Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87
Title: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Pages: 1874
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Note: ISBN 0-471-88015-9; LC TA 166.H275
Contents:
1.	The Human Factors Function (1)
2.	Human Factors Fundamentals (43)
3.	Functional Analysis (311)
4.	Job and Organization Design (429)
5.	Equipment and Workplace Design (505)
6.	Environmental Design (621)
7.	Design for Health and Safety (765)
8.	Design of Selection and Training Systems (909)
9.	Performance Modeling (1059)
10.	System Evaluation (1269)
11.	Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems (1357)
12.	Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems (1585)
Author Index (1811-1843)
Subject Index (1845-1874)

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.3
Title: The Human Factors Profession
Section: 1. The Human Factors Function
Author: Christensen, Julien M.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 1.1
Pages: 3-16
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Origins and Development
	The Age of Tools
	The Age of Machines
	The Age of Power
	A New Age: Machines for Minds
	A Significant Current Development: Products Safety
	Future Developments
	A Word on Definitions
The Attainment and Maintenance of Competence in Human Factors
	Tools and Methods
	The Nature of the Human Factors Society Membership
	Opportunities in Formal Education
	Continuing Education and Experience
	Professional Societies of Relevance to Human Factors
	Journal Publications of Relevance to Human Factors
	Human Factors References of Historical Interest
	General Human Factors References
The Systems Model -- A Valuable and Necessary Integrator
	Example of a Systems Model
	Evaluation of the Systems Approach
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.17
Title: Systems Design, Development, and Testing
Section: 1. The Human Factors Function
Author: Meister, David
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 1.2
Pages: 17-42
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Lifecycle
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction and Overview
General Characteristics of System Development
	Molecularization
	Requirements as Forcing Functions
	System Development as Discovery
	System Development as Transformation
	Time
	Cost
	Iteration
	Design Competition
	Priorities
	Relevance
	Design Reviews
Behavioral Inputs
Government Management Processes
	Introduction
	Feasibility/Analysis Phase
	Program Initiation Phase
	Demonstration and Validation Phase
	Full-Scale Engineering Development Phase
	Production and Deployment Phase
Human Factors Development Questions
HFE Activities During System Development
	System Planning
	Preliminary Design
	Detail Design
	Production
	Test and Evaluation
The HFE and The Designer
	Introduction
	Designer Attitudes Toward HF
	Designer Misconceptions
	How the Engineer Designs
Data Support for Human Factors
Is Human Factors Worthwhile?
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.45
Title: Sensation, Perception, and Systems Design
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Foley, Patrick
Author: Moray, Neville
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.1
Pages: 45-71
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Limitations on Handbook Data
Psychophysical Laws
Applications of Psychophysics: The Example of Color Specification
Mechanisms of Perception
	"Bottom-Up" and "Top-Down" Processing in Perception
	Principles of Top-Down Processing
	Advanced Technology
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.72
Title: Information Processing, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Wickens, Christopher D.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.2
Pages: 72-107
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Perception and Memory
	Expectancy
	Object Integrality
	Stimulus-Central Processing Compatibility
	Predictive Displays
	Spatial Cognition
	Comprehension
Working Memory Limitation
	Time and Attention
	Space
	Chunking
	Similarity and Forgetting
	Processing Code Similarity
	Strategies
Decision-Making and Diagnosis
	Choice
	Uncertainty
	Diagnosis
	Corrective Solutions
Response Processes
	Choice Reaction Time
	Stimulus Pacing
	Errors
	Stages of Information Processing
Attention
	Selective Attention
	Divided Attention
	Attention as a Resource: Mental Workload
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.108
Title: Motivation
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Hoyos, Carl Graf
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.3
Pages: 108-123
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
What is Motivation
Process Theories of Motivation
	Motivation by Expectation and Incentives
	Motivation According to the Principle of Equilibrium
	Evaluation
Content-Oriented Theories
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.124
Title: Learning and Forgetting Facts and Skills
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Kyllonen, Patrick C.
Author: Alluisi, Earl A.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.4
Pages: 124-153
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Overview
The Human Information Processing System
	Declarative Memory
	Working Memory
	Procedural Memory
	The Processing Cycle
	Summary: Human Information Processing System
Varieties of Learning
	Accretion
	Restructuring
	Tuning
	Summary: Varieties of Learning
Noncognitive Learning Variables
	Motivation
	Mood
Forty-Three Practical Applications of Learning Principles
	Learner Strategies Principles
	Instructional System Design Principles
	Principles for Designing Learnable Systems
	Summary: Forty-Three Practical Applications
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.154
Title: Engineering Anthropometry
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Kroemer, Karl H. E.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.5
Pages: 154-168
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction: The Human as a System Element
Development and Scope
Applications: Human-Equipment Interfaces
Terminology and Standardization
Anthropometric Surveys and Measurement Techniques
Measuring Instruments
Types of Body Build
Variability of Anthropometric Data
Anthropometric Design Data
(Instead of a) Summary
References and Bibliography

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.169
Title: Biomechanics of the Human Body
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Kroemer, Karl H. E.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.6
Pages: 169-181
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Scope, Development, and Status
Mechanical Basics
Anthropometric Basics
Muscle Strength
	Generation of Strength
	Measurement Techniques
Kinematic Chains
Low Back Biomechanics
Body Postures
Ergonomic Models: A Summary
References
Bibliography

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.182
Title: Manual Control and Tracking
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Knight, James L., Jr.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.7
Pages: 182-218
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Human Factors Performance
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
An Information-Processing Model of the Human Operator
	Levels of Control Sophistication
	The Structure of the Manual Control Task
	Information-Processing Limits on Manual Control Performance
Measuring Control and Tracking Performance
	Two Common Problems in Control and Tracking Experiments
	Measures of Control and Tracking Performance
	Other Scoring Methods
System Behavior -- Effects on Operator's Performance
	Tracks with a Single Step
	Tracks with Many Steps
	Ramp Steps
	Sine Wave Tracks
Displaying System Behavior -- Effects on Operator's Performance
	Pursuit and Compensatory Displays
	Augmented Displays
	Alternative Visual Coding Methods
	Alternative Sensory Modalities
Control Responsiveness -- Effects on Operator's Performance
	Muscles and Limbs Used for Control Activation
	Transformations of the Control Device Output
	Effects of Control System Nonlinearities
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.219
Title: Human Error and Human Reliability
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Miller, Dwight P.
Author: Swain, Alan D.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.8
Pages: 219-250
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Overview
What is Human Error?
