Title: The Importance of Goals in Design
Author: Myhill, Carl
Book: Usability Professionals Assocation (UPA) Christchurch Branch Industry Event
Date: 2004-11-25
City: Christchurch, New Zealand
Keywords: Goal-Directed Design, Goals, ATM Design,
Weblink: (3.6Mb PowerPoint Presentation)

Title: Goal-Directed Design for Real
Author: Myhill, Carl
Book: Usability Professionals Assocation (UPA) Christchurch Branch Inaugural Meeting
Date: 2004-09-20
City: Christchurch, New Zealand
Keywords: Goal-Directed Design,
Weblink: Available on request from http://www.litsl.com/personal/publications.html

Title: Goal-Directed Design of the User Experience for Enterprise Applications
Author: Myhill, Carl
Book: GE Network Reliability Products and Services (NRPS) User Conference
Date: 2004-08-25
City: Auckland, New Zealand
Keywords: Goal-Directed Design,
Weblink: Available on request from http://www.litsl.com/personal/publications.html

Title: Commercial Success by Looking for Desire Lines
Author: Myhill, Carl
Book: 6th Asia Pacific Computer-Human Interaction Conference (APCHI 2004)
Editor: Masoodian, M.
Editor: Jones, S.
Editor: Rogers, B.
Date: 2004-06
Pages: 293-304
City: Rotorua, New Zealand
Publisher: Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg
Standard number: ISSN: 0302-9743; ISBN: 3-540-22312-6
Keywords: Desire Lines, Natural Selection,
Weblink: Full Paper (PDF - 825KB)
Weblink: Talk (PowerPoint - 2MB)
Weblink: Images (Zipped - 1.8MB)
Absract: 'Desire Lines' are the ultimate unbiased expression of natural human purpose and refer to tracks worn across grassy spaces, where people naturally walk - regardless of formal pathways. This perfect expression of natural purpose can extend into other interactions in the real world and in the software world. Rather than trying to understand user needs from a focus group, being alert for desire lines will show you users' actual purpose more directly. Smart companies have an obsession with what is typed into their Search facility, analysing hourly this pure expression of what people want from their sites. 'Normanian Natural Selection' is proposed to describe survival of the fittest design. Companies focusing on desire lines apparent in their products, will be able to successfully adapt them to what their users really want. Perhaps these positive adaptions in design, aligned with human natural purpose, will lead to their greater commercial success.

Title: Managerial use and emerging norms: Effects of activity patterns on software design and deployment
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Book: HICSS04
Date: 2004
Pages: 70-73
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/UM/People/jgrudin/publications/organizationalbehavior/managerialuse.pdf
Weblink: doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2004.1265111
Absract: Software use in many organizations has spread vertically. I present evidence that applications that are widely used in organizations have at least three distinct patterns of use: one for individual contributors, one for managers, and one for executives. Use within each of these groups is shaped by its particular activity and incentive structures. Interaction among group members promotes shared social conventions and feature use. When designing, acquiring, or supporting such an application, the best approach could be to treat it as three distinct applications. The applications discussed include shared calendars, email, application-sharing, shared workspaces, browsers and desktop videoconferencing.

Title: Usability - Designing and Application with the User in Mind
Author: Myhill, Carl
Author: Foster, Sue
Book: GE Network Solutions 2002 Conference
Date: 2002-10
City: Keystone, Colorado
Publisher: GE Network Solutions
Keywords: Utility Industry, Telecom Industry, Large Scale Systems, GIS, Geographic Information Systems
Weblink: www.litsl.com/personal/publications.html
Absract: Designing large scale Geographic Information Systems in the Utilities and Telecommunications industries, with the user in mind.

