Bookmark: E.Helander.87.0
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Company, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Note: ISBN 0444705368
Contents:
I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction (p. 1)
II. User Interface Design (p. 203)
III. Individual Differences and Training (p. 541)
IV. Applications of Computer Technology (p. 653)
V. Tools for Design and Evaluation (p. 755)
VI. Artificial Intelligence (p. 929)
VII. Psychological and Organizational Issues (p. 1031)
Author Index (pp. 1119-1147)
Subject Index (pp. 1149-1167)

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.3
Title: Cognitive Systems Engineering
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Woods, D. D.
Author: Roth, E. M.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 1
Pages: 3-43
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
What is Cognitive Engineering
The Cognitive System Triad
	Demand Characteristics of Problem Solving Habitats
	Mismatches in the Cognitive System Triad: Getting Lost
A Sample of Critical Issues in Cognitive Engineering
	What is Expertise and Skill
	Exploration Training
	Human Error and Person-Machine Mismatches
	Brittle Problem Solvers and Unexpected Variability
Towards Effective Decision Support
	What is Good Advice?
	Cognitive Tools
	Conceptualization Aids
External Representations and Human Problem Solving
	Fixed and Adaptive Collections
	Analogical Representations
	Integral Displays
	Multiple Representations
	A Case in Representation Design
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.45
Title: Mental Models in Human-Computer Interaction
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Carroll, John M.
Author: Olson, Judith Reitman
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 2
Pages: 45-65
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Abstract
Introduction
Models of What, Held by Whom?
Types of Representations of Users' Knowledge
	Simple Sequences
	Methods and Ways to Choose Among Them
	Mental Models
	Comparisons
How Users' Knowledge Affects Their Performance
	Chaos and Misconception in Both Novices and Experts
	Skilled Performance
Applying What We Know of the Users' Knowledge to Practical Problems
	Designing Interfaces
	User Training
Research Recommendations
References
Absract: Users of software systems acquire knowledge about the system and how to use it through experience, training, and imitation. Currently, there is a great deal of debate about exactly what users know about software. This knowledge may include one or more of the following: * simple rules that prescribe a sequence of actions that apply in certain conditions, * general methods that fit certain general situations and goals, * "mental models," knowledge of the components of a system, their interconnection, and the processes that change the components; knowledge that forms the basis for users being able to construct reasonable actions; and explanations about why a set of actions is appropriate. Discovering what users know and how these different forms of knowledge fit together in learning and performance is important. It applies to the problem of designing systems and training programs so that the systems are easy to use and the learning is efficient. Research on the effects of different representations on ultimate performance is mixed. Research on exactly what users know is scattered. Analytical methods and techniques for representing what the user knows are sparse but growing. This paper reviews current work and through the review, identifies several important research needs: * Detail what kinds of mental representations people have of systems that allow them to behave appropriately in using the software. * Detail what a mental model would consist of and how a person would use it to decide what action to take next. * Produce evidence that people have and use mental models. * Determine the behaviors that would demonstrate a mental model's form and the operations used on the model. * Explore alternative views of goal-directed representations (e.g., so-called "sequence/method representations") and detail the behavior predicted from them. * Expand the types of mental representations that may exist to include those that may not be mechanistic, such as algebraic systems and visual systems. * Determine how people intermix different representations in producing behavior. * Explore how knowledge about systems is acquired. * Determine how individual differences have an impact on learning of and performance on systems. * Explore the design of training sequences for systems. * Provide systems designers with tools to help them develop systems that evoke "good" representations in users. * Expand the task domain of this research to include more complex software.

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.67
Title: Interface Metaphors and User Interface Design
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Carroll, John M.
Author: Mack, Robert L.
Author: Kellogg, Wendy A.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 3
Pages: 67-85
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Approaches to Metaphor
	Operational Approaches to Metaphor
	Structural Approaches to Metaphor
	Pragmatic Approaches to Metaphor
	Toward a Theory of Metaphor
Designing with Metaphors
	Identify Possible Metaphors From the Users' Point of View
	Identify Metaphor/Software Matches with Respect to Representative User Scenarios
	Identify Likely Mismatches and Their Implications
	How to Manage Metaphor Mismatches
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.87
Title: Five Paradigms in the Psychology of Programming
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Curtis, Bill
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 4
Pages: 87-105
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Programming
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Abstract
The Paradigms for Research
Individual Differences
	Programming Tests
	Programmer Motivation
	Individual Differences Summary
Group Behavior
	Group Behavior Summary
Organizational Behavior
	Organizational Behavior Summary
Human Factors and Cognitive Ergonomics
	Requirements and Design Aids
	Specification Formats
	Programming Languages
	Human Factors Summary
Cognitive Science
	Programming Knowledge Structures
	Learning to Program
	Design Problem Solving
	Cognitive Science Summary
Future Directions in Programming
References
Absract: Since the 1950s, psychologists have studied the behavioral aspects of computer programming. However, it has been difficult to integrate their data with theory because of the mixture of psychological paradigms that have guided their research. This chapter will review the research results that have been generated under the five psychological paradigms used most often in exploring programming problems. These five paradigms are 1) individual differences, 2) group behavior, 3) organizational behavior, 4) human factors, and 5) cognitive science. The major theoretical and practical contributions of each area to the theory and practice of software engineering will be discussed. Based on current trends, it appears that research guided by the paradigm of cognitive science will be the easiest to integrate with new developments in artificial intelligence and computer science theory.

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.107
Title: Software Comprehension
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 5
Pages: 107-121
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Programming
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
A Review of Software Comprehension Models
An Integrative Model of Comprehension
Measures of Software Comprehensibility
	Direct Measures
	Indirect Measures
Factors Influencing Software Comprehension
	Complexity
	Program Structure
	Program Form
	Problem Type
	Documentation
Implications for Software Development
	Complexity
	Program Structure
	Program Form
	Problem Type
	Documentation
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.123
Title: Direct Manipulation
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Ziegler, J. E.