	System Context
	Types of Human Error
Why People Make Errors
	Work-Situation Approach
	Performance-Shaping Factors
	Task Complexity
Human Reliability Analysis
	Background
	Analysis and Prediction
	Historical Perspective
Human Reliability Analysis Techniques
	Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP)
	An Example Using THERP
	Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS)
	Operator Action Tree Method (OAT)
	Expert Judgment Techniques
	Success Liklihood Index Methodology (SLIM)
	Sociotechnical Approach to Assessing Human Reliability (STAHR)
	Incorporation of HRAs Into PRAs
The Data Problem
	Generalizability of Data
	Data-Base Review
	Human Reliability Data Bank
Strategies for Dealing with Human Error
	Change the Worker
	Change the Work Situation
	Reduce the System Impact
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.251
Title: Feedback-Control Mechanisms of Human Behavior
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Smith, Thomas J.
Author: Smith, Karl U.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.9
Pages: 251-293
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Origins of Feedback Concepts
	Homeostasis versus Homeokinesis
	Behavioral-Physiological Cybernetics
	Research on Tracking Systems
	Effects of Delaying the Feedback Signal
	Theories of Tracking Behavior
	Assessing Control-System Response
Behavioral Cybernetics and Machine Design
	Multidimensionality in Body Motion
	Multidimensional Feedback in Tool Using
	Effects of Feedback Displacement
	Steering Behavior
	Feedforward Control
	Safety in Vehicle Operation
Delayed Sensory Feedback
	Effects of Feedback Delay
	Delayed Feedback as a Human-Factors Issue
	Control Theories of Fast Movement Coordinations
Neurogeometric Organization of Behavior
	Experiments on Displaced Vision
	Feedback Control of Neurogeometric Organization
	Neurogeometric Organization of the Brain
	Reversing Visual Feedback of Eye Movements
Behavioral-Physiological Integration
	Motor-System Control Mechanisms
	Motor Control of Energy Metabolism
	Integration of Motor and Organic Function
	Motor-System Control of Physiological Efficiency
	Voluntary Control of Organic Processes
	Motor-System Control of Maturation and Learning
Feedback Control of Social Behavior
	Physiological Compliance in Social Tracking
	Feedback Principles of Joint Performances
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.294
Title: Speech Communication
Section: 2. Human Factors Fundamentals
Author: Sorkin, R. D.
Author: Kantowitz, B. H.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 2.10
Pages: 294-309
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Input Output Device Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Speech Production and Perception
	Phonemes
	Speech Spectrograms
	Effects of Phoneme Context
Channel Intelligibility and Quality
	Articulation and Intelligibility
	Message Familiarity and Predictability
	Effects of Sentence Context
	Speech Intensity
	Binaural Listening
	Distortion of Speech
	Articulation Index
	Channel Quality
Speech Technology
	Wave-Form Sampling and Quantization
	Bit-Rate Reduction
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.313
Title: Surveys in Organizations
Section: 3. Functional Analysis
Author: Seashore, Stanley E.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 3.1
Pages: 313-328
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
The Nature of Surveys
An Example of an Organizational Survey
Advantages of the Survey Method
Some Limitations and Risks
The Utility of Surveys
Planning a Survey: Design Issues
	Interviews versus Questionnaires
	Populations and Samples
	Instrument Development and Pretesting
Planning a Survey: Organizational Issues
	Confidentiality
	Participation in Planning
	Voluntarism
	Reporting the Results
	Professional Help
Planning a Survey: Analysis and Interpretation
	Comparing Unlike Groups
	Comparing Like Groups
	Impact Analysis and Diagnosis
	Interpreting Subjective Measures
Planning a Survey: Achieving an Integrated Plan
	Design Elements
	Fit to Context
	Organizational Linkages
Workplace and Work-System Applications
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.329
Title: Analytic Techniques for Function Analysis
Section: 3. Functional Analysis
Author: Laughery, Kenneth R., Sr.
Author: Laughery, K. Ronald, Jr.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 3.2
Pages: 329-354
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
	Terminology
	Uses of Functional Analysis
	The Hierarchical Nature of Functional Analysis
	Methods of Representation
Flow Analysis
	Process Charts
	Flow Diagrams
	Operational Sequence Diagrams
	Other Chart Techniques
	Utility and Limitations of Flow Analysis Techniques
Time-Lime Analysis
	Time-Line Charts
	Gantt Charts
	Other Techniques and Challenges
Network Analysis
	Network Diagrams
	Mathematical Procedures
	Applications
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.355
Title: Allocation of Functions
Section: 3. Functional Analysis
Author: Kantowitz, Barry H.
Author: Sorkin, Robert D.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 3.3
Pages: 355-369
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Person-Machine Systems
	Defining System Goals
	Levels of Technology
	A Philosophical Design Dichotomy
Techniques for Function Allocation
	Historical Antecedents
	Current Procedures
	Perils of Automation
	Dynamic Allocation
Allocation and Work Load
Function Allocation in Manufacturing
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.370
Title: Task Analysis
Section: 3. Functional Analysis
Author: Drury, Colin G.
Author: Paramore, Barbara
Author: Van Cott, Harold P.
Author: Grey, Susan M.
Author: Corlett, E. Nigel
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 3.4
Pages: 370-401
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Early History
Human Performance in Technological Systems
The Nature of Tasks in Technological Systems
Definitions in Task Analysis
Recent Developments in Task Analysis
Planning for Task Analysis
Phases of Task Analysis
	System Description and Analysis
	Task Description Task List
	Descriptive Data Collection
	Applications Analyses
An Example of Task Description and Analysis
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.402
Title: Physiological and Psychological Work Load Measurement and Analysis
Section: 3. Functional Analysis
Author: Rohmert, Walter
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 3.5
Pages: 402-428
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Why is Work Load Analysis Needed?
Practicable Approach for Determining Work Load
Historical Review of Physiological Research on Work Load
	How Much of a Worker's Food Consumption is Due to His Work?
	For What Type of Work or Type of Tool is the Energy Requirement a Minimum?
	What is the Suitable Amount of Daily Energy Expenditure?
Ergonomics Concept of Analyzing Work, Stress, and Strain
	The Concept of Ergonomics
	Scope and Theoretical References of Ergonomics
	The Ergonomic Stress and Strain Concept
	A Four-Level Hierarchy for Assessment of Working Conditions
An Approach to Assess Work Load in Assembling Tasks Using Ergonomic Methodology
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.431
Title: Job Design
Section: 4. Job and Organization Design
Author: Davis, Louis E.
