Title: How to Conduct Usability Studies for Accessibility
Title: Methodology: How to Run Usability Tests with Users with Disabilities
Author: Coyne, Kara Pernice
Author: Nielsen, Jakob
Date: 2010-
Pages: 47
Keywords: screening questionnaire, test participant screener, subjective satisfaction questionnaires, informed consent forms, accessibility, blind users, visual impairments, low-vision users, screen reader software, Braille readers, screen magnifier, report series, reports, usability testing methodology, user tests
Weblink: Original link (broken)
1. The Product Lifecycle, and Testing for Accessibility and Usability
2. About Our Accessibility Usability Studies
3. Guidelines
4. Trust, Consent Forms, Pictures, and Video
5. Using Video and Still Cameras
6. Conducting Studies at the User's Home or Office
7. Specific Tips for Screen Reader and Braille Sessions
8. Specific Tips for Motor Skill Assistive Technology Sessions
9. Recruiting and Preparing Participants
10. Study Tips: Quantitative and Qualitative
11. Measurements
12. Sample Documents for Accessibility Studies
	Recruiting Screener Used in the Quantitative Part of the Study
	Checklist Used in the Quantitative Part of the Study
	Facilitation Notes Used in the Quantitative Part of the Study
	Question Sheet Used in the Quantitative Part of the Study
	Consent Forms
13. About the Authors
Absract: 40 methodology guidelines to improve the way you conduct usability studies with people with disabilities. By Kara Pernice Coyne and Jakob Nielsen, Nielsen Norman Group.

Title: Customization Usability: Research Report with Design Guidelines
Date: 2009-08-17
Pages: 93
Keywords: customization, customize, configuration, configurators, personalization, individualization, individual UI, custom UI, user interface customization, product customization, customized products
Weblink: Original link
1. Executive Summary
2. Customization vs. Personalization
3. User Research
	Business Benefits of Customization
	Reduced Usability Issues On Customization Sites
	Retain Good Defaults
	Customization Can Be Effective When Implemented Correctly
4. Research Overview
	Purpose of Study
	General Procedure
	Websites Studied
5. Task Success, Difficulty and User Ratings
	Lower Task Success On Product Customization Websites
	It Is Difficult to Add Content and Tools On Interface Customization Sites
	Low Findability and Poor Page Design Plague Customization Websites
	Users Experience Higher Levels of Difficulty on Product Customization Sites
	Users Have Trouble Adding Content and Moving Page Elements On Custom Homepages
	Users Feel More Lost and Out of Control on Sites Featuring
6. Interface Customization
	Level of Customization and Number of Choices Impact Usability
	Designing For User Intentions
	Biggest Issues With Interface Customization
	Design Guidelines
7. Product Customization
	Task Design Must be Driven By the Users' Mental Model
	Two Product Customization Types
	Biggest Issues With Product Customization
	Design Guidelines
8. Methodology
	Website Selection
	Website Order
	Websites and Tasks
	Survey Questionnaire
9. List of Guidelines
Absract: 46 guidelines for UI customization and websites where users can customize products. Based on Nielsen Norman Group's user research.

Title: Eyetracking Methodology: Free 159-page report - How to Conduct and Evaluate Usability Studies Using Eye Tracking
Author: Nielsen, Jakob
Author: Pernice, Kara
Date: 2009-08
Pages: 159
Keywords: Jakob Nielsen, Kara Pernice, eyetracking, eye tracking, eye movements, gaze recording, heatmap, heat map, heatmaps, gaze replay, gazeplots, gaze plot, methodology, usability methods, ROI free-download
Weblink: Original link
Executive Summary
	Should You Use Eyetracking in Your Usability Studies?
Eyetracking Method Tips
Recruiting Users for Eyetracking Studies
	Communicate to the Participant During the Screening Interview
	How to Say It
	What to Ask the User
	Telephone is Easier than E-mail When Recruiting for Eyetracking Studies
How Many Users to Include in a Study
	The Number of Test Participants Needed is Dictated by Desired Output
	Variablity in Heatmaps Depending on the Number of Users
	The Slowly-Diminishing Returns Curve
	R2 Explained
	A Better Deliverable Than Heatmaps
Eyetracking Studies in a Lab
	Eyetracking Lab Set-up Notes
Think Aloud Method
	Benefits to Think Aloud in a Non-Eyetracking Study
	Drawbacks to Using the Think Aloud Method in a Non-Eyetracking Study
	Drawbacks to Using the Think Aloud Method in an Eyetracking Study
	Surveying is Common During Think Aloud
Beginning the Session and Calibrating the User's Eyes
	What to Say to the User When Beginning the Sessions
Impossible Eyetracker Calibration
	Cannot be amended: These culprits really cannot be changed to make calibration possible
	Can be amended: These culprits usually can be changed to make calibration possible
Facilitating Test Sessions
	Steps for making eyetracking test facilitation run smoothly
	Example of Facilitator's Protocol Sheet
	Saving Files
Using the Right Eyetracking Analysis Tools
	Gaze Replays
	The Areas of Interest or LookZone Feature
	Analyzing Video and Animation
	Using the Eyetracking Analysis Tools in the Best Way
Tasks Discussion
	The Scenic View: Show One Page and Interview Method
	Task-Based Testing
	Variety in Tasks
Should You Run Your Own Eyetracking Research Study?
	Why Nielsen Norman Group Invests In Eyetracking
Technology-Related Notes
Absract: Nielsen Norman Group's advice on the correct research methods for conducting valid eyetracking studies of website usability. 65 test guidelines.

