two additional postulates: that people are imperfect information processors, and that motivation is a necessary condition of the speed-accuracy trade-off.

Bookmark: T.Tate.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Reflections on perceived online service quality: structure, antecedents, ontology, theory and measurement
Author: Tate, Mary
Editor: Evermann, Joerg
Date: 2010
Pages: 383
Publisher: Victoria University of Wellington
Standard number: oclcnum: 664355139
Keywords: Consumer satisfaction
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Web sites
Keywords: Computer network resources
Keywords: Online information services
Keywords: Psychometrics
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/10063/1368
Absract: Online services are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, and this growth has been accompanied by increased business interest in measuring and managing online service quality. This interest is also reflected in a large number of academic studies. Despite this, there is very little consensus about the dimensions and antecedents of perceived online service quality (POLSQ). We consider two possible reasons for this: first that the phenomenon of online service quality is changing as new technology affordances arise, so instability in the dimensionality would be a result of changes in the underlying phenomenon. Second, the theoretical approach and assumptions that studies of online service quality are usually founded on is flawed. My research questions are: 1) what is the structure of perceived online service quality? 2) What are the antecedents of perceived online service quality? 3) What is the ontology of perceived online service quality? 4) What are the most appropriate modelling and measurement methods for measuring online service quality quantitatively, and what insights can be gained from psychometrics?5) What insights does this offer IS researchers for the measurement of user attitudes and perceptions towards technologies? We find that leading models and instruments tend to be based on exploratory factor analysis and have not been informed by advances in measurement theory, particularly co-variance-based structural equation models, and a sub-set of those models known as multi-indicator structural models. We apply recent advances in measurement theory to a dataset. We apply and compare four different modelling methods, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, formative models, and multi-indicator structural models, and discuss the theoretical foundations of each method. We conclude that POLSQ may not have a separate ontology as a multi-dimensional construct, but overall affect towards the service quality of a website is likely to be the result of the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived trust towards the service. This finding supports the explanatory power of information systems theories over marketing and consumer behaviour theories when studying this phenomenon. We find that user's perceptions of detailed affordances of the service, such as the relevance and timeliness of the information are antecedent to overall affect towards the service, rather than being additional dimensions of POLSQ. We find that widely used techniques such as exploratory factor analysis have serious drawbacks. We find that multi-indicator structural models provide an accurate and nuanced method for modelling the formation of attitudes and perceptions towards technology, which is also well-grounded in theory from social psychology. Finally, we suggest that the approach we take to measuring POLSQ is has potential value for other research which aims to measure customer attitudes and perceptions towards technologies.

Bookmark: T.Michalowski.c2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Rhythmic human-robot social interaction
Author: Michalowski, Marek Piotr
Editor: Simmons, Reid
Date: 2010
Pages: 117
City: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Carnegie Mellon University, Robotics Institute
Standard number: oclcnum: 733793326
Keywords: Robots
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/38/3438441.html
Absract: Social scientists have identified and begun to describe rhythmic and synchronous properties of human social interaction. However, social interactions with robots are often stilted due to temporal mismatch between the behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, of the interacting partners. This thesis brings the theory of interactional synchrony to bear on the design of social robots with a proposed architecture for rhythmic intelligence. We have developed technology that allows the robot Keepon to perceive social rhythms and to behave rhythmically. We have facilitated constrained social interactions, and designed experimental protocols, in which a robot variably synchronizes to human and/or environmental rhythms -- first in a dance-oriented task, and second in a cooperative video game. We have analyzed these interactions to understand the effects of Keepon's rhythmic attention on human performance. This thesis demonstrates that variations in a robot's rhythmic behavior have measurable effects on human rhythmic behavior and on performance in rhythmic tasks. Furthermore, human participants were able to assume and transition between the roles of leader or follower in these tasks.

Bookmark: T.Chatelain-Jardon.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Simulated Web-based threats and their impact on knowledge communication effectiveness
Author: Chatelain-Jardón, Ruth Maria Del Carmen
Date: 2010
Pages: 162
City: Laredo, Texas
Publisher: Texas A&M International University, International Business Administration
Standard number: oclcnum: 792856325
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Web-based user interfaces
Keywords: Communication and technology
Keywords: Evolutionary psychology
Keywords: Management Information Systems
Absract: Ubiquitous technology has dramatically changed the way in which people communicate and interact. Knowledge communication is one of the activities that has been drastically affected by the existence of the technology. A fundamental factor that would promote or deter the effectiveness of the Web-based knowledge communication is the human-computer interface. An abundant body of research has been accumulated in studies that try to improve interfaces by considering user needs through usability studies, which are carried out throughout the implementation process (Schnitman, 2007). However, few studies have considered the incorporation of automatic brain mechanisms in the design of human-computer interfaces (see Kock, Chatelain-Jardon & Carmona,. 2008, 2008a & 2009), which is the goal of this research. In fact, this study appears to be the first one in trying to incorporate automatic brain mechanisms (instincts) into effective knowledge communication performance in the context of computer-based learning. The current research is vastly rooted in the fundamental ideology of evolutionary psychology, and more specifically in the basic principles of the psychoevolutionary model of surprise. This research shows that enhanced memorization capacity likely endowed on us by evolution can be exploited for knowledge communication through computer interfaces. A knowledge communication experiment was conducted in which subjects were asked to review Web-based learning modules about International Commercial Terms (ICC Incoterms 2000), and then take a test on what they had learned. Data from six learning modules in six experimental conditions were contrasted. In the treatment 1 condition a Web-based screen with a snake picture in attack position, displayed together with a hissing background noise, was used to create a simulated threat that surprised the subjects. A Web-based screen with a fatal computer error message, displayed together with its corresponding error sound, was used in the second treatment condition. In the control condition the simulated threat was absent. As expected based on the evolutionary psychological view that surprise can enhance learning, the subject in the treatment conditions (i.e., with the snake screen or the error message screen) did approximately 33 percent better than those in the control condition (i.e., without the snake or error message screens) at learning about Incoterms. This improvement occurred only for the Web-based modules immediately after the snake or error message screens (negative stimuli screens). There were no significant differences in learning performance between the two treatment conditions for the module immediately after the negative stimuli screens. Additionally, there were no significant differences in learning performance between the three experimental conditions for the other modules.

Bookmark: T.Kirby.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Social robot navigation
Author: Kirby, Rachel
Editor: Simmons, Reid
Editor: Forlizzi, Jodi
Date: 2010
Pages: 204
City: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Carnegie Mellon University, Robotics Institute
Standard number: oclcnum: 733793325 umi proquest: 3470165
Keywords: Mobile robots
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/70/3470165.html
Absract: Mobile robots that encounter people on a regular basis must react to them in some way. While traditional robot control algorithms treat all unexpected sensor readings as objects to be avoided, we argue that robots that operate around people should react socially to those people, following the same social conventions that people use around each other. This thesis presents our COMPANION framework: a Constraint-Optimizing Method for Person-Acceptable NavigatION. COMPANION is a generalized framework for representing social conventions as components of a constraint optimization problem, which is used for path planning and navigation. Social conventions, such as personal space and tending to the right, are described as mathematical cost functions that can be used by an optimal path planner. These social conventions are combined with more traditional constraints, such as minimizing distance, in a flexible way, so that additional constraints can be added easily. We present a set of constraints that specify the social task of traveling around people. We explore the implementation of this task first in simulation, where we demonstrate a robot's behavior in a wide variety of scenarios. We also detail how a robot's behavior can be changed by using different relative weights between the constraints or by using constraints representing different sociocultural conventions. We then explore the specific case of passing a person in a hallway, using the robot Grace. Through a user study, we show that people interpret the robot's behavior according to human social norms, and also that people ascribe different personalities to the robot depending on its level of social behavior. In addition, we present an extension of the COMPANION framework that is able to represent joint tasks between the robot and a person. We identify the constraints necessary to represent the task of having a robot escort a person while traveling side-by-side. In simulation, we show the capability of this representation to produce behaviors such as speeding up or slowing down to travel together around corners, as well as complex maneuvers to travel through narrow chokepoints and return to a side-by-side formation. Finally, we present a newly designed robot, Companion, that is intended as a platform for general social human-robot research. Companion is a holonomic robot, able to move sideways without turning first, which we believe is an important social capability. We detail the design and capabilities of this new platform. As a whole, this thesis demonstrates both a need for, and an implementation and evaluation of, robots that navigate around people according to social norms.

Bookmark: T.Saponas.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Supporting everyday activities through always-available mobile computing
Author: Saponas, Timothy Scott
Editor: Landay, James A.
Date: 2010
Pages: 158
Publisher: University of Washington
Standard number: oclcnum: 720389545
Keywords: Mobile computing
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/31/3431638.html
Absract: Ubiquitous Computing provides us a vision of computing fading into the background and gracefully supporting our everyday activities. However, our interactions with mobile devices still demand so much of our physical, visual, and cognitive attention that mobile applications are tasks unto themselves, often interrupting the activities they seek to support. For example, the physical interfaces of portable music players are well designed for situations where people can see the controls while holding the device in their hand. However, when people use these devices to listen to music or manage their workout while exercising, they often are forced to interrupt their activity just to advance to the next song. As our primary use of computing continues to move off the desktop, we need new interfaces to mobile computing that expand the types of situations in which people can make use of computing. In this dissertation, I explore always-available interfaces to improve our current interactions and to enable new mobile computing opportunities. The experiments I have conducted and the systems I have built demonstrate my thesis that: Finger level gestures detected and classified through forearm electromyography can enable an always-available interaction paradigm for mobile computing.

Bookmark: T.Larusson.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Supporting the "collaborative" part of Wiki-mediated collaborative learning activities
Author: Lárusson, Johann Ari
Editor: Alterman, Richard
Date: 2010
Pages: 385
Publisher: Brandeis University
Standard number: oclcnum: 660016921
Keywords: Education
Keywords: Education, Higher
Keywords: Wikis (Computer science)
Keywords: Group work in education
Keywords: Computer-assisted instruction
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/03/3403337.html
Absract: Prior research has highlighted the educational benefit of enabling students to participate in collaborative learning activities. Developing technology that extends the physical boundaries of the classroom and enables students to engage in meaningful collaborative learning activities outside class time can be of significant value. For any computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) application, there are two issues to address. Did the students learn? Did the technology adequately support the students' collaboration? The latter question can be referred to as the "collaborative" part of collaborative learning. The collaborative application must create an online intersubjective space that adequately supports the students' collaborations. Building applications that meet this criterion is not a trivial task. The thesis presents the WikiDesignPlatform (WDP). The case is made that the standard wiki, in conjunction with the platform's extensive set of e.g. awareness, navigational and communicative components comprises a framework that is particularly well suited for custom building collaborative learning applications. The thesis presents evidence showing that because wikis are sufficiently plastic, they afford building applications for a variety of collaborative learning activities that share a common lingua franca of interaction. Students only have to learn one style of interaction and can more readily switch between different collaborative learning activities and applications within a single semester/course. The thesis reports on two case studies that range significantly in how much support was needed for the students' collaborations. The evidence shows that under both conditions, WDP-based learning environments provided a sufficiently rich intersubjective space that adequately supported the students' online collaborations. The evidence also shows that the WDP can support metacognitive tasks, like reflection or self/co-explanation.

Bookmark: T.Klasnja.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Supporting unanchored information work of cancer patients with mobile technology
Author: Klasnja, Predrag
Editor: Pratt, Wanda
Date: 2010
Pages: 191
Publisher: University of Washington
Standard number: oclcnum: 732402707
Keywords: Breast
Keywords: Wireless communication systems in medical care
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Medical informatics
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/43/3443179.html
Absract: Cancer patients do considerable information work to manage their care. Technologies that help patients manage health information, such as personal health records and health websites, provide effective support for focused and sustained personal health tasks that patients need to do to play an active role in their care. However, little attention has been paid to patients' need to work with care-related information in circumstances when they lack time, tools, and attention to manage information effectively -- such as when they are away from their health information collections or are experiencing chemotherapy side effects. I have called such patient information activities "unanchored patient information work." In my dissertation, I describe my formative work to characterize these important information activities of cancer patients and the circumstances that make them so challenging. Specifically, I argue that patients' efforts to manage care-related information can be impaired both by outside factors that make information management more difficult, such as coordinating care while out and about, and by internal factors that reduce patients' ability to effectively deal with information -- such as pain and anxiety. I then describe the iterative, user-centered design of a mobile phone application called HealthWeaver Mobile, developed to support unanchored information activities, and its evaluation with patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Research described in this dissertation furthers our understanding of patients' personal health information management practices and it eases an important but challenging aspect of the work that cancer patients do to manage their care.

Bookmark: T.Brickey.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: System for persona ensemble clustering: a cluster ensemble approach to persona development
Author: Brickey, Jonalan
Editor: Walczak, Steven
Date: 2010
Pages: 153
Publisher: University of Colorado Denver
Standard number: oclcnum: 672293668
Keywords: Cluster analysis
Keywords: Persona (Psychoanalysis)
Keywords: Computer interfaces
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/21/3421778.html
Absract: The personas approach to user modeling aims to improve system interface design and increase the chances of information system success. Whereas there have been recent attempts to semi-automate the persona clustering process, the current methods fail to conduct simultaneous data analysis utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data; therefore, the current methods do not approximate human clustering judgment. Additionally, traditional manual persona clustering methods are resource intensive. This study views solutions to this problem from a design science lens in order to find utility in artifacts that meet the needs of an organization. Two information technology artifacts are built and evaluated: a new ensemble clustering method for persona development and an instantiation of the method in a prototype known as the System for Persona Ensemble Clustering. In order to validate the new method and prototype system, data are collected on system users in the context of a military Knowledge Management System. All data were simultaneously analyzed and combined using an ensemble cluster method implemented in the prototype system. The clustering effectiveness of three existing persona clustering methods was compared with the new method by using an expert panel clustering as the baseline. Final agreement measures for the three existing methods and the new method indicate the new semi-automated ensemble cluster method creates persona clusters more effectively. Additionally, the new method is more than three times faster than the traditional manual clustering method. These results suggest that ensemble clustering methods are effective at triangulating the plethora of user data commonly available for persona development projects. As the amount of user data available to design teams grows, it is imperative to use qualitative and quantitative data simultaneously to understand user goals, needs, and behaviors. The results of an effective and efficient persona clustering method are realistic personas that portray typical system users and system interfaces that match those personas. Finally, the research is communicated to management-oriented and technically-oriented audiences using a design science research perspective.

Bookmark: T.Marathe.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The 'me' revolution in mediated communication: investigating the psychology of cosmetic and functional customization
Author: Marathe, Sampada Sameer
Editor: Sundar, S. Shyam
Date: 2010
Pages: 150
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University, Mass Communications
Standard number: oclcnum: 707489822
Keywords: Cosmetic customization; Functional customization; Sense of control; Sense of identity; Intrinsic motivation; Customization; Attitude toward portal; Behavioral intention; User experience
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/theses/approved/PSUonlyIndex/ETD-5907/index.html
Absract: Digital information and communication technologies offer myriad ways for users to engage with the interface and content. Some of them come in the form of tools, while others in the form of interface attributes. Customization -- an attribute that lets users take control and make changes to the presentation and functionality of the interface -- is becoming a hallmark of today's interactive media devices. Users can change presentation-based cosmetic aspects like colors and fonts on websites, skins and wallpapers on cell phones, avatars in video games, as well as task-based functional aspects such as speed dial numbers on cell phones, email account settings, privacy settings on social networks and different command menus in software, among countless other features. While it is not hard to find such customization features on devices we use every day, there is noticeable dearth of scholarly empirical research that has systematically investigated the psychology and user experience surrounding the interaction with such features. Even fewer papers recognize that there are different types of customization and see the value in studying it. This dissertation addressed this shortcoming by explicating the meaning of cosmetic and functional customization, and then delving into their theoretical underpinnings. It tested the role of cosmetic and functional customization in influencing user attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a Web portal by exploring sense of identity, sense of control, and intrinsic motivation as intervening factors. A between-subjects experiment (N=300) was designed where participants were randomly assigned to one of the four manipulated conditions. They were asked to perform either cosmetic customization of an interface, functional customization, both cosmetic and functional customization, or no customization whatsoever before engaging in a task with the interface. In addition to supporting the hypothesized role of customization in promoting positive attitudes via sense of identity, sense of control and intrinsic motivation, this dissertation uncovered the presence of inconsistent mediation, brought on by sense of identity and sense of control that acted as suppressor variables. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings, as well as study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Bookmark: T.Brown.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The ATSA method for specifying both system and user interface requirements: an application of activity theory
Author: Brown, Robert Bruce Keanan
Editor: Piper, Ian C.
Editor: Hyland, Peter
Date: 2010
Pages: 367
Publisher: University of Wollongong, Computer Science and Software Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 712391447
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: System analysis
Keywords: Action theory
Keywords: System design
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3202/
Absract: The many diverse practices of computerised information systems analysis and design, both of the systems themselves and their human computer interfaces, has only further mired themselves more deeply with each passing methodology, method, technique or tool; including those which reject Methodism and strive for a near Zen state of 'structurelessness'. The stakeholders and customers whose personal and business lives rely so deeply on the facilitating tools crafted by the artisans of these 'design' practices deserve better than the disappointingly low success rates delivered to date. No amount of obfuscation or rhetoric can hide the embarrassing reality that these professions cannot reliably and predictably perform their jobs to an acceptable and reliable level. Few other practices aspiring to be professions could tolerate such a history, and it invites speculation as to the veracity of a claim to professional status. A review of the literature reveals challenges for the design artisan and their methods: they lack a single coherent informing philosophical or theoretical base; they lack clear lines of communication between themselves, their customers and the stages of their work; they rely too heavily on accumulated experiences, difficult to transfer to neophytes whose entry to professional practice was discouraged. Finally, customer requirement capture was poorly understood and poorly conducted. There are grounds to consider selecting an informing theory which readily grasps the complexities and scaling issues of user organisations. It was decided that ActivityTheory showed promise, despite no demonstrably complete systems analysis and design method (inclusive of interface) based on Activity Theory having been located in the literature. The hypothesis was formed, that: Systems Analysis and Design (SAD) may be improved if conducted through a prescriptive but agnostic method, constructed according to Activity Theory (AT) principles. The thesis describes in narrative detail how just such a method was constructed and tested for indications of feasibility under a Normative Research Methodology and an Ideational Evaluation. It is hoped that the method produced can provide a consistent, learnable and lightweight framework for future practice; if only for early career neophytes, such that they may work with each other and their clients to produce workable and acceptable results, whilst they accumulate the tacit experience necessary to allow for more elegant future designs.

Bookmark: T.Fuller.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The Virtual Driver: integrating physical and cognitive human models to simulate driving with a secondary in-vehicle task
Author: Fuller, Helen Joanna Arabella
Editor: Liu, Yili
Editor: Reed, Matthew P.
Date: 2010
Pages: 187
Publisher: University of Michigan, Biomedical Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 713023870 ISBN: 978-1-109-73040-1
Keywords: Automobile drivers
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Distracted driving
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdweb
Absract: Models of human behavior provide insight into people's choices and actions and form the basis of engineering tools for predicting performance and improving interface design. Most human models are either cognitive, focusing on the information processing underlying the decisions made when performing a task, or physical, representing postures and motions used to perform the task. In general, cognitive models contain a highly simplified representation of the physical aspects of a task and are best suited for analysis of tasks with only minor motor components. Physical models require a person experienced with the task and the software to enter detailed information about how and when movements should be made, a process that can be costly, time consuming, and inaccurate. Many tasks have both cognitive and physical components, which may interact in ways that could not be predicted using a cognitive or physical model alone. This research proposes a solution by combining a cognitive model, the Queuing Network-Model Human Processor, and a physical model, the Human Motion Simulation (HUMOSIM) Framework, to produce an integrated cognitive-physical human model that makes it possible to study complex human-machine interactions. The physical task environment is defined using the HUMOSIM Framework, which communicates relevant information such as movement times and difficulty to the QN-MHP. Action choice and movement sequencing are performed in the QN-MHP. The integrated model's more natural movements, generated by motor commands from the QN-MHP, and more realistic cognitive decisions, made using physical information from the HUMOSIM Framework, make it useful for evaluating different designs for tasks, spaces, systems, and jobs. The Virtual Driver is the application of the integrated model to driving with an in-vehicle task. A driving simulator experiment was used to tune and evaluate the integrated model. Increasing the visual and physical difficulty of the in-vehicle task affected the resource-sharing strategies drivers used and resulted in deterioration in driving and in-vehicle task performance, especially for shorter drivers. The Virtual Driver replicates basic driving, in-vehicle task, and resource-sharing behaviors and provides a new way to study driver distraction. The model has applicability to interface design and predictions about staffing requirements and performance.

Bookmark: T.Hasley.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The effects of website information utility on the outcomes of user-website interactions
Author: Hasley, Joseph Paul
Editor: Gregg, Dawn G.
Date: 2010
Pages: 116
Publisher: University of Colorado Denver
Standard number: oclcnum: 655269306 umi proquest: 3411410
Keywords: Web sites
Keywords: Electronic commerce
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Internet surveys
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/11/3411410.html
Absract: This study investigates the relationships between website information content utility and various outcomes of user interactions with e-tail websites. Although previous research has consistently identified high quality information content as a critical factor of successful e-commerce websites, those studies have not reported how to identify the specific information cues that comprise high-utility information content. In this study, we demonstrate how a new instrument, the Website Information Content Survey, can be used to accurately and reliably assess website information content. We also demonstrate how the MaxDiff statistical method can be used to assess website information content utility. Finally, to investigate the relationships between website information content utility and various outcomes of user website interactions (perceived information quality, perceived design quality, engagement, trust, and risk), a 4x2 full-factorial experiment was performed.