Title: Personas, participatory design and product development: An infrastructure for engagement
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Author: Pruitt, J.
Book: Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Participatory Design
Date: 2002
Pages: 144-161
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/UM/People/jgrudin/publications/personas/PDC2002.pdf
Weblink: Book Chapter on why personas work

Bookmark: C.HFES.2000.raghavan
Title: The Difference of Preference versus Performance Can Differ for Concurrent versus Retrospective Ratings
Author: Raghavan, Srinivas
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Proceedings of HFES 2000, 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Date: 2000
City: San Diego, California
Weblink: www.acm.org/perlman/hfes2000/
Absract: Several studies have found differences between subjective preference ratings and objective performance measures. Bailey [Bailey 93] summarizes several, and argues for separate treatment of these concepts. Our results in a multifactor multivariate experiment support Bailey's contention, but adds a new dimension of concern: the use of concurrent versus retrospective subjective ratings. The presentation here will focus on the relationship of performance and concurrent versus retrospective preference ratings. Retrospective ratings may represent users' lasting impressions of a system after a trial use, but may not be good predictors of performance. Concurrent ratings of confidence of accuracy were found, in this study, to be better predictors performance. We offer recommendations about how to make the best use of these different evaluation measures, particularly when they differ.

Title: Communicating human-computer interaction design intent: requirements for recycling throwaway prototypes
Author: Myhill, Carl
Author: Brooks, Peter
Book: First International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics
Editor: Harris, Don
Date: 1997
Volume: Two
Pages: 379-386
City: Stratford-upon-Avon, UK
Publisher: Ashgate
Standard number: ISBN: 0-291-39847-2
Keywords: participant observation, ethnography, prototypes, multidisciplinary teams, visual prototyping, commercial software development, design intent
Weblink: www.litsl.com/personal/publications.html
Absract: Two long-term participant observation case studies are summarized which investigated a commercial software production process following the introduction of a specialist human-computer interaction role in the development team. Results are presented as a conceptual model of 'categories of influence' in which the majority of categories are issues which effect mutual comprehension within the team. Some of these categories are considered 'facts', whilst others are more dynamic and thereby more realistic targets for improvement. The use of visual prototyping is confirmed as a powerful method of sharing mutual understanding of the software under production and is suggested as a way of making improvements to several of the dynamic categories. However, flaws in this mode of use of visual prototypes are apparent from the data but ways in which a new approach to visual prototyping could have considerable potential are identified

Title: A Practical Prototyping Process for Human-Centred Software Development: When, Why and How to Prototype
Author: Myhill, Carl
Author: Cocker, Steve
Author: Brooks, Peter
Book: Ancillary Proceedings of HCI'94 People and Computers IX
Date: 1994
City: Glasgow, Scotland, UK
Publisher: British Computer Society
Keywords: Prototyping, Requirements for Prototypes, Prototyping for User Interface Design
Weblink: www.litsl.com/personal/publications.html

Title: HHI in GUI, OK?
Author: Myhill, Carl
Book: British HCI Group Seminar 'Design for Clear Communication'
Date: 1993-10
City: London, UK
Publisher: British HCI Group
Keywords: Human-Human Interaction, Software Teams, Multi-disciplinary teams
Weblink: www.litsl.com/personal/publications.html

Bookmark: C.HFES.93.10.13.billingsley
Title: Usability Testing Methodology Session Report
Author: Billingsley, Patricia
Book: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Date: 1993
Note: unpublished report 13 October 1993

Title: Language evolution and human-computer interaction
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Author: Norman, Donald A.
Book: CogSci91
Date: 1991
Pages: 611-616
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/UM/redmond/groups/coet/Grudin/papers/CogSciNorman1991.pdf
Absract: Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended "dialogues" between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer "languages" or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language -- since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

Bookmark: E.Newsome.89.10
Title: Descriptive Models of Cognitive Aspects of the Engineering Design Process
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Design Theory'88
Editor: Newsome, A. L.
Editor: Spillers, W. R.
Editor: Finger, S.
Date: 1989
Pages: 10-17
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Keywords: methods, systems development, user interfaces
Absract: In this paper, I discuss some similarities and differences among a collection of research reports on NSF research on the engineering design process. I compare the methods of gathering information on which the researchers draw their conclusions. I discuss why I think hypertext is a promising basis for technical assistance in the design process and how more controlled experimental methodology may provide more insights into the design process.