Title: Agile Usability: Report on Best Practices for User Experience on Agile Development Projects
Date: 2008-11-17
Pages: 119
Keywords: Agile, Scrum, Rapid Application Development, RAD, development methodology, usability methods, user experience methods, discount usability engineering, fast methods, prototyping, low-fidelity prototypes, prototype as spec, specifications, user interface specifications, UI specs, development tracks
Weblink: Original link
1. Summary
	The promise of Agile methods
	The threat of Agile methods
	Making Agile and usability work
2. Introduction
3. Agile -- theory and history
	What is Agile/Rapid Application Development?
	The main elements of Agile
	Differences from other development processes
	Agile benefits for UX practitioners
4. Agile in practice
	Partial Agile implementations
	Being the only Agile kid on the block
	The effects of poor Agile implementations
	Just do it!
	Agile in practice: Case study
5. Challenges for UX practitioners
	Little up-front design time
	It's hard to talk about users when they are poorly defined
	Agile is developer-centric
	There is little time to test
	Agile is not conducive to a centralized UX team
	We have to do Agile by the book, and UX isn't in that book.
	Challenges: Case study
6. Integrating UX into Agile teams
	User Experience people are bridges
	UX work is early, flexible
	Low-fidelity prototypes as specification document
	User Experience work happens in parallel
	Guerilla-style UX validation
	Integrating into teams: Case study
7. Guerilla usability: quick-and-dirty techniques
	Early work
	Sprint-specific work
	Decoupled (holistic) work
	Post-sprint work
8. Making it happen
	UX people have to embrace Agile too!
	Showing user needs to a fast-moving team
	Showing your value
	Essential techniques for short-staffed teams
	Special challenges for large and distributed teams
	Making it happen: Case Study
	Always room to grow
Absract: Case studies from 16 companies + surveys of 174 UX professionals: how to adjust Agile to result in good user experience. 119-page report from Nielsen Norman Group.

Title: Return on Investment (ROI) for Usability & Web Design/Redesign Projects
Date: 2008-01-22
Pages: 196
Keywords: quantitative usability metrics, design measurements, before versus after, measuring change, return on investment calculations, estimating ROI estimates, cost benefit analysis, key performance indicators, KPI
Weblink: Original link
1. Executive Summary
	Cost of Usability
	Benefits from Usability
	Estimating ROI
2. Cost of Usability
	Survey of Best Practices
	Detailed Regression Model for Usability Budgets
	Differences Between the United States, Europe, and Australia
	Evolution in Usability Budgets
	Future Trends
3. Benefits of Usability
	Sources of Gains from Usability
	Estimating the Magnitude of Gains from Usable Design
	Computing Improvement Scores
	Expected Usability Improvements
	Comparison with Usability Metrics from Traditional Development Projects
	Various Classes of Web Usability Metrics
	Change in ROI Metrics Over Time
4. Case Studies of Usability Metrics from Real Design Projects
	How Case Studies Were Collected
	Anonymous Case Studies
5. Third-Edition Case Studies by Metrics Category
	Sales and Conversion Rates
	Traffic and Visitor Numbers
	Feature Use
	User Performance
6. First-Edition Case Studies by Metrics Category
	Sales and Conversion Rates
	Traffic and Visitor Numbers
	Feature Use
	User Performance
	Development Time
Absract: Estimated investment, benefit, and ROI for usability projects. 66 case studies with 'before' and 'after' screenshots and business metrics.

Title: Teenagers on the Web: Usability Guidelines for Web Design for Teens
Date: 2005-01-31
Pages: 131
Keywords: teenagers, teens, young users, design guidelines, usability testing
Weblink: Original link
1. Executive Summary
	User Research
	Focus on Web Usability
	Misconceptions About Teenagers
	No Boring Sites
	Differences Between Age Groups
	Teenage Opportunities
2. Research Overview
	Websites Studied
3. Success Rates and Satisfaction Ratings
	Success Ratings
	Satisfaction Ratings
	Correlation Between Success and Satisfaction
4. Teenagers on the Web
	Why Teens Use the Web
	Search Engines
	Websites That Teens Like
	Stereotypes about Teenagers
	Most Teens Are Not Web Experts
	Age Preference Continuum
	"Boring": A Common Theme
	Advice from Teens
	Balancing What Teens Want and What They Need
5. Usability Design Guidelines
	Visual Design
	Interaction Design
	Promotional Design
	Writing for The Web
6. Teenagers' Favorite Websites
7. Methodology
	About the Sites Studied
	Exploratory Tasks
	Site-Specific Tasks
	Testing Environment
Absract: Nielsen Norman Group's report: 61 design guidelines for making websites easier to use for teenagers, based on usability research with teens using both teen-specific sites and mainstream websites.