Bookmark: T.Dabrowski.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The influence of cognitive load, physical load and system response time on user productivity and satisfaction with computer systems
Author: Dabrowski, James R.
Editor: Munson, Ethan V.
Date: 2010
Pages: 107
Publisher: University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 693782672
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Electronic data processing
Keywords: Labor productivity
Keywords: Information technology
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/16/3416610.html
Absract: Forty years of research into computer system response time have produced many results but overly-general conclusions. The general consensus is that for various tasks with a computer, faster response times are generally better than slow ones, but the computer can respond too fast. When computer response is too slow, users tend to become annoyed and frustrated with the computer system and may perform their tasks more slowly. When computer response is too fast, users may adapt to this by working faster at the expense of committing more errors and generally feeling more stress. However, only the most general guidelines exist for which tasks require rapid response and those for which the user will tolerate some delay. The present study was undertaken to further determine how specific combinations of mental and physical load contribute to an optimal system response time. A generic data-entry task was systematically manipulated to vary the amount of mental and physical effort a subject experienced when engaged in that task under a variety of delay levels in the hopes of identifying how changes in task difficulty interacted with delay to cause users to perform optimally and be the most satisfied with the system. While changes in task difficulty had a significant impact on several measures of user performance and satisfaction, no interaction was found between various levels of task difficulty and levels of delay with respect to how users performed on the task or how they felt about the system. This calls into question the conventional wisdom in the field that for more difficult tasks, users will tolerate or even prefer longer delays whereas for simpler tasks users will be more sensitive to delays and those delays will have a more significant impact on their performance. In light of these results, a new cost-based model of human-computer interaction is proposed in which delay is viewed as an integral part of the human-computer interaction rather than being viewed as somehow separate from the entire process.

Bookmark: T.Bennett.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Tools and techniques for locating and steering parallel simulations through bifurcation points
Author: Bennett, Daniel M.
Editor: Farrell, Paul A.
Date: 2010
Pages: 223
City: Kent, Ohio
Publisher: Kent State University
Standard number: oclcnum: 730282577
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: User-centered system design
Weblink: rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view
Absract: This dissertation involved two distinct, yet complementary goals. The primary focus is on steering parallel computations, and, in particular, on providing tools to simplify the task of creating user interfaces, when employing a steering and visualization package. We then apply these tools to create a complex customized interface which enables a user to detect, classify, and steer a sample parallel simulation of liquid crystal materials through a bifurcation point. Steering and visualization (STV) packages such as CUMULVS have been developed to allow user interaction with parallel programs. These packages tend to concentrate on data extraction and transportation, but ignore the problem of allowing scientists to easily build customized user interfaces to perform the actual steering. We believe that customized user interfaces are essential for monitoring and steering any complex computation, and that any STV environment should be accompanied by a set of tools which allow users to construct such an interface without detailed knowledge of the STV library. The principle result of this work is the creation of such a set of tools. These include a toolkit to simplify common tasks, when constructing such a user interface; a library of objects, which combine graphical display of data with the ability to steer that data; and a generic user interface framework, which requires minimal customization to deploy. The use, and usefulness of each of these tools is demonstrated by producing interfaces for a number of parallel numerical simulations. The utility of these tools for a large scale application is ultimately demonstrated by creating a complex custom interface to steer a large three dimensional parallel numerical simulation through the process of locating, classifying and following distinct paths out of a bifurcation point. The implementation of this latter application required the development further software. In particular, locating bifurcation points in the class of problems under investigation involves determining the geometric multiplicity of the minimum eigenvalue of the Jacobian as that eigenvalue approaches zero. To accomplish this, a parallel library, PCIRBLEIGS, was created. This library, based upon the irbleigs algorithm, can determine a few eigenvalues of a large, sparse, symmetric, Hermitian matrix distributed across multiple processes. This library is presented along with several examples and performance information.

Bookmark: T.Kim.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Usable accessibility and haptic user interface design approach
Author: Kim, Hyung Nam
Editor: Smith-Jackson, Tonya L.
Date: 2010
Pages: 265
City: Blacksburg, Virginia
Publisher: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 620172806
Keywords: visual impairment
Keywords: accessibility
Keywords: usability
Keywords: haptic user interfaces
Keywords: design approach
Weblink: scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04152010-092642
Absract: Many people have visual impairment and make up a population that is increasing each year. Haptic technology is often used to assist members of this population by providing a way of understanding visual information. Although haptic technology is relatively new, it is widely applied across a variety of domains (research and industry). However, a great number of users are dissatisfied with their assistive technology applications. Unfortunately, such dissatisfaction is likely to cause abandonment of the technology devices. In particular, recent research shows that the adoption rate of haptic technology is low. Discontinuing the use of assistive technology devices ultimately results in a waste of time, money, freedom, and reduced function for individuals with disabilities. Of all the factors that lead to abandonment, the most significant is the failure to meet user needs. Whether existing design approaches properly reflect assistive technology user needs should be explored, especially for haptic technology. Existing design approaches have rarely considered the heterogeneous needs of users in the same disability category (i.e., visual disability). Most previous studies on assistive technology have been oriented towards those with total blindness as opposed to those with residual vision (also referred to as low vision). In addition, researchers have paid less attention to older adults with low vision in terms of individual differences in haptic user interface (HUI) needs. There is also some doubt about the applicability of existing design approaches in such design contexts as users with visual disabilities using haptic user interfaces. The aim of this research was to investigate individual differences in users' capabilities in the haptic modality and user needs in HUIs. Particularly, age-related and vision-related individual differences were explored. Another aim was to develop a more accessible design approach applicable to users with visual disabilities and HUIs. The magnitude estimation technique was employed to examine how participants (classified by vision and age) perceive the same objective stimulus, such as haptic perception, differently. Brain plasticity theory was primarily applied to modify the existing design approach, PICTIVE. The effectiveness of modified and original PICTIVE methods was investigated in terms of the frequency of statements, gestures, satisfaction, and time to complete a given design task. HUI user needs were elicited from participants and were analyzed to understand age-related and vision-related individual differences. It was found that the haptic perception of the same objective stimulus was not significantly different between younger and older participants with low vision. The two age groups' overall preferences for a set of HUI user needs were not significantly different. In addition, the haptic perception of the same objective stimulus was not significantly different between sighted participants and those with low vision. The two vision groups' overall preferences on a set of HUI user needs were not significantly different as well. The two design methods resulted in significantly different outcomes. First, participants in the modified PICTIVE method made a significantly higher number of statements. Second, participants in the modified PICTIVE method showed a significantly higher number of gestures. Third, participants in the modified PICTIVE method took significantly more time because they had more design ideas to deliver. Last, both groups were satisfied with a given design method. In short, the research outcomes contribute to the advancement of knowledge and understanding of more "usable" accessibility for users with visual impairment and a more "accessible" participatory design approach to nontraditional user interfaces (i.e., haptic user interfaces) for users with visual impairment.

Bookmark: T.Yang.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: User session and history modeling for collaborative visualization
Author: Yang, Fanhai
Editor: Grinstein, Georges G.
Date: 2010
Pages: 134
City: c2010
Publisher: University of Massachusetts. Lowell
Standard number: oclcnum: 748820612
Keywords: Information visualization
Keywords: Computer users
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: gradworks.umi.com/34/70/3470158.html
Absract: Information visualization and Internet collaboration are key techniques for working in an information-rich world. Visualization systems apply humans' impressive visual processing capabilities to make sense of abstract data. Internet applications let people around the globe work together, enter and leave collaborations on their own schedules, even multitask between several projects in different windows. Collaborative Internet visualization applications put these together and enable multiple analysts to collaborate remotely. However, this flexibility and the lack of real-world awareness cues make it difficult for users to keep track of what they and other users are doing and have done during each collaboration session. This thesis describes our application of session history and multi-user awareness tools to reduce the cognitive load of collaborative visual data exploration. We introduce a history model, a history management framework, and a history-based recommender system for collaborative visual data exploration systems. The history model and framework support synchronous collaborations of multiple collaborative individuals or groups. They capture and store group collaborative visualization sessions and history metadata including user annotations in a history database. The history management framework also includes a number of features and tools for users to enhance and interact with the history data: annotating, querying, visualizing and analyzing, replaying, editing and making use of collaborative exploration sessions. The exploration recommender system generates exploration recommendations for users based on their own or their group's previous exploration sessions and profiles. The history management framework and the exploration recommender system have been realized in two example applications. The first is a prototype web-based collaborative visualization system used to test new kinds of collaboration features. Selected features are incorporated into a collaborative visualization project named WEAVE, a project funded by the Open Indicators Consortium for the web-based visualization and analysis of a variety of measures and indicators useful for urban planning.

Bookmark: T.Zhao.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Validation of virtual reality temporal bone simulators in otolaryngology training
Author: Zhao, Yi Chen
Date: 2010
Pages: 292
Publisher: University of Melbourne, Dept. of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine
Standard number: oclcnum: 754903407
Keywords: Otolaryngology
Keywords: Virtual reality
Keywords: Temporal bone
Keywords: Synthetic training devices
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Teaching
Keywords: Surgical simulation
Keywords: Temporal bone drilling
Keywords: Otorhinolaryngology
Weblink: repository.unimelb.edu.au/10187/10004
Absract: Background: The training of surgeons is a critically important issue for the health care system. While the traditional method of surgical training continues to serve the health care system well, there are many forces both within surgery and in society that are seeking to improve the training of surgeons of the future. Virtual reality simulations have played a major part in the training of the airline industry and the military but its use in otology surgical training has not been fully elucidated. This thesis aims to investigate the role of virtual reality simulation in temporal bone surgical training by testing i) its construct validity, ii) the transferability of skills, iii) to develop an "intelligent" tutor in the virtual reality simulation and iv) to compare self-directed virtual reality simulation training to traditional teaching methods on the performance of cadaver temporal bone dissection. Results: It was found that the University of Melbourne virtual reality temporal bone simulator had construct validity and was able to differentiate not only between experts and novices participants but also intermediate residents. Using it as a teaching tool by a senior otologist it was demonstrated that participants perform better in cadaver temporal bone dissection compared with traditional teaching methods in a randomized control trial. Finally, it was found that the simulator could be used as an "intelligent tutor" independent of expert supervision to teach novice trainees the fundamentals of temporal bone surgery. Once again in a randomized control trial, it was found that training on the VR simulator improved cadaveric temporal bone dissection compared with traditional teaching methods. Conclusion: Virtual reality temporal bone simulators could have a significant role in the education of temporal bone dissection. It's most significant contribution would be towards novice surgical training by allowing early education to occur on a virtual reality simulator independent of consultant supervision. This would provide a more efficient use of the precious educational resources of cadaver temporal bone as well as time needed from consultant surgeons to teach and supervise junior trainees. While there are queries regarding the fidelity of the virtual reality simulation environment, it is important to remember that appropriate fidelity for the designed task is more important than absolute comparison to reality. In this regard the current virtual reality temporal bone simulator has sufficient realism to teach novice trainees the fundamental basic of temporal bone dissection. Future research direction would focus on determining the transfer of skills and knowledge from the virtual reality simulator to operating room performance as well as broadening the use of the virtual reality simulator to other areas such as technical skills assessment and surgical rehearsal.

Bookmark: T.Trnka.2010
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Word prediction techniques for user adaptation and sparse data mitigation
Author: Trnka, Keith
Editor: McCoy, Kathleen F.
Date: 2010
Pages: 252
Publisher: University of Delaware, Computer & Information Sciences
Standard number: oclcnum: 711635359 ISBN: 978-1-124-48009-1 proquest: 2280756131
Keywords: Natural language processing (Computer science)
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Semantic computing
Keywords: People with disabilities
Keywords: Pattern recognition systems
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdweb
Absract: The field of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) seeks to help minimize the effects of speech disorders to allow better communication. High-tech AAC devices are electronic devices that address the dual issue of speech impairment and reduced motor control. Communication rate can be improved substantially using word prediction, an application of language modeling to text entry. Word prediction relies on the letters and words that the user has entered so far to suggest likely words that the user is in the process of typing. Although we can increase language model quality with more training data, these efforts are unlikely to increase the average relevance of training texts. Instead, many documents will be dissimilar to testing data. Even if a few relevant texts are added to the training data, their contribution is marginalized by the abundance of irrelevant texts. We address the problem of varying relevance through adaptive language modeling, specifically topic adaptation and style adaptation. We found that these adaptations increase keystroke savings for both topic and style adaptation individually, and also when topic and style modeling are combined. We have addressed the problem of irrelevant training data with cache models to learn new words and model lexical repetition, and we also integrated a large word list using methods developed for the part of speech ngram model. We have focused on general-purpose improvements in language modeling and natural language processing. Many of our methods may be applicable to related language modeling problems. However, we have focused only on language modeling improvements which we feel are well-suited for word prediction and AAC.

Bookmark: T.Lunn.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Towards Behaviour-Driven Transcoding of Web Content Through an Analysis of User Coping Strategies
Author: Lunn, Darren
Editor: Harper, Simon
Editor: Bechhofer, Sean
Date: 2009-12
Pages: 205
City: Manchester, UK
Publisher: University of Manchester
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/darren_lunn.php
Absract: People with visual impairments are hindered when accessing information on the World Wide Web (Web) as content is not designed with their needs in mind. Visually impaired users can access the Web through screen readers that use the underlying structure of a page to create a sequential, audio rendering of the content. However, most designers are mainly concerned with how content is presented, rather than its structure and meaning. Consequently, implicit information available through the visual rendering of the content is lost to screen readers and therefore users. To address this problem, tools that transcode Web content into a format more suitable for screen readers have been developed. While these tools have assisted users in accessing Web content, limitations have been identified. Firstly, the approaches taken have either been scalable but inaccurate, or accurate but unscalable. Secondly, the transformations have tended to focus on adapting content to meet the needs of the device rather than the user. This thesis presents work that addresses both these limitations. SADIe, a content transcoder, was developed that is both accurate and scalable. This is achieved by annotating the Cascading Style Sheet of a Website. The annotations provide accurate transcoding as they identify key elements of the page when applying the transformations. As most Websites typically have one set of style sheets that all pages refer to, the annotations propagate to every page providing scalability. Technical evaluations of SADIe established that it was capable of consistently transcoding a diverse range of Websites. Unlike previous tools, the transformations used were based upon an understanding of behavioural strategies users employ when accessing Web content. A study of eleven users identified forty-eight strategies categorised into six abstract patterns. Transformations based on four of these patterns were incorporated into SADIe. Qualitative and quantitative user studies of the behaviour-driven transcoding demonstrated that the approach can assist users in accessing Web content beyond that of previous solutions.

Bookmark: T.Vigo.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Automatic Assessment of Contextual Web Accessibility from an Evaluation, Measurement and Adaptation Perspectives
Author: Vigo, Markel
Editor: Abascal, Julio
Date: 2009-11
City: San Sebastián, Spain
Publisher: University of the Basque Country
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/markel_vigo.php
Absract: Web accessibility aims at providing people with disabilities with a barrier-free user experience. This PhD report explores how automatic accessibility assessment benefits both accessibility experts and end-users. In the context of this document assessment is understood as a twofold goal consisting of evaluation and measurement. The former group, accessibility experts, can make use of a set of tools and flexible frameworks to create and maintain accessible content for a wide range of users and interaction environments. In addition, the techniques and methods used throughout this document can be replicated and incorporated by third parties. Expert assessment of fourteen websites and large-scale automatic assessment of almost 1,500 web pages demonstrates that the Web Accessibility Quantitative Metric (WAQM) is a valid and reliable metric to automatically measure accessibility of web pages. Moreover, by deploying WAQM jointly with commercial search engines (Google and Yahoo!) it is corroborated that search engine crawlers consider web accessibility while indexing the Web although pages are not ranked according to their accessibility score. The latter group, end-users, can take advantage from contextual accessibility assessment by deploying assessment scores in web pages to increase user orientation. To do so from a guidelines conformance point of view, not only content accessibility has to be considered but also the dependencies between content guidelines, user group, assistive technology and the access device. Twenty users took part in a user test conducted for determining the validity of this approach with the mobile web, concluding that device-tailored assessment is more faithful to usability assessment in terms of satisfaction and task completion time. Another experiment with sixteen blind users also demonstrates that deploying user-tailored scores increases user orientation and confidence. It is also observed that when links are annotated with the accessibility score of the page they point to, blind users change the browsing paradigm from sequential navigation to random criteria within those links that score higher. Finally it is noteworthy that lessons drawn from automatic assessment can be extrapolated to manual assessment carried out by experts or user-testing.

Bookmark: T.Doush.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Non Visual Navigation of Excel Spreadsheet
Author: Doush, Iyad Abu
Editor: Pontelli, Enrico
Date: 2009-11
City: Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA
Publisher: New Mexico State University
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/iyad_abu_doush.php
Absract: The problem of non-visual navigation of the information in Excel spreadsheet is that using current technologies no overview is available for the user about different components found in the spreadsheet. Several attributes associated with spreadsheets make them not easy to navigate by individuals who are blind and visually impaired. The large amount of information stored in the spreadsheet, the multi-dimensional nature of the contents found in a spreadsheet, and the several features it includes cannot be readily linearized by a screen reader or Braille display (e.g., charts and tables). People who are blind and visually impaired need to easily navigate spreadsheets to access and analyze data easily. Providing a more accessible non-visual navigation of spreadsheets will help individuals who are blind and visually impaired in getting a better education, will improve their skills, and assist them in entering new careers. A user centered design paradigm is followed to build an accessible system for non-visual navigation of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The proposed system will provide the user with a hierarchical overview of the navigated components in an Excel spreadsheet. The system is multi-modal, and it provides the user with different navigation and reading modes for the non-visual navigation of a spreadsheet. This will help the users in adapting the way the non-visual navigation is performed according to the task the user needs to accomplish. The Novint Falcon force feedback haptic device and speech synthesizer are used for charts navigation on the system. To navigate other components of an Excel spreadsheet (i.e., tables and formulas) audio speech is utilized. Several user studies have been conducted and the system has been evaluated. The feedback from the user studies resulted in improving the accessibility and usability of the system. Using the proposed system, the users answered questions faster and with more correct responses than when they navigated tables using Braille or navigate charts using tactile paper. The work in this thesis can be used as a set of guidelines when designing non-visual interfaces for graphical or mathematical information. The results from this work can be applied to other users groups requiring non-visual navigation of spreadsheets (e.g. exploring a spreadsheet using mobile phones).

Bookmark: T.Bigham.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Intelligent Interfaces Enabling Blind Web Users to Build Accessibility Into the Web
Author: Bigham, Jeffrey P.
Editor: Ladner, Richard E.
Date: 2009-10
Pages: 171
City: Seattle, Washington, USA
Publisher: University of Washington, Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/jeffrey_p_bigham.php
Absract: The web holds incredible potential for blind computer users. Most web content is relatively open, represented in digital formats that can be automatically converted to voice or refreshable Braille. Software programs called screen readers can convert some content to an accessible form, but struggle on content not created with accessibility in mind. Even content that is possible to access may not have been designed for non-visual access, requiring blind web users to inefficiently search for what they want in the lengthy serialized views of content exposed by their screen readers. Screen readers are expensive, costing nearly $1000, and are not installed on most computers. These problems collectively limit the accessibility, usability, and availability of web access for blind people. Existing approaches to addressing these problems have not included blind people as part of the solution, instead relying on either (i) the owners of content and infrastructure to improve access or (ii) automated approaches that are limited in scope and can produce confusing errors. Developers can improve access to their content and administrators to their computing infrastructure, but relying on them represents a bottleneck that cannot be easily overcome when they fail. Automated tools can improve access but cannot address all concerns and can cause confusion when they make errors. Despite having the incentive to improve access, blind web users have largely been left out. This dissertation explores novel intelligent interfaces enabling blind people to independently improve web content. These tools are made possible by novel predictive models of web actions and careful consideration of the design constraints for creating software that can run anywhere. Solutions created by users of these tools can be shared so that blind users can collaboratively help one another make sense of the web. Disabled people should not only be seen as access consumers but also as effective partners in achieving better access for everyone. The thesis of this dissertation is the following: With intelligent interfaces supporting them, blind end users can collaboratively and effectively improve the accessibility, usability, and availability of their own web access.

Bookmark: T.Xie.2009
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Supporting participation and mobile interactions in community events
Author: Xie, Xiaoyan
Editor: Carroll, John M.
Date: 2009-09-04
Pages: 87
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University, Information Sciences and Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 613353218
Keywords: Prototyping; event support systems; community events; blogging; awareness
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/paper/10172/
Absract: In the past ten years, the broadband wireless networks have been considerably developed. Many cities throughout the world have been investing in or are planning on a pervasive wireless infrastructure with the goal of making wireless access to the Internet a universal service. The development of local public network infrastructures has raised a new challenge for the community networking research tradition. How can we leverage the new capabilities of a pervasive wireless network, such as ubiquitous accessibility, interaction immediacy, mobility, and location sensibility, to support community-oriented goals? What are examples of effective civic applications of public wireless infrastructures? Although some work has addressed leveraging wireless applications for the capacity building of geographically collocated communities (such as cities, towns, and other relatively populated areas), few of them investigate the wireless application paradigms for community-oriented goals by actual design, prototyping, and evaluation. The work reported in this thesis is a pilot study to address this gap, by which we explore what application features, leveraging the capacities of pervasive wireless infrastructures, can be used to facilitate and/or foster attendance of and interaction at community events, and how to design them. This thesis presents the design, implementation, and two field trials of a prototyping system supporting community event attendees and discusses design implications drawn from the field trials.

Bookmark: T.Smith.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Developing Web Accessibility: Section 508 Compliance of Post-Secondary Educational Web Site Home Pages
Author: Smith, Julie A.
Editor: Lind, Mary Robinson
Date: 2009-09
City: Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Publisher: Capella University
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/julie_a_smith.php
Absract: This research studied Web accessibility of education department home pages of institutions accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). A multiple-methodological approach based on the literature and U.S. Section 508 and Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) was used to further understand accessibility issues relating to higher education Web pages and visually-impaired Web users using screen readers. Growing demands for Web accessibility may be attributed to increased use of screen readers by baby boomers due to age-related visual disabilities (U.S. Department of Commerce, "Dramatic changes in U.S. aging highlighted in new census," 2003). An additional growing market that benefits from Web accessibility comprises those who use mobile devices (Tilson & Lyytinen, "The 3G transition: Changes in the US wireless industry," Telecommunications Policy, 2006; World Wide Web Consortium, "Mobile Web best practices 1.0," 2008). Even with Section 508 law and a likely growing demand, studies show few Web sites achieve Web accessibility and failure rates appear to be increasing (Hackett & Parmanto, "A longitudinal evaluation of accessibility: Higher education Web sites," Internet Research, 2005). The six hypotheses tested represented the literature's pressing issues, (a) Web master accessibility education/training, end-user communications, and strategic decision-making responsibilities, (b) Web site complexity, and (c) organizational enactment of Web accessibility in policies and Web master hiring practices. A mailed survey sent to NCATE education department Web masters tried to identify levels of Web accessibility training, communications, and strategizing. To analyze home page accessibility and complexity, AChecker™, A-Prompt™, JAWS™, and Kelvin™ were utilized. In addition the existence of institutional Web accessibility guidelines/policies and Web accessibility requirements in Web master job postings were sought to determine importance placed on Web accessibility by these institutions. Results encompassed a 95% failure rate in Section 508 compliance (census and sample). The 2009 results were compared with 2002 results of two previous studies and showed an increased failure rate. Through the hypothesis-testing, two of six hypotheses had significant, positive relationships: lower levels of home page Web accessibility related to lower levels of Web master Web accessibility training as well as increasingly higher complexity in Web page design.