Author: Wacker, Gerald J.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 4.1
Pages: 431-452
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Definition of Job
Job Design Under Conditions of Uncertainty
Designing Jobs to Meet Three Kinds of Organizational Needs
	Production-System Framework
	Miniature-Society Framework
	Individual Framework
Decisions Involved in Designing Jobs
Deciding What Tasks Will be Performed by the Work Force
	Technical Tasks
	Organizational Tasks
Deciding How Tasks Will be Grouped Together and Assigned
	Technical-System Realm
	Organizational (Social-System) Realm
Deciding How Individuals Will Relate to Each Other
Deciding How Individuals Will be Rewarded
Types of Job Designs
	Historically Evolved or Undesigned Jobs
	Machine Model of Jobs
	Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment
	Self-Maintaining Work Teams
Analytic Methods in Support of Job Design
	Transformation Flow Chart
	Variance Analysis
	Technological Assessment
	Task Ratings
	Mobility Analysis
	Interaction Analysis
	Responsibility Analysis
	Loci of Organizational Stability and Instability
Criteria for Grouping Tasks to Create Job and Team Boundaries
Strategies for Designing Jobs
Roles of the Human-Factors/Ergonomics Specialist
Summary and Conclusion
References
Bibliography

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.453
Title: Participative Group Techniques
Section: 4. Job and Organization Design
Author: Sen, Tapas K.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 4.2
Pages: 453-469
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
A Human Resource Strategy Model
Models of Participative Group Techniques
	A Process for Worker Involvement
	A Participative Model for Middle Management
	Impact Scaling: A Participative Process for Top Management
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.470
Title: Organizational Design
Section: 4. Job and Organization Design
Author: Hendrick, Hal W.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 4.3
Pages: 470-494
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Some Basic Concepts
	The Meaning of Organization
	Organizational Structure
	Organizational Design
Organizational Goals
	Classification by Criteria
	Classification by Focus
	Classification by Time Frame
	Hierarchical Nature of Goals
Organizational Effectiveness Criteria
Designing the Dimensions of Organizational Structure
	Complexity
	Horizontal Differentiation
	Vertical Differentiation
	Spatial Dispersion
	Integration
	Formalization
	Centralization
	Relationship of Centralization, Complexity, and Formalization
Sociotechnical System Components as Moderators of Organizational Design
	Technology
	Environment
	Personnel Subsystem
Choosing the Right Structural Form
	Classical or Machine Bureaucracy
	Professional Bureaucracy
	The Concept of Adhocracy
	The Matrix Design
	Free-Form Designs
	Ergonomic Implications of Different Organizational Forms
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.495
Title: Design for Older People
Section: 4. Job and Organization Design
Author: Small, Arnold M., Sr.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 4.4
Pages: 495-504
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Adaptive DESIGN
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Older Adults in the United States
Characteristics of Older Adults: The Last Half of Life
Physical (Anthropometric) and Biomechanic Characteristics
Psychomotor Performance
Sensation and Perception
Cognition
Attitudes
Stress
Epilogue
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.507
Title: Design of Visual Displays
Section: 5. Equipment and Workplace Design
Author: Helander, Martin G.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 5.1
Pages: 507-548
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Output Device Prototype
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Mechanical Display Indicators
Legibility and Readability
	Print Style
	Size of Print
Location of Displays in the Visual Field
	Limitations of the Visual Field
	Frequency and Sequence of Use of Displays
	Logical and Perceptual Factors for Grouping of Display Information
Coding of Display Information
Cognitive Factors in Display Design
	Pictorial Displays
Measurement of Illumination
Contrast Ratio
Screen Resolution and Character Design
	Video Bandwidth
	Choice of Type of Display
Control of Screen Reflections
	Covering of Windows
	Lighting Control
	Moving the Work Station
	Tiltable Screen
	Screen Filters and Treatments
Presbyopia and Accommodative Range
Visual Aspects of Color Displays
	Specification of Chromaticity
	Color Discrimination
Use of Color Displays
	Task Considerations in Choice of Color Coding
	Perceptual Limitations in Color Coding
Design of Graphics
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.549
Title: Design of Auditory and Tactile Displays
Section: 5. Equipment and Workplace Design
Author: Sorkin, Robert D.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 5.2
Pages: 549-576
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Output Device Sound
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Choosing a Nonvisual Display Channel
	Information Rates and Codes
The Auditory Display Channel
	Sensitivity
	Loudness
	Display Level
	Computation of Masked Threshold
	Display Pitch
	Display Duration, Shape, and Temporal Pattern
	Binaural Displays
	Coding and Decision Factors
	Speech Message Displays
The Tactile Display Channel
	Tactile Channel Sensitivity
	The Tactile Channel as a Supplementary Display Channel
	The Tactile Channel as a Sensory Replacement Channel
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.577
Title: Design of Controls
Section: 5. Equipment and Workplace Design
Author: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg
Author: Kern, Peter
Author: Muntzinger, Werner F.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 5.3
Pages: 577-600
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Input Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Control Classification
	Control Task
	Geometrics of Control Movements
	Control/Body Linkage
Design Parameters of Controls
	Conventional Control Elements
	Specialized Input Devices
Arrangement of Controls
Control Dynamics
	Linear Mechanical Transfer Characteristics
	Nonlinear Mechanical Transfer Characteristics
	Control Sensitivity
	Active Controls
	Effect of Mechanical Vibrations
Control Coding
Control-System, Control-Display, and Display-System Compatibility
Safety Requirements
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.601
Title: Biomechanical Aspects of Workplace Design
Section: 5. Equipment and Workplace Design
Author: Chaffin, Don B.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 5.4
Pages: 601-619
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Objectives of Work-Space Design
Traditional Work-Space Design Criteria -- Motion Economy
Contemporary Work-Space Design to Reduce Biomechanical Stress
Guidelines for Workplace and Machine Control Layout
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.623
Title: Noise
Section: 6. Environmental Design
Author: Jones, D. M.