Title: 233 tips for recruiting test users for usability testing
Date: 2003-01-20
Pages: 146
Keywords: usability test participants, test users free-download
Weblink: Original link
1. Executive Summary
	State of the Art for Recruiting
	Specialized Recruiting Agencies
	Incentives Provided to Test Participants
	No-Show Rates
	How to Get Started with Systematic Recruiting
2. Introduction
	Who Should Read This Report
	What You Will Find in this Report
	Sources for the Recruiting Tips
	Overlapping Tips
3. Tips and Tricks Summary
4. Planning Your Recruiting Needs
	The Cardinal Rule for Recruiting: 1 tip
	Developing Recruiting Criteria: 20 tips
		Learning About the Users
		Deciding How Many Participants to Recruit
		Drafting the Screening Criteria
	Determining the Appropriate Incentives: 23 tips
		Monetary Incentives
		Non-monetary Incentives
		How Incentives May Affect Participant Behavior
		How and When to Provide Incentives
	Considering the Study Locale: 17 tips
		When Participants Come to You
		When You Must Go to the Participants
	Planning for Training and Orientation: 5 tips
	Preparing the Screening Script and Questionnaire: 16 tips
		Cover Page and Opening Script
		Screening Questions
		Invitation and Schedule
5. Screening and Scheduling Participants
		1 general tip
	Working With an Outside Recruiting Agency: 28 tips
		When to Outsource Recruiting
		Finding a Recruiting Agency
		What to Expect from a Recruiting Agency
		Choosing a Recruiting Agency
		Managing a Recruiting Agency to Your Best Benefit
	Doing Your Own Recruiting: 48 tips
		Internal vs. External Studies
		Finding Participants for Internal Studies
		Finding Participants for External Studies
		Making the Calls and Tracking Recruitment Progress
	Reusing Participants: 7 tips
9. Preparing Participant Session Forms: 16 tips
	Background Questionnaire
	Sample Background Questionnaire
	Consent Forms
	Sample Minor Consent Form
	Sample Participation Consent Form
	Incentive Receipt and Voucher
	Sample Receipt
	Sample Incentive Voucher
	Nondisclosure Form
	Sample Nondisclosure Agreement
	Tax Forms
10. Honoring the "Participant Bill of Rights": 35 tips
	Treating Participants as Human Beings
	Attending to Participants' Physical Comfort
	Ensuring Participants' Safety
	Ensuring Participants' Privacy
	Dealing with Unqualified Participants
11. Future Planning
	Building and Maintaining a Participant Database: 6 tips
	Building and Managing a Recruiting Staff: 10 tips
		Assessing Recruiting Skills
		Interviewing Potential Recruiters
		Managing Recruiters
12. Appendix A: Participant Recruiting Survey
	About the Survey
	Survey Results
13. Appendix B: Sample Scripts and Forms
	Background Questionnaire
	Confirmation Message - sample text
	Dealing with Unqualified Participants - sample script
	Eliciting Sensitive Information - sample script
	Eliciting Web Experience - sample questions
	Meeting with the system team - sample topics and questions
	Consent Form for Minors
	Nondisclosure Agreement
	Participation Consent Form
	Participant Database Information to Track
	Participant Screening Script and Questionnaire
	Participant Summary Table
	Preliminary Contact by Study Sponsor - sample script
	Incentive Forms - sample receipt and voucher
	Thank-You Note - sample script
14. References
	Usability Testing
	Participant Recruiting
	Needs of Specialized User Groups
	Questionnaire Design
	International Studies
Absract: How to schedule customers and other representative users for usability studies. How to manage the recruiting process and the test participants

Title: Usability for Senior Citizens: 46 Best Practices for Web Design Based on Research with Users Age 65 and Older
Author: Pernice, Kara
Author: Nielsen, Jakob
Date: 2002-04-28
Pages: 125
Keywords: senior citizens, seniors, elderly users, old users, usability testing, design guidelines
Weblink: Original link
1. Executive Summary
2. Overview of this Research
3. Seniors and Internet Usage
4. Interpreting the Numeric Data
5. Guidelines
6. Presenting Information and Text
	8 design guidelines
7. Presenting Navigational Elements and Links
	11 design guidelines
8. Search
	7 design guidelines
9. Presenting Items for Sale
	8 design guidelines
10. Forms
	7 design guidelines
11. Web Address and Homepage
	5 design guidelines
12. Usability Issues Related to the Browser/Operating System
13. Participants
14. Websites Studied
15. Methodology
16. Test Tasks
17. Tips for Conducting Usability Evaluations with Senior Citizens
Absract: Usability report with design guidelines to make websites easier for users 65 years or older.