Bookmark: T.Choi.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A Study of Human-Robot Interaction With an Assistive Robot to Help People With Severe Motor Impairments
Author: Choi, Yougn Sang
Editor: Kemp, Charles C.
Date: 2009-08
Pages: 178
City: Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/yougn_sang_choi.php
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1853/29701
Absract: The thesis research aims to further the study of human-robot interaction (HRI) issues, especially regarding the development of an assistive robot designed to help individuals possessing motor impairments. In particular, individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), represent a potential user population that possess an array of motor impairment due to the progressive nature of the disease. Through review of the literature, an initial target for robotic assistance was determined to be object retrieval and delivery tasks to aid with dropped or otherwise unreachable objects, which represent a common and significant difficulty for individuals with limited motor capabilities. This thesis research has been conducted as part of a larger, collaborative project between the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University. To this end, we developed and evaluated a semi-autonomous mobile healthcare service robot named EL-E. I conducted four human studies involving patients with ALS with the following objectives: 1) to investigate and better understand the practical, everyday needs and limitations of people with severe motor impairments; 2) to translate these needs into pragmatic tasks or goals to be achieved through an assistive robot and reflect these needs and limitations into the robot's design; 3) to develop practical, usable, and effective interaction mechanisms by which the impaired users can control the robot; and 4) and to evaluate the performance of the robot and improve its usability. I anticipate that the findings from this research will contribute to the ongoing research in the development and evaluation of effective and affordable assistive manipulation robots, which can help to mitigate the difficulties, frustration, and lost independence experienced by individuals with significant motor impairments and improve their quality of life.

Bookmark: T.Barrantes.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Human-Computer Interaction with Older People: From Factors to Social Actors
Author: Barrantes, Sergio Sayago
Editor: Blat, Josep
Date: 2009-07
City: Barcelona, Spain
Publisher: Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/sergio_sayago_barrantes.php
Absract: Population ageing and the role of computers in current society have created a need to strengthen HCI with older people. The current paradigm considers them as a set of factors and central to it is compensation for age-related changes in functional abilities. This dissertation proposes a different paradigm: from factors towards interaction based on older people as social actors. Within this paradigm, compensating for diminishing abilities is not the cornerstone of research. Instead, interaction and real-life use should be closely intertwined. Against this framework, the thesis presents the results of an extensive ethnographic work on e-mail and web use. Quantitative and mixed methods are employed in other aspects related to use and interaction which complement this major study. Other chapters include methodological contributions to real-life evaluation. The dissertation discusses strategies for approaching HCI with older people. Central to them is the concept of life experience and the need to turn to everyday interactions by combining classical ethnography with experimentations.

Bookmark: T.Murray.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Instructional eLearning Technologies for the Vision Impaired
Author: Murray, Iain
Editor: Myers, Doug
Date: 2009-05
Pages: 303
City: Perth, Australia
Publisher: Curtin University of Technology, Electrical & Computer Engineering
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/iain_murray.php
Weblink: www.libsearch.com/view/655416
Absract: The principal sensory modality employed in learning is vision, and that not only increases the difficulty for vision impaired students from accessing existing educational media but also the new and mostly visiocentric learning materials being offered through on-line delivery mechanisms. Using as a reference Certified Cisco Network Associate (CCNA) and IT Essentials courses, a study has been made of tools that can access such on-line systems and transcribe the materials into a form suitable for vision impaired learning. Modalities employed included haptic, tactile, audio and descriptive text. How such a multi-modal approach can achieve equivalent success for the vision impaired is demonstrated. However, the study also shows the limits of the current understanding of human perception, especially with respect to comprehending two and three dimensional objects and spaces when there is no recourse to vision.

Bookmark: T.Du.2009
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: I felt like a contributing member of the class: increasing class participation with ClassCommons
Author: Du, Honglu
Editor: Rosson, Mary Beth
Editor: Carroll, John M.
Date: 2009
Pages: 83
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University, Information Sciences and Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 605010669
Keywords: Class Participation; Sense of Community
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/paper/10355/
Absract: Public displays have become pervasive in everyday life. Recent technological development has decreased the cost of such displays and they have been adopted increasingly in places where people meet each other, e.g., town centers, café classrooms, libraries, offices. Currently, most public displays are non-interactive, serving a broadcast function (TV news, ads, etc). Our informal observations around public displays in our own building indicate that people pay little attention to the displays. In fact, it is generally accepted that most large public displays are under-utilized. However, given their strategic spatial positioning such displays might easily be used to attract the attention of people who are working or relaxing in the area. The work reported here explores the question of whether social interaction through a public display can also promote a sense of community amongst the participants. The design and first deployment experiences of a platform-independent, interactive video commenting system, ClassCommons, using a large public display in two sections of a large-enrollment university class, is described here. The preliminary evaluation suggests that students enjoyed the activity of commenting, that they participated a great deal, and that their sense of community was greater after using the system. Further analysis revealed that reading the comments and posting relevant comments are associated with increases in community members' sense of community. Finally, lessons learned from this initial experience and further work using this and similar interactive activities will be discussed.

Bookmark: T.Gross.2009
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Using derived social clusters in email to support high-throughput users in message management
Author: Gross, Joshua B.
Editor: Rosson, Mary Beth
Date: 2009
Pages: 235
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University, Information Sciences and Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 500699118
Keywords: Artificial intelligence; social networks; human computer interaction; email; clustering
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/paper/9980/
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/theses/approved/WorldWideIndex/ETD-4376/index.html
Absract: Email is a story of both phenomenal success and frustrating challenges. The success of email as a professional communication tool clearly indicates that email is powerful and adaptable, but the success has led to the need for strategies to cope with the quantity and importance of email. The goal of this research was to develop a theory of how email is used, and from that goal, to develop a tool that will improve email interactions. The tool allows users to triage new mail, search existing mail, and categorize their email according to social clusters. These clusters are groups of senders/recipients with some association, as determined through collocation on multiple email messages. The tool, SCuF (Social Cluster Filtering), is an extension of Microsoft Outlook 2003. It uses an extension of an existing algorithm (k-nearest-neighbor clustering) to derive a user-defined number of clusters of associated emailers. The user can then edit these clusters and use them to filter their inbox, another folder, or multiple folders. The filtered view only presents the user with messages to or from the members of the social cluster. The concept of social clustering extends the idea of social networks, and I present an analysis of extant work on social network analysis of email, showing that this dissertation research was novel and addressed problems that are not addressed by prior research. This work was rooted in a theoretical foundation that draws from cognitive psychology and the semiotics of information. Cognitive psychology, and particularly cognitive and process models, allowed me to explore the cognitive mechanisms that people use when they interact with and make sense of the information contained within email messages. Semiotics of information allowed me to explore the visual and conceptual mechanisms that people use in these processes. Using analysis techniques from both psychology and semiotics, I created models of existing behavior and mechanisms, and extend these models to create a theoretically valid extension. The models originated from fieldwork on how high-throughput email users actually use email. I focused on high-throughput users because they present a special case of intensive interaction with email. I provide data to define these users, and then present data from several in-depth interviews and observations of these users. Finally, I used high-throughput users in an evaluation of the tool.

Bookmark: T.Hailpern.2008
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: The Spoken Impact Project: Using Audio & Visual Feedback to Impact Vocalization in Non-Verbal Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Author: Hailpern, Joshua
Editor: Karahalios, Karrie
Date: 2008-12
City: Urbana, Illinois, USA
Publisher: University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/joshua_hailpern.php
Absract: One hallmark difficulty of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) centers on communication and speech. Research into computer visualizations of voice has been shown to influence conversational patterns and allow users to reflect upon their speech. In this research, called the Spoken Impact Project (SIP), we explore the effects of audio and visual feedback on vocalization in low-functioning children with ASD. By presenting a child with a new interpretation of their vocalizations (though audio and visual feedback), we aim to provide them with additional means of understanding and exploring their own voice. The SIP research spans over 12 months, including the creation of multiple software packages and detailed analysis of more than 20 hours of experimental video. This thesis details the four major components of this research project; 1) theory for visuals as feedback; 2) Supporting Video Annotation; 3) Creation of a Coding Guideline for Working with pre-verbal children and computers, and; 4) exploring SIP in an Experimental Context. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of computer generated audio and visual feedback to shape vocalizations of children with ASD.

Bookmark: T.Sporka.2008
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Non-speech Sounds for User Interface Control
Author: Sporka, Adam J.
Editor: Slavik, Pavel
Date: 2008-10
Pages: 129
City: Prague, Czech Republic
Publisher: Czech Technical University in Prague
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/adam_j_sporka.php
Absract: Non-speech sounds have already gained interest of the researchers in the HCI community when used in the data sonification and acoustic user interface design, usually as a tool of data presentation. Their complementary role, the use for data input and user interface control by the users who produce them, has been until recently ignored. In the current literature, the use of non-speech sounds has been investigated only in solitaire instances, such as their use to control a particular game or input device. In our recent work, we have demonstrated, that in different scenarios, such as emulation of the mouse device or keyboard, the use of non-speech sounds may successfully compete with other assistive techniques and technologies that allow the motor impaired users to carry out tasks on a standard PC. The non-speech sound input is thus an inexpensive alternative to various costly an uncomfortable systems, such as sip-and-puff controllers or eye trackers. As opposed to the speech recognition techniques, the non-speech sounds may be used by the users with speech difficulties and are language- and culture-independent. This thesis focuses on the control by pitch of the tone. A novel method of the measurement of the comfortable pitch range is suggested. Two methods elementary for accomplishing 1D-pointing tasks are evaluated in a user study: Pointing by means of the absolute pitch tone and pointing by means of acoustic gestures making use of relative tone. Further on, a method for the mouse cursor control is suggested and evaluated in a longitudinal study. The last chapter of this thesis focuses on the use of the pitch control in the computer games. This document demonstrates that the non-speech sounds are a feasible input channel for various applications, especially where a rapid response of the user interface is expected and required, including mouse cursor and video games control.

Bookmark: T.Guerreiro.2008
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Myographic Mobile Accessibility for Tetraplegics
Author: Guerreiro, Tiago
Editor: Jorge, Joaquim
Date: 2008-07
City: Lisbon, Portugal
Publisher: Technical University of Lisbon
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/tiago_guerreiro.php
Absract: Nowadays, electronic devices are used across the several scenarios that compound our day. Mobile devices, with their reduced dimensions but capacities increasingly similar to desktop computers, have drastically augmented our communicative capabilities offering total availability, everywhere and to everywhere. These devices have become essential for human-human communication but also gather an application set that make them, more than simple phones, high productivity and leisure tools. However, tetraplegic persons face great difficulties or total inability to voluntarily interact with these devices. In this document, we present an approach to allow interaction between tetraplegic users and mobile devices. This interaction is based on myographic information (Electromyography) collected from residually controlled body areas and on the redesign of the dialogues between the system and the device. Through user studies, we designed interaction schemes that allow adaptability to the several lesion degrees but also to the several scenarios that make the users' daily life. We undertook user studies that validate Electromyography as an interaction mechanism as well as the capacity to adapt to the several possible scenarios, offering real mobile devices accessibility.

Bookmark: T.Farooq.2008
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Supporting creativity: investigating the role of awareness in distributed collaboration
Author: Farooq, Umer
Editor: Carroll, John M.
Date: 2008-06-20
Pages: 178
City: University Park, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Pennsylvania State University, Information Sciences and Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 435908856
Keywords: Creativity; awareness; human computer interaction; computer supported cooperative work
Weblink: etda.libraries.psu.edu/theses/approved/WorldWideIndex/ETD-2990/index.html
Absract: Creativity is the cornerstone of collaborative scientific work. As distributed collaboration is becoming an increasingly dominant model of creative scientific work that goes on in our daily lives, it is essential to understand how creativity can be supported in such contexts. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the feasibility, effectiveness, and consequences of supporting creativity with computer-supported awareness in distributed collaboration. This research is conducted in five phases. The first phase is a survey of creativity literature to speculate how awareness, and in particular activity awareness, can support creativity in distributed collaboration. The second phase is an exploratory experiment that identifies four breakdowns in creativity in distributed collaboration. The third phase is the design and prototyping of three novel activity awareness strategies and mechanisms to support creativity. The fourth phase is a main experiment that studies the effectiveness and consequences of using the activity awareness mechanisms. The fifth phase validates results from the main experiment through follow-up analysis. The results show that groups with activity awareness support were more likely to be among the most creative than groups without activity awareness support. 62% of the groups with activity awareness support were ranked in the upper tier of being creative versus 37.5% of the groups without activity awareness support. The most significant results involved structured activity updates, one of the three activity awareness mechanisms, which allowed group members to update and share their work status. The structured activity updates increased awareness of group members with respect to what they had worked on. Further, the structured activity updates increased awareness of group members over time with respect to what they will do next, a relationship that was stronger for the groups with structured activity updates than groups without structured activity updates. Group members with higher metacognitive knowledge found the structured activity updates more useful than group members with lower metacognitive knowledge. This dissertation contributes to the basic science of creativity, to the design science of supporting creative activity, and to the empirical science of measuring creativity. The application of creativity theories from the social sciences in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) contexts improves our general understanding of creative collaboration. Second, prototypes of awareness mechanisms broaden the science of design by developing new tools for supporting creativity. Third, extension of existing evaluation metrics and frameworks advances our ability to measure creativity using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The broader impact of this dissertation is to enhance the process and product of creative collaboration.

Bookmark: T.Oren.2008
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Design and Evaluation of Auditory Spatial Cues for Decision Making Within a Game Environment for Persons With Visual Impairments
Author: Oren, Michael A.
Editor: Harding, Chris
Date: 2008-05
City: Ames, Iowa, USA
Publisher: Iowa State University
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/michael_oren.php
Absract: An audio platform game was created and evaluated in order to answer the question of whether or not an audio game could be designed that effectively conveys the spatial information necessary for persons with visual impairments to successfully navigate the game levels and respond to audio cues in time to avoid obstacles. The game used several types of audio cues (sounds and speech) to convey the spatial setup (map) of the game world. Most audio-only players seemed to be able to create a workable mental map from the game's sound cues alone, pointing to potential for the further development of similar audio games for persons with visual impairments. The research also investigated the navigational strategies used by persons with visual impairments and the accuracy of the participants' mental maps as a consequence of their navigational strategy. A comparisons of the maps created by visually impaired participants with those created by sighted participants playing the game with and without graphics, showed no statistically significant difference in map accuracy between groups. However, there was a marked difference between the number of "invented" objects when we compared this value between the sighted audio-only group and the other groups, which could serve as an area for future research.

Bookmark: T.Modlitba.2008
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Globetoddler: enhancing the experience of remote interaction for preschool children and their traveling parents
Author: Modlitba, Lisa Paulina
Editor: Schmandt, Christopher
Date: 2008
Pages: 148
Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Architecture, Media Arts and Sciences
Standard number: oclcnum: 655606694
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1721.1/46591
Absract: In recent decades, families in the Western world have become more geographically distributed. Business traveling -- the kind of traveling that tends to separate family members -- is still a very common phenomenon and keeps making it difficult for family members to maintain a feeling of connectedness. Different time zones and contexts are some of many factors that make "being together" more challenging when physically apart. Modern communication technologies, such as phones and IM clients, improve communication, but seldom achieve the same level of connectedness and awareness that face-to-face communication does. In addition, when it comes to young children, these communication technologies may not even be an option. This thesis presents a theoretical and practical design project that addresses these travel-related issues. The overall goal of the project has been to (1) define a set of design principles for this type of interaction by studying existing psychology and technology research and literature, as well as by interviewing families, to (2) develop a system that, on the basis of the defined principles, makes remote communication and sharing of experiences easier and more meaningful to preschool children and their traveling parents, and to (3) evaluate the system with real end-users in order to improve the user experience. The outcome of the project is "Globetoddler", a mobile-tangible communication platform, designed explicitly to reconcile differences in both location and time, without compromising the specific needs of the individual users.

Bookmark: T.Altalabani.2008
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: How to Integrate Wireless Technology with Web Services Technology to Support and Enhance Sign Languages Learning?
Author: Altalabani, Osama
Editor: Schukat, Michael
Date: 2008
City: Galway, Ireland
Publisher: University of Ireland
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/osama_altalabani.php
Absract: In recent years, several research projects have been developed for delivering Sign Language dictionary systems. These projects translate the spoken words into Sign Language animations and run as standalone applications or as Web applications from centralised Web servers. However, none have proposed a practical Sign Language dictionary which translates the spoken words into Sign Language using Web Services and MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) technology. This project researches a new concept of Sign Language mobile learning. This new concept promotes the opening, interoperability and mobility of Sign Language dictionaries based on Web Services and MMS messaging protocols. These technologies which are not adapted and tamed yet, would potentially answer some urgent needs and requirements for interoperability and mobility of Sign Language dictionaries. These technologies potentially will allow Sign Language dictionaries to support interoperable applications over heterogeneous networks and also support users' mobility. There are several ethical considerations motivate this research and future work in this direction; mainly provide an efficient and personal means of supporting deaf people and supporting hearing people's communication with deaf people. The research technically will address the requirements of such a system which will allow users and application developers to become first class promoters of Sign Languages learning, by easily programming against Sign Language Mobile Web Service with minimal time, code customisation, cost, hardware and software requirements.

Bookmark: T.West.2008
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Web 2.0 and Dyslexia
Author: West, Richard
Editor: Zaphiris, Panayiotis
Date: 2008
City: London, UK
Publisher: City University, School of Informatics, Centre for HCI Design
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/richard_west.php
Absract: Web 2.0 and Dyslexia: Understanding how people with dyslexia interact with the social bookmarking service Del.ico.us using eye tracking. Web 2.0 has quickly emerged as the primary driving factor behind future Internet growth, enabling new forms of interaction and content creation. The rapid proliferation in social networking, media sharing and knowledge discovery tools has provided many web users with unique opportunities for open communication, collaboration and freedom to share and reuse information. Amidst this excitement however, is growing concern that Web 2.0 is responsible for declining web standards and therefore represents a potential step backwards for accessibility. Consequently, this has raised fears that disabled web users face new barriers, new forms of social exclusion. Of particular concern, are those with specific learning disorders, most notably people with dyslexia. As yet very few empirical studies have been conducted to examine the Web 2.0 phenomenon from the perspective of dyslexic web users. As a result little is known in terms of whether these types of services are a help or hindrance to people with dyslexia. Through a combination of direct observation, eye tracking and participant feedback, user testing was performed to investigate how people with dyslexia interact with the social bookmarking service Del.icio.us. More specifically the research in this paper compared the behaviour and feedback of dyslexic and non-dyslexic web users, to identify possible accessibility and usability issues that people with dyslexia encounter whilst interacting with these types of information spaces. Based on the results obtained, existing design guidelines for dyslexia were reviewed in order to understand how applicable these are to social bookmarking applications, and Web 2.0 as a whole. Where necessary new guidelines were proposed.

Bookmark: T.Lutz.2007
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Taux: A System for Evaluating Sound Feedback in Navigational Tasks
Author: Lutz, Robert J.
Editor: Tremaine, Marilyn
Date: 2007-12
Pages: 372
City: Newark, New Jersey, USA
Publisher: New Jersey Institute of Technology
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/robert_j_lutz.php
Absract: This thesis presents the design and development of an evaluation system for generating audio displays that provide feedback to persons performing navigation tasks. It first develops the need for such a system by describing existing wayfinding solutions, investigating new electronic location-based methods that have the potential of changing these solutions and examining research conducted on relevant audio information representation techniques. An evaluation system that supports the manipulation of two basic classes of audio display is then described. Based on prior work on wayfinding with audio display, research questions are developed that investigate the viability of different audio displays. These are used to generate hypotheses and develop an experiment which evaluates four variations of audio display for wayfinding. Questions are also formulated that evaluate a baseline condition that utilizes visual feedback. An experiment which tests these hypotheses on sighted users is then described. Results from the experiment suggest that spatial audio combined with spoken hints is the best approach of the approaches comparing spatial audio. The test experiment results also suggest that muting a varying audio signal when a subject is on course did not improve performance. The system and method are then refined. A second experiment is conducted with improved displays and an improved experiment methodology. After adding blindfolds for sighted subjects and increasing the difficulty of navigation tasks by reducing the arrival radius, similar comparisons were observed. Overall, the two experiments demonstrate the viability of the prototyping tool for testing and refining multiple different audio display combinations for navigational tasks. The detailed contributions of this work and future research opportunities conclude this thesis.

Bookmark: T.Fourney.2007
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Using a Common Accessibility Profile to Improve Accessibility
Author: Fourney, David
Editor: Carter, Jim
Date: 2007-11
City: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Publisher: University of Saskatchewan
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/david_fourney.php
Absract: People have difficulties using computers. Some have more difficulties than others. There is a need for guidance in how to evaluate and improve the accessibility of systems for users. Since different users have considerably different accessibility needs, accessibility is a very complex issue. ISO 9241-171 defines accessibility as the "usability of a product, service, environment or facility by people with the widest range of capabilities." While this definition can help manufacturers make their products more accessible to more people, it does not ensure that a given product is accessible to a particular individual. A reference model is presented to act as a theoretical foundation. This Universal Access Reference Model (UARM) focuses on the accessibility of the interaction between users and systems, and provides a mechanism to share knowledge and abilities between users and systems. The UARM also suggests the role assistive technologies (ATs) can play in this interaction. The Common Accessibility Profile (CAP), which is based on the UARM, can be used to describe accessibility. The CAP is a framework for identifying the accessibility issues of individual users with particular systems configurations. It profiles the capabilities of systems and users to communicate. The CAP can also profile environmental interference to this communication and the use of ATs to transform communication abilities. The CAP model can be extended as further general or domain specific requirements are standardized. The CAP provides a model that can be used to structure various specifications in a manner that, in the future, will allow computational combination and comparison of profiles. Recognizing its potential impact, the CAP is now being standardized by the User Interface subcommittee the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission.