Author: Fahnrich, K.-P.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 6
Pages: 123-133
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION Dialogue Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Direct Manipulation
	Shneiderman's Description of Direct Manipulation
	Hutchins, Hollan, and Norman: Direct Manipulation Interfaces
	Direct Manipulation in a Layer Model of Human-Computer Interaction
	Directness
Design of Direct Manipulation Interfaces
	Presentation of Information
	Input Devices
	Invoking Functions
	Generic Operations
	Integration of Different Functions
	Empirical Studies
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.135
Title: Towards a Practical GOMS Model Methodology for User Interface Design
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Kieras, David E.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 7
Pages: 135-157
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: EVALUATION Model Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	The Cognitive Complexity Approach
	Problems in Using Cognitive Complexity Models
	A Guide to GOMS Model Construction
	Will the Methods Actually Work?
	Organization of the Chapter
Overview of the GOMS Task Analysis Approach
	What is a GOMS Analysis?
	Definitions and a Notation for GOMS Models
	Goals
	Operators
	Methods
	Selection Rules
	Task Descriptions and Task Instances
General Issues in GOMS Task Analysis
	Judgment Calls
	Bypassing Complex Processes
	What Tasks Should be Analyzed?
	When can a GOMS Analysis be Done?
A Procedure for Constructing a GOMS Model
	Summary of Procedure
	Detailed Description of Procedure
	Calls and Assumptions
	Making WM Use Explicit
	An Example of Using the Procedure
	Description of Methods
	Modifications to Show WM Usage
	Completing the Analysis
	Checking Sensitivity to Judgment Calls
Using a GOMS Task Analysis
	Qualitative Evaluation of a Design
	Predicting Human Performance with the Design
	Method Learning Time Estimates
	Estimating Execution Time
	Mental Workload
	Suggestions for Revising the Design
	Using the Analysis in Documentation
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.159
Title: Task Allocation and Supervisory Control
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Sheridan, Thomas B.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 8
Pages: 159-173
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Psych Model
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Ten Functions of the Human Supervisor
Human Supervisor Attention Allocation and Timing
Factors Which Limit our Ability to Model Supervisory Control Systems
Social Implications of Supervisory Control
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.175
Title: Information Technology and Work
Section: I. Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Rasmussen, Jens
Author: Goodstein, L. P.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 9
Pages: 175-201
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Different Approaches to the Study of Cognitive Systems
	HCI, Human-Computer Interaction
	Cognitive Sciences
	Cognitive Engineering
	Research Problems of Cognitive Engineering
Design or Evaluation
A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Cognitive Functions
	Problem Space
	The Decision Task
	Mental Information Processing Strategies
	The User's Cognitive Level of Interpretation
	Some Implications of the Cognitive Functional Analysis in Design
A Specific Example: Process Control
	Knowledge-Based Diagnosis
	Rule-Based Diagnosis
	Heuristics for State Identification
Disturbance Control in Process Plants
Concluding Remarks
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.205
Title: Design of Menus
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Paap, Kenneth R.
Author: Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 10
Pages: 205-235
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Dialogue DESIGN
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
To Menu or Not to Menu
	Defining a Menu-Driven Interface
	Assumed Tradeoffs Between Menus and Commands
	Empirical Comparisons of Menus versus Commands
	A Research Strategy for Investigating Interface Type
Designing a Single Menu Panel
	Three Types of Search and Comparison Operations
	Identity Matching
	Equivalence Matching
	Class-Inclusion Matching
	Guidelines for Organizing and Naming the Options on a Single Panel
Choosing a Selection Technique
	Digit versus Letter Identifiers
	Entering Identifiers versus other Selection Techniques
	Guidelines for Choosing a Selection Technique
Organization and Navigation Between Menu Panels
	Depth versus Breadth in a Hierarchical Menu Structure
	Aids to Navigation
	Guidelines for Organizing the Entire Set of Menu Panels
Author Notes
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.237
Title: Command Names
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Barnard, Phil J.
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 11
Pages: 237-255
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Designing Namesets
	What Designers Need to Keep in Mind
	What People Do When They Create Names
	What Designers Do When They Create Names
Experimental Contributions
	Interpreting Experiments
	Differing Designs of Command Namesets Used in Research
	Differing Characteristics of Participants in the Experiments
	Differing Task Domains of Research Experiments
	Differing Measures of User Performance
	Summary
	Natural Names versus System-Oriented or Arbitrary Names
	Attributes of Names: Specificity, Frequency and Concreteness
	Abbreviation
	Effects of Nameset on Individual Names
	Effects of Task Structure on the Use of Names
Using Research Knowledge in Design: Guidelines, Tools and Models
	Guidelines
	Background: Choosing and Structuring a Command Language
	Naming to Facilitate the Name-Operation Mapping
	Naming to Anticipate User Variability and Permit Customization
	Context of Command Name Use: Layout, Prompts, Help
	Designing the System for User Error
	Tools and Models
Design Problems, Approaches, and Unexplored Topics
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.257
Title: Query Languages
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Reisner, Phyllis
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 12
Pages: 257-280
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Basic Notions
	Query Languages
	Language Design Issues
Measuring Ease-of-use
	Human Factors Methodology
	Human Factors Methodology Applied to Query languages
Query Language Experiments
	Evaluating Query Languages
	SQL
	QBE
	Comparing Two or More Languages
	Investigating Basic Issues
	Data Models
	A Data Model Comparison Without Query Language
Improving Query Language Design
	Identifying Problems
	Isolating Causes
	Suggesting Improvements
Models
	Users' Conceptual Models
	Models of the Process of Query Writing
Recent Trends
	Comparing Formal Query Languages
	Comparing Natural Language with Formal Language Querying
	Improving Query Language Design
	Comparing Data Models
	Pragmatics of Testing
	User Studies and Models
	Predictive Models
Implications For Design of Computer Systems
	What Do We Know
	Assessing the Numerical Results
	Assessing the Claims
Some Research Directions
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.281
Title: Using Natural Language Interfaces
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Ogden, William C.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 13
Pages: 281-299
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Habitability
Evaluation Issues
Evaluations of Prototype and Commercial Systems
	Laboratory Evaluations
	Field Studies
Design Issues
	Artificial versus Natural Language
	What is Natural?
