Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.1
Title: Customer Installability of Computer Systems
Section: Computers in Consumer Products
Author: Comstock, Elizabeth M.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 1-4
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Case studies, Implementation, Software/hardware development, Software development, Natural observation, Installation
Copyright: © Copyright 1983 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1983, pp. 501-504
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This paper describes iterative, observational test procedures for developing customer installable computer systems. Testing should begin early in product development. All the components a customer is likely to receive should be tested as a system, including packaging, hardware, documentation, instructional materials, diagnostics, software, and phone assistance. A test team should be formed to include developers from all areas of the product. Videotaping and observing participants in pairs are also recommended. Results of this test process are summarized in the form of general design recommendations for product developers.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.5
Title: An Evaluation of Expertise in a File Search Environment
Section: Computer Systems Potpourri
Author: Williges, Robert C.
Author: Elkerton, Jay
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 5-9
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Intelligent/expert systems, Empirical studies, Novice users, Expert users, Search, Files
Copyright: © Copyright 1983 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1983, pp. 521-525
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The evaluation of expertise is an important activity that should be undertaken when human-computer systems are designed. This activity is extremely critical in systems which automatically provide assistance to inexperienced users. However, the representation of expertise is of equal importance in automated assistance systems. An experiment was designed to address the issues of representation and evaluation of expertise in a file search environment using expert and novice subjects. A target profile methodology was used for developing a file search assistant based on expert behavior. The model of expertise generated from this methodology proved to be capable of capturing expert search strategies. It also was capable of providing a framework for the development of an interactive file search assistant. The investigation points to further research in diagnostic and remedial variables in assistance, as well as adaptive assistance.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.10
Title: An Improved Self-Logging Method for Studying Computer System Activities
Section: Interactive Session 2
Author: Tynan, Paul D.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 10-13
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Analysis, Empirical studies, Field studies, Survey, Case studies, Complex systems, Logging, Activity
Copyright: © Copyright 1983 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1983, pp. 541-544
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Computer designers can use an inexpensive pocket computer to collect data on how people use their products. Users carry the computer with them as they work; at random time intervals it prompts them to enter data about the task they are performing. This technique eliminates most of the tedium and disruption inherent in methods that require observers to keep a log of what they do. In addition, it retains the economy and simplicity of self-logging methods. We are using this system to evaluate users' interaction with computer hardware, software, and documentation.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.14
Title: Effects of Keyboard Design and Typing Skill on User Keyboard Preferences and Throughput Performance
Section: Data Entry
Author: Richardson, Rose Mae
Author: Brunner, Hans
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 14-18
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Keyboard input, Hardware development, Design, Typing, Empirical studies
Copyright: © Copyright 1984 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1984, pp. 267-271
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A study was conducted to compare user preferences and throughput performance on 3 prominent keyboards with 3 different kinds of key action mechanisms. Preference and throughput data were obtained from both skilled (>65 WPM) and occasional (30-50 WPM) typists. Both groups of typists indicated about equal preference for keyboards with snap-spring and elastomer key actions and much lower preference ratings for the keyboard with a low-resistance, linear spring key action mechanism. Fewer errors and faster typing throughput were obtained on keyboards with the elastomer key action than on the other two keyboards, equipped with snap- and linear-spring key action mechanisms. This facilitation was greater for the occasional typists than for the experts. The reverse interaction was obtained for electronic key click, which produced much larger increases in real throughput for experts than the occasional typists.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.19
Title: The Influence of a Fixed Background in a VDU Display on the Efficiency of Colour and Shape Coding
Section: Computer Displays I
Author: Duijnhouwer, F.
Author: Zwaga, H. J. G.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 19-23
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Empirical studies, Prototyping, VDT/VDU, CRT, Color, Coding, Shape, Visual search
Copyright: © Copyright 1984 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1984, pp. 331-335
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Few studies investigating the merits of colour coding use displays where a fixed background picture increases the predictability of the number or location of the signals. In this study the effects of type of task, coding and display format on the use of VDU-presented information are examined. Two types of tasks were used: a search task and an identification task. There were three coding conditions: shape, colour and colour/shape coding. Information could be displayed in fixed and free format. In fixed format displays the coded information was presented as measuring points in flow schemes of a crude oil distilling plant. In the free format displays this background picture was not presented. The results show that the background pattern decreases search performance under all coding conditions. Search with shape coding is inferior to that with colour and colour/shape coding. Identification task performance is slightly better with shape coding. The results suggest, that in the search task the background pattern inhibits efficient scanning of the display.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.24
Title: Reducing Variability in Natural-Language Interactions with Computers
Section: Icons & Speech
Author: Zoltan-Ford, Elizabeth
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 24-28
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Voice/speech output, Voice/speech input, Screen output, Intelligent/expert systems, Empirical studies, Keyboard input, Natural language, Wizard of Oz
Copyright: © Copyright 1984 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1984, pp. 768-772
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The present study examined the possibility that users will model or can be shaped to the vocabulary and phrase structure of a program's output in creating their own inputs. Novice and occasional computer users interacted with four versions of an inventory program ostensibly capable of understanding natural-language inputs. The four versions differed with respect to the vocabulary and/or the phrase length presented on the subjects' CRT. One-half of the subjects were unknowingly restricted to input phrases identical to those used by their respective program, the other half were not. Additionally, one-half of the subjects communicated with the program by speaking, the other half by typing. The results indicate that recognition rates of natural-language processors will increase if users are provided with a consistently worded program output to model and then are shaped with nonthreatening error messages that reiterate those vocabulary and/or phrases that the processor can understand.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.29
Title: Collecting Detailed User Evaluations of Software Interfaces
Section: Evaluation of Interfaces
Author: Wixon, Dennis R.
Author: Williges, Robert C.
Author: Coleman, William D.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 29-33
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Survey, Software/hardware development, Software development, Empirical studies, Evaluation, Subjective, Text editors
Copyright: © Copyright 1985 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1985, pp. 240-244
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This paper describes the development and application of a methodology used to build an instrument for collecting detailed user evaluations. Although the methodology is general, the instrument developed was specifically intended for collecting user evaluations pertaining to text editors. The methodology incorporated user suggestions and resulted in a matrix of 16 text editing functions and 17 adjective scales. The application of this matrix to an existing editor revealed that a consistent set of scales were appropriate for evaluating all 16 editing functions.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.34
Title: Application of Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software
Section: Computer Potpourri
Author: Smith, Sidney L.
Author: Mosier, Jane N.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 34-37
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Survey, Design, Evaluation, Software/hardware development, Software development, Guidelines
Copyright: © Copyright 1985 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1985, pp. 946-949
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A survey was conducted of people who had received a report on guidelines for designing user interface software. Analysis of questionnaire responses indicates that design guidelines are generally considered useful, but that there are significant problems in the practical application of guidelines. For effective application, generally stated guidelines must be translated into system-specific design rules.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.38
Title: An Evaluation of Critical Incidents for Software Documentation Design
Section: Computer Potpourri I
Author: Wixon, Dennis R.
Author: Williges, Beverly H.
Author: Williges, Robert C.
Author: del Galdo, Elisa M.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 38-42
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Software/hardware development, Software development, Software evaluation tools, Critical incidents, Documentation
Copyright: © Copyright 1986 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1986, pp. 19-23
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A technique to determine end-users' perception of the documentation of a system can help documenters understand users' needs. Documenters can reflect this understanding in their documentation design, thereby increasing communication between designers and users. This study investigates the use of critical incidents as a mechanism to collect end-user reactions to software documentation, the presentation of this information to systems designers, and the effectiveness of critical incidents as a tool in an iterative process of online and hardcopy documentation design. The principle purpose of this study was the development and validation of critical incidents as an effective tool for the incorporation of end-user feedback into the simultaneous design and evaluation of both online and hardcopy documentation.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.43
Title: Subjective and Objective Judgments of Screen Formats
Section: Evaluating Display Characteristics
Author: Leaf, William A.
Author: Williams, James R.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 43-47
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Design, Evaluation, Empirical studies, Subjective, Layout, Display format
Copyright: © Copyright 1986 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1986, pp. 689-693
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: In order to refine a program (display.c) developed for the purpose of objectively measuring screen formats, a study was performed both to investigate the accuracy and sensitivity of the algorithms measuring format variables and to determine what variables are used by "experts" to judge screen layouts. The program algorithms were evaluated by running through the program displays with varying format structures. A multiple scaling approach was used to determine which factors were used by experts, designers, and students in judging screen layouts. Expert judgments of "ease of use" were used as a test of the accuracy of display.c's prediction of display usability. Results indicated that although most of the physical measurements of display.c were reasonable, grouping algorithms and ease of use prediction needed revision to better reflect expert judgments.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.48
Title: Why is Reading Slower from CRT Displays than from Paper
Section: Considerations in Designing Computer Interfaces
Author: Salaun, Josiane
Author: Minuto, Angela
Author: Haupt, Brian
Author: Finn, Rich
Author: Alfaro, Lizette
Author: Gould, John D.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 48-50
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Reading, Empirical studies, Polarity, Screen resolution, Image quality, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1986 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1986, pp. 834-836
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Experiments, including our own (Gould et al., 1984; 1986), have shown that people read more slowly from CRT displays than from paper. A series of experiments shows that the explanation centers on the image quality of the characters. Reading speeds, equivalent to those on paper, have been found for CRT displays containing character fonts that resemble those on paper (rather than dot matrix fonts, for example), that have a polarity of dark characters on a light background, that are anti-aliased (i.e., contain grey level), and that are shown on displays with relatively high resolution (e.g., 1000 x 800).

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.51
Title: Study, Development, and Design of a Mouse
Section: Consumer Considerations in Computer Design
Author: Akagi, Kenichi
Author: Hodes, Diane
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 51-55
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Pointing device input, Hardware development, Design, Case studies, Empirical studies, Analysis, Mouse
Copyright: © Copyright 1986 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1986, pp. 900-904
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A series of research studies were conducted to develop design criteria for a general purpose mechanical input device. The design criteria and parameters were established with ergonomic studies which included task analysis, competitive analysis and human performance testing. By taking a leadership role in the production issues, Human Factors engineers were successful in having the results of their research implemented into a new design. This report is a case study which offers some insight into methodological and design issues associated with producing an ergonomically designed product.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.56
Title: Evaluating the User Interface: Videotaping Without a Camera
Section: Computer Systems Interactive Session
Author: Tullis, Thomas S.