Author: Broadbent, D. E.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 6.1
Pages: 623-649
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Environmental Audition Sound
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
The Measurement of Sound
	Frequency and Intensity
	The Decibel
	Sound Level Meters
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
	Temporary Threshold Shift
	Noise-Induced Permanent Threshold Shift
	Hearing Conversation
	Effects of Hearing Protectors on Talking and Listening
Effects of Noise on Communication
	Masking of Nonspeech Sounds
	Masking of Speech
	Measures of Interference with Speech by Noise
	Recommendations: Effects of Noise on Speech
Effects on Reading
Effects on Task Performance
	Effects of Arousal
	Effects of Lack of Control
	Strategic Effects
	Effects on Attention
	Effects of Noise on Productivity
	Summary
Effects of Noise on Well-Being
	Noise Annoyance
	Noise and Health
	Social Effects of Noise
Conclusions and Recommendations
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.650
Title: Motion and Vibration
Section: 6. Environmental Design
Author: Wasserman, Donald E.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 6.2
Pages: 650-669
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Environmental
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Physical Vibration
Human Vibration
Segmental (Hand-Arm) Vibration
Hand-Arm Vibration Measurement
Hand-Arm Vibration Standards
Current Status of the VWF Problem
Elimination of VWF
Whole-Body Vibration
Whole-Body Vibration Measurements
Whole-Body Vibration Standards
Whole-Body Vibration Work Practices
Definitions of Selected Vibration Terminology
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.670
Title: Illumination
Section: 6. Environmental Design
Author: Cushman, William H.
Author: Crist, Brian
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 6.3
Pages: 670-695
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Environmental Output Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Overview
Photometry
	Measuring Luminance
	Measuring Illuminance
Artificial Light Sources
	Comparison of Artificial Light Sources
	Luminaries and Light Control
	Luminaire Photometrics
Effects of Lighting on Behavior
	Illumination and Performance -- Task Characteristics
	Illumination, Visual Performance, and Aging
	Glare and Performance
	Luminance Ratios and Performance
	Subjective Factors and Preferences
Illumination Guidelines
	Task Lighting
	Direct and Indirect Lighting
Measurement and Control of Glare
Task Modification
Using Models and Simulation
Lighting for Workplaces with VDTs
	Illumination Guidelines for VDT Workplaces
	Controlling Glare Through Design
	Modifications at the Workplace and VDT
Inspection Lighting
	Determining the Optical Characteristics of Materials and Defects
	Selecting Light Sources for Visual Inspection
	Designing Inspection Workplaces
	Mounting the Inspection Lights
	Control of Glare at Inspection Workplaces
	Application -- A Sitting Inspection Workplace for Web Products
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.696
Title: Climate
Section: 6. Environmental Design
Author: Rohles, Frederick H.
Author: Konz, Stephan A.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 6.4
Pages: 696-707
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Environmental Weather Wind-Chill Humidity Comfort
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
The Seven Thermal Determinants and their Measurement
Indoor Comfort
Heat Stress
	Engineering (Ergonomic) Techniques
	Medical and Administrative Techniques
	Postexposure
Cold Stress
	Environment
	Clothing
Glossary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.708
Title: Human Engineering for Space
Section: 6. Environmental Design
Author: Hunt, Stacy R.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 6.5
Pages: 708-721
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Environmental
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
The Human Role in Space
Weightlessness and Acceleration
	Weightlessness
	Acceleration Forces
Space Adaptation Syndrome
Habitability
	Definition and Elements of Habitability
	Designing Spacecraft for Habitability
Crew Station Design and Operation
	Crew Station Design
	Operations
Space Suites and Extravehicular Activity
	Introduction
	Mobility, Range of Motion, and Sizing
	Sensory Modification
	EVA Tools
Psychological/Sociological Aspects of Space Flight
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.722
Title: Ergonomic Factors in Chemical Hazard Control
Section: 6. Environmental Design
Author: Mason, Robert W.
Author: Johnson, Barry L.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 6.6
Pages: 722-741
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Environmental Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Occupational Toxicology and Human Factors
	Effects of Toxicants on the Skin, Eyes, and Oral Structures
	Effects of Toxicants on Respiratory Passages and Lungs
	Effects of Toxicants on Internal Organs
Human Factors and Absorption of Toxic Substances
	Factors Associated with Absorption from the Lungs
	Factors Associated with Percutaneous Absorption of Liquids
	Factors Associated with Percutaneous Absorption of Solids
	Factors Associated with Percutaneous Absorption of Vapors and Gases
	Factors Associated with Ingestion of Toxicants
Summary of Occupational Toxicology
Case Studies
	Case Study of Hazardous Waste Site
	Case Study of a Small Business
	Case Study of a Reinforced Plastics Operation
Human-Factors Experience from HHEs
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.742
Title: Architecture and Interior Design
Section: 6. Environmental Design
Author: Harrigan, John E.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 6.7
Pages: 742-764
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Environmental Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Human-Factors Program
Research Methods
	Preparation
	Direct Contact Methods
	Sociocultural Methods
Sources of Error
	Basic Considerations
	Environmental and Observer Bias
	Test and Evaluation Measures
Program Management
	Scope of Work
	Budget
Final Report
	An Ongoing Process
	Information Management System
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.767
Title: Human Factors in Occupational Injury Evaluation and Control
Section: 7. Design for Health and Safety
Author: Smith, Michael J.
Author: Beringer, Dennis B.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 7.1
Pages: 767-789
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
A Model of Safety Performance
	Person
	Machinery and Tools
	Task Factors
	The Work Environment
	Organization Structure
	Representative Factors Interactions
Measuring Hazard Potential and Safety Performance
	Inspection Programs
	Injury Statistics
	Hazard Surveys
Controlling Workplace Hazards Through Human Factors
	Workplace and Job Design
	Organizational Design
	Safety Training
	Hazard Reduction Through Work Practices
Safety Programs
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.790
Title: Manual Materials Handling
Section: 7. Design for Health and Safety
Author: Ayoub, M. M.
Author: Selan, J. L.
Author: Jiang, C.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 7.2
Pages: 790-818
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Lifting Capacity Design Criteria
	The Biomechanical Criterion
	The Physiological Criterion
	The Psychophysical Criterion
	Comparison of the Design Criteria
	Manual Materials Handling Capabilities
	Manual Materials Handling Capacity Data
	Job Design/Redesign
	Employee Placement Procedures
Employee Training
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.819
Title: Work Schedules
Section: 7. Design for Health and Safety
Author: Tepas, Donald I.