	Restrictions on Vocabulary
	Restrictions on Syntax
	Functional Restrictions
	Effects of Feedback
	Empirically Derived Grammars
Design Recommendations
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.301
Title: Systems Design for Automated Speech Recognition
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Helander, Martin
Author: Moody, Taryn S.
Author: Joost, Michael G.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 14
Pages: 301-319
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Input Device Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Speech Recognition Technology
	Technological Limitations of Current Systems
	Historic Perspective of the Development of ASR
Recognition Accuracy
	Vocabulary Design
	Application Tasks
	Environmental Factors
Analysis of Task Composition
Speaking Patterns and Training
	Feedback and Error Correction
Task Analysis and Implementation of Voice I/O
Future Research Needs
	Technological Needs
	Human Factors Research Needs
Appendix: Glossary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.321
Title: Applying Speech Synthesis to User Interfaces
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Streeter, Lynn A.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 15
Pages: 321-343
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Output Device DESIGN Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Chapter Overview
Advantages of Speech Output
	Universality of Spoken Language
	Speech Operates over Distances
	User Free to Process Information in Other Modalities
Disadvantages of Speech Output
	Large Bandwidth Requirements for Storage and Transmission
	Faster Comprehension of Written than Spoken Language
	Speech in an Interface can be Annoying
Talking Tutor: A Good Example of Using Voice Interface
Interaction of Application's Vocabulary Demands and the Type of Speech Used
	Vocabulary Demands: Fixed Message vs. Unrestricted Text
	Examples of Applications with Fixed Messages
	Quality of Speech Depends on the Application Demands
Unrestricted Text-to-Speech Synthesis
	Major Steps Involved in Text-to-Speech Synthesis
	Transforming Text to a Phonetic Spelling
	Selecting a Basic Unit for Synthesis
	Synthesizing Sentences: Modeling Intonation
	Role of Paralanguage in Synthetic Speech
Assessing the Quality of Synthetic Speech
	Traditional Measures of Speech Quality
	Intelligibility of Synthetic Speech
	Increasing the Sensitivity of Evaluation Measures
Future Directions in Speech Synthesis
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.345
Title: Online Aiding for Human-Computer Interfaces
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Elkerton, Jay
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 16
Pages: 345-364
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Abstract
Problems in Online Aiding
A Summary of Prototypical Online Aiding Dialogues
	Online Assistance Dialogues
	Online Instructional Dialogues
A Research and Design Framework for Online Aiding
	A Theory-Based Task-Analytic Model for Online Aiding
	Predicting Usability for Online Aiding
	Predicting Usability Problems for Online Aiding
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Absract: Current research is surveyed on interfaces which aid the computer user online. The results of this review revealed that state-of-the-art knowledge in the design of these aiding interfaces is lacking. Designers of aiding interfaces are only provided qualitative design principles such as make the online help task oriented. As a result, many online aiding dialogues fall far short of the ultimate goal of helping users with their current problems, while also supporting continued skill acquisition at the computer interface. To address this problem, a task-analytic approach is presented which is based on the GOMS model (Card, Moran, and Newell, 1983) of human-computer interaction. This theoretical approach allows online aiding dialogues to be specified using the goals, operators, methods, and selection rules of the computer interface. In addition, a fully specified GOMS model provides an opportunity for usability problems to be identified analytically so that aiding dialogues can be implemented effectively based on quantitative predictions of performance time, learning time, and user memory load. Finally, this theory allows assistance and instructional dialogues to be simulated to predict any improvements due to online aiding without extensive user testing.