Bookmark: C.SMC.89.1187
Title: System Design and Evaluation with Hypertext Checklists
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Proceedings of the 1989 IEEE Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
Date: 1989
Pages: 1187-1193
Keywords: user interfaces, systems development, hypertext, hypermedia, methods
Guidelines, Standards, Rules
The Checklist Method
NaviText SAM: A Hypertext Checklist
	NaviText SAM Workspace Windows
	NaviText SAM Functions
	Viewing Options
	Finding Design Sources with Hypertext
		Dynamic Outliner
		Keyword Search
		Following Cross-References
		Citation Index
		Library-Shelf Search
	Prioritizing Design Guidelines
	Defining Rules
	Specify, Prototype, Build
	System Evaluation
	System Redesign
References (13)
Absract: In this paper, I discuss how hypertext software can aid in the application of technical reference sources to system design and evaluation. Technical reference sources, such as collections of guidelines and standards, can contain hundreds or thousands of points to which system designers should or must conform. Important points can be used to define system-specific design rules, and can later be used as checkpoints in checklists to evaluate conformance. Hypertext access to technical reference sources can make it easier to find checkpoints that are relevant to specific system requirement areas. Hypertext can encode ratings of importance of and conformance to checkpoints. NaviText SAM implements the checklist method of system design and evaluation in a hypertext interface to a large design reference source. Experience with the method and the system indicates that checklists are useful aids to conformance and that hypertext provides advantages over manual checklists.

Bookmark: C.HFSINT.89.271
Title: The Checklist Method for Applying Guidelines to Design and Evaluation
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Proceedings of HFS INTERFACE'89
Date: 1989
Pages: 271-276
Keywords: user interfaces, human factors, systems development, methods, hypertext, hypermedia
Absract: The checklist method for applying guidelines to design and evaluation consists of: finding guidelines relevant to the design requirements, prioritizing guidelines, defining precise rules based on guidelines, applying rules to design, evaluating designs against guidelines, and improving design by reviewing violated guidelines. NaviText SAM software supports the checklist method with a comprehensive source of guidelines for designing user interface software. Experience with the method and the software tool has demonstrated that design guidelines can be made more accessible with online access and that software can help manage importance and conformance ratings.

Bookmark: C.COMPSTAN.88.55
Title: Applying Hypertext Methods for the Effective Utilization of Standards
Author: Perlman, Gary
Author: Moorhead, Anthony J.
Book: IEEE COMPSTAN'88 Conference on Computer Standards
Date: 1988
Pages: 55-59
Keywords: hypertext, hypermedia, systems development
1. Introduction
2. A Hypertext Interface to a Standards Document
	2.1 Hierarchical Browsing
	2.2 Expansion/Concealment
	2.3 Cross-Reference Browsing
	2.4 Inverted-Reference browsing
	2.5 Keyword Searching
	2.6 Marking/Gathering
	2.7 Report Generation
	2.8 Attaching Ratings and Annotation
	2.9 Setting Options and Saving State
3. SAM's Task Oriented Windows
	3.1 The Table of Contents Window
	3.2 The References Window
	3.3 The Expanded Text Window
	3.4 The Gathered Guidelines Window
	3.5 The Text Reader Window
	3.6 The Copy Text Window
	3.7 The Help Window
	3.8 The Options Window
4. Some Examples of Using SAM
	4.1 Example: Hierarchical Browsing and Expansion
	4.2 Example: Inverting References
	4.3 Example: Reviewing Guidelines
5. Experiences with SAM
6. References (5)
7. Acknowledgements
Absract: Standards documents contain a wealth of useful information both for people who must follow standards, and for people interested in the area of application of the standards. In this paper, we describe how hypertext methods, using the rich internal structure of standards documents can promote the effective utilization of standards. We describe a computer system that allows interactive browsing, keyword searching, annotation, and report generation of selected parts of a particular standards document (one used for designing user interface software). We conclude that standards documents are made more useful by having them online and supporting the structural retrieval operations of hypertext methods, and that computer standards should pave the way for how standards in general are disseminated and used in the future.