Author: Monk, Timothy H.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 7.3
Pages: 819-843
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Terminology and Notation
	Work System Definition
	Shift Definitions
	Work System Notation Method
	Work System Examples -- Discontinuous Work Weeks
	Work System Examples -- Continuous Work Weeks
	Work System Examples -- Mixed Schedules
	Discussion
Human-Factors Variables
	Circadian Variation
	Performance
	Sleep
	Fatigue
	Off-Time Social Variables
	Discussion
Work System Selection Issues
	Rotating Versus Permanent Hours
	Rotation rate
	Direction of Rotation
	Basic Sequence and Major Cycle Length
	Weekend Work
	Worker Preferences
	Worker Education
	Health Status
Work System Selection Methodology
Conclusion
References
Bibliography

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.844
Title: Occupational Stress
Section: 7. Design for Health and Safety
Author: Smith, Michael J.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 7.4
Pages: 844-860
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Sources of Occupational Stress
	Environmental Sources
	Organizational Factors
	Job Task Factors
	Individual Sources
Theories of Stress
Effects of Stress
	Cardiovascular Effects
	Central Nervous System, Psychological, and Behavioral Effects
Measurement of Stress
	Physiological Measures
	Biochemical Measures
	Psychological Measures
	Behavioral Measures
Management of Occupational Stress
	Ergonomic/Work-Station Redesign Solutions
	Job Design Solutions
	Organizational Solutions
	Individual Coping Solutions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.861
Title: The Use of Safety Devices and Safety Controls at Industrial Machine Work Stations
Section: 7. Design for Health and Safety
Author: Etherton, John R.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 7.5
Pages: 861-875
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Machine Safety Devices from the Human-Factors Designer's Point of View
The Primary Reason for Using Machine Safety Equipment
Human Work Tasks and the Use of Machine Safeguarding
	Nominal Operation Tasks
	Cleaning and Clearing Tasks
	Maintenance Tasks
	Tasks by Other Workers and Bystanders
Standards
	Regulatory
	Voluntary
Various Safeguarding Methods
	Safe Opening
	Positively Fixed Barriers or Enclosures
	Adjustable Barriers
	Interlocked Barriers
	Safe Distance by Presence-Sensing Controls
	Safe Distance by Hand Contact Push Buttons
	Pullouts and Restraints
	Awareness Devices
	Floor Mats
	Lockout
	Emergency Stop
Human-Factors Concerns with Machine Safeguards
Human-Factors Items Associated with Safeguard Use Training
Conclusion
References
Bibliography

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.876
Title: Personal Protective Equipment
Section: 7. Design for Health and Safety
Author: Moran, John B.
Author: Ronk, Richard M.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 7.6
Pages: 876-894
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Perspective
Hearing Protection
Head Protection
Respiratory Protection
Eye and Face Protection
Hand Protection
Foot Protection
Fall Protection
Body Protection
Combination Protection
Human Factors in Personal Protective Equipment Use
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.895
Title: Health Index
Section: 7. Design for Health and Safety
Author: Oshima, Masamitsu
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 7.7
Pages: 895-907
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Safety
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
General Issues in the Study of Health
Health Index
Population Health Index Measures
Individual Health Index Measures
Bibliography

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.911
Title: Personnel Selection
Section: 8. Design of Selection and Training Systems
Author: Osburn, H. G.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 8.1
Pages: 911-938
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Construct Validity
Content Validity
Criterion-Related Validity
	General Features of the Model
	Problems in Criterion Measurement
	Adjustments for Restriction of Range
	Formula Estimates of Cross-Validated Multiple Correlation
	Advantages of the Criterion-Related Validity Model
	Limitations of the Criterion-Related Validity Model
Reliability of Measurement
	Classical True Score Theory
	Correction for Attenuation
	Reliability Estimates
Validity Generalization
Utility of Selection
	Selection Strategies
	Selection with Adaptive Treatments
	Estimating the Standard Deviation of the Payoff Function
Predictor Constructs
	Cognitive Ability
	Employment Interviews
	Assessment Centers
	Biographical Data
	Motor and Physical Abilities
	Comparison Among Selection Procedures
Legal Aspects of Personnel Selection
Personnel Selection, Training, and Job Design
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.939
Title: Concepts of Training
Section: 8. Design of Selection and Training Systems
Author: Holding, D. H.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 8.2
Pages: 939-962
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Basic Issues
	Regulating Information
	Types of Tasks
	Motivation
Verbal Methods
	Words and Actions
	Instruction and Aging
	Rules and Theories
	Programmed Learning
Demonstrating and Guiding
	Imitation
	Films
	Visual Cues
	Physical Guidance
Practice Methods
	Knowledge of Results
	Timing and Spacing
	Part Practice
	Adaptive Training
	Team Training
	Mental Practice
Transfer of Training
	Basic Principles
	Task Difficulty
	Measuring Transfer
Conclusions and Recommendations
	Basic Issues
	Verbal Methods
	Demonstrating and Guiding
	Practice Methods
	Transfer of Training
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.963
Title: The Relationship of Training Goals and Training Systems
Section: 8. Design of Selection and Training Systems
Author: Goldstein, Irwin L.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 8.3
Pages: 963-975
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Goals of Instructional Programs
Training Validity
	Needs Assessment for Training Validity
	A System of Needs Assessment
	Criteria and Training Validity
	Evaluation Models and Training Validity
Performance Validity
	Needs Assessment and Performance Validity
	Evaluation and Performance Validity
Intraorganizational Validity
Interorganizational Validity
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.976
Title: Computer-Assisted and Computer-Managed Instruction
Section: 8. Design of Selection and Training Systems
Author: Eberts, Ray E.
Author: Brock, John F.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 8.4
Pages: 976-1011
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Guidance Adaptive
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Instructional Technology
Computer Technology
Computer-Assisted Instruction
	Examples of CAI Systems
	Other Systems
	Discussion of CAI Features
Computer-Managed Instruction
	The Student
	The Instructor
	The Administrator
	Functions of CMI Systems
	Hardware Requirements
	An Example of a CAI System: AIS
	Evaluation of CMI Systems
ICAI
	Characteristics of ICAI
	Brief Introduction to Three ICAI Systems
	Components and Features of ICAI Systems
	STEAMER -- An Example of an ICAI System
	Evaluation
	Future for ICAI Systems
Computer-Based Instruction Issues and Research
	Individual Differences
	Knowledge of Results
	Amount of Practice
	Augmented Feedback
	Part-Whole Training Instruction
	Adaptive Instruction
	Conceptual Representations
	Motivation
Summary and Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1012
Title: Training Simulators
Section: 8. Design of Selection and Training Systems
Author: Flexman, Ralph E.