Title: How Children Use the Web: 70 design guidelines from usability studies with kids using websites
Date: 2002-04-14
Pages: 132
Keywords: children, kids, young users, kids corners, design guidelines, usability testing
Weblink: Original link
1. Executive Summary
2. Web Design for Kids Today
	Why Look at Usability for Kids Today?
	Contemporary Design
3. Kids on the Web
	A New Medium
	Online Behavior
4. Checklist of Design Guidelines
5. Design Guidelines in Depth
	General Interaction: 11 guidelines
	Text: 10 guidelines
	Multimedia: 15 guidelines
	Navigation and Search: 8 guidelines
	Graphical User Interface: 9 guidelines
	System Errors and Help: 10 guidelines
	Content: 7 guidelines
6. Kids and Technology Today
	From Niche to Mainstream
	Patterns of Use
7. Comparing Usability for Kids and Adults
8. User Groups: Ages, Languages, Genders.
	International Differences
	Gender Differences
9. How this Study Was Conducted and Why
10. About Using this Methodology
	Designing Studies
	Executing Studies
11. Online Concerns for Parents and Children
	What Kids' Caretakers Should Know
	What Kids Should Know
Absract: Nielsen Norman Group report on making websites easier to use for children, based on international usability research with kids using a variety of sites, including children's areas of mainstream websites.

Title: Usability Guidelines: Web Design for Users With Disabilities
Author: Pernice, Kara
Author: Nielsen, Jakob
Date: 2001-11-11
Pages: 148
Keywords: Rehabilitation Act Section 508, ADA, accessibility, blind users, visual impairments, low-vision users, screen reader software, Braille readers, screen magnifier, report series, reports, usability, design, designing corporate websites
Weblink: Original link
1. Executive Summary
2. Overview of This Research
3. Current State of Affairs
4. Assistive Technology Users: Observed Behavior
5. Guidelines
	Do Not Abandon the Good Design Rules You Already Know
	Graphics and Multimedia
	Pop-Up Windows, Rollover Text, New Windows, and Cascading Menus
	Links and Buttons
	Page Organization
	Intervening Pages
	Forms and Fields
	Presenting Text
	Tables and Frames
	Trust, Strategy, and Company Image
6. International: United States and Japan
7. Participants in the Study: General Information
8. Participants in the Quantitative Study
9. Participants in the Qualitative Study
10. Websites Studied
11. Test Tasks
12. Assistive Technology, References, and Pricing
13. About Disabilities and Assistive Technology Usage
14. Methodology
15. Accessibility "Audit" Software
16. A Note about Government Efforts
17. Resources
18. About the Authors
19. Acknowledgements
Absract: 75 design guidelines to increase the usability of websites and intranets for users with disabilities, based on extensive usability testing with blind users, low-vision users, and users with motor skills challenges.

Author: U.S. Department of Defense
Report: Department of Defense Design Criteria Standard: Human Engineering
Date: 1999-08-23
Number: MIL-STD-1472F
Pages: 218
City: Washington, DC
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keywords: DESIGN Device Standards Guidelines mil-std-1472
Note: superseding all versions of MIL_STD-1472E, 31 March 1998