Author: Connally, Cynthia E.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 56-60
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Prototyping, Case studies, Data collection, Logging, Screen, Audio, Video
Copyright: © Copyright 1986 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1986, pp. 1029-1033
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A user interface evaluation technique has been developed that: a) accurately documents user inputs and system responses; b) follows the logic behind user actions; c) obtains behavior that is not biased by the evaluation technique; d) does not cause the participants to feel uncomfortable; and, e) easily illustrates user interface problems to others. The basic technique involves participants working in pairs, direct video recording of screen images without a camera, and audio recording on the same videotape of the users' verbal interactions. The result is a real-time record of the interactions, which, when replayed on a monitor and speaker, provides a very faithful reconstruction of what happened during the evaluation. The main advantages of this approach over other data collection techniques, such as computerized recording of data and video recording with a camera, are that it is easier and less expensive to implement, and it is unobtrusive.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.61
Title: Usability Testing of Screen Design: Beyond Standards, Principles, and Guidelines
Section: Screen Design: How to Improve It
Author: Schell, David A.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 61-64
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Screen output, Keyboard input, Models and theories, Usability testing, Design, Prototyping, Empirical studies, Complex systems
Copyright: © Copyright 1986 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1986, pp. 1212-1215
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Developers are encouraged to adhere to standards and follow principles and guidelines when designing screens. Each has its place and its limitations in designing screens. Because of the limited research behind current standards and because each product involves many considerations, just applying today's standards, principles, and guidelines does not guarantee good screen design. Designers should also test screen design with users in a usability test laboratory. This paper discusses the importance of conducting laboratory usability testing. It focuses on the role of usability testing in the process of refining screen design. The paper also presents some of the major advantages that usability testing offers over other methods of improving screen design.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.65
Title: Assessment of an Interactive Environment for Developing Human-Computer Interfaces
Section: Evaluation of Interfaces
Author: Hix, Deborah
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 65-69
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Prototyping, Tools, Empirical studies, Implementation, Software/hardware development, Software development, Complex systems
Copyright: © Copyright 1986 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1986, pp. 1349-1353
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The goal of this research was to empirically evaluate the usefulness of an interactive environment for developing human-computer interfaces. In particular, it focused on a set of interactive tools, called the Author's Interactive Dialogue Environment (AIDE), for human-computer interface implementation. AIDE is used by an interface design specialist, called a dialogue author, to implement an interface by directly manipulating and defining its objects, rather than by the traditional method of writing source code. In a controlled experiment, a group of dialogue author subjects used AIDE 1.0 to implement a predefined interface, and a group of application programmer subjects implemented the identical interface using programming code. Dialogue author subjects performed the task more than three times faster than the application programmer subjects. This study empirically supports, possibly for the first time, the long-standing claim that interactive tools for interface development can improve productivity and reduce frustration in developing interfaces over traditional programming techniques for interface development.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.70
Title: Learning and Preference for Icon-Based Interface
Section: Random Access I
Author: Whitten, William B., II
Author: Brems, Douglas J.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 70-74
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Evaluation, Case studies, Empirical studies, Design, Icons
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 125-129
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Icons, or graphic symbols, have recently become widely available as a means of human-computer interaction. The range of applications and interface styles that benefit from the use of icons have, however, not been extensively studied. This paper presents a case study of an interface in which some aspects seemed favorable for the use of icons, while other aspects seemed unfavorable. In such situations, interface decisions should benefit from testing learning and preference for possible icons. In this study, icons were easily learned, but verbal representations and labeled icons were preferred over unlabeled icons. These results underscore the idea that icon-based interfaces are not always preferred. Both "learning" and "preference" should be considered before implementing an icon-based interface for any new application.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.75
Title: A Comparison of Cursor Control Devices on a Graphics Editing Task
Section: Control and Editing Techniques
Author: Epps, Brian W.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 75-79
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Pointing device input, Hardware development, Empirical studies, Graphics, Touchpad, Absolute, Relative, Mouse, Trackball, Joystick, Displacement, Force
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 442-446
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Six cursor control devices (absolute touchpad, mouse, trackball, relative touchpad, displacement joystick, and force joystick) were compared on seven graphics editing tasks. Analysis of subjects' performance data showed better task completion times (TCT) for the trackball and mouse than the remaining four devices. Preference rankings by subjects reflected the performance results.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.80
Title: Highlighting and Search Strategy Considerations in Computer-Generated Displays
Section: Perceptual/Cognitive Aspects of Display Formats and Codes
Author: Fisher, Donald L.
Author: Tan, Kay C.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 80-84
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Evaluation, Empirical studies, Design, Models and theories, CRT, VDT/VDU, Highlighting, Coding, Visual search
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 524-528
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Research on the highlighting of alphanumeric information is expanding greatly due to the increasing use of computer-generated displays. The assumed advantage of highlighting a particular selection or target on the display is that it speeds the search process for information. However, recent work indicates that the enthusiasm for highlighting might be misplaced. In particular, it has been found that subjects can take longer to identify a target when highlighting is used than when no highlighting is used, at least when the number of options in the display is kept relatively small. One of the purposes of this study is to determine whether highlighting degrades performance when the number of options is increased substantially.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.85
Title: Evaluating User Interface Complexity
Section: Understanding Direct Manipulation Interfaces
Author: Karat, John
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 85-89
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Evaluation, Models and theories, Analysis
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 566-570
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A study was conducted to examine learning and performance differences between a command language and a direct manipulation system. Experimental results point out large differences in performance between the command language and direct manipulation systems which favor direct manipulation. Formal models of the knowledge required to use the systems were developed following the framework suggested by Kieras and Polson (1985). Failure of the formal models to accurately predict the advantages for the direct manipulation system are traced to insufficient emphasis on error behavior.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.90
Title: Optimizing a Portable Terminal Keyboard for Combined One-Handed and Two-Handed Use
Section: Designing Consumer Products for People
Author: Hoffman, Lawrence R.
Author: Dumas, Joseph S.
Author: Wiklund, Michael E.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 90-94
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Keyboard input, Hardware development, Empirical studies, Portable
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 585-589
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Human factors experimentation facilitated the design of a portable terminal keyboard for combined one-handed and two-handed operation. To ensure a comfortable grip, the terminal had to be made smaller by reducing the size of its keyboard. The product design team needed to know how small the keyboard could be before it degraded the usability of the keyboard and the overall product. The keyboard experiment was designed primarily to determine the effect of both the number of hands used in typing and key spacing on typing speed and accuracy. A total of six commercially available keyboards with key spacings varying from 0.75 to 0.45 inches were tested. Test subjects with typing skills ranging from expert to novice typed separate samples of text on each keyboard, once using one hand and once using two hands. The difference in typing speed between two and one-handed typing averaged 2-1. A key spacing less than about 0.7 inches substantially reduced typing speed but did not increase errors. Poor typists typed at roughly the same speed no matter the key spacing or number of hands used. These findings and additional human factors studies provided parameters for a keyboard smaller than standard size that is expected to allow users to achieve 90 percent of the typing speed possible on a standard size keyboard without decreasing accuracy.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.95
Title: Reworking the User Interface During Convergence of Several Software Products
Section: Communications II
Author: Percival, Lynn C.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 95-99
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Implementation, Evaluation, Complex systems, Empirical studies, Software/hardware development, Software development, Survey, Prototyping, Models and theories
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 710-714
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This paper documents the role of human factors engineers in some aspects of a development project for a large software product used in a complex operational environment. The process by which the user interfaces for several products were converged into a single one is described. Techniques for evaluating the user interface in this complex environment are discussed. The process involved preliminary testing to document problems, subsequent design and development activity, and verification testing to document improvements and remaining problems.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.100
Title: Optimizing Visual Search and Cursor Movement in Pull-Down Menus
Section: Menu Design and Use
Author: Kane, Richard M.
Author: Francik, Ellen P.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 100-104
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Evaluation, Menu, Pull-down, Pointing device input, Keyboard input, Empirical studies, Design, Visual search
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 722-726
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A de facto standard is emerging for the design of pull-down menus. A set of menu items is presented to the user, with temporarily unavailable items listed in a lighter, "grayed-out" font. This ensures the consistent location of each item, but requires the user to visually scan over and possibly move the cursor through extra items that cannot be selected. Previous research has shown that both location and number of items affect users' ability to select items in menus. We examined the tradeoff between these factors by evaluating an alternative in which inactive items are deleted instead of grayed out. Deleting inactive items resulted in faster menu item selection than did graying them out.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.105
Title: Time Stress Effects on Two Menu Selection Systems
Section: Menu Design and Use
Author: Shneiderman, Ben
Author: Anderson, Nancy S.
Author: Wallace, Daniel F.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 105-109
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Hypermedia/information systems, Design, Empirical studies, Screen output, Complex systems, Menu, Time stress
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 727-731
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The optimal number of menu items per display screen has been the topic of considerable debate and study. On the one hand, some designers have packed many items into each menu to conserve space and reduce the number of menus, whereas on the other hand there are designers who prefer a sparse display for menu structures and other videotext information. This study evaluated the effects of a broad/shallow menu compared to a narrow/deep menu structure under two conditions of time stress for inexperienced users. Results indicated that time stress both slowed performance, and increased errors. In addition, it was demonstrated that the broad/shallow menu was faster and resulted in fewer errors. Implications for menu design are discussed.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.110
Title: Learning Hierarchical Menu Systems: A Comparative Investigation of Analogical and Pictorial Formats
Section: Database Access and Format
Author: Kramer, Arthur F.
Author: Webb, Jayson M.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 110-114
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Models and theories, Screen output, Design, Complex systems, Databases, Menu, Hierarchical, Analogical format, Pictorial format
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 978-982
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The studies investigated the relative efficacy of different instructional aids for the learning and use of a hierarchical database system. Previous research has suggested that subjects who study a spatial map of the structure and objects in a database perform better on data retrieval tasks than subjects who study other types of material. The results of the present studies suggest that analogies are useful instructional aids for learning hierarchical databases.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.115
Title: Application of Tullis' Visual Search Model to Highlighted and Non-Highlighted Tabular Displays
Section: Display Formatting and Information Retrieval
Author: Babu, A. J. G.
Author: Tullis, T. S.