Bookmark: C.USENIX.85.160
Title: SETOPT: A UNIX Command Line Options Parser Generator
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Proceedings of the Winter USENIX Conference
Date: 1985
Pages: 160-164
Keywords: software engineering, user interfaces
Absract: SETOPT is a set of macros for generating C functions to parse command line options for UNIX commands. A simple language describes all the options allowed with a program. Each option is defined by its name, purpose, data type, size, range, and other information. This information helps generate program code to standardize the interface between users and the program, and between the programmer and the parser. Programmers can assume a perfect user interacting with their programs because on-line help and diagnostic messages tell users what is available and makes sure that legal option values are supplied. Extra abilities include generating summary documents and menu/form-filling interfaces.

Bookmark: C.INTFAC.83.130
Title: Data Analysis in the UNIX Environment:
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Computer Science and Statistics: Proceedings of the 14th Symposium on the Interface
Editor: Heiner, K. W.
Editor: Sacher, R. S.
Editor: Wilkinson, J. W.
Date: 1983
Pages: 130-138
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
Keywords: statistical computing, user interfaces
Weblink: www.acm.org/perlman/statmdf.html
Absract: In this paper, I discuss data analysis on the UNIX operating system and how the UNIX environment affects both the design and use of programs. UNIX is a highly interactive operating system, and as such, is ideal for data analysis, allowing analysts to make immediate decisions based on intermediate results. UNIX provides facilities for directing the output of one program as the input to another. This has resulted in a program design philosophy unique to and ubiquitous in UNIX: to build modular programs that do one task well and that can be combined in many ways to perform complex ones. The application of this philosophy to the design of data analysis programs in UNIX has resulted in the development of separate programs to validate, transform and reformat, enter and edit, print, and do calculations on data. From the user's point of view, programs are smaller and hence more portable to small systems, and can be used in a wide variety of contents. I give examples of programs developed under the UNIX philosophy, and show how it lead to the development of automated interfaces for experimental design specification.

Bookmark: C.USENIX.83.Perlman
Title: The Interface Arsenal
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Proceedings of the Summer USENIX Conference
Date: 1983
Keywords: user interfaces, software engineering
Absract: The INTERFACE ARSENAL is a kit of software tools for easing the task of implementing good users interfaces for programs running on the UNIX operating system. In this paper, I describe the motivation of the development of the INTERFACE ARSENAL, the influences in its design, and the component tools of the INTERFACE ARSENAL. These components include function libraries for implementing user interfaces with option variables, options presented in menus, programmable function keys, high level file handling, and others. Abstract data types are used as a model for the design and specification of all user interface objects such as menus and forms.

Bookmark: C.USENIX.82.Perlman1
Title: MENUNIX: A Menu Interface to UNIX Files and Programs
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Proceedings of the Summer USENIX Conference
Date: 1982
Keywords: user interfaces
Absract: MENUNIX is an interface to programs and files on the UNIX operating system. Programs and files are displayed in menus on users' terminal screens, and are selected with single keypresses of characters displayed next to menu entries. The FILE menu presents the UNIX file hierarchy in menu format, and commands for moving through the hierarchy in both absolute and relative terms are provided. The PROGRAM menu organizes UNIX commands into a hierarchy in which related programs are grouped together into task oriented workbenches, analogous to files being grouped into directories. Special commands are provided for setting, examining, and using variables via a one-line editor that also allows modifying commands. The PROGRAM menu hierarchy, like the FILE menu hierarchy, can be customized to the needs of individual users, allowing workbenches for unusual tasks such as linear programming in addition to ones for common tasks like writing.

Title: Why Human-Computer Interaction Doesn't Work Like Human Dialogue
Author: Carlisle, James H.
Book: ASIS Annual Meeting
Date: 1975-10
City: Boston, MA
Note: working paper; early use of term "Human-Computer Interaction"
Weblink: Paper citing this article