Author: Stark, Edward A.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 8.5
Pages: 1012-1038
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
	Historical Background
	Functional Definition
Functions of Training Simulators
	Briefing and Demonstration
	Practice
	Performance Analysis
	Learning Enhancement
	Performance Assessment
	Malfunctions and Failures
	Adverse Operating Conditions
Advantages and Benefits
	Advantages
	Benefits
Representative Programs
	Aircraft
	Space
	Locomotives
	Ships
	Ground Vehicles
	Industrial Plants
Establishing the Requirements for a Training Simulator
Derivation of Simulator Capabilities and Characteristics
	Training Requirements Analysis
	Training Objectives
	Simulator Fidelity
	Simulator Support Requirements
Simulator Design Specifications
Cost and Training Effectiveness Evaluation
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1039
Title: Design of Job Aids and Procedure Writing
Section: 8. Design of Selection and Training Systems
Author: Swezey, Robert W.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 8.6
Pages: 1039-1057
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Behavioral Foundations of Job Aid Technology
Development of a Job Aiding Technology
Techniques for Use in Job Aid Design
Evaluation Criteria
Current and Future Directions in Job Aid Technology Development
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1061
Title: Decision Making
Section: 9. Performance Modeling
Author: Edwards, Ward
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 9.1
Pages: 1061-1104
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application Model
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Elementary Ideas
Structuring the Problem, Identifying Values, and Identifying Uncertainties
	Kinds of Structures
	Research Needs
Single-Dimension Utilities
Multiattribute Utility: Model Forms and Weights
	Eliciting Swing Weights
	Eliciting Ratio Weights
	Eliciting Weights by Gambling Procedures for the Multiplicative Model
	Multiplying Weights Downward Through a Value Tree
Understanding, Eliciting, and Revising Probabilities
	Evaluating Probabilities
	Assessing Probabilities and Probability Distributions
	Direct Assessment of Probabilities and Distributions
Single-Stage Bayesian Inference
Multistage Inference
Decision Rules
	Dominance
	Ruin and Quasiruin
	Maximization of Subjectively Expected Utility
Sensitivity Analysis
	Sensitivity Analysis in a Medical Decision Problem
Applications
	A Suicide Prevention Model
	Prioritizing Research Projects for the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
	Evaluation of Pumped-Storage Sites
	A Capital Investment Decision
Where is Decision Analysis Going?
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1105
Title: Artificial Intelligence
Section: 9. Performance Modeling
Author: Fu, King-Sun
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 9.2
Pages: 1105-1129
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
State-Space Search
Problem Reduction
Use of Predicate Logic
Means-Ends Analysis
Robot Problem Solving and Planning
Expert Systems and Knowledge Engineering
	Construction of an Expert System
	Rule-Based Systems
	Remarks
Concluding Remarks
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1130
Title: Expert Systems
Section: 9. Performance Modeling
Author: Garg-Janardan, Chaya
Author: Eberts, Ray E.
Author: Zimolong, Bernhard
Author: Nof, Shimon Y.
Author: Salvendy, Gavriel
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 9.3
Pages: 1130-1176
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
	Knowledge
	Characteristics of Expert Systems
	Functions Served by Expert Systems
Steps in the Construction of an Expert System
	Identification Stage
	Conceptualization Stage
	Formalization Stage
	Implementation Stage
	Testing Stage
	Prototype Revision Stage
Methodological Issues in the Construction of Expert Systems
	Knowledge Acquisition
	Representation of Knowledge
	Reasoning with Uncertainty
	The Control Structure
	Interface
	Learning Capabilities in Expert Systems
Applications of Expert Systems
	Geology Applications
	Science-Mathematics Applications
	Education Applications
	Science-Chemistry Applications
	Medicine Applications
Human Factors and Expert Systems
	Task Analysis
	The Human-Machine Interface
	The Evaluation of Performance
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1177
Title: Stochastic Network Models
Section: 9. Performance Modeling
Author: Schweickert, Richard
Author: Fisher, Donald L.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 9.4
Pages: 1177-1211
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Model
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Mental Process Networks: Analysis and Synthesis
	Mathematical Models in Human Factors
	Visual Search
Synthesis of Serial Systems
	An Application to Choice Reaction Time
	A Payoff Inducing Additivity on Accuracy
Synthesis of PERT Networks
	Latent Network Theory
	PERT Networks in Information Processing
	The Optimal Order of Execution of Processes
	Speed and Accuracy in PERT Networks
Concurrent Processing: Stochastic PERT Networks
	Stochastic PERT Networks: Modeling
	Stochastic PERT Networks: Applications
Concurrent Processing: Transient Queueing Networks
	Finite Source, Jackson Networks: Modeling
	Finite Source, Jackson Networks: Applications
Concurrent Processing: OP Networks
	OP Networks: Modeling
	OP Networks: Applications
Steady-State Queueing Networks
	Steady-State Queueing Networks: Modeling
	Steady-State Queueing Networks: Applications
Structures that Mimic Other Structures
	Equivalent Serial and Parallel Systems
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1212
Title: Feedback Control Models
Section: 9. Performance Modeling
Author: Hess, Ronald A.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 9.5
Pages: 1212-1242
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Model Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Models for Single-Loop Compensatory Control
	The Crossover Model
	The Precision Crossover Model
	The Optimal Control Model
	An Example
	More General Controlled Element Dynamics
Models for Multiloop Compensatory Control
	The Classical Approach Using the Crossover Model
	The Modern Approach Using the Optimal Control Model
	An Example
Models for Pursuit and Preview Control
	The Structural Model
	The Optimal Control Model
Concluding Remarks
Glossary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1243
Title: Supervisory Control
Section: 9. Performance Modeling
Author: Sheridan, Thomas B.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 9.6
Pages: 1243-1268
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Model Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
What is Supervisory Control?
The Emergence of Supervisory Control in Technological Systems
Supervisory Roles, Loci, and Levels of Human and Computer
Planning and Learning: Computer Representations of Relevant Knowledge
Teaching the Computer
Monitoring of Displays and Detection of Failures
Intervening and Human Reliability
Modeling Supervisory Control
Social Implications and the Future of Supervisory Control
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1271
Title: System Effectiveness Testing
Section: 10. System Evaluation
Author: Meister, David
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 10.1
Pages: 1271-1297
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Evaluation Empirical EVALUATION
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction and Overview
The Four Test Conditions
The Performance Measurement Test Plan
	Purpose of the Test
	Description of the System/Selection of the Tasks to be Evaluated
	Experimental Comparisons
	Standards, Criteria, and Measures
	Data Collection
	Subject Characteristics
	Constraints
	Data Analysis
	Testing Schedule
Methods of Performance Measurement
	Introduction and Overview
	Observation
	Self-Report
	Objective Measurement
	Ratings
	Interview/Questionnaire
	Automated Performance Measurement
	Checklists
How Effective is Effectiveness Testing?