Author: Thacker, Pratapray (Paul)
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 115-119
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Empirical studies, Models and theories, Highlighting, Coding, Outline, Tabular displays, Visual search
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 1221-1225
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This paper presents a comparison of experimental results with predictions obtained from Tullis' (1984) model of search times for tabular displays. Three levels of information density for displays with and without highlighting were used in a series of experiments. The highlighting of information was done by adding graphic boundaries (lines). Two levels of highlighting were used. A question-answer type of visual search was performed for two different tasks. The search time results are discussed and a method for utilizing Tullis' model for highlighted displays is suggested.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.120
Title: An Axiomatic Model of Information Presentation
Section: Display Formatting and Information Retrieval
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 120-124
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Intelligent/expert systems, Models and theories, Software/hardware development, Software development, Prototyping, Design, Evaluation, Information display, Coding, Layout, Display format
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 1229-1233
Weblink: www.acm.org/perlman/papers/axiomatic.htm
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The goal of information layout is to physically display information to reinforce the underlying structure of the information. In this paper, I describe an axiomatic model of information layout. The model has three levels: (1) a device-independent representation for structured information, (2) set of axioms (or rules) relating information structure with display attributes, (3) a set of device dependent display attributes used to distinguish differences and show similarities in information structure. The model infers, using logical deductions from its axioms, how display attributes should be used to show the structure of information. A prototype software system exists that allows interactive design and evaluation of screen layouts. Future research is planned to develop an expert system to aid in the automatic design of layouts, and to refine the prototype into a usable system.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.125
Title: The Influence of Color on Visual Search and Subjective Discomfort using CRT Displays
Section: Vision, Color Vision, and CRTs
Author: Mertins, Karin
Author: Matthews, Michael L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 125-129
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Empirical studies, Models and theories, Color, Visual search, Coding, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1987 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1987, pp. 1271-1275
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Visual search and decision making performance together with subjective fatigue were investigated over a four hour time block as a function of display foreground and background chromaticity, using colors matched for equivalent brightness. Although some small differences in performance related to chromaticity were observed, these were not exacerbated over time. On the basis of the performance data obtained and the subjective reports, there would appear to be no support obtained for the general recommendation to avoid the use of red and blue stimuli either alone or in combination in CRT displays.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.130
Title: On Applying the Skills, Rules, Knowledge Framework to Interface Design
Section: Computer Systems: Approaches to User Interface Design
Author: Rasmussen, Jens
Author: Vicente, Kim J.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 130-134
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Analysis, Design, Ecological design, Complex systems, Models and theories, Software/hardware development, Software development
Copyright: © Copyright 1988 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1988, pp. 254-258
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: In this paper, a theoretical framework for interface design for complex systems is proposed. The approach, called Ecological Interface Design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge framework of levels of cognitive control. The fundamental goal of EID is to develop interfaces that provide the appropriate support for all three levels, but that do not force cognitive control to a higher level than the demands of the task require. The framework, consisting of a set of prescriptive design principles, is discussed, and an example of its application is presented.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.135
Title: Software Usability: Requirements by Evaluation
Section: Computer Systems: Approaches to User Interface Design
Author: Siochi, Antonio
Author: Smith, Eric
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 135-137
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Analysis, Case studies, Evaluation, Usability, Requirements
Copyright: © Copyright 1988 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1988, pp. 264-266
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Recent research has established the importance of defining usability requirements as part of the total requirements for a system. Instead of deciding in an ad hoc manner whether or not a human-computer interface is usable, measurable usability requirements are established at the outset. It is common to state such requirements in an operational manner: U% of a sample of the intended user population should accomplish T% of the benchmark tasks within M minutes and with no more than E errors. The formal experiments needed to test compliance with the requirements makes this method costly. This paper presents an alternative method of specifying usability requirements currently being developed and testing on a large software project at Virginia Tech. Briefly, usability requirements are specified by having every member of the software design team and the user interface design team specify the ease of use desired for each proposed functional requirement of the system under development. The individual ratings are then compared in order to arrive at a consensus. It is this consensus that leads to the formal usability requirements which the interface must meet or exceed. As the interface is built, it is rated in the same manner as that used originally to specify the requirements. This method thus provides a structured means of specifying measurable usability requirements and a means of determining whether or not the interface satisfies those requirements. Several other benefits of this method are presented as well.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.138
Title: A Comparative Study of Gestural and Keyboard Interfaces
Section: Computer Systems: Interaction Styles
Author: Wolf, Catherine G.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 138-142
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Keyboard input, Hardware development, Gestural interface, Pointing device input, Empirical studies
Copyright: © Copyright 1988 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1988, pp. 273-277
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This paper presents results from two experiments which compared gestural and keyboard interfaces to a spreadsheet program. This is the first quantitative comparison of these two types of interfaces known to the author. The gestural interface employed gestures (hand-drawn marks such as carets or brackets) for commands, and handwriting as input techniques. In one configuration, the input/output hardware consisted of a transparent digitizing tablet mounted on top of an LCD which allowed the user to interact with the program by writing on the tablet with a stylus. The experiments found that participants were faster with the gestural interface. Specifically, subjects performed the operations in about 72% of the time taken with the keyboard. In addition, there was a preference for the gestural interface over the keyboard interface. These findings are explained in terms of the fewer number of movements required to carry out an operation with the gestural interface, the greater ease of remembering gestural commands, and the benefits of performing operations directly on objects of interest.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.143
Title: Entry-Based versus Selection-Based Interaction Methods
Section: Computer Systems: Interaction Styles
Author: Rasamny, Marwan
Author: Meluson, Antonia
Author: Boies, Stephen J.
Author: Gould, John D.
Author: Greene, Sharon L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 143-146
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Keyboard input, Empirical studies, Data entry, Menu, Selection
Copyright: © Copyright 1988 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1988, pp. 284-287
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Five different human-computer interaction techniques were studied to determine the relative advantages of entry-based and selection-based methods. Gould, Boies, Meluson, Rasamny, and Vosburgh (1988), found that entry techniques aided by either automatic or requested string completion, were superior to various selection-based techniques. This study examines unaided as well as aided entry techniques, and compares them to selection-based methods. Variations in spelling difficulty and database size were studied for their effect on user performance and preferences. The main results were that automatic string completion was the fastest method and selection techniques were better than unaided entry techniques, especially for hard-to-spell words. This was particularly true for computer-inexperienced participants. The database size had its main influence on performance with the selection techniques. In the selection and aided-entry methods there was a strong correlation between the observed keystroke times and the minimum number of keystrokes required by a task.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.147
Title: Browsing Models for Hypermedia Databases
Section: Computer Systems: Hypermedia and Interfaces: Design and Evaluation
Author: Glenn, Bernice
Author: Chignell, Mark
Author: Valdez, Felix
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 147-151
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Navigation, Hypermedia/information systems, Models and theories, Browsing
Copyright: © Copyright 1988 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1988, pp. 318-322
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Hypertext can be simply defined as the creation and representation of links between discrete pieces of data. When this data can be graphics, or sound, as well as text or numbers, the resulting structure is referred to as hypermedia. The strengths of hypermedia arise from its flexibility in storing and retrieving knowledge. Any piece of information, whether it be text, graphics, sound, numerical data, etc., can be linked to any other piece of information. In many ways, the problems of hypermedia stem from the very flexibility that is its chief advantage and justification. It is difficult to maintain a sense of where things are in a relatively unstructured network of information. While the associative nature of hypermedia increases the availability of large amounts of diverse information, this very diversity makes it easy for information and users to get lost. Hypermedia exacerbates the problem of getting "lost in information space" by providing a complex associative structure that can be traversed, but not fully visualized. Information gets lost because it becomes difficult to organize and tag effectively, while users get lost as they lose sense of where they are in the hypermedia. Getting lost or disoriented occurs when one doesn't know where one is. Solutions to the problem of disorientation in hypermedia appear to fall into two general classes. First, one can create maps or browsers that allows users to determine where they are in terms of the overall network, or regions thereof. Second, one can create tags, markers or milestones which represent familiar locations, much as a lighthouse signals location in the middle of a foggy night. This paper reports basic research on the identification of landmarks in a hypermedia application.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.152
Title: Effects of Level of Abstraction and Presentation Media on Usability of User-System Interface Guidelines
Section: Computer Systems: User Interface Guidelines
Author: Williges, Robert C.
Author: Reaux, Ray A.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 152-156
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Guidelines, Usability
Copyright: © Copyright 1988 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1988, pp. 330-334
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: User-system interface (USI) guidelines are emerging as a tool for user interface design. The roles of levels of abstraction (concrete and abstract) and of guideline presentation medium (hard copy or on-line) on detection of USI guidelines violations in user-system interface evaluation were investigated. Overall, less than 50% of the guideline violations were detected by software engineers. Abstract guideline violations were more difficult to detect than concrete guideline violations, and on-line presentation resulted in relatively higher guideline usage during evaluation than hard copy presentation. It was concluded that improvements in USI guideline form and media are required to make guidelines a more useful USI design tool.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.157
Title: The Impact of Task Characteristics on Display Format Effects
Section: Computer Systems: Computer Menu and Screen Design
Author: Schwartz, David R.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 157-161
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Analysis, Design, Evaluation, Task complexity, Monitoring load, Empirical studies, Visual search, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1988 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1988, pp. 352-356
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A study was conducted to determine how well the display format effects described by Tullis (1983, 1984) and the resulting prediction equations could be generalized to other display situations. Task complexity and visual monitoring load were identified as task variables which could potentially moderate the format effects and, thus, were varied factorially. The current study also sought to extend Tullis's findings to tasks where the use of several pieces of information from predictable display locations is required. In general, the data indicate the need to study Tullis's format dimensions more fully before using his regression equations to evaluate display designs for use outside the task situation in which the equations were developed. Also, subjects were unable to evaluate their performance accurately under alternative display designs. Their evaluations seemed to be determined mostly by the perceived ease with which information was extracted from the display. This outcome should serve as a warning to system designers. That is, empirical human performance research should be conducted when performance is the paramount design criterion and a validated prediction system, such as the one developed by Tullis for search, is not available.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.162
Title: Using Databases in the Design of User Interfaces for Complex Systems
Section: Computer Systems: Tools for User Interface Design
Author: Muto, William H.
Author: Donohoo, Daniel T.