Bookmark: R.NRC.96
Author: National Research Council
Report: More than Screen Deep: Toward Every-Citizen Interfaces to the Nation's Information Infrastructure
Date: 1996
Standard number: ISBN: 0-309-06357-4; QA76.9.U83M67 1997
	1  Introduction 
	2  Requirements for Effective Every-Citizen Interfaces 
	3  Input/Output Technologies: Current Status and Research Needs 
	4  Design and Evaluation 
	5  Communication and Collaboration 
	6  Agents and Systems Intelligence 
	7  Conclusions and Recommendations 
		Trends in Human-Computer Interaction Research and Development
			+ Hartson, H. Rex
	On Interface Specifics 
		An Embedded, Invisible Every-Citizen Interface
			+ Weiser, Mark
		Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces for "Each" Citizen
			+ Maybury, Mark T.
		Interfaces for Understanding
			+ Shedroff, Nathan
		Interspace and an Every-Citizen Interface to the National Information Infrastructure
			+ Winograd, Terry
		Mobile Access to the Nation's Information Infrastructure
			+ Siewiorek, Daniel P.
		Ordinary Citizens and the National Information Infrastructure
			+ Tognazzini, Bruce
		Spoken-Language Technology
			+ Cole, Ronald A.
		Toward an Every-Citizen Interface
			+ Feiner, Steven K.
		Nomadicity, Disability Access, and the Every-Citizen Interface
			+ Vanderheiden, Gregg C.
	On Functions 
		Computer-Mediated Collaboration
			+ Terveen, Loren
		Creating Interfaces Founded on Principles of Discourse Communication and Collaboration
			+ Sidner, Candace
		Digital Maps
			+ McKee, Lance
			+ Hecht, Louis
		Gathering and Integrating Information in the National Information Infrastructure
			+ Knoblock, Craig A.
		Integrating Audiences and Users
			+ Richards, John
		Intelligent Agents for Information
			+ Sycara, Katia P.
		Intelligent Information Agents
			+ Moore, Johanna D.
		Resource Discovery and Resource Delivery
			+ Wittenburg, Kent
		Search and Publishing
			+ Virzi, Robert A.
			+ Kent, Stephen
		Research to Support Widespread Access to Digital Libraries and Government Information and Services
			+ Shneiderman, Ben
	On Application Areas 
		Community Computing Projects
			+ Namioka, Aki Helen
		Lifelong Learning
			+ Fischer, Gerhard
		Supporting Learning in Communities of Practice
			+ Cleary, Charles
	On Selected Population Groups 
		Extending Knowledge Access to Underserved Citizens
			+ Feurzeig, Wallace
		Electronic Access to Services for Low-Income Populations
			+ Porter, Adam
		Access for People with Disabilities
			+ Goldberg, Larry
	On Key Processes 
		Cross-Disciplinary, Social-Context Research
			+ King, John Leslie
		Audio Access to the National Information Infrastructure
			+ Thomas, John C.

Bookmark: R.Lewis.93
Author: Lewis, Clayton
Author: Rieman, John
Report: Task-Centered User Interface Design: A Practical Introduction
Date: 1993
City: Boulder, Colorado
Publisher: University of Colorado, Boulder
Weblink: HTML
Weblink: Plain Text
0. Foreword
1. The Task-Centered Design Process
2. Getting to Know Users and Their Tasks
3. Creating the Initial Design
4. Evaluating the Design Without Users
5. Testing The Design With Users
6. User Interface Management and Prototyping Systems
7. The Extended Interface
Appendix L: What Can You Borrow?
Appendix M: Managing User Interface Development
Absract: The book's seven chapters describe how to design and build user interfaces, including task and user analysis, testing with and without users, implementation, and end-user support. The central message of the presentation is that interface designers should focus on detailed examples of actual user tasks. The book describes how this approach can be used in conjunction with a variety of proven design and testing methodologies. The book has been written with the practicing software engineer in mind. It should be useful by itself or as part of an undergraduate, graduate, or industry class. An earlier version of the book has been used as the basis of an HCI design course, and we're interested in receiving comments from instructors who choose to use the text (or parts of it) for their classes.

Bookmark: R.Perlman.93
Author: Perlman, Gary
Author: Gasen, Jean
Report: HCI Education Survey
Date: 1993
City: Columbus, Ohio
Publisher: Ohio State University
The report is divided into many files with summary reports in files with
a .rpt suffix and academic unit data in files ending with a .dat suffix.
The major reports are:
 * contact.rpt   who to contact for more information
 * country.rpt   organization by countries (and states/provinces/regions)
 * course.rpt    information about all courses taught
 * faculty.rpt   information about faculty
 * program.rpt   information about programs
Absract: The HCI Education Survey contains information about programs, faculty, and courses with an emphasis on Human-Computer Interaction. The goal of the Survey is primarily to provide prospective students (particularly graduate students) information about educational opportunities, and secondarily to provide HCI educators information about other HCI educators. Unlike some other education surveys, we wanted the HCI Education Survey to be easily updated and accessed primarily in electronic form. The cost of printing and mailing the survey and the widespread availability of electronic mail and personal computers made the collection and dissemination of an electronic report preferred over print media.

Bookmark: R.CHI.92
Author: Hewett, Thomas T.
Author: Baecker, Ronald
Author: Card, Stuart
Author: Carey, Tom
Author: Gasen, Jean
Author: Mantei, Marilyn
Author: Perlman, Gary
Author: Strong, Gary
Author: Verplank, William
Author: ACM SIGCHI Curriculum Development Group
Report: ACM SIGCHI Curricula for Human Computer Interaction
Date: 1992
Pages: 162 + iii
City: New York
Publisher: ACM
Standard number: ISBN: 0-89791-474-0; ACM Order Number 608920
Keywords: Education, Course development, Teaching
Note: This publication is a report of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) Curriculum Development Group.
1	Introduction
2	Human-Computer Interaction
3	Courses in HCI
4	HCI Curriculum Designs
5	Issues Raised by Our Recommendations
A	Resources for Human-Computer Interaction
B	An Information Systems Curriculum in Human-Computer Interaction
C	A Computer Science Undergraduate Specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
D	An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
E	Example Course taught in HCI
F	Case Studies in Human-Computer Interaction
Absract: Definition from part 2: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them.