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.365
Title: Graphic Challenges in Designing Object-Oriented User Interfaces
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Verplank, William L.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 17
Pages: 365-376
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Prototype Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Object-Oriented Direct Manipulation and Enabling Technologies
Graphic Challenges
	Old Problems
	New Problems
Illustrations
	The Illusion of Manipulable Objects
	Visual Order and User Focus
	Revealed Structure
	Consistent and Appropriate Graphic Vocabulary
	Match the Medium
Symbolic and Analogic User Interfaces
Speculations
Acknowledgements
Notes on References
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.377
Title: Screen Design
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Tullis, Thomas S.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 18
Pages: 377-411
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Prototype Windows
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Importance of Screen Design
	Historical Perspective
	An Overview of the Literature
Screen Design Issues and Techniques
	Amount of Information to Present
	Grouping of Information
	Highlighting of Information
	Placement and Sequence of Information
	Spatial Relationships Among Elements
	Presentation of Text
	Use of Graphics
The Screen Design Process
	Requirements and Constraints Analysis
	Task Analysis and Scenario Development
	Development of Design Rules
	Development of Implementation Philosophy
	Early Design, Prototyping, and Evaluation
	Full-Scale Prototyping and Implementation
Future Directions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.413
Title: Taking Panes: Issues in the Design of Windowing Systems
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Billingsley, Patricia A.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 19
Pages: 413-436
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Windows Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	The Appeal of Windowing
	Constraints on the Design of Windowing Systems
	An Empirical Investigation of the Value of Windowing
Characterizing Windowing Systems
	Presentation Styles
	Interaction Styles
	Set of Operations
Future Directions
	Grouping Windows: Workspaces, Working Sets, and Rooms
	User-Customized Windows
	User Training Techniques
Research Agenda and Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.437
Title: Image Quality
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Snyder, Harry L.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 20
Pages: 437-474
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Output Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Theoretical Bases and Relevant Research
	Spatial Vision
	Spatial Image Quality
	Temporal Vision
	Chromatic Vision
Applications to Computer System Display Design
	Resolution
	Raster Modulation/Active Area
	Luminance and Contrast
	Polarity
	Image Stability (Jitter)
	Flicker
	Color Selection and Contrast
	Character Design
	Text Spacing
	Glare Control
Future Developments
	Flat Panel Displays
	Stereoscopic Displays
	Touch Input Devices
	Virtual Image Displays
	Image Quality Measurements
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.475
Title: Keys and Keyboards
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Potosnak, Kathleen M.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 21
Pages: 475-494
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Input Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Design Criteria
Keyboard Layouts
	The QWERTY Layout
	The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard Layout
	Conclusions of Dvorak Simplified Keyboard
	Alphabetical Keyboards
	Other Keyboard Layouts
Data-Entry Keypads
	Layout of Numbers and Letters
	Multifunction Keypads
Physical Features of Keys and Keyboards
	Keyboard Height and Slope
	Size of the Keyboard
	Detachable Keyboards
	Keyboard Profile
	Key Size and Shape
	Key Force, Travel and Tactile Feedback
	Auditory Feedback
	Visual Feedback
	Error-Avoiding Features
	Color and Labeling
Innovations in Keyboard Designs
	Split and Tilt Keyboards
	New Methods of Typing
Summary
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.495
Title: Input Devices
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Greenstein, Joel S.
Author: Arnaut, Lynn Y.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 22
Pages: 495-519
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Input Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Design Considerations
	Touch Screen Devices
	Light Pens
	Graphic Tablets
	Mice
	Trackballs
	Joysticks
Novel Input Techniques
	Pro Pointer
	Footmouse
	Eye-Controlled Input
	Gesture-Based Input
Empirical Comparisons
	Target Acquisition Tasks
	Menu and Text Selection Tasks
	Text Entering and Editing Tasks
	Continuous Tracking Tasks
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.521
Title: VDT Workstation Design
Section: II. User Interface Design
Author: Kroemer, K. H. E.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 23
Pages: 521-539
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Output Device
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
A Problem With Many Interactions
Work Task
The Person
Positioning the Body Relative to the Computer
Body Postures
"Healthy" Body Postures
Experimental Studies
Sitting Postures and Workstation Design
Ergonomic Design of VDT Workstations
	Seat Design
	Visual Targets
	Adjustment Features
	Stand-up Workstations
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.543
Title: Individual Differences in Human-Computer Interaction
Section: III. Individual Differences and Training
Author: Egan, Dennis E.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 24
Pages: 543-568
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Adaptive DESIGN
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Plan for This Chapter
How Big are Individual Differences in Human-Computer Interaction?
	Selecting Computer-Based Tasks to Analyze
	Statistics to Characterize Individual Differences
	Text Editing Performance
	Information Search
	Programming
	Summary
	Putting These Results into Perspective
What Predicts Differences in Performance?
	Experience
	Technical Aptitudes
	Other Aptitudes
	Discussion of the Effect of Aptitudes
	Age
	Domain Specific Knowledge
	Personality and Affect
	Which Predictors Make a Big Difference?
Accommodating User Differences
	Robust Interfaces
	User Prototypes
	Adaptive Trainer Systems
	Automated "Mastery Learning"
Goals in Designing for User Differences
	Goal #1: Aid Users Experiencing Greatest Difficulty
	Goal #2: Enable Users to Exploit Domain Knowledge
	Achieving the Design Goals
	Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.569
Title: From Novice to Expert
Section: III. Individual Differences and Training
Author: Mayer, Richard E.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 25
Pages: 569-580
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Adaptive DESIGN
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Types of Knowledge in Human-Computer Interaction
	Data Base
Expert-Novice Differences in Problem Solving
	Recall Tasks
	Protocol Tasks
	Sorting Tasks
	Implications of Research on Expert-Novice Differences in Problem Solving
Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Syntactic Knowledge
	What is Syntactic Knowledge?
	Research on Differences in Syntactic Knowledge
	Implications of Research on Syntactic Knowledge
Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Semantic Knowledge
	What is Semantic Knowledge?
	Research on Differences in Semantic Knowledge
	Implications of Research on Semantic Knowledge
Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Schematic Knowledge
	What is Schematic Knowledge?
	Research on Differences in Schematic Knowledge
	Implications of Research on Schematic Knowledge
Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Strategic Knowledge
	What is Strategic Knowledge?
	Research on Differences in Strategic Knowledge
	Implications of Research on Strategic Knowledge
Conclusion
	Theoretical Implications
	Research Implications
	Practical Implications
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.581
Title: Microcomputers and the Elderly
Section: III. Individual Differences and Training
Author: Czaja, Sara J.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 26
Pages: 581-598
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Adaptive DESIGN
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Use of Computer Technology by Older Adults
	Employment
	Communication and Education
Aging as a Process
	Aging Defined
Sensory Processes
	Vision
	Audition
	Body Size and Strength
Cognitive Functioning
	Speed of Responding
	Perceptual Abilities
Memory and Learning
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.599
Title: Computer-Based Instruction
Section: III. Individual Differences and Training
Author: Eberts, Ray E.