Author: Allen, Donald M.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 162-166
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Keyboard input, Design, Hypermedia/information systems, Software/hardware development, Software development, Analysis, Database, Tools and techniques, Complex systems, Survey
Copyright: © Copyright 1989 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1989, pp. 254-258
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Because of the increasing complexity and size of systems for which user interfaces must be designed, manual analysis of user and system requirements are inadequate. Methods for employing database tools in top down design strategies have been developed to manage design information in the development of user interfaces for large and complex systems. These methods have been useful in the design of user interfaces that are internally consistent with the user's model of the system and that are consistent across related software applications.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.167
Title: Towards a Generic Strategy for Empirical Evaluation of Interactive Computing Systems
Section: Computer Systems: Tools for User Interface Design
Author: Hewett, Thomas T.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 167-171
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Models and theories, Analysis, Formative evaluation, Summative evaluation
Copyright: © Copyright 1989 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1989, pp. 259-263
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Increasingly, the design of interactive computing systems appears to be a process of iterative design and re-design. One important factor in successful iterative design is iterative evaluation -- evaluation as part of each design cycle. This paper argues that different evaluation-design cycles may require different types of methodologies and different types of questions or measures to fully satisfy differing evaluation goals. Furthermore, evaluation procedures and measures themselves need to be designed and re-designed, a process more easily accomplished during system development. Examples based upon design projects illustrate some of the ways in which the nature and uses of evaluation procedures and information may change in different cycles of iterative evaluation.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.172
Title: A Benchmark Comparison of Mouse and Touch Interface Techniques for an Intelligent Workstation Windowing Environment
Section: Computer Systems: Input Device Comparisons
Author: Lang, Kathy
Author: Mack, Robert
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 172-176
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Pointing device input, Empirical studies, Software/hardware development, Hardware development, Touchscreen, Mouse, Direct manipulation, Stylus, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1989 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1989, pp. 325-329
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This study presents evidence that a prototype touch interface technology emulating basic interaction techniques of a mouse pointing device is comparable in overall usability to a conventional mouse for a direct manipulation, graphical windowing software environment. The touch technology prototype involves using either a stylus or finger, with an overlay sensitive to changes in capacitance. Users practiced each technique (mouse, stylus, finger, keyboard with no mouse), in the context of carrying out office-related tasks on the first of a two day study, and then eight similar test tasks on the second day, in a completely within-subject design. Significant effects for time on task were found for Techniques and Tasks for five practice tasks on the second day of the study. The clearest significant effect was that the stylus technique was faster than the keyboard. A qualitative analysis of errors indicates that there were problems with the precision of pointing using the finger, and to a lesser extent the stylus and mouse. User comments and ratings indicate that the stylus and mouse were preferred comparably, and were preferred to the finger and keyboard techniques.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.177
Title: Highlighting in Alphanumeric Displays: The Efficacy of Monochrome Methods
Section: Computer Systems: Displays and Graphics
Author: Babu, A. J. G.
Author: Spoto, Cheryl G.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 177-181
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Design, Empirical studies, Display format, Highlighting, Coding, Brightness, Reverse video, Monochrome, Visual search, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1989 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1989, pp. 370-374
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Highlighting is used to attract attention to displayed information. Prior work has called into question the efficacy reverse video as a highlighting method in alphanumeric displays. Brightness is highly recommended in guideline documents, but no empirical study of its efficacy in alphanumeric displays has been published. An experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of these methods in monochromatic, alphanumeric displays. Search time was significantly faster for reverse video than for high intensity highlighting. Reverse video may attract attention better than high intensity video. Heavy use of reverse video may aid in the systematic search of unhighlighted items. The results are analyzed in terms of a mathematical model.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.182
Title: Differences in Performance and Preference for Object-Oriented vs. Bit-Mapped Graphics Interfaces
Section: Computer Systems: Displays and Graphics
Author: Mohageg, Michael F.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 182-186
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Evaluation, Empirical studies, Software/hardware development, Software development, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1989 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1989, pp. 385-389
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This study used a standardized evaluation to compare two direct manipulation graphics interfaces: (1) object-oriented (vector) graphics and (2) bit-mapped graphics (object-oriented graphics interfaces are not to be confused with object-oriented programming or object-oriented data bases). Experienced and novice subjects performed objectively derived benchmark tasks appropriate for two-dimensional graphics packages. Both performance and preference data were collected. Task completion time, aborted attempts, learning effects, and errors constituted the performance measures. For the preference data, subjects completed questionnaires to rate the interfaces on both an absolute and a relative basis. Results indicate the superiority of the object-oriented graphics interface to the bit-mapped interface for most tasks, especially manipulation (e.g., scaling, moving, etc.) of graphics. The implications of these results for the use of direct manipulation graphics interfaces are discussed.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.187
Title: The Content of Help Screens: Users versus Developers
Section: Computer Systems: On-Line Information/Expert Systems
Author: Keister, Richard S.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 187-190
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Survey, Help screens, Developer vs. user views, Evaluation, Hypermedia/information systems, Software/hardware development, Software development, Documentation, Empirical studies
Copyright: © Copyright 1989 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1989, pp. 390-393
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Following a training course where 15 entry operators received hands-on experience with a software application package and its help screens, questionnaires which included 34 help screen features to be rated as to their importance, was administered. Examining the ratings in terms of features which were included in the current help screens indicated that users were reasonably satisfied with the help screens except in two unimplemented areas: intelligent help and the ability to access all help screens from anywhere in the system. The same items were then rated by a sample of 15 software developers. Results showed that the two sets of ratings differed significantly. Examinations of individual items suggested that developers tended to place more emphasis on technical implementation of help systems, while users tended to be more concerned with items directly related to their jobs, such as the existence of step-by-step instructions and the ability to restore the entry screen.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.191
Title: The Case for Independent Software Usability Testing: Lessons Learned from a Successful Intervention
Section: Test and Evaluation: Computer System Testing
Author: Biers, David W.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 191-195
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Case studies, Prototyping, Evaluation, Usability testing
Copyright: © Copyright 1989 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1989, pp. 1218-1222
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This report presents the lessons learned from a software usability test for an external customer. An initial evaluation with naive users revealed problems in the user interface and that the customer's objectives were not being met. After initial resistance to making changes in the software, the customer decided to delay release of its product to implement some of the recommendations and changed the focus of initial release to experienced users. The results of a second evaluation conducted on the revised product with experienced users were positive. Several lessons can be learned from the above evaluation: (1) Usability evaluation should be incorporated earlier in the software development cycle to minimize resistance to changes in a hardened user interface; (2) Organizations should have an independent usability evaluation of software products to avoid the temptation to overlook problems to release the product; (3) Multiple categories of dependent measures should be employed in usability testing because subjective measurement is not always consonant with user performance; and (4) Even though usability testing at the later stages of development may not impact software changes, it is useful to point out areas where training is needed to overcome deficiencies in the software.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.196
Title: Design Issues for Graphical UNIX User Interfaces
Section: Computer Systems: Interface Design Issues
Author: Kintsch, Walter
Author: Polson, Peter G.
Author: Doane, Stephanie M.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 196-200
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Models and theories, Empirical studies, Psychology of computer programming, Programming, Analysis, Complex systems, Design, UNIX
Copyright: © Copyright 1990 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1990, pp. 272-276
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This paper discusses important usability issues that impact the future development of graphical user interfaces for UNIX. UNIX provides a user with the capability to combine basic commands using input/output redirection to create new commands to perform more complex tasks. The new graphical interfaces do not directly aid composing commands. However, it takes more than five years of experience to begin to be able to fluently compose new, complex commands. This paper describes a methodology which focuses attention on the problems that must be solved in order for these core features of UNIX to be accessible to individuals with one to five years of experience.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.201
Title: Derivation and Validation of a Quantitative Method for the Analysis of Consistency for Interface Design
Section: Computer Systems: Quantifying Interface Design
Author: Salvendy, Gavriel
Author: Eberts, Ray E.
Author: Tanaka, Toshiaki
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 201-205
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Models and theories, Evaluation, Empirical studies, Software/hardware development, Software development, Screen output, Consistency, Layout, Display format
Copyright: © Copyright 1990 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1990, pp. 329-333
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Quantitative measures of consistency are formulated for human-computer interactive tasks. Two different kinds of consistency are considered: cognitive consistency and display layout consistency. Cognitive consistency is formulated by constructing the methods used for a task and the steps needed to perform the methods. A quantitative value for cognitive consistency is determined by analyzing the number of changes which would have to be made to change one method to another method. Display layout consistency is formulated by examining display parameters between two or more layouts. An experiment was performed to test the predictions of the quantitative analyses of consistency. Cognitive inconsistent tasks and inconsistent display layouts had a slightly detrimental effect on the speed of performance during an initial session. When the subjects had to return to the task several days after originally learning the task, performance on the cognitive inconsistent tasks was slower than on inconsistent display layout tasks. This latter result indicates that users will not necessarily have difficulty when learning inconsistent interactive methods but the problem will occur once the methods are learned and the user must switch between programs using inconsistent methods of interaction.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.206
Title: Menuing and Scrolling as Alternative Information Access Techniques
Section: Computer Systems: Interfacing with the User
Author: Swierenga, Sarah J.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 206-209
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Pointing device input, Screen output, Empirical studies, Menu, Selection, Scrolling, Information access
Copyright: © Copyright 1990 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1990, pp. 356-359
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate menuing and scrolling as alternative information access techniques when a touch-sensitive input device was used to interact with the system. A hierarchical menu structure and three scrolling methods, line-by-line, half-screen, and full-screen, were tested. Level of goal word familiarity (familiar and unfamiliar) and window display size (12 or 24 lines displayed on the screen) were also examined. The task consisted of using a touch tablet to locate a target goal word with one of the four access methods. Members of a single set of 64 words, 32 familiar and 32 unfamiliar, served as goal words in all conditions. Performance data (total time to complete the task) were collected from 48 subjects. Access method and window size were between-subject variables. Each subject received both word familiarity levels. Results of an analysis of variance on mean total task time (MTIME) revealed a significant access method by word familiarity interaction. Separate analyses of variance were conducted on MTIME for familiar and unfamiliar goal word sets. When the goal word was familiar, menuing was fastest, followed by line-by-line, full-screen, and half-screen scrolling. For unfamiliar goal words, line-by-line scrolling was fastest, followed by full-screen, half-screen, and menuing. The effect of window size was not significant. The findings of this study suggest that the operator's familiarity with the information being searched is important when deciding upon an access method.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.210
Title: Time Estimation of Computer "Wait" Message Displays
Section: Computer Systems: Interfacing with the User
Author: Leiser, David
Author: Shinar, David
Author: Meyer, Joachim
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 210-214
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Screen output, Response time
Copyright: © Copyright 1990 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1990, pp. 360-364
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The effect of different types computer "wait" message displays on the subjective estimates of the duration of intervals in which the subject had to wait for the computer response was studied. The displays were either static (a blank screen, the phrase PLEASE WAIT, or an epigram) or dynamic (a blinking PLEASE WAIT, a round clock-like display, or an emerging string of Xs along the center of the screen). Display duration varied from 3 to 16 seconds. The dynamic displays were shown at three different rates each. Results showed differences among the displays. For dynamic displays in which a development over time can be perceived (the clock and string of Xs), there was a direct relation between the rate of change and the estimate, i.e., higher rates of change led to estimates of longer durations. The results demonstrate that some of the variables, which have been found to influence time perception in basic psychological research settings, are applicable in the user-computer setting.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.215
Title: The Impact of Icons & Visual Effects on Learning Computer Databases
Section: Computer Systems: Information Presentation
Author: Larish, John F.