Bookmark: T.Bailey.2007
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Evaluation of a Haptic Tongue Device
Author: Bailey, Mark
Editor: Douglas, Sarah
Date: 2007-06
City: Eugene, Oregon, USA
Publisher: University of Oregon
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/mark_bailey.php
Absract: Haptics is the interaction with a computer through the sense of touch. Previous research has shown that the visual cortex is able to process spatial information obtained through the skin. The highest concentration of touch nerves is located on the tongue. This thesis improves a prototype device that has been built to fit onto the tongue and receive visual information in a tactile form. Possible applications include its use as a prosthetic device for visual impairment and multi-sensory environments. Two contributions are made: First, increasing the resolution of the device and introducing virtual points as representation; and, second, conducting a series of experiments with human participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the device.

Bookmark: T.Randolph.2007
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Individual-Technology Fit: Matching Individual Characteristics and Features of Biometric Interface Technologies with Performance
Author: Randolph, Adriane B.
Editor: Jackson, Melody M. Moore
Date: 2007-04
Pages: 157
City: Georgia, USA
Publisher: Georgia State University
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/adriane_b_randolph.php
Weblink: digitalarchive.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi
Absract: The term biometric literally means "to measure the body", and has recently been associated with physiological measures commonly used for personal verification and security applications. In this work, biometric describes physiological measures that may be used for non-muscularly controlled computer applications, such as brain-computer interfaces. Biometric interface technology is generally targeted for users with severe motor disabilities which may last long-term due to illness or injury or short-term due to temporary environmental conditions. Performance with a biometric interface can vary widely across users depending upon many factors ranging from health to experience. Unfortunately, there is no systematic method for pairing users with biometric interface technologies to achieve the best performance. The current methods to accommodate users through trial-and-error result in the loss of valuable time and resources as users sometimes have diminishing abilities or suffer from terminal illnesses. This dissertation presents a framework and methodology that links user characteristics and features of biometric interface technologies with performance, thus expediting the technology-fit process. The contributions include an outline of the underlying components of capturing and representing individual user characteristics and the impact on the performance of basic interaction tasks using a methodology called biometric user profiling. In addition, this work describes a methodology for objectively measuring an individual's ability to control a specific biometric interface technology such as one based on measures of galvanic skin response or neural activity. Finally, this work incorporates these concepts into a new individual-technology fit framework for biometric interface technologies stemming from literature on task-technology fit.

Bookmark: T.Hawkey.2007
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Managing the Visual Privacy of Incidental Information in Web Browsers
Author: Hawkey, Kirstie
Editor: Inkpen, Kori
Date: 2007-03
Pages: 311
City: Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Publisher: Dalhousie University, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 437548955
Standard number: ISBN: 978-0-494-27179-7, 0-494-27179-5
Weblink: web.cs.dal.ca/~hawkey/Hawkey_PhD_thesis.pdf
Absract: Privacy can be a concern during informal collaboration around someone's personal display when traces of activity incidental to the current task are displayed. This dissertation examined how to help users manage their visual privacy within web browsers. A key goal was to allow users to maintain the functionality of their browser convenience features (e.g. Auto Complete, History, Favorites) while limiting the information displayed within the features to content that is appropriate for their current viewing situation. We first needed to determine the extent of the problem, the nature of the privacy concerns, and the browsing behaviours which may impact the effectiveness of privacy management solutions. For this exploratory research, we employed a mixed methodology approach consisting of a survey (155 participants) and two, week-long field studies (35 participants total). The survey examined participants' privacy concerns for varying usage scenarios, while the field studies examined participants' application of a four-tier privacy gradient to their actual web browsing activity. Results identified several factors that impact a person's privacy comfort level in a given situation and enabled us to develop a model of visual privacy concerns. Results also guided development of design guidelines for visual privacy management systems for web browsers. Such a system must support easy classification of new traces of browsing activity and provide mechanisms to appropriately filter those traces during collaboration. As documented in our results, the rapid bursts of activity and the magnitude of web pages visited will make it difficult for users to manually classify their activities with a privacy level. Our exploratory data allowed us to examine the feasibility of three privacy management approaches. Based on these results, PrivateBits, a proof of concept privacy enhancing web browser, was developed as an instantiation of our design requirements and leveraged usage patterns we observed in our field studies. An initial evaluation of PrivateBits showed that it was effective at allowing users with varying privacy concerns and browsing behaviours to manage the privacy of their web browsing traces.

Bookmark: T.Hollier.2007
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The Disability Divide: A Study into the Impact of Computing and Internet-related Technologies on People who are Blind or Vision Impaired
Author: Hollier, Scott
Editor: Willson, Michele
Date: 2007-02
Pages: 280
City: Perth, Australia
Publisher: Curtin University of Technology
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/scott_hollier.php
Absract: People with disabilities, and in particular people who are blind or vision impaired, are not embracing computing and Internet-related technologies at the same rate as the able-bodied population. The purpose of this study was to find the reasons behind this digital divide for people with disabilities and provide solutions. The investigation into this 'disability divide' initially examined the historical significance of the social construction of disability, the developments of computing and Internet-related technologies and the evolution of associated government and corporate policies. In order to gain an understanding of the specific elements in the current disability divide, interviews were conducted with a range of government representatives, multinational information technology developers and online information providers in Australia and the United States of America. In order to gain an understanding of what people with disabilities required from information technology a national survey was conducted with people who are blind or vision impaired to determine their computing and Internet experiences. This study clearly identified that people with vision disabilities have a high level of computing and Internet expertise and it is specific barriers, rather than lack of will, that has prevented access to computing and Internet-related technologies. These barriers include issues relating to the perception of disability in society, Federal and state government policy, corporate policy, mainstream computing products, assistive technologies, real-time online communication, poverty and a lack of educational opportunities. Addressing the issues in these areas will significantly reduce the impact of the disability divide, allowing people who are blind or vision impaired to participate more effectively in the information age.

Bookmark: T.Carmien.2006
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Socio-Technical Environments Supporting Distributed Cognition for Persons with Cognitive Disabilities
Author: Carmien, Stefan
Editor: Fischer, Gerhard
Date: 2006-10
City: Boulder, Colorado, USA
Publisher: University of Colorado
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/stefan_carmien.php
Absract: In the United States, 4.64 million persons have cognitive disabilities, and of these a significant fraction is potentially able to live more independently save for a deficiency of mnemonic and executive capability. In many cases, these persons are supported by concerned caregivers who want them to live in a less dependent fashion. Persons with cognitive disabilities as well as caregivers could all benefit from a socio-technical environment designed to support their legitimate and reasonable aspirations. My research platform, MAPS (Memory Aiding Prompting System), aims to provide a simple effective prompting system for individuals with cognitive disabilities with an interface for designing prompting scripts by caregivers. MAPS provides a socio-technical environment that acknowledges the needs and abilities of members of the communities of caregivers and persons with cognitive disabilities. By using and extending human-computer interaction (HCI) frameworks and theory -- such as distributed cognition, metadesign, and symmetry of ignorance -- in a principled design environment, this research demonstrates, analyzes, and documents how to create systems that potentially could avoid the all-too-common fate of assistive technology, that of abandonment. MAPS comprises two technical components: the MAPS script-design-environment, a personal computer (PC)-based system that allows a caregiver to edit, store, and reuse scripts of multimedia prompts for task support; and the MAPS-prompter, a PDA-based mobile prompting environment for persons with cognitive disabilities. The process of adopting MAPS was observed and analyzed by using ethnographic methods to study dyads of persons with cognitive disabilities and caregivers doing real tasks in home, shopping, and employment environments. Based on these observations and analyses, this research delineated new ways to use traditional HCI perspectives and produced a set of heuristics to aid in the design and use of prompting systems and the more general design of assistive technology.

Bookmark: T.Kheir.2006
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: The Accessibility and Usability of Websites: Relationships between Measures from Users, Experts and Guidelines
Author: Kheir, Omar
Editor: Petrie, Helen
Date: 2006-09
City: York, UK
Publisher: University of York
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/omar_kheir.php
Absract: Accessible and usable websites can greatly enhance and facilitate accessing the WWW for all Web users. Accessible websites refer to sites that can be accessed and reached by everyone regardless of any condition they might have. Usable websites refers to sites that are convenient, easy for people to use and of high quality. A major issue nowadays is to encourage web developers and designers to follow the guidelines available to ensure accessibility and usability. The question is to what extent should web developers depend on the guidelines to assure that their websites are accessible and usable? User evaluations to a set of mobile phones companies' websites were conducted with disabled and non disabled participants in order to investigate the validity and coverage of the guidelines for accessibility and usability. The data collected from users during the evaluations was also used to discuss further hypotheses throughout the study. Overall, the main outcome from this study shows that the severity ratings provided by the accessibility and usability guidelines are not valid: although researchers and participants agree each other both within and between groups, there is no agreement with the guidelines' ratings of severity. In addition, the guidelines coverage was shown to be unreliable to cover most of the participants' encountered problems.

Bookmark: T.Wobbrock.2006
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: EdgeWrite: A Versatile Design for Text Entry and Control
Author: Wobbrock, Jacob O.
Editor: Myers, Brad A.
Date: 2006-07
Pages: 310
City: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Publisher: Carnegie Mellon University
Keywords: Text entry, text input, unistrokes, gestures, assistive technology, computer access, universal access, universal design, motor impairments, situational impairments, mobile device, mobile phone, handheld, PDA, stylus, game controller, displacement joystick, isometric joystick, power wheelchair joystick, touchpad, trackball, on-screen keyboard, capacitive sensors, word prediction, word completion, goal crossing, physical edges, EdgeWrite, Pebbles, Fitts' law, Hick-Hyman law, Steering law, Zipf's law.
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/jacob_o_wobbrock.php
Absract: This dissertation presents a versatile design for text entry and control called EdgeWrite. EdgeWrite was designed to provide accessible text entry on a variety of platforms to people with motor impairments and to able-bodied users of small devices. The EdgeWrite design includes a square input area, four corner sensors, corner sequence recognition, physical edges, goal crossing, and unistroke segmentation. Advanced EdgeWrite features include continuous recognition feedback, non-recognition retry, slip detection, and word-level stroking -- concepts not before realized in a text entry method. The EdgeWrite alphabet, which is the same for all EdgeWrite versions, was designed for maximum guessability and learnability through participatory design. A key result is that EdgeWrite is about as guessable as Palm OS Graffiti, a method lauded for its immediate usability. Multiple versions of EdgeWrite were built and user-tested, including Stylus EdgeWrite for the Palm OS, Joystick EdgeWrite for game controllers and power wheelchairs, Touchpad EdgeWrite, Trackball EdgeWrite, Isometric Joystick EdgeWrite for mobile phones, and EdgeWrite on four keys or sensors. For each version, empirical results from formal user studies were obtained. Of particular importance for users with motor impairments are the results for Stylus and Trackball EdgeWrite, which show marked improvements over existing techniques. In addition, five versions of EdgeWrite built by other researchers further highlight EdgeWrite's versatility. As part of EdgeWrite's ongoing evaluations, a new character-level error analysis for text entry input streams was developed. This error analysis and the algorithms that automate it constitute a methodological and theoretical contribution to the field of text entry evaluation and measurement. The thesis is: A versatile design for text entry and control called "EdgeWrite", which uses physical edges, goal crossing, and a minimized need for sensing, is effective on handhelds and desktops for people with motor and situational impairments.

Bookmark: T.Power.2006
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Multi-Modal Exploration
Author: Power, Christopher D. S.
Editor: Jürgensen, Helmut
Date: 2006-06
City: York, UK
Publisher: University of York
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/christopher_power.php
Absract: We investigate the problem of providing accessible documents to visually impaired people through electronic mediation. In particular, we focus on the presentation of multi-modal documents through refreshing pin displays. First, we examine the influence that refreshing pin display technology can have on the format of tactile picture. Inaccuracies in the reporting of finger positions from electronic tactile displays can result in errors in the audio presentation of multi-modal applications. We conduct an experiment to examine the accuracy of one such device. Given the results of this experiment, we present a collection of recommendations for the spacing of objects within a tactile scene. Following this, we describe an algorithm for the detection of targets which will be encountered by a visually impaired user while exploring a two dimensional diagram on a refreshing tactile display. A user test examining the success of this algorithm during a targeted search task is described. We discuss the implications of this work on interface design for the visually impaired, including the planned inclusion of this algorithm in a multi-modal document browser. Finally, we propose an architecture for multi-modal document presentation. This architecture, and a prototype application based on it, provide a framework for future inclusion of these results in the presentation of documents to visually impaired people.

Bookmark: T.Sloan.2006
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: The Effectiveness of the Web Accessibility Audit as a Motivational and Educational Tool in Inclusive Web Design
Author: Sloan, David
Editor: Gregor, Peter
Date: 2006-06
City: Dundee, UK
Publisher: University of Dundee
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/david_sloan.php
Absract: The importance of Web sites that can be accessed and used regardless of an individual's disability is critical. One barrier to improved accessibility of Web sites relates to the gap between Web authors' technical knowledge of Web accessibility guidelines and a broader understanding of the challenges facing disabled people when interacting with Web sites. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a Web accessibility auditing methodology with the dual aims of accurately identifying accessibility barriers present in a Web site, and presenting the audit findings and recommended actions in a way that informs, educates and engenders an improved understanding of accessibility amongst the audience. The methodology was piloted amongst a sample of Web sites, validated against other published accessibility evaluation methodologies, and adopted for subsequent audits carried out on a commercial basis. The impact on recipient organisations and individuals of a sample of 14 commercially commissioned audits was then evaluated. Audit recipients were surveyed, and each Web site audited evaluated to identify any changes to accessibility, and the presence of evidence of changes or improvements to accessibility strategy. Strong indications were found that the audits had a positive impact both on individuals and on the commissioning organisations. The audits were identified as having a particularly positive educational and motivational impact on recipients who did not identify themselves as having expertise in Web accessibility. There was also evidence that the design approach promoted by the audits had been adopted and applied by some of the commissioning organisations. The majority of respondents cited the recommendations for improvement as the most valuable feature of the audit. This illustrates a tension between the importance of presenting specific recommendations for actions and providing richer narrative accounts of evaluation stages to encourage a more holistic appreciation of accessibility. The particular benefits of the study are found in the identification of evidence of impact of commercially-commissioned Web accessibility audits over a period of time to recipients of varying characteristics. A number of areas for further investigation have been identified, focusing on investigating the potential value of the accessibility audit in providing more 'experiential' evaluation stages.

Bookmark: T.Zhao.2006
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Interactive Sonification of Abstract Data -- Framework, Design Space, Evaluation, and User Tool
Author: Zhao, Haixia
Editor: Shneiderman, Ben
Date: 2006-03
Pages: 269
City: College Park, Maryland, USA
Publisher: University of Maryland at College Park
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/haixia_zhao.php
Absract: For people with visual impairments, sound is an important information channel. The traditional accommodation for visually impaired users to access data is to rely on screen readers to speak the data in tabular forms. While speech can accurately describe information, such data presentation tends to be long and hard to realize complex information. This is particularly true in exploratory data analysis in which users often need to examine the data from different aspects. Sonification, the use of non-speech sound, has shown to help data comprehension. Previous data sonifications focus on data to sound attribute mapping and typically lack support for task-oriented data interaction. This dissertation makes four contributions. (1) An Action-by-Design-Component (ADC) framework guides auditory interface designs for exploratory data analysis. The framework characterizes data interaction in the auditory mode as a set of Auditory Information Seeking Actions (AISA). It also discusses design considerations for a set of Design Components to support AISAs, contrasted with actions in visualizations. (2) Applying the framework to geo-referenced statistical data, I explore its design space. Through user evaluations, effective design options were identified and insights were obtained regarding human ability to perceive complex information, especially those with spatial structures, from interactive sounds. (3) A tool, iSonic, was developed, with synchronized visual and auditory displays. Forty-two hours of case studies with seven blind users show that iSonic enables them to effectively explore data in highly coordinated map and table views without special devices, to find facts and discover data trends even in unfamiliar geographical contexts. Preliminary algorithms are also described to automatically generate geographical region spatial sweep orders for arbitrary maps. (4) The application to geo-referenced data demonstrated that the ADC framework provided a rich set of task-oriented actions (AISAs) that were effective for blind users to accomplish complex tasks with multiple highly coordinated data views. It also showed that some widely used techniques in visualization can adapt to the auditory mode. By applying the framework to scatterplots and line graphs, I show that the framework could be generalized and lead to the design of a unified auditory workspace for general exploratory data analysis.

Bookmark: T.Huenerfauth.2006
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Generating American Sign Language Classifier Predicates For English-To-ASL Machine Translation
Author: Huenerfauth, Matt
Editor: Marcus, Mitchell P.
Editor: Palmer, Martha Stone
Date: 2006
Pages: 296
City: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania, Computer and Information Science
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/matt_huenerfauth.php
Absract: A majority of deaf 18-year-olds in the United States have an English reading level below that of a typical 10-year-old student, and so machine translation (MT) software that could translate English text into American Sign Language (ASL) animations could significantly improve these individuals' access to information, communication, and services. Previous English-to-ASL MT projects have made limited progress by restricting their output to subsets of ASL phenomena -- thus avoiding important linguistic and animation issues. None of these systems have shown how to generate classifier predicates (CPs), a phenomenon in which signers use special hand movements to indicate the location and movement of invisible objects (representing entities under discussion) in space around their bodies. CPs are frequent in ASL and are necessary for conveying many concepts. This project has created an English-to-ASL MT design capable of producing classifier predicates. The classifier predicate generator inside this design has a planning-based architecture that uses a 3D "visualization" model of the arrangement of objects in a scene discussed by the English input text. This generator would be one pathway in a multi-path English-to-ASL MT design; a separate processing pathway would be used to generate classifier predicates, to generate other ASL sentences, and to generate animations of Signed English (if the system lacked lexical resources for some input). Instead of representing the ASL animation as a string (of individual signs to perform), this system encodes the multimodal language signal as multiple channels that are hierarchically structured and coordinated over time. While this design feature and others have been prompted by the unique requirements of generating a sign language, these technologies have applications for the machine translation of written languages, the representation of other multimodal language signals, and the production of meaningful gestures by other animated virtual human characters. To evaluate the functionality and scalability of the most novel portion of this English-to-ASL MT design, this project has implemented a prototype-version of the planning-based classifier predicate generator. The classifier predicate animations produced by the system have been shown to native ASL signers to evaluate the output.

Bookmark: T.Kry.05
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Interaction Capture and Synthesis of Human Hands
Author: Kry, Paul G.
Editor: Pai, Dinesh
Date: 2005-12
Pages: 141
City: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Publisher: University of British Columbia, Computer Science
Weblink: circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/18549/ubc_2006-130105.pdf
Absract: This thesis addresses several issues in modelling interaction with human hands in computer graphics and animation. Modifying motion capture to satisfy the constraints of new animation is difficult when contact is involved because physical interaction involves energy or power transfer between the system of interest and the environment, and is a critical problem for computer animation of hands. Although contact force measurements provide a means of monitoring this transfer, motion capture as currently used for creating animation has largely ignored contact forces. We present a system of capturing synchronized motion and contact forces, called interaction capture. We transform interactions such as grasping into joint compliances and a nominal reference trajectory in an approach inspired by the equilibrium point hypothesis of human motor control. New interactions are synthesized through simulation of a quasi-static compliant articulated model in a dynamic environment that includes friction. This uses a novel position-based linear complementarity problem formulation that includes friction, breaking contact, and coupled compliance between contacts at different fingers. We present methods for reliable interaction capture, addressing calibration, force estimation, and synchronization. Additionally, although joint compliances are traditionally estimated with perturbation-based methods, we introduce a technique that instead produces estimates without perturbation. We validate our results with data from previous work and our own perturbation-based estimates. A complementary goal of this work is hand-based interaction in virtual environments. We present techniques for whole-hand interaction using the Tango, a novel sensor that performs interaction capture by measuring pressure images and accelerations. We approximate grasp hand-shapes from previously observed data through rotationally invariant comparison of pressure measurements. We also introduce methods involving heuristics and thresholds that make reliable drift-free navigation possible with the Tango. Lastly, rendering the skin deformations of articulated characters is a fundamental problem for computer animation of hands. We present a deformation model, called EigenSkin, which provides a means of rendering physically- or example-based deformation models at interactive rates on graphics hardware.

Bookmark: T.Lunn.2005
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: SADIe: Structural Semantics for Accessibility and Device Independence
Author: Lunn, Darren
Editor: Harper, Simon
Editor: Bechhofer, Sean
Date: 2005-09
City: Manchester, UK
Publisher: The University of Manchester
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/darren_lunn.php
Absract: Currently the World Wide Web is visual-centric with web sites often being designed only with the presentation of data in mind. A consequence of this design perspective is that information contained within the data is only accessible implicitly through the layout of the web page, rather than explicitly through the data itself. While this implicit knowledge is relatively easy to access for sighted users, it is often difficult to access for visually impaired computer users. This project describes an investigation into a way of allowing visually impaired computer users the same access to information on the World Wide Web as sighted computer users. By using ontologies to capture the semantics of the CSS Stylesheets and XHTML, the implicit information contained within a web page can be reordered and manipulated into an explicit form that better suits the needs of visually impaired users.