Bookmark: R.IBM.89
Author: IBM
Report: System Application Architecture: Common User Access, Advanced Interface Design Guide
Date: 1989-06
Number: SC26-4582-0
Pages: 195
City: Boca Raton, FL 33429-9960
Publisher: IBM

Bookmark: R.DOD.89
Author: U.S. Department of Defense
Report: Military Standard: Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities
Date: 1989-03-14
Number: MIL-STD-1472D
Pages: 388
City: Washington, DC
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keywords: DESIGN Device Standards Guidelines mil-std-1472
Note: superseding all versions of 1472C, May 2, 1981

Bookmark: R.SEI.89
Author: Perlman, Gary
Report: User Interface Development
Date: 1989
Number: SEI-CM-17-1.1
Pages: 80
City: Pittsburgh, PA
Publisher: Carnegie-Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute
Note: Curriculum Module CM-17, Second Edition
Absract: This module covers the issues, information sources, and methods used in the design, implementation, and evaluation of user interfaces, the parts of software systems designed to interact with people. User interface design draws on the experiences of designers, current trends in input/output technology, cognitive psychology, human factors (ergonomics) research, guidelines and standards, and on the feedback from evaluating working systems. User interface implementation applies modern software development techniques to building user interfaces. User interface evaluation can be based on empirical evaluation of working systems or on the predictive evaluation of system design specifications.

Bookmark: R.Boff.88
Report: Engineering Data Compendium: Human Perception and Performance
Editor: Boff, Kenneth R.
Editor: Lincoln, Janet E.
Date: 1988
Pages: 2510
City: Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
Publisher: Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory
1.  Visual Acquisition of Information
	1.1  Measurement of Light
	1.2  Optics of the Eye
	1.3  Sensitivity to Light
	1.4  Adaptation: Changes in Sensitivity
	1.5  Sensitivity to Temporal Variations
	1.6  Spatial Sensitivity
	1.7  Color Vision
	1.8  Binocular Vision
	1.9  Eye Movements
2.  Auditory Acquisition of Information
	2.1  Measurement of Sound
	2.2  Physiology of the Ear
	2.3  Detection
	2.4  Discrimination
	2.5  Temporal Resolution
	2.6  Loudness
	2.7  Pitch
	2.8  Localization
3.  Acquisition of Information
	3.1  Cutaneous Sensitivity
	3.2  Vestibular Sensitivity
	3.3  Kinesthesia
4.  Information Storage and Retrieval
	4.1  Memory
	4.2  Learning
	4.3  Information Theory
5.  Spatial Awareness
	5.1  Size, Shape, and Distance
	5.2  Object Motion
	5.3  Induced Target Motion
	5.4  Apparent Object Motion (Stroboscopic Motion)
	5.5  Self-Motion
	5.6  Visual Localization and Direction
	5.7  Postural Stability and Localization
	5.8  Orientation
	5.9  Depth Perception
	5.10  Comparisons and Interactions among the Senses
	5.11  Adaptation of Space Perception
6.  Perceptual Organization
	6.0  General Perception
	6.1  Perceptual Dimensions
	6.2  Categorization
	6.3  Visual Perceptual Organization
	6.4  Auditory Perceptual Organization
	6.5  Tactile Perception of Form and Texture
	6.6  Haptic Perception of Form and Texture
7.  Attention and Allocation of Resources
	7.1  Human Performance Reliability
	7.2  Attention and Mental Resources
	7.3  Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control
	7.4  Vigilance
	7.5  Visual Search
	7.6  Target Acquisition
	7.7  Workload Characteristics
	7.8  Motivation and Personality
	7.9  Decision-Making Skill
8.  Human Language Processing
	8.1  Interpretation of Visual Language
	8.2  Speech Processing
	8.3  Intelligibility of Speech
	8.4  Intelligibility of Altered Speech
9.  Operator Motor Control
	9.1  Reaction Time
	9.2  Target-Directed Movement
	9.3  Movement Sequences
	9.4  Motor Learning
	9.5  Manual Control and Tracking
10.  Effects of Environmental Stressors
	10.1  Stress
	10.2  Measurement of Stress and Fatigue
	10.3  Noise
	10.4  Vibration
	10.5  Lighting
	10.6  Temperature and Humidity
	10.7  Cyclical Variations
	10.8  Fatigue
	10.9  Acceleration
	10.10  Gravity
11.  Display Interfaces
	11.1  Visual Display Image Quality
	11.2  Visual Information Portrayal
	11.3  Human-Computer Interfaces
	11.4  Attentional Directors
12.  Control Interfaces (Real/Virtual)
	12.1  Characteristics and Functional Uses of Common Controls
	12.2  Control/Display Ratios
	12.3  Grouping and Arrangement of Controls
	12.4  Hand-Activated Controls