Author: Brock, John F.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 27
Pages: 599-627
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Adaptive Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Computer Assisted Instruction
	Examples of CAI Systems
	Advantages of CAI
	Disadvantages of CAI
	Future of CAI
Computer Managed Instruction
	Student Viewpoint
	Instructor Viewpoint
	Administrator Viewpoint
	Example of a CMI System: AIS
	Evaluation of CMI Systems
Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction
	Characteristics of ICAI
	STEAMER Example
	Evaluation
	Future Research
Computer-Based Instruction Issues and Research
	Individual Differences
	Knowledge of Results (KR)
	Amount of Practice
	Augmented Feedback
	Part-Whole Training
	Adaptive Training
	Conceptual Representations
	Motivation
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.629
Title: Issues of Content and Presentation in Document Design
Section: III. Individual Differences and Training
Author: Wright, Patricia
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 28
Pages: 629-652
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Guidance
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Decisions About Content
	Evidence for "Enriched" Manuals
	A Precis Does Not Help the Reader
	Evidence for Minimal Manuals
	Conclusions About Content
Issues of Presentation
	Medium
	Mode of Representation
	Language
	Conclusions about Presentation
Iterative Design Processes
	Conclusions about Testing
Will Documentation Always be Needed?
	Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.655
Title: Text Editors
Section: IV. Applications of Computer Technology
Author: Roberts, Teresa L.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 29
Pages: 655-672
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Text Editors
Varieties of Text Editors
	Users and Their Tasks
	Effect of Hardware
Fundamental Issues
	Relationship with Other Applications
	The Process of Editing
Command Language
Content
	Model of Data
	Display of Text
	Operations
Appearance
	Model of Appearance Information
	Display of Formatting
	Operations
Advanced Features
	Special Applications
	Programming
Evaluation
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.673
Title: Textual Information Retrieval
Section: IV. Applications of Computer Technology
Author: Dumais, Susan T.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 30
Pages: 673-700
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Structured Databases
	Query Languages
	New Directions in Query Languages
	Menu-Based Systems
	New Directions and Improvements in Menu-Based Systems
Bibliographic/Full-Text Information Retrieval
	Keyword-Based Retrieval Systems
	Evaluation of Keyword Retrieval Systems
	Review of Research in Automatic Indexing
	Boolean vs. Graded Document Membership and Similarity
	Summary of Other Indexing Experiments
	Improving Retrieval
	Evaluation Revisited
New Developments and Frontiers
	Richer Connections/Hypertext
	Online Documents and Books
	AI Methods in Information Science
	Graphical/Spatial Data Management
	Customization/Selective Presentation of Information
The Future of Information Retrieval
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.701
Title: Cognitive Aspects of Computer Aided Design
Section: IV. Applications of Computer Technology
Author: Waern, Karl-Gustaf
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 31
Pages: 701-708
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Computer Aided Design and its Applications
	What is Computer Aided Design?
	CAD Systems
Design Engineering and Drawing Work
The CAD-User's System Interaction
	System to User Communication
	User to System Communication
What are the Advantages of CAD?
	Two-Dimensional CAD
	Three-Dimensional CAD
Some Cognitive Characteristics of CAD
	Command Complexity
	Surveying Complicated Parts
	Response Time
	Strategy Choices in CAD
The User's Mental Models
	The User's Model of the CAD System
	The User's Model of the Object and Final Product
CAD and Problem Solving
	Problem Spaces and Problem Solving Heuristics
	Some Aspects on CAD Systems as Problem Solving Instruments
Concluding Remarks
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.709
Title: Human-Computer Interaction in Architectural Design
Section: IV. Applications of Computer Technology
Author: Gourmain, Pierre
Author: Sharit, Joseph
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 32
Pages: 709-727
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Architectural Design: Some Issues in Human-Computer Interaction
	Architectural Design and Computer Systems
	A Shift in Focus: CAAD and Quality
A Research Program
The Social and Organizational Implications of CAAD Systems
User Education and Training for CAAD Systems: The System Tutor
	On-line Documentation and Professional Legal Liability
	On-line Teaching Software
Advanced Interactive Systems for CAAD
	The Hardware Interface
	The Software Interface
The Design Interface, Design Modelling, and Design Cognition
	Design Research and the Study of Decision Making in Design
	Architectural Design Modelling and Graphic Representations
	Value Judgment in Architectural Design
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.729
Title: Human-Computer Interaction in Facilities Layout
Section: IV. Applications of Computer Technology
Author: Gupta, Rajiv
Author: Sharit, Joseph
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 33
Pages: 729-736
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction to Facilities Layout Design
Modelling the Block Layout Problem
	Graphical Techniques
	Travel Charting
	The Quadratic Assignment Model
	Graph Theory
	Computerized Layout Routines
Human versus Computer Methods
Human-Computer Interactive Methods
	Aiding the Human
The Human-Computer Interactive System
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.737
Title: Robot Programming
Section: IV. Applications of Computer Technology
Author: Parsons, H. McIlvaine
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 34
Pages: 737-754
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Programming Considerations
	Feasibility
	Infrequency
	Hybrids
	Other Automation
	Settings
	Data Sources for Robot Control
	Types of Robots
	Varieties of Application Programs
	Where Do Programs Originate?
	Who Programs?
Human Factors Investigations
	Teach Pendants
	Teaching Arms
	Computer Terminals
	Controller Panel
	Software
Desirable Research
	Programming Configurations
	Skill Requirements
	Performance Measurement
	Design Issues
	Procedural Issues
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.757
Title: How to Design Usable Systems
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Gould, John D.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 35
Pages: 757-789
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Task Empirical EVALUATION Guidelines Standards
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Overview
	Usability Has Many Aspects
	Four System Design Principles
	Usability Design Phases
Behavioral Principles of Design
	Beyond Standards, Guidelines, Etc.