Bookmark: T.Yesilada.2005
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Annotation and Transformation of Web Pages to Improve Mobility for Visually Impaired Users
Author: Yesilada, Yeliz
Editor: Stevens, Robert
Editor: Goble, Carol
Date: 2005-08
Pages: 196
City: Manchester, United kingdom
Publisher: University of Manchester
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/yeliz_yesilada.php
Absract: In the last decade, the growth and the popularity of the World Wide Web (Web) have been phenomenal. Originally, it was a purely text-based system that allowed assistive technologies to be designed to transform pages into alternative forms (e.g., audio) for disabled people. This meant that for the first time, a vast amount of information was available and easily accessible to disabled people. However, advances in technologies and changes in the main authoring language, transformed the Web into a true visual communication medium. These changes eventually made the Web inaccessible to visually impaired users. In particular, travelling around the Web became a complicated task, since the richness of visual navigational objects presented to their sighted counterparts are neither appropriate nor accessible to visually impaired users. This thesis investigates principles and derived techniques to enhance the travel experience for visually impaired Web users. The hypothesis is that travel support for visually impaired users can be improved if Web pages are analysed to identify the objects that support travel and are then transformed in such a way that they can then fulfill their intended or implicit roles. This hypothesis is supported by the identification of structural and navigational properties of Web pages which have been encapsulated into an ontology (WAfA) to support machine processing; and the design of a flexible pipeline approach to annotate and transform Web pages by using this ontology. An experimental test-bed, Dante, has also been created based on this pipeline approach, that encodes these principles and techniques to transform Web pages. Finally, a user evaluation method is devised and applied to demonstrate that the travel experience of visually disabled users can be improved through the application of these techniques. This research demonstrates that by providing machine processable data, regarding the structural and navigational properties of Web pages, applications can be created to present Web pages in alternative forms and so enhance the travel experience of visually impaired users. The work presented in this thesis is of practical value to the Web accessibility community and is an important case study for demonstrating Semantic Web technologies. By moving away from thinking that simple translation of text to audio is enough to provide access to Web pages, this thesis is part of the coming of age of assistive technology and is a significant contribution to redressing the inequality arising from visual dominance in the Web.

Bookmark: T.Feng.2005
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A Power and Reliability Model for Error Prone Technologies: Improving Speech-Based Support for Spatial Navigation
Author: Feng, Jinjuan Heidi
Editor: Sears, Andrew
Date: 2005-05
City: Maryland, USA
Publisher: UMBC
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/jinjuan_heidi_feng.php
Absract: Navigation is one of the major activities that people engage in when interacting with computers. When using traditional navigation solutions, such as the mouse, inherent limitations of human capabilities are the primary source of errors. However, the development of assistive technologies and ubiquitous computing have highlighted the importance of system- and context-based errors both of which differ in important ways from user-based errors. Traditional theories such as the speed and accuracy tradeoff and Fitts' Law may effectively explain user-based errors, but are insufficient when errors are caused by limitations of the underlying technologies or the context in which the interactions are occurring. To address this issue, a power and reliability model (PRM) was proposed, which expands on traditional theories to more effectively address all three types of errors. This model consists of two components: power and reliability. Power addresses the efficiency of a technique or application while reliability addresses the errors that occur during a task. The tradeoff between power and reliability, which is inherent when employing error-prone technologies such as speech recognition, has significant implications for system and interface design. To operationalize the concept of reliability, a metric is proposed that incorporates both the likelihood of command failures and the severity of the outcomes caused by those failures. This metric builds on the concept of entropy in information theory to provide a systematic solution that allows the reliability of various techniques and applications to be quantified, evaluated, and compared. Several studies were conducted to begin the validation of the PRM. One study involving ninety participants focused on the validation of the reliability metric. The results indicate that, compared to failure rates, reliability scores are more effective for describing both objective task completion times and subjective user satisfaction ratings. A case study involving 29 participants illustrated the tradeoff between power and reliability and demonstrated how the proposed model could be used to guide the design of more effective solutions. Interaction solutions developed based on design guidelines derived from the PRM resulted in lower command failure rates, less severe failure consequences, the development of more effective strategies, and more efficient interactions.

Bookmark: T.Dreuw.2005
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Appearance-Based Gesture Recognitions
Author: Dreuw, Philippe
Editor: Keysers, Daniel
Date: 2005-01
City: Aachen, Germany
Publisher: RWTH Aachen University
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/philippe_dreuw.php
Absract: This diploma thesis investigates the use of appearance-based features for the recognition of gestures using video input. Previously, work in the field of gesture recognition usually first segmented parts of the input images -- for example the hand -- and then used features calculated from this segmented input. Results in the field of object recognition in images suggest that this intermediate segmentation step is not necessary and we can instead employ features directly obtained from the input images, so-called appearance-based features. In this work, we show that using these features and appropriate models of image variability, we can obtain excellent results for gesture recognition tasks. Very good results can be obtained using a downscaled image of each video frame and tangent distance as a model of image variability. Also a new dynamic tracking algorithm is introduced which makes its tracking decisions at the end of a video sequence using the information of all frames. This tracking method allows for tracking under very noisy circumstances. Finally, a new database with the German fingerspelling alphabet was recorded which will be freely available for further research.

Bookmark: T.Folkes.2004
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: An Exploration of the Nature of Assistive Technology Interventions for people with Motor Neurone Disease
Author: Folkes, Clare
Editor: Wells, Colin
Editor: Carmichael, Patrick
Date: 2004
City: Reading, UK
Publisher: Reading University
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/masters/clare_folkes.php
Absract: Motor Neurone Disease (MND) is a steadily progressive disease affecting an estimated 5000 people in the UK, for whom assistive technology (AT), in the form of computer-based solutions and dedicated communication devices offers opportunities to retain their independence and meet their communicative needs. This study documents and critically assesses the processes of referral, assessment and training in the use of computer-based assistive technology of clients with MND undertaken by Abilitynet, a specialist UK-based charity. A mixed method approach was used to illuminate a 'focal case' of an individual with MND who became a client of Abilitynet and the subject of an AT intervention. In addition to field observations, documentary analysis, and interviews with the individual client, interviews were conducted with individuals involved in the focal case and with experience in similar cases. Analysis across these sources allowed themes to be identified across a range of data. The main findings of the study include recognition that the nature of MND and the needs of the clients should make rapid response to the needs of clients with MND a priority. Effective inter-agency liaison around cases is essential, particularly given the increasing convergence between computer-based solutions and dedicated communication aids. The role of Assistive Technology itself has been well theorised, and established frameworks exist for the evaluation of interventions and technical solutions but the role of an assessor has been less well defined. The range of solutions is reviewed, but assessors characterise their role not solely in terms of identifying the most appropriate enabling technologies, but of exploration, with the client, of how best their individual needs can be met and how these might change. They cite the importance of a process of apprenticeship within the organisation in developing their capabilities and repertoire. Recommendations are made as to how organisations like Abilitynet can support their assessors in providing the best possible care for clients with MND.

Bookmark: T.Reece.2002
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Text Legibility for Web Documents and Low Vision
Author: Reece, Gloria A.
Editor: Lowther, Deborah L.
Date: 2002-12
Pages: 212
City: Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Publisher: University of Memphis
Keywords: accessibility
Weblink: www.sigaccess.org/community/theses_repository/phd/gloria_reece.php
Absract: The preferences of normal readers and low-vision readers for two typeface characteristics, serif presence and emphasis, on electronic displays were investigated. The ultimate goal was to gain insight to aid designers in producing legible, effective electronic displays for a wide audience. The effects of three characteristics of low-vision readers, severity of vision loss, region of eye affected by the primary disorder, and the type of vision loss produced by the primary disorder were considered. Strong preferences for sans serif and Roman (i.e., no italics) typefaces were identified and were found to be similarly distributed among the various categories of participants. Participants in the study viewed a sequence of computer screens that displayed a pair of words in typefaces that differed in one of the two characteristics and selected the typeface that was most legible. The data for each typeface characteristic were analyzed for overall preferences and for any differences in preferences between categories of participants. One hundred seventy-seven reduced vision readers and 54 normal readers participated in the study. The reduced vision readers were grouped into eight categories according to the possible values of the three characteristics, and samples of each category were obtained. Additional, higher-level, categories were constructed for use in the analysis of the data. Participants in all categories preferred sans serif typefaces over serif typefaces and Roman typefaces over italic typefaces. Only slight evidence for variation of these preferences across all eight participant categories was found. Additional comparisons of pairs of categories that differed in only one of the participant characteristics indicated no significant variation of the distributions. These results differed from expectations based upon previous studies that were based primarily upon paper displays and normal readers and exhibited varying, conflicting results. The results from this study establish that typeface characteristics for electronic displays have a strong influence on legibility and must be considered separately from legibility for paper documents. Additionally, sans serif, Roman typefaces are strongly recommended for use in electronic documents for both normal readers and reduced vision readers.

Bookmark: T.Schmidt.2003
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Ubiquitous computing, computing in context
Author: Schmidt, Albrecht
Editor: Gellersen, Hans-Werner
Date: 2002-11
Pages: 294
Publisher: Lancaster University, Computing
Standard number: oclcnum: 60374660
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: Computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life. Ubiquitous Computing is inevitably computing in context: it takes place in situations in the real world. So far most research, especially in mobile computing, has focused on enabling transparent use of computers, independently of the environment. An orthogonal research effort is to exploit context. The research reported here is investigating: how context can be acquired, distributed, and used and how it changes human computer interaction in Ubiquitous Computing. Possible sensing technologies, in particular low level physical sensors, and perception techniques are assessed and their value for providing context in Ubiquitous Computing systems is analysed. Abstractions on sensor level, cue level, and context level are introduced, resulting in a flexible context acquisition architecture. A bottom-up approach for modelling context aware systems is introduced. This makes use of the fact that context or domain knowledge is more general on the level of artefacts, than on the system level. The creation of context aware systems, based on this approach, is then investigated using the method of prototyping. To generalise and communicate results, a pattern language for context aware systems is suggested. As context acquisition systems are mostly specific to a certain task, building such systems involves designing and building hardware and software. The research presented here shows methods, architectures, and tools to make the development process more efficient. The Smart-Its platform, a rapid prototyping system for context-aware Ubiquitous Computing systems, is introduced and use experience is reported. The observation that context naturally surrounds us, led to the development of a communication platform. This platform provides an effective means to distribute and receive information based on spatial and temporal relationships of components. In this research the notion of implicit human computer interaction, and in particular the use of context information as implicit input, is introduced. The implications on the user interface and on the human computer interaction process are analysed, as context is fundamentally different from events in user interfaces. Finally the research presents an overview on how Ubiquitous Computing systems can be evaluated. Different techniques are assessed, and the concept of probing users and developers with prototypes is presented.

Bookmark: T.Balakrishnan.2001
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Issues in bimanual interaction for computer graphics
Author: Balakrishnan, Ravin
Editor: Buxton, Bill
Date: 2001
Pages: 150
City: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Publisher: University of Toronto
Standard number: oclcnum: 225055228
Weblink: tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/15445
Absract: Bimanual interaction as applied to graphical computer user interfaces has been explored by researchers for over two decades. Despite these efforts, user interfaces utilizing continuous bimanual interaction have yet to make inroads into mainstream practice. While the technological obstacles to adoption are gradually disappearing, there remains another obstacle in that there remain many unanswered questions as to when and how to best utilize bimanual interaction techniques. This dissertation is an attempt at reducing this obstacle by identifying and addressing some of the open issues in bimanual interaction while also contributing new interaction techniques. We develop, implement, and evaluate a bimanual interaction technique that allows users to control the view of a graphical scene with one hand and manipulate objects with the other. This technique removes the explicit multiplexing between navigation and manipulation that is present in unimanual interfaces, while improving perception of 3D scenes. Experiments show advantages in both performance time and subjective preference. Next, we present an experiment that shows that bimanual input performance and the reference principle of Guiard's Kinematic Chain mode1 are both robust with respect to variations in kinesthetic reference frames as long as visual feedback is present. This implies that relative input devices cm be used to perform bimanual interaction techniques without sacrificing performance. We then explore factors that govern performance in symmetric bimanual tasks -- a class of tasks that has not been explored as extensively as the larger class of asymmetric tasks. Our results show that symmetric tasks are not always performed in a parallel and/or symmetric manner. A general asymmetry in the performance of symmetric tasks indicates that models of asymmetric interaction can be applied to symmetric tasks as well. Finally, inspired by a traditional technique used in the design industry, we develop and implement a bimanual interaction technique that allows for the creation of both curves and straight lines with a single tool. Our analysis of the properties of this technique indicates that strict adherence to al1 the principles of Guiard's Kinematic Chain mode1 is not necessary for a bimanual interaction technique to be highly usable and successful.

Bookmark: T.Myhill.1998
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Facilitating the Comprehension of Human-Computer Interaction Design Intent within a Software Team
Author: Myhill, Carl
Editor: Brooks, Peter
Date: 1998-12
Pages: 473
City: Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK
Publisher: Cranfield University
Standard number: DSC DXN024601
Keywords: Communicating Human-Computer Interaction Design Intent, HCI Design Intent, Communication, Ethnography, Prototyping, Software Teams, Chauffeured prototypes,
Weblink: dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/825
Weblink: Thesis (PDF)
Weblink: Thesis (Zipped Word Docs -- 1MB)
Weblink: Appendices (Zipped Word Docs -- 688KB)
Contents:
Chapter 1 Literature Review Relating to Software Production
Chapter 2  Qualitative Investigation
Chapter 3  The Design and Implementation of a Prototype-Centred Explanation Tool -- ProtoTour
Chapter 4  Evaluation of the Utility of the ProtoTour Concept
Chapter 5  Discussion
Absract: A large proportion of today's software development is unsuccessful. One reason for this is thought to be lack of attention to the user. Maintaining a user-centred focus during software production is regarded as a major problem. Introducing an HCI designer role into the software team (they usually function as external advisors) is thought to be a means of addressing this problem. Issues surrounding the introduction of an HCI designer role into software teams were explored by a qualitative investigation. Participant-observation studies were carried out on two year-long software projects, with the researcher performing the role of HCI designer within the software teams. Aspects of comprehension within the team were found to be fundamental to successful collaboration. Prototypes were found to be an effective means of facilitating team members' comprehension of HCI design intent, and of maintaining conceptual integrity. However, this use of prototypes was flawed because they introduced the potential for ambiguity and they were inaccessible. Focusing on the collaboration of the HCI designer and programmers, requirements for a prototype-centred explanation tool were specified to exploit the potential of prototyping to facilitate comprehension, by addressing the flaws discovered. Such a tool, called 'ProtoTour', was designed and implemented, based on the requirements specified. An experiment was conducted with 22 commercial programmers to ascertain whether a ProtoTour representation of an existing, commercially developed prototype, facilitated comprehension more effectively and was more accessible than a conventional prototype. Results of the experiment found that programmers using ProtoTour gained a significantly better understanding of HCI design intent, than programmers using a conventional prototype. Those using ProtoTour also asked the HCI designer significantly fewer questions about the HCI design intent. Results suggest that prototype-centred explanation tools have the potential to improve programmers' comprehension of HCI design intent. Introducing an HCI designer into a software team was found to be an effective way of improving the user-centred focus of software during production. A prototype-centred explanation tool appears to have potential as a means of helping programmers comprehend HCI design intent.

Bookmark: T.Palen.1998
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Calendars on the new frontier: challenges of groupware technology
Author: Palen, Leysia Ann
Editor: Grudin, Jonathan
Date: 1998
Pages: 228
Publisher: University of California, Irvine, Information and Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 40909719
Keywords: Electronic calendars
Keywords: Groupware (Computer software)
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: Groupware calendar systems -- on-line, networked calendar software -- illuminate difficulties in designing collaborative support technologies for effective, successful use. In the case of groupware calendars, the mundane but important practices of calendaring and scheduling create a potential dilemma for users: individuals' calendars must simultaneously support personal work and social coordination. The technology must meet a wide range of personal calendar support needs, but also employees must individually and collectively resolve serious issues about privacy and interpersonal boundary regulation. Furthermore, the role and function of the technology within the broader context of the organization impacts decisions about groupware participation and the nature of the technology's use. After a decade of slow adoption, groupware calendars are now being widely used and influencing behavior in some organizations. In an ethnographic investigation, I examine a high adoption case of groupware calendars at Sun Microsystems, where the openly-configured groupware calendar system allows an investigation into essential problems in collaborative systems design and operation. Calendar use at Sun has evolved beyond meeting scheduling, functioning instead as a distributed information system, supporting communication in unexpected ways. Contributions from the research include implications for groupware design, which address demands for individual support, group coordination, and opportunities for socio-technical adaptability.

Bookmark: T.Marsden.1998
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Designing graphical interface programming languages for the end user
Author: Marsden, Gary
Editor: Bland, Richard
Editor: Thimbleby, Harold
Date: 1998
Pages: 157
Publisher: University of Stirling
Standard number: oclcnum: 556882060
Keywords: Database management
Keywords: Programming languages (Electronic computers)
Weblink: hdl.handle.net/1893/1920
Absract: This thesis sets out to answer three simple questions: What tools are available for novice programmers to program GUIs? Are those tools fulfilling their role? Can anything be done to make better tools? Despite being simple questions, the answers are not so easily constructed. In answering the first question, it was necessary to examine the range of tools available and decide upon criteria which could be used to identify tools aimed specifically at the novice programmer (there being no currently agreed criteria for their identification). Having identified these tools, it was then necessary to construct a framework within which they could be sensibly compared. The answering of the second question required an investigation of what were the successful features of current tools and which features were less successful. Success or failure of given features was determined by research in both programming language design and studies of programmer satisfaction. Having discovered what should be retained and discarded from current systems, the answering of the third question required the construction of new systems through blending elements from visual languages, program editors and fourth generation languages. These final prototypes illustrate a new way of thinking about and constructing the next generation of GUI programming languages for the novice.

Bookmark: T.Raghavan.1998
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Empirical evaluation of the usefulness of model-based relationship links in seeking committee information
Author: Raghavan, Srinivas
Editor: Perlman, Gary
Editor: Weide, Bruce
Date: 1998
Pages: 179
City: Columbus, Ohio
Publisher: Ohio State University, Computer and Information Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 39907078 ISBN: 0-591-87398-2 proquest: 738029141
Keywords: decision-making
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Forming a committee is an accepted process to effectively involve a group in decision making and problem solving. However, it is commonly observed that committees are ineffective mainly due to lack of member preparation, poor process knowledge, and ineffective meetings. Prior research has focused primarily on improving meeting effectiveness by providing support for the decision making process during meetings. Little attention has been given to supporting member preparation. An important task in preparing for a meeting is seeking information about the relationships between information artifacts (agendas, minutes, documents, action items, etc.) generated in the committee process. For example, a member may seek answers to questions such as (1) How do the new requirements differ from the version approved by the committee? (relating Documents and Meetings), (2) Which members were responsible for the action items generated by the enrollment subcommittee? (relating People and Sub-Committees). Typically, these questions are answered by searching through the documented committee information. Would it be faster/more accurate if the relationships were directly represented as links between related information? I have developed an Entity-Relationship (E-R) model to represent the entities and relationships in committees. A web-based tool (LinkER) implements the model and presents the entities in a tabular format. The relationships in the model are presented as hyperlinks, tagged with the first letter of the related entity. In this thesis, I present the results of an experiment conducted to evaluate the usefulness of these model-based relationship links. Subjects sought answers to eight questions in each of four comparison conditions, which represented the committee information as follows: Online. (1) With Links (LinkER), (2) Without Links (web-based keyword search); Paper. (3) With Links (cross-referenced documents), (4) Without Links (indexed documents). There were significant differences in performance across the conditions and question factors. The major results showed that subjects were: (1) Over 21% faster using Links Online over any of the other three conditions. (2) Equally accurate across conditions. (3) Faster and more confident answering questions with 4 over 2 entities. (4) Faster, more accurate, and confident answering current over past questions. (5) More accurate answering lexical over semantic questions.

Bookmark: T.Trewin.1998
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Towards intelligent, adaptive input devices for users with physical disabilities
Author: Trewin, Shari
Date: 1998
Publisher: University of Edinburgh
Standard number: oclcnum: 606124617
Absract: This thesis presents a novel application of user modelling, the domain of interest being the physical abilities of the user of a computer input device. Specifically, it describes a model which identifies aspects of keyboard use with which the user has difficulty. The model is based on data gathered in an empirical study of keyboard and mouse use by people with and without motor disabilities. In this study, many common input errors due to physical inaccuracies in using keyboards and mice were observed. for the majority of these errors, there exist keyboard or mouse configuration facilities intended to reduce or eliminate them. While such facilities are now integrated into the majority of modern operating systems, there is little published data describing their effect on keyboard or mouse useability. This thesis offers evidence that they can be extremely useful, even essential, but that further research and interface development are required. This thesis presents a user model which focuses on four of the most commonly observed keyboard difficulties. The model also makes recommendations for settings for three keyboard configuration facilities, each of which tackle on of these specific difficulties. As a user modelling task, this application presents a number of interesting challenges. Different users will have very different configuration requirements, and the requirements of individual users may also change over long or short periods of time. some users will have cognitive impairments. Users may have very limited time and energy to devote to computer use. in response, this research has investigated the extent to which it is possible to model users without interrupting the task for which they are using a computer in the first place. This approach is appealing because it does not require users to spend time participating in model instantiation. ...