Author: Grimes, John
Author: Humphrey, Darryl G.
Author: Dyre, Brian P.
Author: Merwin, David H.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 215-219
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Databases, Screen output, Icons, Hypermedia/information systems, Visual effects
Copyright: © Copyright 1990 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1990, pp. 424-428
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Improvements in computer graphics systems have made icons and visual effects available for use in designing database interfaces. However, little research has been reported about the impact of icons and visual effects on performance measures such as item selection time and recall of the databases. The present study examined the effect of icons and visual effects on item selection time and recall of a hierarchical database structure. Information in the database was represented by either a text label or a combined icon-text label. In addition, three types of visual effects during transition between menu screens were examined: instantaneous change, zoom open from the previous screen, and dissolve into the next screen. Both the item representation and screen transition manipulations were examined between subjects. Subjects were required to reach goals by selecting items from the various menus in the database. Processing time per menu screen and recall of the database were measured for each subject. Both the type of representation (icon-text vs. text alone) and the type of transition between menus (zoom, instantaneous change or dissolve) were found to affect subjects' ability to recall the structure of the database. Furthermore, no similar effects on item selection time were found for either manipulation. These results suggest that icons and visual effects can facilitate recall of hierarchical databases without increasing traversal time. In addition, the results suggest that indiscriminate use of some visual effects (dissolve) can impair learning of computer databases.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.220
Title: New Challenges for Iterative Software Design of a Panel-Oriented Interface
Section: System Development: Requirements Analysis and Design
Author: Larnerd, Deborah A. T.
Author: Myers, Greta L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 220-224
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Analysis, Screen output, Design, Complex systems, Case studies, Development process, Management, Localization, Translation, Interactive design
Copyright: © Copyright 1990 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1990, pp. 1103-1107
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Gould's (1987) iterative design principle was applied to the design and development of a large, complex interface. Specific challenges we faced in implementing his recommended design approach included the sheer volume of panels in the interface, communication across the design team, excess baggage stemming from the previous interface, management of design changes, and translation into multiple languages. Our methods of facing those challenges are documented, and the lessons we learned in the process are detailed.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.225
Title: Effect of Image Polarity on VDT Task Performance
Section: Visual Performance: Visual Mechanisms in Human Performance
Author: Dye, Craig
Author: Lloyd, Charles J. C.
Author: Decker, Jennie J.
Author: Snyder, Harry L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 225-229
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Contrast, Negative, Background, Dark vs. light, Screen output, Design, Complex systems, Empirical studies, Polarity, Visual search, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1990 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1990, pp. 1447-1451
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Three experiments were conducted in which positive and negative contrast on visual display terminals were directly compared. Operator tasks included visual search and reading, with accuracy and timeliness of response measured. In all cases where significant differences exist, better performance was obtained with negative contrast (dark characters or symbols on a lighter background). The increases in performance range from a low of 2.0 percent to a high of 31.6 percent. Based on the above results, we believe that there are significant advantages in visual task performance obtained from the selection of negative contrast displays. Current standards that require negative contrast appear to be justified, while future revisions of ANSI/HFS 100-1988 and other standards should seriously consider incorporating negative contrast as a recommendation or requirement.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.230
Title: User Assessment of Standard and Reduced-Size Numeric Keypads
Section: Computer Systems: Keyboards and Input Devices
Author: Lewis, James R.
Author: Loricchio, David F.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 230-231
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Keyboard input, Hardware development, Numeric keypads, Keypad, Evaluation, Empirical studies
Copyright: © Copyright 1991 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1991, pp. 251-252
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: As technology improves, portable computers become smaller and more compact. A clear design challenge is to provide a system that is as compact as possible without degrading system usability. The keyboard is still the primary input device for compact computers. Previous research has indicated that reduced key spacing adversely affects skilled typing. Therefore, a portable computer system should provide a keyboard with full-sized keys in the primary typing area. The purpose of this study was to determine if reducing key size and spacing adversely affects the usability of a numeric keypad. Skilled keypad operators compared a standard-size numeric keypad to two keypads that had reduced center-to-center key spacing. One of these keypads achieved its reduction primarily by reducing the key spacing. The other reduced both key size and spacing. (Note that the small changes in key size and spacing have little effect on the overall device dimensions of a numeric keypad.) Operators typed numbers faster with and preferred the standard keypad over the keypad with both reduced key size and key spacing. If a numeric keypad is offered as part of a portable computer, every effort should be made to provide full-sized keys. If reduced key spacing is unavoidable, wide keys are preferable to narrow keys.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.232
Title: Integrating Cursor Control into the Computer Keyboard
Section: Computer Systems: Keyboards and Input Devices
Author: McGehee, Daniel
Author: Dean, Steven
Author: Gordon, Sallie
Author: Gill, Rick
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 232-236
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Pointing device input, Hardware development, Empirical studies, Cursor control
Copyright: © Copyright 1991 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1991, pp. 256-260
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The objective of this research was to develop and test an integrated cursor control and clicking device called a KeyMouse. The bottom of a single key on a standard keyboard was instrumented with pressure transducers. When the key was fully depressed pressure variations across the surface of the key, caused by a rolling motion of the finger, could be used to control the cursor much like a traditional mouse. A usability study was conducted to determine the optimum layout and configuration of the KeyMouse and its associated click keys. Both subjective preference and performance data revealed a strong preference for a two handed configuration with cursor control via the dominant hand and operation of the click keys with the other.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.237
Title: Development of a Multisensory Nonvisual Interface to Computers for Blind Users
Section: Computer Systems: Hypertext and Multimedia
Author: Ford, Kelly
Author: Mendenhall, John H., Jr.
Author: Boyd, Wesley
Author: Vanderheiden, Gregg C.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 237-240
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Keyboard input, Voice/speech input, Pointing device input, Voice/speech output, Software/hardware development, Software development, Hardware development, Non-Speech output, Special populations, Disability, Perceptual, Blind users, Non-visual interface, Multisensory interface
Copyright: © Copyright 1991 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1991, pp. 315-318
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The advent of graphic-based display environments such as those found on the Macintosh, Windows, OS/2 Presentation Manager, and X Windows, has the potential for providing barriers for individuals with visual impairments, particularly those who are blind. The problems stem from three factors. First, the information being displayed on the screen has shifted from a character-based format that was stored in an ASCII text buffer to a pixel-based format. This makes it much more difficult for screen reading software to determine what characters are on the screen. Second, text-based systems used a single font and relatively few attributes (bold, underline). On the graphic displays, text can assume a very large variety of sizes, fonts, and attributes (bold, underline, italic, crossed out, etc.). When these font changes or attributes contain information, they complicate the process of presenting information via speech or braille. Third, the advent of the graphics-based system has led to much more widespread incorporation of graphic elements, such as charts, diagrams, and pictures, within the text. The new systems also introduce a number of advantages or opportunities for individuals with severe visual impairments or who are blind. Both the consistency of the human interface among applications and the use of system tools in the display process hold the potential for providing access to a broader range of applications for persons who are blind, if an effective human interface to these operating systems can be developed. The Systems X project is using a multi-sensory approach to explore techniques for providing an effective and efficient interface to graphic-based by people who are blind. A prototype system, dubbed "Systems 3," has been developed which uses speech input/output, the keyboard, and a virtual tactile tablet to allow individuals to access both text and graphic elements in the system. Using the prototype, individuals who are completely blind have been able to use a Macintosh computer, access and read text documents, and handle simple to moderate graphic elements such as bar charts. A series of research studies is now ongoing to test the limits of the access and to quantify the relative efficacy of various approaches to providing a nonvisual interface to these graphic-based operating environments.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.241
Title: Display Format and Highlighting Validity Effects on Search Performance Using Complex Visual Displays
Section: Computer Systems: Computer-Based Displays
Author: Rudisill, Marianne
Author: O'Brien, Kevin M.