Bookmark: R.IBM.87
Title: System Application Architecture: Common User Access, Panel Design and User Interaction
Author: IBM
Date: 1987-12
Number: SC26-4351-0
Pages: 328+xii
City: Boca Raton, FL 33429-9960
Publisher: IBM
Note: Includes sample diskettes. Other SAA Library reports include: An Overview (GC26-4341) Writing Applications: A Design Guide (SC26-4362)

Bookmark: R.NASA.87
Author: NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
Report: Man-System Integration Standard
Date: 1987
Number: NASA-STD-3000
City: Houston, TX
Publisher: NASA Johnson Space Center
Keywords: DESIGN Standards Guidelines
1	Introduction
2	General Requirements
3	Anthropometry and Biomechanics
4	Human Performance Capabilities
	4.1	Introduction
	4.2	Vision
	4.3	Auditory System
	4.4	Olifaction and Taste
	4.5	Vestibular System
	4.6	Kinesthesia
	4.7	Reaction Time
	4.8	Coordination
	4.9	Strength
	4.10	Workload
5	Natural and Induced Environments
6	Crew Safety
7	Health Management
8	Architecture
9	Workstations
	9.1	Introduction
	9.2	Workstation Layout
	9.3	Controls
	9.4	Displays
	9.5	Labeling and Coding
	9.6	User/Computer Interaction
10	Activity Centers
11	Hardware and Equipment
12	Design for Maintainability
13	Facility Management
14	Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

Bookmark: R.MITRE.86
Author: Smith, Sidney L.
Author: Mosier, Jane N.
Report: Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software
Date: 1986-08
Number: ESD-TR-86-278
Pages: 478
City: United States, Massachusetts, Bedford, 01730
Publisher: The MITRE Corporation
Publisher: Electronic Systems Division
Keywords: DESIGN Standards Dialogue Guidelines
Keywords: research-based; guidelines; text-based systems
Weblink: HTML version
1	Data Entry
2	Data Display
3	Sequence Control
4	User Guidance
5	Data Transmission
6	Data Protection

Bookmark: R.DOD.85
Title: Military Handbook: Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems
Author: U. S. Department of Defense
Date: 1985
Number: DOD-HDBK-761
City: Washington, DC
Publisher: Department of Defense
Keywords: DESIGN Standards Guidelines

Bookmark: R.Smith.84
Title: A design evaluation checklist for user-system interface software
Author: Smith, Sidney L.
Author: Mosier, Jane N.
Date: 1984
City: Bedford, Mass.
Publisher: MITRE Corporation
Standard number: TR-10090

Bookmark: R.NUREG.83
Author: Banks, William W.
Author: Gilmore, Walter E.
Author: Blackman, Harold S.
Author: Gertman, David I.
Report: Human Engineering Design Considerations for Cathode Ray Tube-Generated Displays
Date: 1983-07
Volume: II
Number: NUREG/CR-3003,
City: Washington, DC
Publisher: U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Bookmark: R.DOD.83
Author: U.S. Department of Defense
Report: Military Standard: Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities
Date: 1983
Number: MIL-STD-1472C
City: Washington, DC
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keywords: DESIGN Standards Guidelines mil-std-1472
Note: superseding all versions of 1472C, May 2, 1981
Note: superseded by 1472D, 1989-03-14
1	Scope
2	Referenced Documents
3	Definitions
4	General Requirements
5	Detailed Requirements
	5.1	Controls/Display Integration
	5.2	Visual Displays
	5.3	Audio Displays
	5.4	Controls
	5.5	Labeling
	5.6	Anthropometry
	5.7	Ground Workspace Design Requirements
	5.8	Environment
	5.9	Design for Maintainability
	5.10	Design of Equipment for Remote Handling
	5.11	Small Systems and Equipment
	5.12	Operational and Maintenance Ground/Shipboard Vehicles
	5.13	Hazards and Safety
	5.14	Aerospace Vehicle Compartment Design Requirements
	5.15	User-Computer Interface
		5.15.1	General
		5.15.2	Data Entry
		5.15.3	Data Display
		5.15.4	Interactive Control
		5.15.5	Feedback
		5.15.6	Prompts
		5.15.7	Error Management/Data Protection
		5.15.8	System Response Time
		5.15.9	Other Requirements

Bookmark: R.Lockheed.82
Title: Human Factors Engineering Criteria for Information Processing Systems
Author: Lockheed Missiles and Space Company
Date: 1982-09
City: Sunnyvale, CA, 94086
Publisher: Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc.