	Principle 1. Early and Continual Focus on Users
	Methods to Carry Out Early Focus on Users
	Principle 2. Integrated Design
	Methods to Carry Out Integrated Design
	Principle 3. Early and Continual User Testing
	Methods to Carry Out Early and Continual User Testing
	Principle 4. Iterative Design
	Methods to Carry Out Iterative Design
	Evaluation of Human Factors Principles
Starting Points
	Define the System
	Follow-on Systems
	New Influential Systems
	New Technologies
	User Circumstances
	Journals, Proceedings, Demonstrations
	Other Designers and Consultants
	Workshops and Short Courses
	Standards, Guidelines, Development Procedures
User Interface Standards
	Status and Evaluation
Handbooks and Guidelines
	Status and Evaluation
Development Rules and Procedures
	Description and Sources
	Evaluation
Formal Models for Design
	Evaluation
Summary and Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Trademarks
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.791
Title: Usability Engineering: Our Experience and Evolution
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Whiteside, John
Author: Bennett, John
Author: Holtzblatt, Karen
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 36
Pages: 791-817
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: EVALUATION Empirical
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Purpose of this Chapter
	A Framework for Proceeding, Not a Recipe
	Background of Our Approach
Part 1. Practical Experience in Usability Engineering
	Our View of Engineering
	The Role of Objectives in Development
	Developing Usability Specifications
	An Evolving Understanding of What Counts as Success
	An Example of a Usability Specification Table
	Using Usability Objectives During the Development Process
Part 2. Analysis of our Progress: The Need for Contextual Research
	Historical Background: Shifting Perspectives
	Our Conclusion: A Context Sensitive Research Approach is Needed
Part 3. Contextual Research: Exposition and Prospects
	Uncovering Experience
	Interpreting the Data
	A Contextual Example
	The Problem of Generalizability: The Emergence of Usability Concepts
	Integrating Contextual Research Into the Engineering Process
	Usability Engineering in the Development Cycle: A Vision
Summary
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.819
Title: Software Tools for User Interface Development
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Perlman, Gary
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 37
Pages: 819-833
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION TOOL
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
	Design, Implementation and Evaluation
	Tools versus Methods
	A Perspective on Previous Work
The User Interface Management System Approach
	Device Interfaces
	Application Interfaces
	Dialogue Control
	Implementation Functionality
	Dialogue Types
Future Developments in User Interface Tools
	Integrating Design and Evaluation Tools into Development
	Expert Systems
	Enforcement of Standards and Rules
	The Promise of Object-Oriented Development
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.835
Title: A Task Analytic Approach to Dialogue Design
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Phillips, Mark D.
Author: Bashinski, Howard S.
Author: Ammerman, Harry L.
Author: Fligg, Claude M., Jr.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 38
Pages: 835-857
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Task
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Traditional Task Analysis Methods
Operations Concept Definition
	Importance of User Involvement
	Information-Processing Task Analysis
	Conceptual Model of Interaction
Computer-Human Interface/Task Analysis
	CHI/TA Conceptual Design Process
	Semantic Design Process for the User Input Language
	Semantic and Syntactic Design Process for Display Properties
	Syntactic and Lexical Design of the User Input Language
	Syntactic Design of the User Display Language
	Lexical Design of the User Display Language
	Results of CHI/TA
Conclusions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.859
Title: Rapid Prototyping for User Interface Design
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Wilson, James
Author: Rosenberg, Daniel
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 39
Pages: 859-875
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Prototype DESIGN TOOL
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Abstract
Interface Design as Tangible Speculation
	Rapid Prototyping Defined
	The Psychology of Prototyping
	The Benefits of User Interface Prototyping
	What Can be Prototyped
	The User Interface Specification
How to Prototype
	The Random Walk Approach
	Top Down Design
	Rapid Prototyping from the Bottom Up
	Integrated Design Environments
Classes of Prototyping Techniques
	Slide Show Techniques
	Wizard of Oz Techniques
	Fully Animated Prototypes
Rapid Prototyping and the User Interface Management System
Designers That Use or Need Prototyping Tools
Types of Prototyping Tools
	The Tool Kit Approach
	The Parts Kit Approach
	Animation Language Metaphor
Anatomy of a User Interface Rapid Prototyping Tool
	Graphical Specification
	Logical Specification
	Formal Grammars
	State Tables
	State Transition Networks
	Behavior by Example
	Binding it all Together: The Run-time Unit
Built-In Instrumentation of the User Interface
Automatic Evaluation Techniques for User Interface Design
	Artificial Intelligence in Rapid Prototyping Systems
Conclusions
References
Absract: The present chapter provides an introduction to the rationale and techniques used for the rapid prototyping of the user interface (UI). It is intended primarily for those practitioners who are now known as "user interface designers" or "dialogue designers." The reader will become familiar with the benefits of rapid prototyping, the role of prototyping in alternative development strategies, and the classes of prototyping techniques. First we review the major issues surrounding the integration of prototyping tools into the user interface design process. Both the nature of the products that can be simulated and the nature of the users applying the tools are explored. The remaining sections analyze the components of a prototyping tool. A complete prototyping system requires methods for specifying interface graphics as well as product logic. Support tools and embedded data collection test facilities can also be integrated to facilitate the testing process.

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.877
Title: Standards versus Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Smith, Sidney L.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 40
Pages: 877-889
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Guidelines Standards
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Abstract
User Interface Software
Design Standards
Hardware versus Software
Standards versus Guidelines, Rules and Algorithms
The Knowledge Base for Standards and Guidelines
Application of Design Guidelines
Adaptability or Anarchy?
Acknowledgement
References
Absract: There are significant differences between designing hardware and software for the user interface to computer-based information systems. Formal design standards may improve hardware design, but may prove ineffective for aiding software design. Our present knowledge supports development of flexible design guidelines for user interface software, but does not justify imposition of standards. Effective application of guidelines will require a process of translation into system-specific design rules, and/or future incorporation into computer-based design algorithms.