Author: McKay, Tim
Author: Donner, Kimberly A.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 241-245
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Complex systems, Empirical studies, Screen output, Models and theories, Highlighting, Visual search, Display format
Copyright: © Copyright 1991 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1991, pp. 374-378
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: 374 Research examining display format and highlight validity (Tullis, 1984; Fisher & Tan, 1989) have shown that these factors affect visual display search; however, these studies have been conducted on small, artificial alphanumeric displays. The present study manipulated these variables, applying them to realistic, complex Space Shuttle displays. A 2 (display type: Orbit Maneuver Execute, Relative Navigation) x 2 (display format: current, reformatted [following human-computer interface design principles]) x 3 (highlighting validity: valid, invalid, no-highlight) within-subjects analysis of variance found significant main effects of these variables on search time and a significant format by highlight interaction. Search through the current, poorly-formatted displays benefited from valid application of highlight, and showed no cost of invalid highlight. Reformatted displays demonstrated neither reliable cost nor benefit of highlight application. Significant correlations were found between observed search times and search times predicted by Tullis' Display Analysis Program (1986): the relationship was highest with non-highlighted displays and was less predictive with valid and invalid highlight applications. Issues discussed include the enhancement of search through format and highlighting, and the necessity to consider several factors when predicting search performance.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.246
Title: Image Quality Determines Differences in Reading Performance and Perceived Image Quality with CRT and Hard-Copy Displays
Section: Visual Performance: Display Quality
Author: Jorna, Gerard C.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 246-250
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Image quality, Print output, Empirical studies, Design, Screen output, Software/hardware development, Software development, Reading, Hard-copy, CRT, VDT/VDU
Copyright: © Copyright 1991 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1991, pp. 1432-1436
Absract: The effects of physical image quality on reading and on perceived image quality from CRT and hard-copy (photograph) displays were studied. The results showed that as the image quality of a display increased, indicated by an increase in the value of the modulation transfer function area (MTFA), the reading speed and subjective image quality ratings increased. This change in reading speed and perceived image quality occurred similarly for both hard-copy and soft-copy conditions. If the image qualities of the displayed text are similar, hard-copy and soft-copy displays will yield equivalent reading speeds.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.251
Title: Computer Anxiety and the Older Adult: Relationships with Computer Experience, Gender, Education and Age
Section: AGING: Designing New Technologies for Older Adults
Author: Smither, Janan Al-Awar
Author: Dyck, Jennifer L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 251-255
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Survey, Special populations, Anxiety, Gender, Aging, Older adults, Education level, Computer anxiety
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 185-189
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Research in the area of computer anxiety has traditionally concentrated on the younger adult. In this study older adults (55 years and over) were compared to younger adults (30 years and under) on levels of computer anxiety and computer experience. Subjects in the study completed a demographic and computer experience questionnaire, and two computer anxiety scales. Previous research findings indicating a negative relationship between computer anxiety and computer experience was replicated for both young and older adults. Additional findings indicated that older adults were less computer anxious and had less computer experience than younger adults. Furthermore, older subjects indicated more liking for computers than younger subjects. However, while young males liked computers more than young females, no differences between older males and older females were found on the computer liking subscale. Some discrepancies between the two computer anxiety scales suggest further research is needed to validate computer anxiety scales for use with older adults.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.256
Title: Description and Prediction of Long-Term Learning of a Keyboarding Task
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Keyboard Input Devices
Author: McMulkin, Mark
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 256-260
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Models and theories, Keyboard input, Design, Complex systems
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 276-280
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The goal of this study was to determine an equation ("learning function") that describes long-term learning of a new keyboard. Five subjects learned 18 characters on a chord keyboard, then improved keying speed by inputting typical numeric keypad text for about 60 total hours. Their performance, in characters typed per minute, was recorded for every trial. Of the various functions that were considered to describe performance, the best fitting equation was a Log-Log relationship of the form CPM{sub:i} = e{sup:b{sub:0}}T{sub:i}{sup:b{sub:1}}, where CPM{sub:i} is the performance in characters per minute on the i-th trial (T{sub:i}) and b{sub:0} and b{sub:1} are fitted coefficients. A second goal was to investigate how many trials of performance are needed before the entire learning function can be determined. The coefficients of the Log-Log function were determined using only the first 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 of the initial performance points (out of about 550 total actual data points). The mean squared error (MSE) was calculated for each of these fits and compared to the MSE of the fit using all points. From the results of MSE data, it appears that at least 50 performance data points are required to reduce the prediction error to an acceptable level.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.261
Title: Touchscreen Interfaces for Alphanumeric Data Entry
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Handwriting, Speech, Touchscreen, and Other Input Techniques
Author: Sears, Andrew
Author: Plaisant, Catherine
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 261-265
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Pointing device input, Evaluation, Computer-Supported cooperative work, Empirical studies, Keyboard input, Touchscreen
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 293-297
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Touchscreens have been demonstrated as useful for many applications. Although a traditional mechanical keyboard is the device of choice when entering alphanumeric data, it may not be optimal when only limited data must be entered, or when the keyboard layout, character set, or size may be changed. A series of experiments has demonstrated the usability of touchscreen keyboards. The first study indicated that users who type 58 wpm on a traditional keyboard can type 25 wpm using a touchscreen and that the traditional monitor position is suboptimal for touchscreen use. A second study reported on typing rates for keyboards of various sizes (from 6.8 to 24.6 cm wide). Novices typed approximately 10 wpm on the smallest and 20 wpm on the largest of the keyboards. Users experienced with touchscreen keyboards typed 21 wpm on the smallest and 32 wpm on the largest. We then report on a recent study done with more representative users and more difficult tasks. Thirteen cashiers were recruited for this study and were required to complete ten trials in which they typed names and addresses with punctuation. Results indicate that the users improved rapidly from 9.5 wpm on the first trial to 13.8 wpm on the last trial, reaching their fastest performance after only 25 minutes. Although custom interfaces will be preferred for special types of data (e.g. telephone numbers, times, dates, colors) there will always be situations when limited quantities of text must be entered. In these situations a touchscreen keyboard can be used.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.266
Title: A Comparison of Direct-Manipulation, Selection, and Data-Entry Techniques for Reordering Fields in a Table
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Handwriting, Speech, Touchscreen, and Other Input Techniques
Author: Kodimer, Marianne L.
Author: Tullis, Thomas S.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 266-270
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Design, Empirical studies, Keyboard input, Pointing device input, Prototyping, Models and theories, Direct manipulation, Tabular displays, Drag and drop, Menu, Selection, Layout, Display format
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 298-302
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A useful feature of data base systems is to allow the user to change the order in which fields appear in the columns of a table. The purpose of this study was to compare the usability of seven different user interfaces for performing this task in the Microsoft Windows environment. The fields to be reordered were file name, file number, size, and creation date. The seven approaches studied covered a range of interaction styles, including dragging and dropping, menu selection, text entry, and button pressing. Fifteen Windows users completed a set of two practice trials using each approach, followed by a set of twelve main trials. For each trial, the user was shown the current order of the fields and a target order to change to. The completion times showed significant differences according to the approach used. Overall, a data-selection technique using radio buttons and a data-entry technique using a single entry area were significantly faster than all of the others. Another data-entry technique, involving multiple entry areas, was consistently the slowest. Somewhat surprisingly, given the current trend toward direct-manipulation interfaces, the two approaches involving dragging and dropping were not among the most effective approaches.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.271
Title: The Predictability of Cursor Control Device Performance Based on a Primitive Set of User Object-Oriented Cursor Actions
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Cursor Control and Other Input Techniques
Author: Hartson, H. Rex
Author: Casali, Sherry Perdue
Author: Chase, Joseph D.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 271-275
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Empirical studies, Complex systems, Keyboard input, Pointing device input, Hardware development, User Action Notation (UAN), Models and theories
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 306-310
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The ability to predict performance with a cursor control device on a complex task by measuring performance on a simple task would be useful in evaluating alternative input devices in many types of novel situations. A user would simply have to perform simple cursor movements with each candidate device, and predictions could be made of his/her performance with the devices on any given software application. Such an approach would reduce tedious trial and error procedures, as well as eliminate the time necessary to first learn various software applications. The current study employed the User Action Notation (UAN), a task-oriented notation that describes the behavior of the user and the interface during their cooperative performance of a task, to decompose complex tasks into primitive components. A set of primitive cursor actions was developed which contains the elementary cursor actions found in complex tasks. A graphics software application was then evaluated, using the UAN, with respect to the frequency of occurrence of each of the primitive user-cursor actions. Individual's ability to perform each primitive user-cursor action with three different input devices was then be measured. These measures were used to form estimates of the individual's ability to perform the graphics task with each input device. Correlations between predicted performance and measured performance on the graphics task were found to exceed 0.9. Results demonstrate the success of the method described herein for predicting complex task performance based on simple task performance, as well as, the usefulness of the UAN for decomposing complex tasks into primitive components.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.276
Title: An Application of the Semantic Differential to Icon Design
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Computer-Based Displays I
Author: Lin, Rungtai
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 276-280
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Evaluation, Empirical studies, Models and theories, Design, Semantic differential, Icons
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 336-340
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Previous studies have indicated that the semantic differential was effective in evaluating comprehension of icons. However, the capability of semantic differential ratings depends on whether the underlying rating factors have been chosen properly. It is necessary to find out what cognitive factors affect the evaluation of an icon. Then, these factors can be used as the basis for semantic differential ratings on the proposed icons during the design stage. Most of the studies are focused on the evaluation after the design is completed. Very few have ever mentioned the approaches of icon evaluation at the design stage to ensure the design quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study is intended to derive and validate the cognitive factors that affect icon designs, and to provide designers with a tool having predictive information for evaluating and modifying the proposed icons at an early design stage.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.281
Title: Evaluating User Interface Development Tools
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Tools and Techniques
Author: Ryan, Tim
Author: Hix, Deborah
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 281-285
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Prototyping, Evaluation, Design, Implementation, Software/hardware development, Software development, Prototyping, Tools
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 374-378
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: This paper describes a procedure for quantitatively evaluating and comparing user interface development tools, and presents results of evaluating for user interface development tools with the procedure. For each tool, summary numeric ratings for functionality and usability are presented. General conclusions about the four tools and about the tool evaluation procedure itself are also discussed.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.286
Title: Taking the "Task" Out of Task Analysis
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Tools and Techniques
Author: Bias, Randolph G.
Author: Fath, Janet L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 286-290
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Software/hardware development, Software development, Analysis, Design, Case studies, Task analysis
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 379-383
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Task analysis is a well-accepted component of user-centered design. It is often left out of the design process, however, due to a lack of practical methods, the difficulty in predicting the amount of resource required to perform it, and a short supply of people with the appropriate skills. A solution to these problems is a structured set of activities that compose a task analysis and relate to the overall design process. The general framework into which these activities fit has three phases: Data Collection, Data Analysis, and Design. During the Data Collection phase, user and task data are collected and validated. The Data Analysis phase requires analyzing the user and task data in a way that results in suggestions for information representation, navigation, terminology, and consistency. Finally, the Design phase requires translating the suggestions from the Data Analysis phase into a viable product. A prototype task analysis workbook was developed to assess the feasibility of the structured approach to task analysis. The workbook includes tools for data collection, data analysis, and design, as well as instructions for how to use the tools. Over a period of two years, the workbook was used in five different development projects. A representative from each group was interviewed to determine how the workbook was used and which parts were most useful. Results of the interviews indicate that the workbook approach has merit.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.291
Title: Usability Analysis of Design Guideline Database in Human-Computer Interface Design
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Design Guidelines
Author: Yonemura, Shun-ichi
Author: Ogawa, Katsuhiko
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 291-295
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Evaluation, Empirical studies, Guidelines, Hypermedia/information systems, Prototyping, Usability
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 433-437
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Human-computer interface design guidelines are useful for developing well designed interfaces but the designer must be able to access the guideline appropriate to the application. Research is conducted to understand how designers access design guideline databases and then methods are tested to improve the usability of the databases. A design guideline database of approximately 300 guidelines is developed using a hypermedia approach. The system employs a book metaphor interface to characters and graphics in a Japanese environment. The subjects of the usability analysis are software designers who did not have any background in human factors. They were provided with the representation of a bad interface design on a piece of paper, and were instructed to improve the design through the use of the guideline database. Two common strategies were identified by observing the designers' actions: a hypothesis strategy and a checklist strategy. These strategies were analyzed using the quantities and quality of improvements recommended. The optimum database usage checks interface violations by employing the browsing function of the database; sometimes key word searches are used.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.296
Title: The Interface between Human Factors and Design
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Computer System Potpourri
Author: Bias, Randolph G.
Author: Gillan, Douglas J.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 296-300
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Models and theories, Organizational issues, Position paper, Software/hardware development, Software development
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 443-447
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Software designers with limited knowledge of human factors often play a crucial role in the design of user interfaces. The thesis of this paper is that the field of human factors needs to be concerned with the design of interfaces between itself and the rest of the design community. We identify the mission objective for the human factors-design interface as improving the overall quality of design by enhancing communication and the transfer of knowledge. A selected set of requirements for the interface includes (1) communication, from human factors to designers, of proven and relevant design approaches, and (2) communication, from designers to human factors, of pertinent design constraints and methods of integrating human factors concerns and data into design. A discussion of concepts for the human factors-design interface describes and analyzes educational technologies (e.g., video classes and short courses), an electronic gatekeeper (a bulletin board-like system through which human factors experts and designers communicate), and design analysis software (which automatically apply human factors principles to designs).