Bookmark: R.NUREG.82
Author: Banks, William W.
Author: Gertman, David I.
Author: Petersen, Rohn J.
Report: Human Engineering Design Considerations for Cathode Ray Tube-Generated Displays
Date: 1982-04
Number: NUREG/CR-2496
City: Washington, DC
Publisher: U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Bookmark: R.NUREG.81
Author: U.S. NRC
Report: Guidelines for Control Room Reviews
Date: 1981-09
Number: NUREG-0700
City: Washington, DC
Publisher: U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Bookmark: R.Lockheed.81
Title: Human Factors Review of Electric Power Dispatch Control Centers: Detailed Survey Results
Author: Lockheed Missiles and Space Company
Date: 1981
Volume: 2
City: 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304
Publisher: Electric Power Research Institute

Bookmark: R.UCSDCHIP.81.8105
Title: Two Papers in Cognitive Engineering: The Design of an Interface to a Programming System and MENUNIX: A Menu-Based Interface to UNIX (User Manual)
Author: Perlman, Gary
Date: 1981
City: San Diego, CA
Publisher: University of California, San Diego, Center for Human Information Processing
Keywords: user interfaces
Note: Report No. 8105
Absract: This report consists of two papers on MENUNIX, an experimental interface to the programs and files on the UNIX operating system. In the first paper, I discuss how the decisions about the design of MENUNIX were made: based on my intuitions and user comments, but also on psychological theory and data whenever available. MENUNIX presents both the programs and files of UNIX in two menus from which users can make selections with single keypresses. The FILE menu presents the UNIX file hierarchy that allows users to organize files into directories by subject (e.g., writing and programming). The PROGRAM menu presents UNIX programs in a hierarchy organized into workbenches according to the tasks for which they are used (e.g., writing and programming) much as files can be organized in directories. Special facilities are provided for: finding out about useful commands; using variables to set options, to save commands, and to avoid typing long strings; and for editing strings (including recent commands). The second paper is a tutorial manual for MENUNIX, in which the features of the program are more fully explained.

Bookmark: R.IBM.79
Author: IBM
Report: Human Factors of Work Stations with Display Terminals
Date: 1979
Number: G320-6102-1
City: San Jose, CA 95193
Publisher: IBM

Bookmark: R.IBM.75
Author: Engel, Stephen E.
Author: Granda, Richard E.
Report: Guidelines for Man/Display Interfaces
Date: 1975-12
Number: TR 00.2720
City: Poughkeepsie, NY
Publisher: IBM

Title: College Students (Ages 18-24) on the Web: Usability Guidelines for Creating Compelling Websites for College Students
Author: Loranger, Hoa
Author: McCloskey, Marieke
Author: Nielsen, Jakob
Keywords: students, college students, university students, design guidelines, university websites
Absract: College-age students are comfortable with technology; it doesn't intimidate them the way it does some older adults. But, it's dangerous to assume that all students are technology experts. Young adults have specific needs, interests, and online behavior that differ from other age groups.  This report offers 86 specifics instructions on how to create compelling websites for students aged 18-24. Findings and guidelines are supplemented with discussions and 222 screenshot illustrations.

Title: Usability Guidelines for Accessible Web Design
Publisher: Nielsen Norman Group: UX Research, Training, and Consulting
Keywords: free-download
Topics covered
Research Method
Research Reports
Absract: Learn techniques for designing websites for people with visual and motor impairments who use assistive technology, including: * Screen readers * Braille readers * Screen magnifiers The information in this report is based on empirical observation of people who are blind, have low vision, and have motor impairments use websites and intranets. Optimize the user experience by applying the guidelines discussed in this report along with technical accessibility standards. Following technical standards alone does not ensure usability. This report offers usability tips for ensuring ease of use and increased productivity. This 148-page report presents 75 design guidelines for creating websites for people who use assistive technology for browsing websites. The findings and guidelines are supplemented with discussions, 46 screenshots to illustrate designs that work well (and don't), and 23 photos of the devices.

Title: Usability Testing: 230 Tips and Tricks for Better User Tests
Pages: 41
Keywords: usability engineering process improvement, user testing, methodology, usability tests
Weblink: Original link
1. Foreword
2. Introduction
3. General Attitudes: 24 tips
	The Politics of Usability
	The Ethics of Usability Testing
4. Finding Good Test Participants: 19 tips
	Re-using Test Participants
5. Making Sure that Test Participants Show Up: 8 tips
6. Selecting Good Test Tasks and Scenarios: 9 tips
7. How To Actually Perform Tests: 29 tips
	Planning and Preparation
	Running the Test
8. Communicating Test Results: 8 tips
9. Reporting Test Results: 32 tips
	Report Format
	Individual Comments
10. How To Test on a Minimal Budget: 10 tips
11. Testing with Experienced Users: 20 tips
12. Hiring a Usability Professional: 48 tips
	General Principles
	General Knowledge about Usability
	Usability Experience
	Specific Knowledge about Usability
	Specific Knowledge about Design
	Specific Knowledge about Usability Testing
	Communication Skills
13. International Usability Testing: 14 tips
14. Assessing the Quality of a Usability Test Firm: 9 tips
15. References
Absract: Report for people who already know how to run a user test but want to become better at it. Covers how recruiting of test participants, test tasks, running the test, reporting findings, testing on a minimal budget, testing experienced users, international testing, and how to hire a usability professional.