Bookmark: T.Gutwin.1997
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Workspace awareness in real-time distributed groupware
Author: Gutwin, Carl
Editor: Greenberg, Saul
Date: 1997-12
Pages: 250
Publisher: University of Calgary, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 150658283
Keywords: Groupware (Computer software)
Keywords: Teams in the workplace
Keywords: Business
Weblink: hci.usask.ca/publications/view.php
Absract: Real-time distributed groupware systems are computer applications that allow people to work together at the same time, but from different places. These systems provide shared computational workspaces, akin to tabletops and whiteboards, where collaborators can manipulate work artifacts. Unfortunately, when compared with working face-to-face, collaboration through groupware seems clumsy, stilted, and artificial. One of the problems with current groupware systems is that they make it difficult for people to stay aware of one another. Awareness is taken for granted in everyday face-to-face environments, but when the setting changes to distributed groupware, many of the normal cues and information sources that people use to maintain awareness are gone. Helping people maintain awareness of one another can improve the usability of groupware. In this research, I explore one kind of awareness called workspace awareness, and investigate techniques for supporting it in groupware interfaces. Workspace awareness is the up-to-the-moment understanding of another person's interaction with a shared workspace; it involves knowledge about such things as who is in the workspace, where they are working, and what they are doing. I investigate the use of workspace awareness in improving groupware usability by following a three-part process: operationalize the concept, apply it to the design of groupware interfaces, and evaluate the usability of resulting systems. I operationalize workspace awareness using a conceptual framework and an analysis of the problems posed by current groupware systems. First, I construct a conceptual framework of workspace awareness that sets out the elements of knowledge that people track, the process by which they maintain awareness, and collaborative activities in which workspace awareness is useful. Second, I identify issues encountered in supporting workspace awareness in real-time distributed groupware, and describe the tasks that a designer must undertake -- collecting, distributing, and displaying information -- in order to support workspace awareness in a groupware system. I apply this knowledge about workspace awareness to the design and construction of several example awareness displays. I concentrate on techniques that answer who, what, and where questions, and on approaches that provide awareness information in the context of the workspace. I also consider displays that show unseen parts of the workspace, and look specifically at one of these displays called the radar view. I evaluate the effects of supporting workspace awareness in groupware in two studies: an exploratory usability study, and a controlled experiment. The usability study showed that awareness information is valuable in a realistic groupware system, and provided design feedback for improving the awareness displays. The primary results of the experiment are that information about others' locations and activities can significantly improve completion times and verbal efficiency for some types of tasks. Both studies also showed that participants greatly preferred systems where additional workspace awareness information was available. These results imply that supporting workspace awareness can improve groupware usability, and that groupware developers should change the way that they design multi-user systems. This research provides them with tools to effect that change.

Bookmark: T.Druin.1997
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A Multidisciplinary Education for Designing Interactive Applications: the MEDIA program
Author: Druin, Allison
Editor: Norton, Priscilla
Editor: Grinberg, Jaime
Date: 1997
Pages: 323
Publisher: University of New Mexico, Multicultural Teacher and Childhood Education
Standard number: oclcnum: 39489324 isbn: 0-591-45966-3 proquest: 740111801 umi: 9736104
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Only recently have universities addressed Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) as a course of study. Of those universities, a majority of them offer HCI as a concentration in either a computer science department or psychology department. While there is a recognized need for diversity and a range of expertise in the technology design process, it is not easy for individuals to be educated in HCI outside of a technical discipline. This may be due to a limited understanding of how HCI programs can change non-technical students, and how non-technical students can change educational HCI environments. Therefore, this study addresses the critical need for a multidisciplinary HCI academic program, by examining the changes that occurred in a cohort group of technical and non-technical students in an HCI concentration of courses at the University of New Mexico. The study experience was a sequence of three courses offered during the 1996-1997 academic year. These three courses formed the MEDIA Program: A Multidisciplinary Education for Designing Interactive Applications. The program offered a cohort group of students a constructivist, problem-centered, collaborative learning experience in HCI. Each of the study participants had expertise in at least one of the following areas important to the study of HCI: education, computer science, art/design, or music. These student participants were examined over the course of the MEDIA Program for their change in the following areas: attitudes concerning Human-Computer Interaction (HCI); the use of visual and interaction design skills; the use of multimedia tools; team collaboration/communication skills; creative problem-solving skills; and skills/attitudes based on varying disciplinary cultures. Due to the exploratory nature of this study, a diversity of data collection methods were used. These methods included coding and analysis of class videotapes, student journals, Background Experience Surveys, Storyboard Surveys, Attitude Surveys, and quantitative analysis of student storyboards. It was found from this study that growth and change occurred in the students' interaction design skills and their use of multimedia tools. It was also found that the multidisciplinary nature of the program profoundly changed what and how the students learned.

Bookmark: T.Dourish.1996
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Open implementation and flexibility in CSCW toolkits
Author: Dourish, Paul
Date: 1996-06
Publisher: University College London, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 53671714
Keywords: Computer software
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: The design of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) systems involves a variety of disciplinary approaches, drawing as much on sociological and psychological perspectives on group and individual activity as on technical approaches to designing distributed systems. Traditionally, these have been applied independently -- the technical approaches focussing on design criteria and implementation strategies, the social approaches focussing on the analysis of working activity with or without technological support. However, the disciplines are more strongly related than this suggests. Technical strategies -- such as the mechanisms for data replication, distribution and coordination -- have a significant impact on the forms of interaction in which users can engage, and therefore on how their work proceeds. Consequently, the findings of sociological and psychological investigations of collaborative working have direct impact for how we go about designing collaborative systems. In support of this relationship, this thesis concentrates on the provision of flexibility in CSCW systems, and, in particular, in toolkits from which they are generated. Flexibility is key to supporting many characteristics of group behaviour detailed by observational investigations -- the improvised nature of work and activity, individual and group tailoring, customisation and re-purposing, changing group membership and activity over the course of a collaboration, and so forth. Based on an analysis of current CSCW toolkits, and on the interaction between user behaviour and system design, I will demonstrate that, as in many other areas of system development, traditional notions of abstraction in system design mitigate against the design of open, flexible systems. "Open Implementation" is an emerging approach based on the systematic and principled exposure of mechanism in system components, "opening up" abstractions to examination and manipulation. Concentrating particularly on distributed data management and concurrency, I will show how these ideas can be exploited to provide an open and customisable framework enabling programmers and end-users to tailor toolkit structures to the needs of applications and domains.

Bookmark: T.Boyd.1996
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Floor Control in Synchronous Groupware
Author: Boyd, John Alfred, Jr.
Editor: Perlman, Gary
Date: 1996
Pages: 152
City: Columbus, Ohio
Publisher: Ohio State University, Computer and Information Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 35562792 proquest: 743085161
Keywords: shared computing, CSCW, groupware
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Floor control in synchronous groupware is the problem of how, when, and why participants interact in a shared computing environment while working simultaneously on common tasks. This thesis contends that floor control is a broader problem in synchronous groupware than has been seen by previous approaches, which have relied on narrow interpretations of the problem, and advocates a view of floor control that takes into account the role of floor control not only in managing conflicts but also in structuring a group and its communications. This view is supported by a descriptive model of floor control, referred to as G/TS/PAC (Group/Turn System/Perceive-Act-Cycle), which represents floor control as a process of communicating detailed floor control intent among participants. It is derived from a social-psychological model of turn-taking in conversation and a model of human-machine interaction, and generalizes those models in the context of synchronous groupware. G/TS/PAC represents floor control intent as signals, floor exchange (i.e., turn-taking) as a process of negotiation carried out via signals, and interaction for other floor control purposes, such as feedback to the floorholder for pacing and direction, as back-channel communication achieved by signals. The mechanisms of threading and addressing are included in the model for structuring groups, and mediation for structuring human-computer interaction. Threading refers to the formation of subgroups; addressing refers to identification via signals for the purpose of selection or attention; and mediation refers to the use of a medium which achieves communication indirectly, thus allowing participants to execute and interpret signals via interface mechanisms called cues. The G/TS/PAC model is also sufficiently robust to describe the separation of communication and concurrency control concerns with respect to floor control. Particular design and implementation recommendations are provided, including a layered protocol model for communication in synchronous groupware environments that supports this broader view of floor control. The G/TS/PAC model and these recommendations are demonstrated by a prototype application called FloorBoard.

Bookmark: T.Zhai.1996
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Human performance in six degree of freedom input control
Author: Zhai, Shumin
Editor: Milgram, Paul
Editor: Buxton, Bill
Date: 1996
Pages: 166
City: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Publisher: University of Toronto, Industrial Engineering
Standard number: oclcnum: 46510780
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: This thesis investigates human performance in relation to various dimensions of 6 degree of freedom (DOF) interfaces, including device resistance, transfer functions, muscles groups and joints, and input display formats. These dimensions are analysed respectively in terms of human proprioception and control feel, mental processing in forming control actions, motor and sensory cortex representation, and the nature of various visual depth cues. A series of five experiments are presented. Experiment 1 examined isotonic versus isometric resistance modes and position versus rate control transfer functions. A strong interaction was found between the resistance mode and the transfer function: in position control, the isotonic device outperformed the isometric device; whereas in rate control, the isometric device outperformed the isotonic device. Experiments 2 and 3 studied isometric versus elastic devices in rate control. When optimised between two opposing factors, i.e. proprioception and compatibility, the elastic device had performance advantages over the isometric device at the early stage of learning. Experiment 3 also revealed users' control strategies in terms of attentional priority to each degree of freedom. Experiment 4 investigated the effects of different joints and muscle groups on 6 DOF manipulation. The results showed that the participation of fingers significantly improved task performance. Experiment 5 studied the visual representation of users' input control actions. It was found that partial occlusion through semi-transparency in 3D, a rather novel graphic technique, was strongly beneficial. The major conclusions of the thesis can be summarised briefly as: (1) The physical properties of a 6 DOF input device should provide rich feedback so that the user can easily feel her control actions proprioceptively and thus learn the task quickly. (2) To the extent possible, fine small muscle groups and joints should be included in the operation of input devices. (3) The transfer function used to interface a device with the computer should be compatible with the physical device. (4) The visual representation of the user's actions should be designed to allow immediate exteroceptive feedback and the application of semi-transparency serves this purpose well.

Bookmark: T.Landay.1996
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Interactive sketching for the early stages of user interface design
Author: Landay, James A.
Editor: Myers, Brad A.
Editor: Morris, James H.
Date: 1996
Pages: 242
City: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 36774841
Keywords: User interfaces, design, sketching, storyboarding, gesture recognition, interaction techniques, pen-based computing, SILK
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Computer-aided design
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools are hard to use and they encourage designers and evaluators to focus on the wrong issues, such as color, fonts, and alignment, at this early stage. Most designers prefer instead to sketch early interface ideas on paper. However, designing on paper also has many drawbacks. Paper-based designs are hard to edit and cannot easily be tested with users. This dissertation describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of an interactive sketching tool called SILK that overcomes these problems and combines many of the benefits of paper-based sketching with current electronic tools. SILK allows designers to quickly sketch an interface using an electronic pad and stylus. SILK preserves the important properties of pencil and paper: a rough drawing can be produced quickly and the medium is flexible. However, unlike a paper sketch, this electronic sketch is interactive and can easily be annotated and modified using editing gestures. SILK recognizes user interface widgets and other interface elements as they are drawn and gives the designers feedback so that these inferences can be changed. Recognized interface elements have built-in behaviors and thus these elements can be exercised in their sketchy state. For example, the 'elevator' in a sketched scrollbar can be dragged up and down. Unfortunately, the behavior of individual widgets is insufficient to test a working interface. SILK's electronic storyboards allow the illustration of the dynamic behavior between interface elements, such as a dialog box appearing when a button is pressed. A designer creates a storyboard by first copying sketched screens to the storyboard window and then drawing transition arrows on the screens. The arrows specify which objects cause transitions to which screens when the end-user clicks on the objects. When the designer is satisfied with this early prototype, the system can transform the sketch into an operational interface using real widgets in a specified look-and-feel. An evaluation of SILK, using professional and student designers, showed that it was an effective tool for both early creative design and for communicating the resulting design ideas to other members of an engineering team. By supporting the early phases of the interface design life cycle, electronic sketching can both ease the prototyping of user interfaces and improve the interfaces that are eventually produced.

Bookmark: T.Grinter.1996
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Understanding dependencies: a study of the coordination challenges in software development
Author: Grinter, Rebecca Elizabeth
Editor: Grudin, Jonathan
Date: 1996
Pages: 203
Publisher: University of California, Irvine, Information and Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 36049844
Keywords: Computer software, Development
Keywords: Computer programming, Management
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: This research provides a new understanding of the dependencies that exist in software systems, and how software developers use practices and technologies to manage them. All software systems have dependencies because software modules interact with each other, with documentation, with libraries, and with test suites. Software engineers recognize that these dependencies exist, as technical relationships between the components of the system, and have tried to model them as part of their formal methods and process descriptions. However, no studies to date have examined the social aspects of these dependencies, how dependencies within the code, create and reflect social dependencies that exist between developers, teams of programmers, and software development organizations. To address this issue I study the role of Software Configuration Management (SCM) practices and tools in the development process. SCM is the discipline of identifying the components of a software system and coordinating their development in order to control the evolution of the whole software system. Recently SCM practices have been embodied into tools that aim to support the development process itself. Using three interpretive studies I detail the different types of dependencies that exist during software development: why they arise, how they have both technical and social implications, and how developers and managers cope with them. I use the findings from these studies to extend current understanding of how "groupware" technologies, like SCM systems, support the management of these software dependencies. I also highlight some of the problems in creating representations of dependencies, and consequently the times when SCM systems do not provide the required support to help developers coordinate their work. This understanding of how a technology supports the management of software dependencies contributes our knowledge about the role of systems in facilitating social processes, as well as opening up new questions about the extent to which that is possible.

Bookmark: T.Mynatt.1995
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Transforming graphical interfaces into auditory interfaces
Author: Mynatt, Elizabeth D.
Editor: Foley, James D.
Date: 1995-08-17
Pages: 191
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Computing
Standard number: oclcnum: 33821470
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Keywords: Apparatus for the Blind
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: This work explores transforming graphical interfaces into auditory interfaces. By transparently transforming graphical application written with a commercial toolkit, I have investigated strategies for generically modeling graphical interfaces. I use hierarchical structures to model graphical interfaces since these models best capture abstract representations of the graphical interfaces. These logical representations match how blind users conceptualize graphical interfaces, as well as correspond to the components that sighted users perceive. Additionally, creating usable auditory interfaces based on these models is feasible. I have helped build the Mercator system that transparently creates hierarchical models of graphical interfaces as the applications are executing. With generic models of graphical interfaces, the next task has been designing an interface that utilized only auditory output. Coupled with keyboard input, the Mercator interface allows users to explore and manipulate auditory representations of graphical interfaces. The contents of the interface is conveyed using auditory icons. These nonspeech sounds represent the identity and attributes of interface objects by mimicking real world sounds. Users navigate the space of the interface by stepping through a hierarchical representation of the interface structure. This navigation strategy reinforces a blind user's mental model of the interface while providing a consistent set of controls for accessing all objects in the interface. A central tension in this design has been to provide the benefits of graphical interfaces, such as spatial organization, while creating a usable interface. Where possible, information about the visual characteristics and spatial organization of the graphical interface is conveyed through the structure and auditory cues of the parallel interface. The end result is an interface that is usable by blind users working with text-oriented applications such as word processing and electronic mail. The decision to use auditory icons in the interface spurred questions in designing these cues. By investigating how people described everyday sounds, and how they expected everyday sounds to be used in graphical interfaces, I highlighted several guidelines for designing auditory icons. These guidelines informed the selection of cues used in Mercator. My focus on blind users positively has influenced my research in two ways. First, their requirements for access to graphical interfaces had forced me to investigate generic transformations where the graphical and auditory interfaces share an underlying representation. The most challenging aspect of the design was facilitating collaboration between sighted and blind users. Second, their real need for access technology has led me to help build a robust system that supports access to numerous applications and levels of user expertise. Far from a proof-of-concept system, Mercator will hopefully be used by many people.

Bookmark: T.Brewster.1994
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Providing a structured method for integrating non-speech audio into human-computer interfaces
Author: Brewster, Stephen Anthony
Editor: Edwards, Alistair
Date: 1994
Pages: 277
Publisher: University of York
Standard number: oclcnum: 53700349
Keywords: Auditory interface, Signal processing, Information theory, Computer engineering, Computer software, Signal processing, Computer engineering, Computer software
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: This thesis provides a framework for integrating non-speech sound into human-computer interfaces. Previously there was no structured way of doing this, it was done in an ad hoc manner by individual designers. This led to ineffective uses of sound. In order to add sounds to improve usability two questions must be answered: What sounds should be used and where is it best to use them? With these answers a structured method for adding sound can be created An investigation of earcons as a means of presenting information in sound was undertaken. A series of detailed experiments showed that earcons were effective, especially if musical timbres were used. Parallel earcons were also investigated (where two earcons are played simultaneously) and an experiment showed that they could increase sound presentation rates. From these results guidelines were drawn up for designers to use when creating usable earcons. These formed the first half of the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces. An informal analysis technique was designed to investigate interactions to identify situations where hidden information existed and where non-speech sound could be used to overcome the associated problems. Interactions were considered in terms of events, status and modes to find hidden information. This information was then categorised in terms of the feedback needed to present it. Several examples of the use of the technique were presented. This technique formed the second half of the structured method. The structured method was evaluated by testing sonically-enhanced scrollbars, buttons and windows. Experimental results showed that sound could improve usability by increasing performance, reducing time to recover from errors and reducing workload. There was also no increased annoyance due to the sound. Thus the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces was shown to be effective when applied to existing interface widgets.

Bookmark: T.Konstan.1993
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: An event-based architecture for graphical user interface toolkits
Author: Konstan, Joseph Andrew
Editor: Rowe, Lawrence A.
Date: 1993
Pages: 290
Publisher: University of California, Berkeley, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 30008909
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: This dissertation demonstrates that building graphical user interface toolkits with an additional layer of event processing provides support for a wide range of advanced features while still attaining acceptable performance for existing applications. In particular, the architecture provides easy integration of lock- and formula-based data management, programmable geometry management, and support for application-defined modes and collaborative applications while attaining high performance for demanding interactions including mouse-tracking and rapid screen refresh operations. The dissertation presents a new model for building toolkits and frameworks that is based on application agents, separate threads of execution that encapsulate code and external interfaces, that communicate by creating and receiving events. The architecture includes a central event dispatcher that receives events from agents and dispatches them to the appropriate recipients. Agents also create registration events to advise the dispatcher of which events the agents can handle. The central premise of this dissertation is that advanced functionality can be attained while maintaining acceptable performance. A new performance assessment technique, called the capacity framework, is defined to measure the decrease in acceptable-performance system throughput caused by application tasks. Each added feature is tested with the capacity framework to ascertain its impact on overall system performance. Four sets of results are presented. First, a basic implementation is shown and its performance is shown to be acceptable for basic interactive applications. Second, data management and geometry management are implemented as agents and event classes. Third, event dispatching mechanisms are developed to support synchronization, application modes, and other advanced toolkit and framework features. Fourth, the model is shown to support a wide range of models for collaborative multi-user applications. The key features of this model are the flexibility provided by adding an extra level of event dispatching between toolkit code and the window system and the higher level of programming abstraction supported by the definition of encapsulated, concurrent agents. These features allow the implementation of systems with better support than current toolkits and frameworks for asynchronous I/O, geometry and data management, modal interactions, and collaboration.

Bookmark: T.Ackerman.1993
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Answer garden: a tool for growing organizational memory
Author: Ackerman, Mark S.
Editor: Malone, Thomas W.
Date: 1993
Pages: 253
Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management
Standard number: oclcnum: 30692313
Weblink: dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/12233
Absract: Answer Garden allows organizations to develop databases of commonly asked questions that grow "naturally" as new questions arise and are answered. It is designed to help in situations (such as customer "hot lines" or help desks) where there is a continuing stream of questions, many of which occur over and over, but some of which the organization has never seen before. Answer Garden includes a branching network of diagnostic questions, as well as additional information retrieval methods, that help users find the answers they want. If the answer is not present, the system automatically routes the question to the appropriate expert, and the answer is returned to the user as well as inserted into the information database. Experts can also modify this network in response to users' problems. Through their normal interactions, users and experts build an organizational memory. The thesis examines organizational memory and Answer Garden from three perspectives: in terms of organizational memory at an organizational level, information seeking at an individual level, and software systems at a technical level. It is asserted that information technology can support organizational memory in two ways, either by making recorded knowledge retrievable or by making individuals with knowledge accessible. The thesis also describes two additional organizational memory applications, the ASSIS and LiveDoc, and details the Answer Garden Substrate system underlying all three applications. Finally, the thesis reports a field study of software engineers using Answer Garden.

Bookmark: T.Sears.1993
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Layout appropriateness: guiding user interface design with simple task descriptions
Author: Sears, Andrew Lee
Editor: Shneiderman, Ben
Date: 1993
Pages: 197
Publisher: University of Maryland at College Park
Standard number: oclcnum: 30365823
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Layout Appropriateness is a design philosophy that can result in interfaces that are not only faster, but are preferred by users. Layout Appropriateness refers to the concept of designing an interface that is in harmony with the users' tasks. Using descriptions of the sequences of actions users perform and how frequently each sequence is applied, interfaces can be organized to be more efficient for the users' tasks. Simple task descriptions have proven to be useful for both designing new interface widgets and organizing widgets within an interface. The benefits of simple task descriptions were demonstrated in two applications. First, simple task descriptions were used to help designers develop more efficient interfaces. Once designers select the widgets necessary for an interface they must decide how to organize these widgets on each individual screen. To aid in this process a task-sensitive metric, Layout Appropriateness (LA), was developed. Given the widgets to be used and the simple task description, designers can use LA to evaluate the appropriateness of an interface layout. The effectiveness of LA for predicting user performance and preferences was tested in a controlled experiment with eighteen subjects. As predicted, interfaces with better LA values were reliably faster than interfaces with poorer LA values. In addition, interfaces with better LA values were preferred by users. Second, simple task descriptions were applied to the task of organizing items within a pull-down menu. Considering the benefits of both traditional (alphabetical, numerical, etc.) and frequency-ordered menus led to the creation of a more efficient organization called split menus. In split menus three to five frequently selected items are moved to the top of the menu. Field studies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland demonstrated the potential of split menus. Selection times were reduced by between 17 and 47%, and 90% of the users preferred the split menus. A controlled experiment with thirty-six subjects was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of split menus. A theoretical model accurately predicted when split menus would be faster than alphabetic menus. Split menus were also preferred over both alphabetical and frequency-ordered menus.

Bookmark: T.Williams.1992
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Interactive assistance for experimentation on the visual and auditory properties of iconographic data displays
Author: Williams, Marian G.
Editor: Smith, Stuart
Date: 1992
Pages: 304
Publisher: University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Standard number: oclcnum: 28119773
Keywords: Optical data processing
Keywords: Design, Industrial
Keywords: Artificial intelligence
Keywords: Computer vision
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Iconographic data display is an emerging technology for the visualization of multidimensional data sets. Each data point has both a visual and an auditory representation. The graphical representations of many data points are packed densely together on the computer screen to give the illusion of texture. The auditory representations, when activated by a sweep of the mouse cursor, produce an analogous auditory texture. The success of the iconographic data display technology will depend on effective exploitation of human texture perception capabilities. The iconographic technology provides a multitude of visual and auditory parameters for data display. Guidelines for creating the most effective display for any given data set do not yet exist. Creating those guidelines will require extensive human factors experimentation. This work seeks to assist the visualization researcher in performing the myriad necessary experiments. Methodologies employed in this research effort include design and implementation of an object-oriented prototype of the iconographic data display workstation; development of extensions to the workstation for creating and running human factors experiments; human factors experimentation; and experimental and verbal protocol analysis. The workstation for experimentation is described, and its object-oriented design is documented. Experimental results are presented which show that sound is a useful channel for iconographic data display and that experience with the iconographic technique increases sensitivity to texture differences in iconographic displays. Experimentation in the domain of iconographic data display is characterized, based on analysis of experimental and verbal protocol records.