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.301
Title: Graphical Interfaces to Complex Systems: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Designing Control Rooms for the Year 2000: New Technologies, New Techniques?
Author: Bennett, Kevin B.
Author: Flach, John M.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 301-305
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Complex systems, Models and theories, Process/display mapping, Design, Evaluation, Software/hardware development, Software development
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 470-474
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: There seems to be a clear consensus that graphical interfaces provide an opportunity to integrate data from complex process in a way that can greatly enhance the problem solving ability of human operators in the future. However, this consensus is masked by a proliferation of terms to express this position in the basic and applied research literatures (e.g., "integrality," "configurality," "proximity-compatibility," "visual momentum," "direct manipulation," and "ecological interface"). While the subtle nuances that distinguish among these terms are of academic interest, designers have greater concern for the general principles that might be gleaned from across the subtle distinctions. Base on a thorough review of the basic and applied literature (Bennett & Flach, In press), we argue that there is one basic characteristic of graphical representations that is critical for supporting problem solving. A good graphical display is one whose geometric (space/time) constraints reflect the functional constraints in the process being represented. In this presentation, we will demonstrate what we mean by a "functional constraint" in a process and a "geometric constraint" in a display. We will demonstrate alternative mappings from "functional constraints" to "geometric constraints." We will also discuss the implications of these mappings for the type of processing (cognitive versus perceptual) required of the human operator.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.306
Title: Diversity in Field-Articulation and Its Implications for Human-Computer Interface Design
Section: PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE: Predicting Performance
Author: Salvendy, Gavriel
Author: Stanney, Kay M.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 306-310
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Individual differences, Spatial/verbal ability, Screen output, Menu, Command line, Empirical studies, Models and theories
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1992, pp. 902-906
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The objective of this study was to investigate individual differences in cognitive styles related to spatial ability in order design computer interfaces which accommodated low spatial users. Seventy-four subjects were tested on spatial, visual and verbal cognitive tests. From the results of these tests, (12) subjects were selected and classified as low spatial/verbalizers and (12) as high spatial/visualizers. The two subject groups were tested on three interface designs: a graphical layout and an outline format, both intended to accommodate low spatial users, and a conventional hierarchical menu design. For each interface, the subjects completed (50) information search tasks. Duncan's Multiple Range comparisons (p<0.05) between the three interface designs indicated the following: in accordance with past studies, the performance of verbal subjects was 18% inferior to that of spatial subjects on the conventional interface which required subjects to self-induce the hierarchical system structure; by designing a graphical interface which provided the system structure and an interface with an outline format which eliminated the need for structuring, no differences were detected between the verbal and spatial groups. The implication was that the influences of individual differences in spatial ability on computer performance can be overcome by cognitively tailored interface designs.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.311
Title: Developing Interactive Guidelines for Software User Interface Design: A Case Study
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: From Guidelines to Standards Design to Installation
Author: Philips, Brian H.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 311-315
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Case studies, Design, Software/hardware development, Software development, Guidelines
Copyright: © Copyright 1993 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1993, pp. 263-267
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: There have been numerous methodologies, models, and tools created to support successful user-system interface (USI) design. One such tool is USI design guidelines, which is important for both software developers and human factors professionals in developing a good user interface. This paper discusses the creation of interactive USI design guidelines intended for software developers to use when creating applications in the Microsoft Windows graphical software environment. User-system interface design guidelines are an important part of the software design process and complement other human factors activities that support good USI design. Differences between printed and on-line guidelines documents suggest developing on-line guidelines to support the development of Windows-based GE Information Services applications. The content of the GE guidelines is tailored toward company applications, using examples of both good and bad user interface designs to illustrate guideline principles. The guidelines also include a sample application that incorporates the guidelines in its user interface. Components that contribute to the effectiveness of the guidelines, such as quality, time required to use, relevance, and complexity, are explored.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.316
Title: Performance vs. Preference
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Interface Design Methodology
Author: Bailey, Robert W.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 316-320
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Design, Subjective
Copyright: © Copyright 1993 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1993, pp. 282-286
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: One of the main tenets of most company-sponsored quality programs is that the customer is always right. Designers frequently evaluate the goodness of their systems by simply asking users whether or not they like the interface. The fallacy of this approach is that users generally make judgements based on their "preferences" and tend to ignore the more important performance issues. System designers frequently use their own preferences to make decisions, and then make major inferences about how users will perform with their system. Several past studies are reviewed to show that users can perform well and not like a system, or like a system and still not perform well. Two recent studies are reported showing a mismatch between designer's preferences for certain interface decisions, and measured user performance when using the resulting interfaces. It is proposed that better user interfaces are possible if we clearly separate the performance and preference concepts, recognize the limitations of each, and work to optimize one or the other (there is usually not sufficient time to optimize both). The only way to ensure that systems will elicit acceptable levels of performance is to conduct performance-oriented usability tests.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.321
Title: Color versus Texture Coding to Improve Visual Search Performance
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Visual Display of Information
Author: Swan, J. Edward, II
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 321-325
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Design, Empirical studies, Models and theories, Color, Highlighting, Coding, Texture, Evaluation, Subjective, Visual search
Copyright: © Copyright 1993 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1993, pp. 343-347
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Weblink: Relative Effects of Color-, Texture-, and Density-Coding on Visual Search Performance and Subjective Preference, 1994
Absract: An experiment is reported in which the relative effectiveness of color coding, texture coding, and no coding of target borders to speed visual search is determined. The following independent variables were crossed in a within-subjects factorial design: Color coding (present or not), Texture coding (present or not), Distance between similarly coded targets (near or far), Group size of similarly coded targets (1, 2, 3, or 4), and a Replication factor of target Border width (10, 20, or 30 pixels). Search times, errors, and subjective rankings of the coding methods were recorded. Results showed that color coding improved search time compared to no coding, but that texture coding was not effectively used by subjects, resulting in nearly identical times to encoded targets. Subjective preference rankings reflected the time data. The adequate power of the experiment along with the results of preparatory pilot studies lead us to the conclusion that texture coding is not an effective coding method for improving visual search time.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.326
Title: Spatial Layout of Displayed Information: Three Steps Toward Developing Quantitative Models
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Visual Display of Information
Author: Wickens, Christopher D.
Author: Vincow, Michelle A.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 326-330
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Screen output, Design, Intelligent/expert systems, Layout, Information display, Display format, Visual search
Copyright: © Copyright 1993 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1993, pp. 348-352
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Subjects viewed a series of alphanumeric tables containing information regarding the attributes (cost, amount, etc.) of different objects (utilities such as gas and electricity). They answered questions that required them to locate specific pieces of information in the table, perform simple integration between pieces, or complex integration (division, multiplication), and information for questions was either located within a table panel (close separation) or between panels (distant separation). The table was either organized by objects within attributes, or attributes within objects. Table organization had no effect on response time or accuracy. However, accuracy suffered with increased separation, but only for the complex integration questions, a finding that implicates the interference between visual search and the working memory demands of information integration. A computational model of the mental operations required for task performance accounted for 69% of the variance in response time, and provides a useful basis for developing more elaborate models of display layout.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.331
Title: Software Interface Evaluation: Modeling of Human Error
Section: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Design and Usability of Consumer Products
Author: Mitta, D. A.
Author: Packebush, S. J.
Author: Wright, S. J.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 331-333
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Human error, Errors, Models and theories, Design, Screen output, Usability
Copyright: © Copyright 1993 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1993, pp. 453-455
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The purpose of this study was to use a human error model to evaluate a commercially available Macintosh-based graphics application based upon the frequencies and types of mistakes occurring during users' performance of designated tasks. The occurrence of high frequencies of knowledge-based and rule-based mistakes during the learning of an interface element would indicate that the element requires evaluation and possible redesign. This study involved five participants, all of whom were students at Texas A&M University. The participants were experienced Macintosh users with no experience using Macintosh graphics software. The graphics environment of interest was MacDraw II 1.0 Version 2 (Schutten, Goldsmith, Kaptanoglu, and Spiegel, 1988). Ten drawings created with the program were used to examine participants' cognitive levels and types of errors made throughout the process of familiarizing themselves with this program. The first drawing was created to exemplify simple figures created with the graphics tools in the program to illustrate shading. The second through tenth drawings incorporated these figures in several arrangements. All drawings incorporated eight tools (or tasks), and each tool was used only once in each drawing. The results indicated significant differences in frequencies of error types, frequencies of errors between tasks and frequencies of errors between trials. There were also interactions between trial and error, and task and error.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.334
Title: The Effects of Physical Attributes of Computer Interface Design on Novice and Experienced Performance of Users with Physical Disabilities
Section: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND FUNCTIONALLY IMPAIRED POPULATIONS: Human Factors in Health Care and Universal Design
Author: Chase, Joseph D.
Author: Casali, Sherry Perdue
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 334-338
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Design, Keyboard input, Hardware development, Pointing device input, Special populations, Physical disabilities, Disability, Physical, Novice users, Casual users, Empirical studies
Copyright: © Copyright 1993 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1993, pp. 849-853
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: It is well accepted that with even very simple tasks, a user's performance with a cursor control device improves substantially over some period of time before stabilizing. Although no systematic studies are available concerning how particular attributes of screen or device design affect the rate at which users learn to interact with a system, past studies with input devices have shown that the overall period of time required to learn to physically interact with a system is generally quite short. Hence the lack of attention paid to the "learning" phase with respect to physical interaction is probably justified. For users with mobility impairments, however, not only may the overall physical learning phase be significantly longer than for nondisabled users, but certain features of the interface design may require a longer learning period than others. Depending on how different "initial" performance is from "practiced" performance, systems meant for "walk up and use" or casual use may need to be designed differently to allow easy access for persons with mobility impairments. In addition, adaptive interfaces which change the physical design of features over time as a user becomes more proficient may facilitate access for individuals with impaired motor control. Twenty persons with impaired hand and arm function (as a result of spinal cord injury) performed a target acquisition task with five cursor control devices. The task required that the user select targets of different sizes and distances using both "point and click" and "drag" modes of interaction. Time and errors were recorded. The results indicate not only that some physical design attributes negatively effect performance, but that the magnitude of the effects differ for "initial" performance and "practiced" performance. In fact, in some cases attributes which had no effect once performance had asymptoted were shown to have a significant effect on novice performance. Also, some features required significantly longer periods of time for the users to become proficient at using than others. The implications for interface design are discussed.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.339
Title: A Methodology and Encoding Scheme for Evaluating the Usability of Graphical, Direct Manipulation Style Interfaces
Section: TEST AND EVALUATION: Usability Evaluations
Author: Cuomo, Donna L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 339-343
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Analysis, Keyboard input, Pointing device input, Computer-Supported cooperative work, Software/hardware development, Software development, Evaluation, Models and theories, Direct manipulation, Usability
Copyright: © Copyright 1993 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1993, pp. 1137-1141
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: A model-based method for assessing the usability of graphical, direct manipulation style interfaces was developed and applied to a military airspace scheduling system. The method involves collecting and integrating verbal protocol data and mouse/keystroke files, and having an analyst familiar with the task, the data, and Norman's (1986) user activity model review the data and make determinations on what the data mean in terms of the model. A hierarchical encoding scheme based on the model is then applied to the integrated data to structure the human-computer interaction (HCI) process at a detailed interaction level. Meaningful patterns can be identified, frequency of events per task, and number of actions per intention can be calculated at various levels in the hierarchical breakdown, highlighting potential usability problems or instances of indirectness. Repetitious sequences, for example, could imply a missing high-level task domain object or an inability to group objects for application of a single action. Detailed model-based error encodings reflect user-system interface difficulties not only in the execution stage of HCI but in the psychological stages as well. The types of usability problems identified and the advantages of the method arc discussed. Based on these results, we have begun developing a multi-media tool to support application of the method.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.344
Title: Cooperative Human-Computer Decision Making: An Experiment and Some Design Implications
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Developing Supporting and Cooperative Systems [Lecture]
Author: Salvador, Anthony C.