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.891
Title: Software Evaluation Methodologies
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Karat, John
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 41
Pages: 891-903
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Empirical Model EVALUATION
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Theory-Based Evaluation
User-Based Evaluations
Surveys and Questionnaires
Verbal Reports
Controlled Experimental Studies
Task-Based Evaluations
Informal Design Review
Formal Design Analysis - GOMS
Production System Analysis
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.905
Title: Research Methods in Human-Computer Interaction
Section: V. Tools for Design and Evaluation
Author: Landauer, Thomas K.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 42
Pages: 905-928
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Empirical EVALUATION DESIGN Task Model Psych
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction: For Whom and Why and What
	Why Research is Important in Human Computer Interaction
Goals for Research in Human Computer Interaction
	Relative Evaluation of Systems or Features
	Determining What a System Should Do
	Discovering Relevant Scientific Principles and Testing Models
	Establishing Explicit Standards or Guidelines for Design
	Being Clear About a Goal is the First Step Towards it
Special Problems of Doing Research in Human-Computer Interaction
Research Designs and General Methodology
	General Strategy Issues
	Invention and Specification Oriented Methods
	Design Oriented Research Methods
	General Principle Oriented Methods
Measurement and Analysis
	Preliminaries: What to Measure and How Many Observations
	Data Quality
	Reliability
	Statistical Analysis
Conclusions and Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.931
Title: Human Factors Issues in Expert Systems
Section: VI. Artificial Intelligence
Author: Pew, Richard W.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 43
Pages: 931-940
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
What is an Expert System?
A User-Oriented Taxonomy of Expert Systems
	Type of Application
	Source of Pacing
	Type of Knowledge
Task Decomposition
Function Allocation
Design Philosophy
	Tools versus Solutions
	Design of Displays for Expert Systems
	Displays for Data Input
	Displays for Explanation
	Expert System Usability Issues
	Keeping the User Current
	Expert System Reliability
	Workload
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.941
Title: Natural Language Interface Systems
Section: VI. Artificial Intelligence
Author: Scha, Remko J. H.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 44
Pages: 941-956
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Dialogue
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Syntax and Parsing
	Introduction
	Grammatical Formalisms
	Semantic Grammars
Semantic Interpretation
	Representing the Meaning of a Question
	The Semantic Interpretation Process
Semantic Transformations
	Introduction
	Declarative Specifications of the Relation Between EFL and DBL
The Ambiguity Problem
	Anomaly Checking
	Presupposition Failure
Discourse
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.957
Title: Human Factors in Knowledge Acquisition
Section: VI. Artificial Intelligence
Author: Salter, William J.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 45
Pages: 957-968
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Building an Expert System
	Selection of Experts
	Knowledge Acquisition in the Early Stages of System Building
Specific Elicitation Techniques
	Introduction
	Retrospective Comment Analysis
	Thinking-Aloud Protocols
	Interruption Analysis
	On-line Comment Analysis
	Incremental Simulation
	Mixed Method Approaches
Summary
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.969
Title: Intelligent Interface Design
Section: VI. Artificial Intelligence
Author: Chignell, M. H.
Author: Hancock, P. A.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 46
Pages: 969-995
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Adaptive
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
The Evolution of the Interface
	General Functions of the Interface
The Concept of Intelligent Interfaces
	What is an Intelligent Interface?
	What are the Components of an Intelligent Interface?
	When is an Intelligent Interface Needed?
Intelligent Interface Models
	Information Retrieval Search Intermediaries
	Expert Systems as Intelligent Interfaces
Supplementary Techniques for Intelligent Interfaces
	Approach 1. Natural Language Interfaces
	Approach 2. Hypermedia
	Approach 3. Expert Systems
	Approach 4. Knowledge Acquisition
	Approach 5. Dialog Design
Intelligent Interface Technology
	Necessity 1. Task Analysis
	Necessity 2. Expert Systems
	Necessity 3. Interface Design Tools
The Process of Building an Intelligent Interface
	Task Analysis
	User Model
	Development of Common Interface Model
	Conceptual Design
	Building the Task Machine
	Prototyping the Interface
	Evaluating the Interface
	Redesign
A Case Study in Intelligent Interface Design
	Task Analysis
	Common Interface Model
	User Model
	Conceptual Design
	Building the Task Machine
	Prototyping the Interface
	Evaluating the Interface
Summary and Conclusions
	Future Directions
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.997
Title: Decision Support Systems: Designing to Extend the Cognitive Limits
Section: VI. Artificial Intelligence
Author: Zachary, Wayne W.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 47
Pages: 997-1030
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Application Model
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Decision Support and Human Decision Processes: Some Definitions
	Naturalistic Decision Processes
The Decision Support System Design Process
Step 1. Definition and Decomposition of the Decision Problem
	Goal Decomposition
	Decision Situation Description
Step 2. Analysis of Decision Situations
	Identifying Decision-Making Limitations and Constraints
Step 3. Defining Decision Support System Functionality
Step 4. Selecting DSS Technology within Behavioral and Cognitive Constraints
Selecting Process Models for the DSS
Selecting Value Models for the DSS
Selecting Information Management Tools for the DSS
	Data Management Techniques
	Knowledge Management Techniques
Selecting Automated Analysis/Reasoning Techniques for the DSS
	Numeric Reasoning Techniques
	Symbolic Analysis Technique
Selecting a Representation Aid for the DSS
Selecting a Judgment Refinement/Amplification Tool for the DSS
Summary and Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.1033
Title: Social Aspects of Computer Use
Section: VII. Psychological and Organizational Issues
Author: Ostberg, Olov
Author: Chapman, Larry J.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 48
Pages: 1033-1049