Supplemental Reading
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1298
Title: Simulating Manned Systems
Section: 10. System Evaluation
Author: Chubb, Gerald P.
Author: Laughery, K. Ronald, Jr.
Author: Pritsker, A. Alan B.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 10.2
Pages: 1298-1327
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application EVALUATION
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
	What is Computer Simulation?
	Limitations of Computer Simulation
	Types of Human Operator Models
	Constructing and Using a Simulation of Manned Systems
	Chapter Organization
Simulation Approaches and Fundamental Concepts
	Discrete Simulation
	Continuous Simulation
	Combined Discrete-Continuous Models
Simulation Languages
	Discrete Languages
	Continuous Languages
	Combined Discrete-Continuous Languages
	Specialized Simulation Capabilities
	Choosing a Simulation Language
Issues in Simulation Model Development and Use
	Choosing Input Probability Distributions
	Model Validation
	Estimation Methods
	Tactical Planning
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1328
Title: Maintainability
Section: 10. System Evaluation
Author: Bond, Nicholas A., Jr.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 10.3
Pages: 1328-1355
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: EVALUATION
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Basic Considerations
	The Persistent Maintenance Crisis
	Response to the Crisis
	A Human Factors Approach
Modeling
	Availability
	Life-Cycle Modeling
	Special Human Factors Problems and Hazards: Modeling
The Psychology of Troubleshooting
	Early Studies
	Recent Research
	Cautions and Hazards: Psychology of Troubleshooting
Design for Maintainability
	Design Specifications
	Aiding the Troubleshooter
	Software Maintainability
Implementation
	General Factors Affecting Implementation
	Technician Effectiveness and Morale
	Maintainability Demonstrations
	Postscript and Prospects
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1359
Title: Design of VDT Workstations
Section: 11. Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems
Author: Grandjean, Etienne
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 11.1
Pages: 1359-1397
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Output Device DESIGN
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Why do We Need an Ergonomic Design of VDT Workstations?
Field Studies on Complaints of VDT Operators
Behavioral Studies at VDT Workstations
Visual Functions and Lighting Conditions
The Generation of Characters on Displays
Colors
Display Characteristics
	Techniques of Display Measurement
	Oscillating Luminances of Characters
	Sharpness of Characters
	Character Contrasts
	Stability of Characters
	Reflections on Screen Surfaces
	Luminances of Surfaces
	Design of Characters
Lighting and General Arrangements in VDT Offices
Ergonomic Design of VDT Workstations
	Medical Aspects
	Field Studies on Postural Discomfort
	Physical Discomfort Related to Workstation Elements and Postures
	Preferred Settings of Adjustable VDT Workstations in Laboratory Experiments
	Preferred Settings of VDT Workstations Observed in Field Studies
Ergonomic Design of Keyboards
The Chair at the VDT Workstation
	Rules of Thumb for VDT Users
	Recommendations Addressed to Manufacturers of VDTs
	Recommendations Addressed to Designers of Office Furniture
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1398
Title: Human Factors of Computer Programming
Section: 11. Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems
Author: Weiser, Mark
Author: Shneiderman, Ben
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 11.2
Pages: 1398-1415
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Programming
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Methodology
	Introspection and Protocol Analysis
	Case Studies and Field Studies
	Controlled Experimentation
	Experimental Design
	Experimental Ethics
Programming Style
	Commenting
	Variable Names
	Indentation
Programming Language Features and Tools
	Conditional Statements
	Flowcharts
	Debugging
Cognition in Program Design
	Cognitive Models
	Knowledge Structures in Long-Term Memory
	Cognitive Processes in the Syntactic/Semantic Model
Software Quality Evaluation
	"Software Science" Metrics
	Productivity Metrics
	Complexity Metrics
Programming Management
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1416
Title: Software Interface Design
Section: 11. Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems
Author: Williges, Robert C.
Author: Williges, Beverly H.
Author: Elkerton, Jay
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 11.3
Pages: 1416-1449
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Design
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
	Interface Design Philosophy
	Stages of Human-Computer Software Interface Design
Stage 1. Initial Design
	Design Objectives
	Tax/Function Analysis
	Focus on Users
	Dialogue Design Guidelines
	Structured Walk-Throughs
	Initial Design Modifications
Stage 2. Formative Evaluation
	Rapid Prototyping
	User-Defined Interfaces
	User-Acceptance Testing
	Iterative Redesign
Stage 3. Summative Evaluation
	Operational Software Interface
	Benchmarking
	Formal Experimentation
	Feedforward Results
Adaptive Interfaces for Inexperienced Users
	Strategies for Adaptive Communication
	Strategies for Knowledge Representation
	Future Implications
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1450
Title: Human Factors Aspects of Manual Computer Input Devices
Section: 11. Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems
Author: Greenstein, Joel S.
Author: Arnaut, Lynn Y.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 11.4
Pages: 1450-1489
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Input Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Design Considerations
	Keyboards
	Touch-Screen Devices
	Graphic Tablets
	Mice
	Trackballs
	Joysticks
	Light Pens
	Miscellaneous Input Techniques
Empirical Comparisons
	Target Selection and Tracking Tasks
	Text Entering and Editing Tasks
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1490
Title: Speech Controls and Displays
Section: 11. Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems
Author: Simpson, Carol A.
Author: McCauley, Michael E.
Author: Roland, Ellen F.
Author: Ruth, John C.
Author: Williges, Beverly H.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 11.5
Pages: 1490-1525
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: DESIGN Input Output Device Sound Voice
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Terms and Definitions
	Speech Recognition Terms
	Speech Generation Terms
	Measures of Algorithm Performance
	Models of Speech Perception
Speech Recognition Research
	Applications
	Speech Recognition Task Selection
	Selecting Speech Recognition System Characteristics
	Human-System Performance Measurement
	Simulating Recognition Systems
	Future Speech Recognition Research
Speech Generation Research
	Applications
	Selection of Functions for Speech Displays
	Selecting Speech Generation System Characteristics
	Human-System Performance Measurement
	Future Speech Generation Research
System Integration
Overall Directions for Future Research
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1526
Title: Text Editors
Section: 11. Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems
Author: Roberts, Teresa L.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 11.6
Pages: 1526-1541
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Varieties of Text Editors
	Users and Their Tasks
	Effect of Hardware
Fundamental Issues
	Relationship with Other Applications
	The Process of Editing
	Command Language
Content
	Model of Data
	Display of Text
	Operations
Appearance
	Model of Appearance Information
	Display of Formatting
	Operations
Advanced Features
	Special Applications
	Programming
Evaluation
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1542
Title: Documentation for Software Systems
Section: 11. Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Systems
Author: Sheppard, Sylvia B.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 11.7
Pages: 1542-1585
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
The Need for Documentation
The Composition of Documents
	Style
	Formatting
	Content
	Documentation Throughout the Software Life Cycle
The Composition of Code
	Style
	Formatting
	Contents of a Typical Module or Unit of Code
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1587
Title: Human Factors in Office Automation
Section: 12. Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems
Author: Czaja, Sara J.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 12.1
Pages: 1587-1616
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
Overview of Office Automation
Why Automate?