Author: Sundstrom, Gunilla A.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 344-348
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Intelligent/expert systems, Empirical studies, Complex systems, Case studies, Decision making
Copyright: © Copyright 1994 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1994, pp. 220-224
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Creating useful dialogues between human and automated decision makers (i.e., intelligent agents) is a critical design aspect of any effective decision support environment. However, surprisingly few studies have examined the various factors influencing the way a human decision maker interacts with various types of intelligent agents. In the present work, one such factor was examined, namely the confidence expressed by the agent about its own conclusions. Subjects were trained in a network management fault diagnosis task. They were then asked to accept or reject a fault diagnosis generated by the automated decision making agent. The automated decision maker presented its fault diagnosis with an associated confidence indication expressed as a probability. Subjects were required to decide whether to accept or reject the automated decision maker's diagnosis. To conceive an informed response, subjects were able to examine various types of information related to network performance. The results indicated that the higher the confidence level presented by the automated decision maker, the more likely it was that the human decision maker would accept the automatically generated diagnosis. Thus, the higher the confidence level of the automated decision maker, the more likely subjects were to accept a wrong decision. Moreover, subjects examined fewer pieces of information in situations when the automated decision maker expressed a high level of confidence.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.349
Title: User Interface Design Guidelines for Computer Accessibility by Mentally Retarded Adults
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: User Interface Design Issues [Lecture]
Author: Hix, Deborah
Author: Robertson, Gretchen L.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 349-353
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Pointing device input, Hardware development, Case studies, Screen output, Design, Prototyping, Special populations, Disability, Mental, Mentally retarded adults, Empirical studies, Guidelines
Copyright: © Copyright 1994 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1994, pp. 300-304
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: An exploratory three-phase study examined the ability of adults diagnosed as moderately developmentally disabled to successfully use a personal computer, input devices preferred, and user interface design factors to be considered when designing or selecting applications for this population. Phase I observed the reaction of the participants, none of whom had ever used a computer, to a graphical user interface. In Phase II usability tests compared the mouse, the trackball, and the touchscreen to gather heuristic data on input device preference and develop user interface design guidelines for applications for the target population. Phase III tested the guidelines by developing two prototype games: "Shopping," designed to teach money-handling skills, and "Getting Dressed," to teach a basic life skill. Phase I showed that participants liked and understood the graphical user interface. All could use the touchscreen, and most could use the mouse. Phase II usability testing found that the mouse was preferred over the touchscreen and the trackball, although its drag-drop times were longer. Reasons given were less fatigue and greater control. Phase III found participants preferred screens that allowed them to control the action, that quick or unexpected screen responses were upsetting, and that strong, realistic visual feedback was important. The study is seen as a first step in developing guidelines to make the computer accessible to those with moderate developmental disability.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.354
Title: The User Interface Design Process: The Good, the Bad, & We Did What We Could in Two Weeks
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: User Interface Design Issues [Lecture]
Author: Stimart, Reynold P.
Author: Miller, Marta A.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 354-358
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Case studies, Software/hardware development, Software development, Usability testing, Evaluation, Email, Design, Implementation
Copyright: © Copyright 1994 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1994, pp. 305-309
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Conventional wisdom inside human factors circles says that the integration of user interface design processes into the software development cycle is the best way to improve the usability of software products. While there is no problem convincing human factors practitioners of this, frequently there is still a need to demonstrate the effectiveness of user interface processes to product development teams and management. Mayhew (1992) suggests that it is not enough to be able to apply human factors knowledge. Successful user interface design must include buy-in from outside of the user interface organization. To demonstrate the effectiveness of a user interface design program, data from usability tests on three versions of a product were analyzed. The oldest version of the product was developed without the inclusion of any user interface design processes. The second version of the product had minimal involvement of user interface practitioners late in the development cycle. The newest version of the product was developed with the user interface design processes fully integrated into the software development cycle. The data indicate that user interface design processes do impact usability, as measured by speed, accuracy, and subjective measures. Furthermore, user interface processes which are part of the software development cycle, as opposed to just a side effort by user interface practitioners, seem to have a much greater impact on usability.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.359
Title: Integrating Human Factors with Software Engineering Practices
Section: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Integrating Human Factors within Software Engineering Practices [Symposium]
Author: Roth, J. Thomas
Author: Carter, Jim
Author: Hoecker, Douglas G.
Author: Muller, Michael J.
Author: Lynch, Gene F.
Author: Buie, Elizabeth A.
Author: Hefley, William E.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 359-363
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Analysis, Position paper, Software/hardware development, Software development, Organizational issues, Software engineering, Development process
Copyright: © Copyright 1994 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1994, pp. 315-319
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Engineering processes and methodologies used in building tomorrow's systems must place a greater emphasis on designing usable systems that meet the needs of the systems' users and their tasks. This paper identifies the need for defining human factors and human-computer interaction (HCI) engineering activities that contribute to the design, development, and evaluation of usable and useful interactive systems, and presents a rationale for integrating these activities with software engineering and incorporating them into the system life cycle.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.364
Title: Quantitative Evaluation of Four Computer Keyboards: Wrist Posture and Typing Performance
Section: TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation of Product Design [Lecture]
Author: Denhoy, R.
Author: Shih, M.
Author: Hollerbach, K.
Author: Tittiranonda, P.
Author: Burastero, S.
Author: Chen, C.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 364-368
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Empirical studies, Keyboard input, Hardware development, Wrist posture, Typing
Copyright: © Copyright 1994 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1994, pp. 1094-1098
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The present study focuses on an ergonomic evaluation of 4 computer keyboards, based on a quantitative analysis of wrist posture and typing performance and on subjective analyses of operator comfort during typing. The objectives of this study are (1) to quantify differences in the wrist posture and in typing performance when the four different keyboards are used, and (2) to analyze the subjective preferences of the subjects for alternative keyboards compared to the standard flat keyboard.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.369
Title: Software Usability Testing: Do User Self-Consciousness and the Laboratory Environment Make Any Difference?
Section: TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation of Performance-Shaping Functions [Lecture]
Author: Biers, David W.
Author: Barker, Richard T.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 369-372
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Evaluation, Empirical studies, Usability testing, Laboratory testing methodology, Self-consciousness
Copyright: © Copyright 1994 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1994, pp. 1131-1134
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of laboratory environment, user self-consciousness, and user experience on the user's subjective evaluation of software usability. The study employed a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial between-subjects design with 2 levels of Laboratory Environment (Cameras and Mirror vs. No Cameras and Mirrors), 2 levels of User Self-Consciousness (Low vs. High), and 2 levels of User Experience (Novice, Experienced). The users were asked to learn, then use, and finally subjectively evaluate a restricted subset of common word processing features over three hours of participation. Day 1 was a training day and Day 2 was a test day. Results indicated that high self-conscious and novice users make more word processing errors. However, they were no more likely to make those errors in the presence of cameras and a mirror. More importantly, the evidence for any effect of the independent variables on subjective evaluation was sparse -- limited to the interaction of self-consciousness and laboratory environment on just three of twelve factors. Moreover, the patter of these interactions indicated that self-consciousness and the laboratory environment did not influence subjective evaluation in any predictable manner. Despite some methodological shortcomings, the conclusion was drawn that these variables do not have a major impact on subjective evaluation of software usability.

Bookmark: E.Perlman.95.373
Title: Evaluation of Alternative Methods of Representing Three-Dimensional Objects on Computer Displays
Section: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: Interpreting Graphic Displays [Lecture]
Author: Wiebe, Eric N.
Book: Human Factors Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: Selections from the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings 1983-1994
Date: 1995
Pages: 373-377
City: Santa Monica, California
Publisher: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Keywords: Screen output, Design, Empirical studies, Prototyping, Computer-Supported cooperative work, Software/hardware development, Software development, Visualization, CAD (Computer-aided design), 3-D, Information display
Copyright: © Copyright 1994 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Note: Originally published in HFES Proceedings 1994, pp. 1326-1330
Weblink: Link to HFES Digital Content
Absract: Due to the increased use of 3D modeling software in the design and manufacture of products, careful evaluation needs to be made as to how the 3D model is represented on the computer display. The experiment's hypothesis is that both rate in which projections of a rotating object are presented and whether the object is rendered as a line drawing or shaded will effect the mental representation of the object. The experiment factorially crossed three levels of projection presentation rate with two levels of rendering (line drawing vs. shaded). All levels of both independent variables were between subjects. The subjects' score on a mental rotations test score was used as a covariant. The subjects each viewed 40 displays representing different rotating objects and identified the objects through a forced choice pair selection. RT and error rate were measured for each selection trial. Data on a total of 72 subjects was analyzed using the ANOVA procedure. The results of the experiment showed a significant main effect of the rate of presentation variable on RT. The results also showed a significant main effect of the rendering variable on error rate. No interaction was found between the two independent variables. The results indicate varying presentation rate can be an effective tool in allowing faster interpretations of an object. It is also recommended that the display technique be carefully matched to the complexity of the object being displayed and the capabilities of the computer being used to display it.