Bookmark: T.Grissom.1992
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Usability evaluation of interfaces for 3D interaction
Author: Grissom, Scott Benson
Editor: Carlson, Wayne E.
Date: 1992
Pages: 160
City: Columbus, Ohio
Publisher: Ohio State University, Computer and Information Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 30720338 proquest: 745984521
Keywords: three dimensional interaction
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Few interfaces of 3D graphic systems have been evaluated empirically. Designers frequently claim that their technique is 'better' than other techniques but with no evidence to support this claim. A standardized evaluation plan (SEP) is designed to evaluate or compare a wide variety of products that share certain capabilities. A standardized evaluation plan for the usability of 3D interaction techniques, SEP(3D), was developed that combines performance-based evaluation with a user satisfaction questionnaire. It is simple enough that anyone can compare interfaces without special equipment or experience. SEP(3D) was designed to evaluate the usability of interfaces for performing quick and informal 3D manipulations early in the design process. Subjects perform a series of twenty tasks that include different aspects of creation, movement, sizing, rotation, and view manipulation. The task sequence is random and intended to represent a typical design session. Two measures are taken to evaluate the usability of an interface: performance time and user satisfaction. These measures provide a combination of objective and subjective results and are common usability measures found in the literature. Two experiments were performed that compared a variety of commercial and prototype interfaces. Results were used to evaluate SEP(3D) based on four criteria: (1) reliable results, (2) valid results, (3) useful results, and (4) ease of use for people with limited experience in user interface evaluation. The user interface discipline is only at the beginning of understanding 3D interaction. Formal methods such as SEP(3D) allow researchers to increase the body of factual knowledge. Future systems can be designed on proven theories and guidelines rather than intuition. Researchers are encouraged to use SEP(3D) to evaluate existing interfaces or during an iterative design of new interfaces because it provides an objective and reliable picture of 3D interaction.

Bookmark: T.Rogers.1991
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: An analysis of ability/performance relationships as a function of practice and age
Author: Rogers, Wendy Anne
Editor: Fisk, Arthur D.
Date: 1991-12
Pages: 221
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 24892552
Keywords: Age and intelligence
Keywords: Memory, Age factors
Keywords: Psychology of Learning
Weblink: smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/30953

Bookmark: T.Abowd.1991
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Formal aspects of human-computer interaction
Author: Abowd, Gregory D.
Date: 1991-10
Pages: 232
Publisher: Oxford University, Computing Laboratory, Programming Research Group
Standard number: oclcnum: 28284902
Keywords: Ergonomics Human engineering. Computer-aided design. Computer integrated manufacturing systems. Human engineering Computer-aided design Computer integrated manufacturing systems
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Weblink: ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do
Absract: This thesis provides a constructive application of formal methods to the study of human-computer interaction. Specifically, we are interested in promoting a principled approach to the analysis and design of interactive systems that will accompany existing heuristic techniques. Previous formal approaches have concentrated on general and abstract mathematical models of interactive systems, proving that psychologically valid principles of interaction can be expressed in a language suitable for computation. These abstract models, however, are too far removed from an actual design practice which is strongly influenced by common sense and liable to break down in the face of complexity Our efforts are focussed toward retaining the mathematical grounding of previous formalisms while providing additional insight and direction for design practice. We introduce a unifying framework for the informal description of a user, a system and the interface that sits between them. This interaction framework provides the context for our research and motivates the properties of interaction that we wish to formalize. We adopt the view of an interactive system as a collection of agents based on the stimulus-response model. We provide a mathematical model of the agent capable of expressing interactive properties relating the goals of interaction with the visible consequences of that interaction We also provide a language for agents which allows a natural expression of an agent's internal state-based behaviour and its external event-based behaviour. We contribute further to practical design issues by introducing templates to relate a task analysis to a specification of a system to support the tasks and an interface to adequately portray that functionality to the user. Finally, we initiate the formal investigation of multiagent architectures. This concludes the mapping of properties on abstract models of interactive systems down to properties on more implementation-based models.

Bookmark: T.Sellen.1990
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Mechanisms of human error and human error detection
Author: Sellen, Abigail Jane
Editor: Norman, Donald A.
Date: 1990
Pages: 280
Publisher: University of California, San Diego, Psychology and Cognitive Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 22142409
Keywords: Errors
Keywords: Human engineering
Keywords: Human information processing

Bookmark: T.Rodden.1990
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Supporting cooperation in software engineering environments
Author: Rodden, Thomas
Date: 1990
Publisher: University of Lancaster
Standard number: oclcnum: 53529391
Keywords: Computer software
Weblink: ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do

Bookmark: T.Mackay.1990
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Users and customizable software: a co-adaptive phenomenon
Author: Mackay, Wendy E.
Editor: Orlikowski, Wanda J.
Date: 1990
Pages: 319
Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management
Standard number: oclcnum: 23672657
Weblink: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: Co-adaptive phenomena are defined as those in which the environment affects human behavior and at the same time, human behavior affects the environment. Such phenomena pose theoretical and methodological challenges and are difficult to study in traditional ways. However, some aspects of the interaction between people and technology only make sense when such phenomena are taken into account. In this dissertation, I postulate that the use of information technology is a coadaptive phenomenon. I also argue that customizable software provides a particularly good testbed for studying co-adaptation because individual patterns of use are encoded and continue to influence user behavior over time. The possible customizations are constrained by the design of the software but may also be modified by users in unanticipated ways, as they appropriate the software for their own purposes. Because customization patterns are recorded in files that can be shared among users, these customizations may act to informally establish and perpetuate group norms of behavior. They also provide a mechanism by which individual behavior can influence global institutional properties and future implementations of the technology. The presence of these sharable artifacts makes it easier to study customization than related co-adaptive phenomena such as learning and user innovation. Because some mechanisms may be the same for all co-adaptive phenomena, findings about use of customizable software may also shed light on user's choices about when to learn new software and when to innovate. Current research models do not provide useful ways of exploring co-adaptive phenomena, thus requiring new research models and methods. Research on technology and organizations commonly follows one of two theoretical models, each of which is inadequate to account for how users customize software. One treats technology as a static, independent variable, which influences the behavior of the people in the organization. The other treats the organization as the independent variable, in which decision-makers in an organization make strategic choices about technology and appropriate it for their own purposes. The structurational model proposed by Orlikowski (1989) takes both perspectives into account and incorporates an active role by individuals in the organization. This dissertation extends her analysis by examining the co-adaptive relationship between users and user-customizable software: users both adapt to the available technology and appropriate the technology, adapting it over time. These appropriations may take the form of user innovations which may change both the technology itself and the characteristics of the organization, such as who communicates with whom and how coordination of work processes is handled. The theoretical model and evidence for co-adaptation is first illustrated with data from a pilot study of the Information Lens, a software application that allows users to customize the process of managing their electronic mail. I describe the development of the Information Lens and identify the interactions between the technology and individual users in the context of the organization. I also examine the individual patterns of use of Lens rules and trace patterns of sharing of rules among members of the organization. I then examine user customization of software in greater detail, in a study of Unix users at MIT's Project Athena. The data consist of interviews and records of customization files of 51 members of the Project Athena staff. The data is presented from the perspective of the structurational model, with a micro-level analysis of the customization decisions by individual users. The key findings include: 1. The specific identification of the interaction between users and customizable software as a co-adaptive phenomenon, supported by field data. 2. The theoretical linking of co-adaptive phenomena and the structurational model and evidence for a mechanism by which individual interactions with technology affect the organization. 3. The discovery of common patterns of customization: a. Users are most likely to customize when they first join an organization, which is when they know the least about the technology and their eventual use of it. b. Customization activities are often conducted as a way to explore a new software environment. c. Users attempt to incorporate their current work context into their customizations. d. Over time, most users make fewer and fewer customizations, regardless of level of technical expertise. e. Some external events, especially those that cause users to reflect upon their use of the software, increase the probability that users will customize. f. Users who customize like to maintain the same environment, even when the software changes. They will either retrofit the new software to be like the old or refuse to use it at all. g. The most common on-going customization occurs when the user becomes aware of a commonly-repeated pattern of behavior and encodes it as a customization. 4. Customization cannot be considered a primarily individual activity. The following patterns of sharing occurred: a. Users are most likely to borrow customization files when they first join the organization. These files are rarely evaluated for effectiveness and may have been created many years ago. b. A small group of highly technical individuals act as lead users of new technology. They are the first to explore new software and create a set of customization files that other people then borrow. However, the authors of these files receive little or no feedback as to the effectiveness or use of these files. c. Less technical individuals take on the role of translators for other members in their groups. They interpret individual user's needs and create sets of customizations organized to meet those needs. I conclude with a discussion of the theoretical implications, including support for and elaboration of the structurational model and the beginning of a theory of the use of customizable software. I propose changes in the software development process (to include observation of use in the field as an important input to future development), in software design (to include mechanisms that support reflection about use of the software and mechanisms for sharing of customizations), and for managers (to support periodic "maintenance" of skills and to support translators and help them provide more effective customizations for others in the organization).

Bookmark: T.Stasko.1989
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: TANGO: a framework and system for algorithm animation
Author: Stasko, John Thomas
Editor: Reiss, Steve
Date: 1989
Pages: 257
City: Providence, Rhode Island
Publisher: Brown University, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 21005805
Keywords: Computer animation
Keywords: Algorithms
Absract: Algorithm animation is the process of abstracting the data, operations, and semantics of computer programs, and then creating animated graphical views of those abstractions. Although a handful of algorithm animations systems have been developed in recent years, relatively little work has been done on the theoretical foundations of such systems. In this work we develop a conceptual framework with formal models and precise semantics for algorithm animation. The framework contains facilities for defining operations in an algorithm, designing animations, and mapping the algorithm operations to their corresponding animations. We introduce the framework to make animations design easier, as well as to provide a model that supports smooth, continuous image movement. We also present the path-transition paradigm that simplifies the animation design process Concurrently, we develop an algorithm animation system called TANGO (Transition-based ANimation GeneratiOn) based upon the framework. TANGO supports two-dimensional color animations in a window-based workstation environment. It provides programmers with the capabilities to produce sophisticated, real-time views of their programs with a minimum of graphics coding. Using TANGO, programmers create animations by writing routines in an algorithm animations design language or by using a direct manipulation, demonstrational animation design tool.

Bookmark: T.Pausch.1988
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Adding Input and Output to the Transactional Model
Author: Pausch, Randy
Editor: Spector, Al
Date: 1988-08
Pages: 168
Publisher: Carnegie Mellon University, Computer Scienceo
Standard number: oclcnum: 19053853 proquest: 745796651
Note: Technical Report CMU-CS-88-171
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Many computing systems provide transactions to facilitate the creation of reliable software. Transactions allow programmers to specify that a sequence of operations are atomic; either they all occur, or none of them occur. Existing transaction processing systems have concentrated on supporting operations that access or update long-lived data objects. External operations, such as user input/output or controlling a real world device, are typically prohibited. This dissertation extends the transactional model to include many types of external operations, especially user interaction. First, I describe the transactional typescript, a fully implemented piece of system software which uses the techniques of tentative output and a recoverable queue of user keystrokes to implement transactional input and output operations. An additional feature of this system is that after a system or hardware failure, when the system is restarted the user's display is completely restored to the time of the failure, including the location and contents of multiple windows on a bit-map display. The second contribution is the creation of a taxonomy of external events, based on their salient properties (deferrability, compensability, testability, idempotence, and safety). The taxonomy places all transactional operations into one of six classes. Two of the classes are problematic, and operations in these classes cannot always be implemented with proper semantics. Based on the taxonomy, I have designed an external operation server for the Camelot transaction processing system under development at Carnegie Mellon. This work describes a transactional command shell, similar to the UNIX shell, but including primitives to begin and end transactions. The design describes how to implement each of the operation classes from the taxonomy, and also provides mechanisms for handling the large number (tens of thousands) of physical devices that are often configured to use such a system. The work concludes by analyzing the server design in the context of ET1, a standard industry benchmark for transaction processing systems.

Bookmark: T.John.1990
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Contributions to engineering models of human-computer interaction
Author: John, Bonnie Elizabeth
Editor: Newell, Allen
Date: 1988
Pages: 301
Publisher: Carnegie-Mellon University, Psychology
Standard number: oclcnum: 247815495
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: This dissertation presents two engineering models of behavior at the human-computer interface; a model of immediate behavior and stimulus-response compatibility and a model of transcription typing. Formulated within the architecture of the Model Human Processor of Card, Moran and Newell, these models are able to make zero-parameter, quantitative predictions of human response time in their respective domains. They are also completely integrated, making good predictions about performance on a dual reaction-time/typing task. Parameters of the models are set using response time data from an abbreviation recall experiment. These parameters are then used to make predictions about response time in another abbreviation recall experiment, three classic stimulus-response experiments, and over 29 experiments that reflect robust phenomena associated with transcription typing. These models are the first to make successful predictions across domain boundaries, both within tasks exhibiting stimulus-response compatibility and outside that paradigm to transcription typing.

Bookmark: T.Gaver.1988
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Everyday listening and auditory icons
Author: Gaver, William W.
Editor: Norman, Donald A.
Date: 1988
Pages: 263
Publisher: University of California, San Diego, Cognitive Science and Psychology
Standard number: oclcnum: 18765691
Keywords: Listening
Keywords: Auditory perception
Keywords: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Weblink: goldsmiths.academia.edu/WilliamGaver/Papers/900182/Everyday_listening_and_auditory_icons
Absract: This thesis represents an attempt to understand how people listen to the world, and how such an understanding can help in developing auditory interfaces for computers. Part I of this thesis is concerned with everyday listening, the act of gaining information about events in the world by listening to the sounds they make. Chapter 1 introduces this area of research and discusses its relations with other work on audition. In Chapter 2, I suggest that the differences between cognitive and ecological perspectives on perception may be understood as stemming from contrasting views on systems, and that although these perspectives are fundamentally incompatible they may both prove valuable in understanding perception. In Chapter 3, I examine what we hear, and introduce a framework for understanding the attributes of everyday listening. Finally, in Chapter 4 I investigate the perception of a simple sonic event -- struck bars of wood and metal -- with the aim of discovering what information for material and length is inherent in the sounds. Part II shows how the ideas developed in the first part may be applied to the use of sound in computer interfaces. The basic idea is that auditory icons, caricatures of everyday sounds, may be used to present information to users in a way that is analogous to the use of visual icons. This half of my thesis is made up of three papers that discuss my work on auditory icons. First is the paper that introduced this idea (Gaver, 1986), and which lay the framework for further research in this area. Second is a technical report written recently for Apple Computer, Inc. (Gaver, 1988), which is a survey of current techniques for using sound, and which explores the issues involved in creating auditory icons in more detail. Finally, I include a paper which describes the SonicFinder™, a prototype auditory interface that I developed at Apple Computer, Inc. (Gaver, in press). This interface illustrates the use of auditory icons in an actual system.

Bookmark: T.Coutaz.1988
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Interface homme-ordinateur: conception et réalisation
Author: Coutaz, Joëlle
Editor: Chiaramella, Yves
Date: 1988
Pages: 390
Publisher: Thèse d'Etat: mathématiques: Grenoble 1
Standard number: oclcnum: 490359807
Keywords: Systèmes homme-machine
Keywords: Traitement de l'information chez l'homme
Keywords: Logiciel interactif
Keywords: Principes ergonomiques
Keywords: Modèle d'architecture
Keywords: Gestion du dialogue
Keywords: Boite à outils:machine à images abstraites
Keywords: Squelette d'application
Keywords: Générateur d'interfaces
Language: French
Weblink: tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00326155
Absract: Présentation d'une synthèse des théories et techniques issues des sciences cognitives et de l'informatique. Dans une deuxième partie, un modèle d'architecture permettant d'intégrer aux logiciels interactifs les principes essentiels de l'ergonomie cognitive est propose. Un système interactif organise selon ce modèle repartit la gestion de l'interaction au sein d'agents spécialisés.

Bookmark: T.Rogers.1988
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Pictorial representations of abstract concepts in relation to human-computer interaction
Author: Rogers, Yvonne
Editor: Oborne, David
Date: 1988
Pages: 278
Publisher: University of Wales, Psychology
Standard number: oclcnum: 502586964
Keywords: Computer art
Keywords: Computer drawing
Keywords: Perception of pictures/words Psychology Pattern recognition systems Pattern perception Image processing Bionics Psychology Pattern recognition systems Bionics
Weblink: ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do
Absract: The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the communicativeness of various types of pictorial and symbolic forms to represent abstract concepts. In particular, the aim was to determine how effectively the meaning of the different forms of representation can be extended from their existing mental representation to the human-computer interaction domain. An approach was taken which explored the problem of representation from both a theoretical perspective and within an applied setting -- with the goal of achieving cross-fertilisation between the two domains. Initially, a series of experiments is reported in which the effects of imagery and word frequency underlying the meaning of verbs were investigated in a number of verbal and non-verbal tasks. A second set of experiments is then reported in which the salient findings that emerged from the first stage of the research were evaluated in an applied setting. Specifically, the efficacy of various types of icon-mappings representing different categories of command operations was compared in a word processing environment. The results showed that the most meaningful types of pictorial representations for depicting verbs in a context-free setting were also the most effective when used as icons to represent command operations. Specifically, the most communicative type of pictorial representations were found to be those depicting concrete objects associated with the underlying action in conjunction with the use of abstract symbols. Another major finding was the significant role played by imagery. High imagery verbs and highly 'visual' command operations were consistently judged to be more meaningful. The implications of this research are discussed from an applied perspective, in view of recent developments in computer interface design and, from a theoretical perspective, in terms of contemporary theory on cognitive processing.

Bookmark: T.Rogers.1988
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Target and distractor learning in visual search: age-related differences
Author: Rogers, Wendy Anne
Editor: Fisk, Arthur D.
Date: 1988
Pages: 65
Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology, Psychology
Standard number: oclcnum: 19913396
Keywords: Cognition
Keywords: Human information processing
Keywords: Older people
Weblink: smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/28731

Bookmark: T.Greenberg.1988
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Tool use, reuse, and organization in command-driven interfaces
Author: Greenberg, Saul
Editor: Witten, Ian H.
Date: 1988
Pages: 228
City: Calgary Alberta, Canada
Publisher: University of Calgary, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 150628185
Keywords: Interactive computer systems
Keywords: Human-computer interaction
Keywords: Computer interfaces
Weblink: dspace.ucalgary.ca/handle/1880/21576
Weblink: grouplab.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/grouplab/uploads/Publications/Publications/1988-GreenbergPhDThesis.pdf

Bookmark: T.Druin.1987
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Building an alternative to the traditional computer terminal
Author: Druin, Allison
Editor: Minsky, Marvin
Date: 1987
Pages: 84
Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Architecture
Standard number: oclcnum: 16972411
Weblink: dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/14966
Absract: For the past year and a half, I have led a group of researchers in building an alternative to the traditional computer terminal. Instead of building a design workstation complete with keyboard and mouse, we built an animal design playstation complete with fur, feathers, and an iridescent fish tail. We used the tools of puppetry, animation, and computer electronics, to build what is now called Noobie (short for "New Beast"). By sitting or standing in the lap of the computer creature, a child can build fantasy or real animals. When one squeezes a part on Noobie, the selected animal part can be seen on the screen in Noobie's stomach, and a sound can be heard. This paper documents the ideas behind the conception and creation of Noobie, along with how it fits into the short history of the Vivarium research group. The group is a collection of people, ideas, and projects that focus on creating a multi-media environment for children to learn about animal behavior.

Bookmark: T.Feiner.1987
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Computer generation of pictorial explanations
Author: Feiner, Steven Keith
Editor: van Dam, Andries
Date: 1987
Pages: 165
City: Providence, Rhode Island
Publisher: Brown University
Standard number: oclcnum: 18604126 proquest: 753352461
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Although much work has been done on planning and generating textual explanations, relatively little attention has been devoted to automating the design of pictures that could be used to explain things. This thesis presents a three part conceptual architecture for generating pictorial explanations, such as maintenance and repair manuals, in which pictures play a crucial role. One part determines the material to be presented, for example, the solution to a maintenance and repair task. A second part plans the explanation, determines the spatial and temporal layout of the displays, and designs the pictures and text. A third part interfaces to rendering and typesetting software that scan-converts the displays. APEX (Automated Pictorial EXplanations) is a partial testbed implementation of the architecture. It can generate sequences of pictures that show how to perform simple actions, such as turning or pulling, in a world of 3D objects. Each picture crystallizes around those objects that participate directly in the action being depicted. Whether additional objects will be included and how they will be rendered are determined by the relationships that the objects bear to those already in the picture. For example, an object that is similar to one of the participating objects is added with enough detail to disambiguate it and is drawn with a rendering style intended to mark it as less important. Although APEX needs to depict objects at varying levels of detail, the original object database is a hierarchy with physical objects located only at the leaves. Selective display of leaves, however, will not produce effective pictures. A method for controlling the level of detail in a picture is presented in which the object hierarchy is processed to yield one whose internal nodes are associated with automatically created approximations of their children. Decisions made during the picture design process control the depth to which different parts of this hierarchy are traversed, determining the level of detail with which each part is rendered.