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: DESIGN Task Psych Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Myth Number 1. Employees React with Irrational Fears When Computers are Introduced
Myth Number 2. Employee Participation in Technological Change is Needless
Myth Number 3. Unions Impede Technological and Economic Progress
Myth Number 4. Planning for Technological Change Should Rely More on Experts Than End Users
Myth Number 5. When Possible, Use Technology to Create More Desk-Type Jobs
Myth Number 6. In Job Design, Remember to Keep it Simple
Myth Number 7. New Policies and Closer Supervision are Proven Methods for Improving Productivity and Eliminating Waste
Myth Number 8. One Person with a Computer Can Outperform a Whole Team
Summary
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.1051
Title: Information Technology and Work Organization
Section: VII. Psychological and Organizational Issues
Author: Crowston, Kevin
Author: Malone, Thomas W.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 49
Pages: 1051-1070
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Abstract
Introduction
Theoretical Bases
	Perspectives on Organizational Structure
	Perspectives on Technology
	The Link Between Structure and Technology
Survey of Empirical Research
	Rationalist Perspective
	Information Processing Perspective
	Motivational Perspective
	Political Perspective
Implications for Further Research
Implications for the Design of Systems and Work
	Rationalist Perspective
	Information Processing Perspective
	Motivational Perspective
	Political Perspective
Conclusion
References
Absract: New kinds of information technology (IT) are increasingly affecting the ways in which people work. In this chapter, we discuss the relationship between IT and work organization. We first discuss theories about technology, organizations and the link between the two. We suggest four perspectives on organizations -- rationalist, information processing, motivational and political -- which can be used to interpret organizational structure. Using these four perspectives, we review the results of empirical studies of the use of IT to suggest what changes have been seen in the past and can be expected in the future. We conclude with some suggestions about the kinds of future research that will be useful and some implications for the design of systems, work and organizations.

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.1071
Title: Socio-Issues Related to Home-Based Work
Section: VII. Psychological and Organizational Issues
Author: Pratt, Joanne H.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 50
Pages: 1071-1080
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Characteristics of the Home-Based Workforce
Research Concerns
Labor Unions and Disabled Workers
Implications for Design of Computer Systems
Markets for Computer Systems
	Systems Installation in Private Dwellings for Full-Time Home-Based Employees
New Directions
Research on Technology
Organizational Technology
Research on Home-based Work
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.1081
Title: Factors Influencing Acceptance of Computer-Based Innovations
Section: VII. Psychological and Organizational Issues
Author: Mackie, Robert R.
Author: Wylie, C. Dennis
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 51
Pages: 1081-1106
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Introduction
Innovation Acceptance Theory
	Initial Awareness
	Need for Improvement
	Level of Interest
	Information Acquisition
	Perceived Features and Perceived Need
	Experience with Similar Developments
	User Participation in Design
	Personal Risk
	Availability of Support
	Subjective Evaluation
	Organizational Climate
	The Role of Authority
	Summary of the Theoretical Process
Planning for Innovation Acceptance
	Communicate with Potential Users
	User Involvement During Development
	Design for Acceptance
A Study of New Decision Support Systems
	Military Officers are Basically Optimistic About the Potential Value of AI Decision Aids
	Understanding the Decision Rules is Essential
	The Best Available Expertise Does Not Imply Operational Validity
	Reduction of the Decision Maker's Mental Workload
	Value of AI Under High Stress Conditions
	Perceived Value of AI to Officers of Different Experience Levels
	Concern About Undue Influence
	Undermining of Decision Making Authority
	Summary
	Interface Design Issues
	Nature of Recommendation/Situation Assessment Outputs
	Probability or Confidence Estimates
	Addition/Deletion of Decision Rules
Summary of Results
	Perceived Positive Attributes of AI Decision Aids
	Negative Perceptions of AI Decision Aids
	General Design Issues
Conclusion
References

Bookmark: E.Helander.87.1107
Title: Technological Innovation and Organizational Ecology
Section: VII. Psychological and Organizational Issues
Author: Becker, Franklin D.
Book: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
Editor: Helander, Martin
Date: 1988
Number: 52
Pages: 1107-1117
City: New York, NY
Publisher: North-Holland
Keywords: Social
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Copyright: © Copr. 1988 Elsevier Science Publishing Company
Contents:
Abstract
Introduction
Technological Feasibility
	Bridge Distance and Time
	Enormous Data Storage Capability
	More Stand Alone Equipment
	More Connectivity Among Terminals and Computers
	Equipment Mobility
	Virtual Simultaneous Input
	Graphic, Number, Written, and Oral Capacity
	Rapid Obsolescence
	Summary of Technical Feasibility
Space Planning Implication of Office Automation
	Redistribution of Space: Smaller and Larger Personal Work Areas
	Multiple Work Areas
	More Focus on Shared Meeting and Social Spaces
	More Amenities
	More Group/Project Spaces
	More Emphasis on Personal Safety
	Loose versus Tight Fit
Organizational Constraints: The Acceptability Program
	Assumptions About How Space is Structured
	Assumptions About Peer Relationships and Interaction Patterns
	Assumptions About Turf and Privacy
	Summary of Organizational Implications
Integrating Technology, Design, and Organizational Innovation
	A Case Study
The Acceptability Factor and the Enculturation Process
Acknowledgements
References
Absract: Organizational ecology is the study of the ways in which the planning, design, and management of physical settings affect and are affected by organizational values, expectations, and work practices. Technological advancements in office automation and automated building systems have the potential to stimulate a wide range of innovative space planning and design concepts. This paper explores the way in which the organizational culture may constrain space planning and design innovations in the office environment. It describes a case study in which technology, space planning and design, and organizational culture are planned in an integrated fashion to stimulate innovation in a manufacturing organization.