The Impact of Office Automation on People and Organizations
	Job Design
	Organizational Design
	Communication Interaction
	Physical Environment
A Systems Approach to the Design of Office Automation Systems
	Formation of a Design Team
	Systems Definition
	Needs Assessment
	System Selection
	Implementation
	Evaluation
Concluding Remarks
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1617
Title: Technical and Human Aspects of Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Section: 12. Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems
Author: Barfield, Woodrow
Author: Chang, Tien-Chien
Author: Majchrzak, Ann
Author: Eberts, Ray
Author: Salvendy, Gavriel
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 12.2
Pages: 1617-1656
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Use of CAD Systems
	History of CAD Developments
Rationale for CAD Usage
Design Process
CAD Hardware
	Graphics Terminals
	Input Devices
	Menu Design for Digitizing Tablet
	Output Devices -- Hardcopy
Software Technology of CAD
	Nonintelligent Software Issues
	Two-Dimensional Drawing
	Three-Dimensional Wireframe Model
	Three-Dimensional Solid Model
	Graphics Data Exchange
	Intelligent Software Issues
Human Information Processing for CAD Systems
	Perception of CAD Displays
	Cognitive Aspects of CAD
	Response Execution
Allocation of Functions Among CAD System Components
	Dividing Functions between Human and Machine
	Analysis of CAD Options for Design
CAD Workstation Design
Job Design Issues
Selection of Personnel for CAD Systems
Training of CAD Personnel
Impact of CAD on Organization
Implementation Issues
	Top Management Involvement
	User Involvement
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1657
Title: Human Aspects of Robotic Systems
Section: 12. Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems
Author: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg
Author: Korndorfer, Volker
Author: Salvendy, Gavriel
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 12.3
Pages: 1657-1693
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Overview
Introduction
Task Allocation: Role of the Human in Robotic Systems
The Use of Robots: Effects on Human Operators
Organization and Job-Design Issues
	Approaches to Planning Automation
Safety Issues
Supervisory Control of Robotic Systems
	Concept of Supervisory Control
	Models of Supervisory Control
Qualifications and Training Issues
	Differentiation by Techniques of Programming
	Strategies to Train Personnel
	Content and Methods for Training on Industrial Robots
Social Issues
	Worker Displacement
	Worker Retraining
	Major Issues to be Considered for the Effective Integration of Human Factors Principles in Planning Robotic Systems
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1694
Title: Technical and Human Aspects of Computer-Aided Manufacturing
Section: 12. Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems
Author: Sharit, Joseph
Author: Chang, Tien-Chien
Author: Salvendy, Gavriel
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 12.4
Pages: 1694-1723
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Technology of Computer-Aided Manufacturing
	Introduction
	Development of CAM
	Current Technology of CAM
	Part Programming
	Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
	Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
	Automated Factory
Job Design in Automated Manufacturing Systems
	Automation and Job Fragmentation
	Levels of Human Decision Making in Automated Manufacturing
	Human Supervisory Control in Automated Manufacturing
	The Office of Technology Assessment's Report
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1724
Title: Human Factors Challenges in Process Control: The Case of Nuclear Power Plants
Section: 12. Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems
Author: Woods, David D.
Author: O'Brien, John F.
Author: Hanes, Lewis F.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 12.5
Pages: 1724-1770
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Introduction
	Process Control
	The Nuclear Power Plant Application: History of Human Factors in the U.S. Nuclear Industry
Improvements to Control Rooms
	Control Rooms in Operating Plants
	Methods to Identify Control Room Problems
	Problems and Solutions
Cognitive Factors
	Operator Decision Making
	Decision Aiding
Evaluation of Decision Aids
	Methodological Issues
	Case Study in Evaluation of Decision Aids: Safety Parameter Display Concepts Evaluation
Future Directions
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1771
Title: Human Factors Requirements Engineering for Air Traffic Control Systems
Section: 12. Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems
Author: Lenorovitz, David R.
Author: Phillips, Mark D.
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 12.6
Pages: 1771-1789
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Overview
Air Traffic Control in the United States
	History of U.S. Air Traffic Control
	Current Developments in the ATC Environment
	Human Factors Challenge of Advanced Automation in ATC
Human Factors Requirements Engineering Methodology
	Human Factors in Systems Development
	Controller-System Interface Operations Concept Definition
	Controller Information Processing Task Analysis
	Characterization of Controller Information Processing Tasks
	Controller Dialogue Definition
	Controller-System Requirements Specification
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Salvendy.87.1790
Title: Humans, Computers, and Communications
Section: 12. Selected Applications of Human Factors in Computer Systems
Author: Kobayashi, Koji
Book: Handbook of Human Factors
Editor: Salvendy, Gavriel
Date: 1987
Number: 12.7
Pages: 1790-1809
City: New York
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Application Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1987 John Wiley & Sons
Contents:
Why I Have Advocated "Man and `C&C'" Concept
	The Coming of the "C&C" Era
	Technological Factors in the Advent of "C&C"
	Human Factors in the Advent of "C&C"
The Interaction Between Man and "C&C"
	The Development of "Man and `C&C'"
	The Interrelationship Between Man and "C&C"
Basic Analysis of "M and `C&C'" Space
	Formal Expression of the Human Factor M
	Component Factors M on the Z Axis
	"C&C" Space with Humans as an Axis
World Trends and Global Roles of "C&C"
	Actual Examples: The User's Perspective
	Communications Networks
	Trend to More User-Friendly Computers
	The Compounding of Personal Computer Function
	The Role of Robots
Creating a "Man and `C&C'" Society
	More Diversified, Broader Fields of Application
	Progress in Systems for Public and Personal Use
	Greater Quantity and Diversification of Data and Information
	Increasing Costs of Social Resources
	Components of an "M with `C&C'" Society
	Construction of an "M with `C&C'" Society
Improving Software Quality and Productivity
Software Quality Control (SWQC)
Conclusion
References