Bookmark: T.Myers.1987
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Creating user interfaces by demonstration
Author: Myers, Brad A.
Date: 1987
Pages: 266
City: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Publisher: University of Toronto, Computer Systems Research Institute
Standard number: oclcnum: 19627145
Keywords: Computer programming
Keywords: Computer interfaces

Bookmark: T.Bodker.1987
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Through the interface: a human activity approach to user interface design
Author: Bødker, Susanne
Editor: Kyng, Morten
Date: 1987
Pages: 167
City: Aarhus Universitetet
Publisher: Avhandling (licentiatgrad), Datalogisk afdeling, Aarhus Universitet
Standard number: oclcnum: 788358840 isbn: 0-8058-0570-2
Weblink: pure.au.dk/portal/files/20861897/Full_texto

Bookmark: T.Hudson.1986
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A user interface management system which supports direct manipulation
Author: Hudson, Scott Everett
Editor: King, Roger
Date: 1986
Pages: 122
City: Boulder, Colorado
Publisher: University of Colorado, Boulder, Computer Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 16533253 proquest: 751454451
Keywords: Interactive computer systems
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: Creation of quality user interface software is often an error prone and time consuming task. It is not unusual to spend 40-60% of the total development effort for an interactive application on the user interface. This thesis addresses the problem of automating the production of graphics based user interfaces, particularly those which have a direct manipulation style. Direct manipulation interfaces have recently been recognized as an improvement over traditional user interface techniques. This style of interface represents the data objects of interest to the user and allows these representations to be manipulated using input devices such as a mouse rather than through some abstract command language. The work presented here concentrates on allowing this style of interface to be generated automatically from a high level specification. It concentrates specifically on providing automatic support for semantic feedback, user recovery and reversal (or undo), and flexible presentation of graphical images to the user. This work develops new techniques derived from incremental attribute evaluation to allow all interface actions to be performed efficiently on the basis of a non-procedural specification. In order to illustrate the concepts of the thesis, a new user interface management system, which automatically generates graphics based direct manipulation interfaces, has been built. This system and experience with it wil be discussed.

Bookmark: T.Pirolli.1986
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Problem solving by analogy and skill acquisition in the domain of programming
Author: Pirolli, Peter L.
Date: 1986
Publisher: Carnegie-Mellon University
Standard number: oclcnum: 16176113

Bookmark: T.Beaudouin-Lafon.1985
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Vers des interfaces graphiques evoluées: UFO, un méta-modèle d'interaction
Author: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel
Date: 1985-10
Pages: 232
City: Orsay, France
Publisher: Université Paris-Sud
Standard number: oclcnum: 494697739
Language: French
Weblink: www.sudoc.abes.fr/DB=2.1/SRCH

Bookmark: T.Preece.1985
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Interpreting trends in graphs: a study of 14 and 15 year olds
Author: Preece, Jenny
Editor: Brown, Margaret
Editor: O'Shea, Tim
Date: 1985
Pages: 292
City: Milton Keynes, UK
Publisher: Open University
Standard number: oclcnum: 59720341
Keywords: Education and training
Keywords: Mathematics
Keywords: Psychology
Weblink: ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do
Absract: Interpreting graphically displayed data is an important life skill. This thesis examines some of the problems that 14 and 15 year olds encounter when interpreting trends in cartesian graphs. A survey of errors made by 144 pupils is discussed, which shows that two of the most difficult aspects of graph work are interpreting changes in gradients, and inter-relating the graph with its context. A detailed analysis of individual pupil's interpretations of changes in gradients shows that pupils' conceptions of gradient can be classified according to whether they have an 'iconic' or an 'analytical' origin. Iconic descriptions are concerned with the structure, shape or position of the curve, whereas analytical descriptions are concerned with more abstract notions, such as the angle or steepness of the curve, and rate of increase. The results indicate that the occurrence of different kinds of conceptions is influenced by both the form of the graph and its context. In another study, the pupils were given two structurally isomorphic graph interpretation tasks. The results of this investigation also show that the context of a graph in relation to its structural form, has a profound influence upon the way that pupils interpret it. Interpretations are described, in which the influence of metaphors, knowledge from everyday life experience and anthropomorphic reactions can be seen. Pictorial accounts show how conceptions from some of these sources are brought into the pupils' interpretations.

Bookmark: T.Suchman.1984
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Plans and situated actions: an inquiry into the idea of human-machine communication
Author: Suchman, Lucille Alice
Editor: Berreman, Gerald
Date: 1984-12
Pages: 177
Publisher: University of California, Berkeley, Anthropology
Standard number: oclcnum: 21745943
Weblink: bitsavers.org/pdf/xerox/parc/techReports/ISL-6_Plans_and_Situated_Actions.pdf
Absract: This thesis considers two alternative views of purposeful action and shared understanding. The first, adopted by researchers in Cognitive Science, views the organization and significance of action as derived from plans, which are prerequisite to and prescribe action at whatever level of detail one might imagine. Mutual intelligibility on this view is a matter of the recognizability of plans, due to common conventions for the expression of intent, and common knowledge about typical situations and appropriate actions. The second view, drawn from recent work in social science, treats plans as derivative from situated action. Situated action as such comprises necessarily ad hoc responses to the actions of others and to the contingencies of particular situations. Rather than depend upon the reliable recognition of intent, successful interaction consists in the collaborative production of intelligibility through mutual access to situation resources, and through the detection, repair or exploitation of differences in understanding. As common sense formulations designed to accommodate the unforseeable contingences of situated action, plans are inherently vague. Researchers interested in machine intelligence attempt to remedy the vagueness of plans, to make them the basis for artifacts intended to embody intelligent behavior, including the ability to interact with their human users. The idea that computational artifacts might interact with their users is supported by their reactive, linguistic, and internally opaque properties. Those properties suggest the possibility that computers might 'explain themselves: thereby providing a solution to the problem of conveying the designer's purposes to the user, and a means of establishing the intelligence of the artifact itself. I examine the problem of human-machine communication through a case study of people using a machine designed on the planning model, and intended to be intelligent and interactive. A conversation analysis of "interactions" between users and the machine reveals that the machine's insensitivity to particular circumstances is a central design resource, and a fundamental limitation. I conclude that problems in Cognitive Science's theorizing about purposeful action as a basis for machine intelligence are due to the project of substituting plans for actions, and representations of the situation of action, for action's actual circumstances.

Bookmark: T.Tullis.1984
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Predicting the usability of alphanumeric displays
Author: Tullis, Thomas Stuart
Editor: Lane, David M.
Date: 1984-11
Pages: 172
City: Houston, Texas
Publisher: Rice University, Psychology
Standard number: oclcnum: 13656138
Keywords: Pattern perception
Keywords: Human information processing
Keywords: Video display terminals
Weblink: scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/15866
Absract: A review of the literature on alphanumeric displays, especially computer-generated displays, suggests that four basic characteristics of display formats affect how well users can extract information from the displays: (1) Overall density -- the number of characters displayed, expressed as a percentage of the total spaces available; (2) Local density -- the number of other characters near each character; (3) Grouping- -the extent to which characters on the display form well defined perceptual groups; and (4) Layout complexity- -the extent to which the arrangement of items on the display follows a predictable visual scheme. Objective ways of measuring these display characteristics have been developed and implemented in a computer program. In Experiment 1, 520 computer-generated displays that varied on these display measures were studied. Search times to locate data items on the displays were measured as well as subjective ratings of ease of use. Regression equations were developed to predict the search times and subjective ratings using the display measures. The results indicated that both search times (R² = .508) and subjective ratings (R² = .805) could be predicted quite well. In experiment 2, the regression equations developed in Experiment 1 were used to predict, a priori, search times and subjective ratings for a new set of 150 displays. The regression equations generalized quite well, resulting in high correlations between predicted and actual search times (r = .800) and subjective ratings (r = .799). The regression equations indicate that the most important predictors of search time are two measures associated with the grouping of characters: the number of groups on the display and the average visual angle subtended by those groups. Likewise, the most important predictors of subjective rating are a measure of local density, which is essentially how "tightly packed" the display is, and a measure of layout complexity, which is essentially how well the items on the display are aligned with each other.

Bookmark: T.Vanderheiden.1984
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: A unified quantitative modeling approach for selection-based augmentative communication systems
Author: Vanderheiden, Gregg Charles
Date: 1984
Pages: 262
Publisher: University of Wisconsin, Madison
Standard number: oclcnum: 12089737
Keywords: accessibility
Keywords: Communication devices for people with disabilities
Keywords: People with disabilities

Bookmark: T.Nielsen.1983
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Software ergonomi
Date: 1983
Pages: 273
City: Århus, Denmark
Publisher: DAIMI
Publisher: Speciale -- Datalogisk Institut
Standard number: oclcnum: 475974989
Language: Danish

Bookmark: T.Perlman.1982
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Natural artificial languages: low level processes
Author: Perlman, Gary Stephen
Editor: Rumelhart, David E.
Date: 1982-08
Pages: 89
City: La Jolla, California
Publisher: University of California, San Diego, Psychology
Standard number: oclcnum: 9884539 eric: ED231393
Keywords: Languages, Artificial
Keywords: user interfaces, cognitive psychology, human factors, systems development
Keywords: Computer Programs; Design Requirements; Language Processing; Learning Processes; Man Machine Systems; Mathematical Vocabulary; Mathematics Education; Mnemonics; Models; Programing; Programing Languages; Symbolic Language
Weblink: IJMMS, 20:4, 373-419, 1984
Weblink: hcibib.org/search:bookmark=J.IJMMS.20.4.373
Contents:
Introduction to Basic Concepts
	An Example of An Artificial Language
	Descriptions of Important Terms
	Properties of Natural Artificial Languages
	A Model of Artificial Language Processing
Experimental Evidence
	Symbols <==> Names
	Experiment 1: Symbols ==> Names
	Experiment 2: Names ==> Symbols
	General Discussion of Symbol <==> Name Experiments
	Names <==> Concepts
	Experiment 3: Names ==> Concepts
Practical Applications
	MENUNIX: A Menu-Based Interface to a Programming System
	Application 1: Symbols <==> Names
	Application 2: Names <==> Concepts
Conclusions
	Future Work
	Applicability of Cognitive Psychology to Design
	Relation to Learning Mathematics
References
Absract: An artificial language is one created for concise and precise communication within a limited domain such as mathematics. A natural artificial language is one that people find easy to learn and use. I discuss low level properties of natural artificial languages, especially those in which names are chosen for concepts, and symbols are chosen for names, a class of artificial languages I call linguistically mediated artificial languages. These properties include choosing mnemonic symbols for names, and suggestive names for concepts, and using both internally and externally consistent syntax. I outline a model of processing linguistically mediated artificial language and present results from experiments in support of the model. The results of the experiments are applied to the design of a user interface to a programming system, demonstrating their practicality along with their theoretical interest. The research shows the trade-offs in designing natural artificial languages: naturalness in a specific domain is gained at the cost of generality for other domains.

Bookmark: T.Bly.1982
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Sound and computer information presentation
Author: Bly, Sara Ann
Date: 1982-02-15
Pages: 116
Publisher: University of California, Davis
Publisher: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Standard number: oclcnum: 10408852
Keywords: Computer graphics
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: This thesis examines the use of sound to present data. Computer graphics currently offers a vast array of techniques for communicating data to analysis. Graphics is limited, however, by the number of dimensions that can be perceived at one time, by the types of data that lend themselves to visual representation, and by the necessary eye focus on the output. Sound offers an enhancement and an alternative to graphics tools. Multivariate, logarithmic, and time-varying data provide examples for aural representation. For each of these three types of data, the thesis suggests a method of encoding the information into sound and presents various applications. Data values were mapped to sound characteristics such as pitch and volume so that information was presented as sets or sequences of notes. The resulting sounds conveyed information in a manner consistent with prior knowledge of the data. Experiments showed that sound does convey information accurately and that sound can enhance graphic presentations. Subjects were asked to distinguish between two sources of test items. In the first phase of the experiments, subjects discriminated between two 6-dimensional data sets represented in sound. In the second phase, 75 subjects were assigned to one of three groups. The first group of 25 heard test items, the second group saw test items, and the third group both heard and saw the test items. The average percentage correct was 64.5% for the sound-only group, 62% for the graphics-only group, and 69% for the sound and graphics group. In the third phase, additional experiments focused on the mapping between data values and sound characteristics and on the training methods. As the use of computers spreads, the need for methods of conveying information from the computer to humans grows. Computer-generated sound offers an alternative that has not been widely utilized. This thesis suggests areas of future exploration in both applications and techniques for aural data representation. The results of the work described in this thesis and the many questions to be studied indicate the broad range of use for sound.

Bookmark: T.Mantei.1982
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Disorientation behavior in person-computer interaction
Author: Mantei, Marilyn
Date: 1982
Pages: 370
City: Los Angeles, California
Publisher: University of Southern California
Standard number: oclcnum: 9583217
Keywords: Computers and civilization
Keywords: Electronic data processing

Bookmark: T.Wixon.1982
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Understanding the facial expressions of others: a self-perception approach
Author: Wixon, Dennis R.
Date: 1982
Pages: 78
Publisher: Clark University
Standard number: oclcnum: 9472690
Keywords: Facial expression

Bookmark: T.Olsen.1981
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Procedure-based generalized interactive systems
Author: Olsen, Dan Reed, Jr.
Date: 1981
Pages: 278
City: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania, Computer and Information Science
Standard number: oclcnum: 244978472 proquest: 754154361
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink
Absract: This work describes a language for writing interactive systems that are independent of the applications that they service. This generality is based on application-specific information describing the command set of the application to the interactive processor. The model for this command set description is the procedure mechanism of a strongly-typed language called GINTAC, which is based on PASCAL and ADA. GINTAC allows the compiler's symbol table information to be made available at run time via a construct called a symbolic expression. This information which describes procedures, variables and data types can then be used as the command set definition by an interactive processor. In addition, interaction-specific information can be attached to declared symbols to enrich the expressiveness of this interface. Primitives are provided in the language to obtain access to the information supplied by a symbolic expression. It is also possible to create expressions at run time which can be used to execute the application's commands. Two such general interactive processors were designed based on the GINTAC language. The first is a general expression parser. It is shown how the command languages of several timesharing systems could be implemented using it. The second interactive processor supports a graphical interaction. It provides automatic menu generation, function button management and automatic user feedback. It is shown how the picking of objects from a display screen can be used to specify operands for expressions. In addition, it is shown how the strong typing of the expressions can resolve ambiguity that occurs when pointing at hierarchicly defined pictures. It is also shown how this system can be used to implement several graphical applications drawn from the literature. These two systems serve only to demonstrate this technique not to define the full extent of its capabilities.

Bookmark: T.Schmandt.1980
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Some applications of three-dimensional input
Author: Schmandt, Christopher
Editor: Negroponte, Nicholas
Date: 1980-01
Pages: 36
Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Architecture
Standard number: oclcnum: 8683849
Keywords: Computer graphics
Keywords: Interactive computer systems
Weblink: www.media.mit.edu/speech/papers/1980/schmandt_thesis1980_three-dimensional_input.pdf
Absract: Three-dimensional, six degree of freedom input is explored in an interactive computer graphics environment. A particular device, the ROPAMS of Polhemus Navigational Sciences, Inc. is an accurate, unencumbering device based on electromagnetics. It is evaluated as a three-dimensional input device, and such input itself is evaluated for appropriateness and interactivity in a graphics environment. Emphasis is placed on human factors (pointing, body position) as a mode of interactivity.

Bookmark: T.Roberts.1980
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Evaluation of computer text editors
Author: Roberts, Teresa Lynn
Date: 1980
Pages: 184
City: Palo Alto, California
Publisher: Stanford University
Standard number: oclcnum: 9180897
Keywords: Text editors (Computer programs)
Note: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Systems Sciences Laboratory

Bookmark: T.Buxton.1978
Type: MASTERS-THESIS
Title: Design issues in the foundation of a computer-based tool for music composition
Author: Buxton, William Arthur Stewart
Date: 1978
Pages: 97
City: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Publisher: University of Toronto, Computer Systems Research Group
Standard number: oclcnum: 729842528
Keywords: CSRG-97; Structured Sound Synthesis Project
Keywords: Application sophisticated users; Technologically naive users; Computer composition
Weblink: www.billbuxton.com/buxtonSSSPVideos.html

Bookmark: T.Jacob.1976
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Computer-produced Faces as an Iconic Display for Complex Data
Author: Jacob, Robert Joseph Kassel
Date: 1976
Pages: 203
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University
Keywords: Computer graphics; Communication, psychological aspects
Weblink: proquest.umi.com/pqdlink

Bookmark: T.Winograd.1971
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Procedures as a representation for data in a computer program for understanding natural language
Author: Winograd, Terry
Editor: Papert, Seymour A.
Date: 1971
Pages: 462
City: Cambridge, Massachusetts
Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Standard number: oclcnum: 3260416 eric: ED056543
Keywords: Automatic speech recognition
Keywords: Computational Linguistics; Computer Programs; Computers; Deep Structure; Discourse Analysis; English; Grammar; Language; Language Skills; Linguistic Theory; Logic; Programing Languages; Semantics; Sentence Structure; Sentences; Structural Analysis; Structural Linguistics; Syntax; Transformational Generative Grammar
Weblink: dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/7095
Weblink: dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/15546
Absract: This paper describes a system for the computer understanding of English. The system answers questions, executes commands, and accepts information in normal English dialog. It uses semantic information and context to understand discourse and to disambiguate sentences. It combines a complete syntactic analysis of each sentence with a "heuristic understander" which uses different kinds of information about a sentence, other parts of the discourse, and general information about the world in deciding what the sentence means. It is based on the belief that a computer cannot deal reasonably with language unless it can "understand" the subject it is discussing. The program is given a detailed model of the knowledge needed by a simple robot having only a hand and an eye. We can give it instructions to manipulate toy objects, interrogate it about the scene, and give it information it will use in deduction. In addition to knowing the properties of toy objects, the program has a simple model of its own mentality. It can remember and discuss its plans and actions as well as carry them out. It enters into a dialog with a person, responding to English sentences with actions and English replies, and asking for clarification when its heuristic programs cannot understand a sentence through use of context and physical knowledge.

Bookmark: T.Foley.1969
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Optimum Design of Computer Driven Display Systems
Author: Foley, James David
Editor: Herzog, Bertram
Date: 1969-03
Pages: 274
Publisher: University of Michigan, Engineering, Electronics and Electrical
Standard number: oclcnum: 68278167
Weblink: deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/4924
Absract: A rigorous analysis of computer-driven display systems is undertaken. The type of system studied consists of a display terminal, which can include a small computer, core memory, bulk memory, and one or more display controls and display consoles. The display terminal is in turn usually connected via data-link to a large time-shared computing system. To facilitate the analysis, a mathematical model of a general display system is developed. The model's parameters are derived from characteristics of the display system's hardware and of the application implemented on the system. The model is used to predict the average response time which will be experienced by a user of the display system. Included in the model is an objective method of dividing display processing between the main and terminal computers. So that certain of the model's parameters can be specified, a method of evaluating the computational and display capabilities of a computer and display is developed. The evaluation criteria are also used to eliminate some computer-display controls from consideration for inclusion in a display system. The response time can be calculated in one of several ways. If there is only one display console, a closed expression is found. With more than one console, queueing can develop. Thus either simulation or queueing analysis can be used. Comparison of these two techniques shows that even though the conditions needed to use a queueing analysis may not exist, its results in this case are quite satisfactory. Also, queueing analysis is considerably less expensive than simulation. An optimization procedure is developed to find the display system hardware which, for a given application, minimizes average response time subject only to an upper limit on the amount of money to be spent. The optimization is designed to analyze the display system model as infrequently as possible, to save time. The optimization is used to find optimum display systems for various costs and for four different display applications: text editing, two-dimensional drawing, three-dimensional drawing, and network analysis. The optimum display systems are in turn used to study the cost-effectiveness of various display systems, to determine if single or multiple display systems are less expensive, to develop general design guidelines, to study the necessity of hardware multiplication and division capabilities at the remote computer, and to demonstrate the necessity of the work reported here.

Bookmark: T.Sutherland.1963
Type: PHD-THESIS
Title: Sketchpad, a man-machine graphical communication system
Author: Sutherland, Ivan Edward
Editor: Shannon, Claude
Date: 1963
Pages: 176
Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Standard number: oclcnum: 15036306
Keywords: Computer graphics
Weblink: citeseer.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary
Absract: The Sketchpad system uses drawing as a novel communication medium for a computer. The system contains input, output, and computation programs which enable it to interpret information drawn directly on a computer display. It has been used to draw electrical, mechanical, scientific, mathematical, and animated drawings; it is a general purpose system. Sketchpad has shown the most usefulness as an aid to the understanding of processes, such as the notion of linkages, which can be described with pictures. Sketchpad also makes it easy to draw highly repetitive or highly accurate drawings and to change drawings previously drawn with it. The many drawings in this thesis were all made with Sketchpad. A Sketchpad user sketches directly on a computer display with a "light pen." The light pen is used both to position parts of the drawing on the display and to point to them to change them. A set of push buttons controls the changes to be made such as "erase," or "move." Except for legends, no written language is used. Information sketched can include straight line segments and circle arcs. Arbitrary symbols may be defined from any collection of line segments, circle arcs, and previously defined symbols. A user may define and use as many symbols as he wishes. Any change in the definition of a symbol is at once seen wherever that symbol appears. Sketchpad stores explicit information about the topology of a drawing. If the user moves one vertex of a polygon, both adjacent sides will be moved. If the user moves a symbol, all lines attached to that symbol will automatically move to stay attached to it. The topological connections of the drawing are automatically indicated by the user as he sketches. Since Sketchpad is able to accept topological information from a human being in a picture language perfectly natural to the human, it can be used as an input program for computation programs which require topological data, e.g., circuit simulators. Sketchpad itself is able to move parts of the drawing around to meet new conditions which the user may apply to them. The user indicates conditions with the light pen and push buttons. For example, to make two lines parallel, he successively points to the lines with the light pen and presses a button. The conditions themselves are displayed on the drawing so that they may be erased or changed with the light pen language. Any combination of conditions can be defined as a composite condition and applied in one step. It is easy to add entirely new types of conditions to Sketchpad's vocabulary. Since the conditions can involve anything computable, Sketchpad can be used for a very wide range of problems. For example, Sketchpad has been used to find the distribution of forces in the members of truss bridges drawn with it. Sketchpad drawings are stored in the computer in a specially designed "ring" structure. The ring structure features rapid processing of topological information with no searching at all. The basic operations used in Sketchpad for manipulating the ring structure are described.