Bookmark: E.Galer.92.1
Title: Introduction
Author: Galer, Margaret
Author: Harker, Susan
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 1
Pages: 1-10
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
1.1 The Background to the HUFIT Project
1.2 The Issues Addressed by the HUFIT Project
	1.2.1 Human Factors in the Design Process
	1.2.2 Developments in Interface Design
	1.2.3 Software Tools to Support User-Centred Design
1.3 The Structure and Contents of the Book
1.4	References
Absract: This chapter describes the background to the HUFIT project and why user-centred design formed the focus for the project. The failure of IT systems to match the high expectations placed upon them and the need to institutionalise human factors expertise within the development cycle are discussed. The research and development activities to support the growth in the application of a user-centred approach are related to an overall model of the design process which provides a way of navigating through the material presented in the following chapters.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.13
Title: Human Factors Tools for Designers of Information Technology Products
Section: 1 -- Supporting the Design Process from Conception to Use
Author: Allison, Gordon
Author: Cattarall, Bernard
Author: Dowd, Marc
Author: Galer, Margaret
Author: Maguire, Martin
Author: Taylor, Bronwen
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 2
Pages: 13-42
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
2.1 Introduction -- User-Centred Design in the System Development Process
2.2 The Planning, Analysis and Specification (PAS) Toolset
	2.2.1 Development of the Planning, Analysis and Specification (PAS) Tools
	2.2.2 The Tools in the PAS Toolset
2.3 The User Computer Interface Design Tool
	2.3.1 Introduction
	2.3.2 The Structure of the User Computer Interface Design Tool
2.4 The HUFIT Training Seminars
	2.4.1 The Designers' Seminar
	2.4.2 The Human Factors Practitioners' Seminar
2.5 The Documentation Toolset
	2.5.1 Development of the Documentation Toolset
	2.5.2 The Format of the Documentation Toolset
2.6 QED -- Quick Ergonomic Design
	2.6.1 Background to the QED Primer
	2.6.2 The QED Concept
	2.6.3 Description of QED Sections
2.7 Conclusion
2.8 References
Absract: This chapter describes an integrated human factors input to the design of information technology products, as exemplified in the tools for user centred design. These human factors tools have been produced to provide designers in information technology product supplier companies with methods for the user-centred design of their products, in particular the software. The tools comprise a number of integrated tools for use by participants in the design process such as in Planning, Design and Quality Assurance. They are designed for use within the time and resource constraints of the design process and by people who do not necessarily have human factors skills and expertise. The tools were originally developed as paper based tools and where appropriate on-line versions have been developed. The user can decide which forms are appropriate to their environment. The tools are the Planning, Analysis and Specification (PAS) Toolset, the User Computer Interface Design (UCID) Tools, the Documentation Design Guidelines and QED.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.43
Title: An Ergonomics Framework for User Activity Centred Software Design
Section: 1 -- Supporting the Design Process from Conception to Use
Author: Jeffroy, Francois
Author: Lambert, Isabelle
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 3
Pages: 43-92
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Analysis of Work Activity and Software Design in a Supplier Context
	3.2.1 Design as Adaptation of "Form" to "Context"
	3.2.2 The Paradox of Ergonomics in Design
	3.2.3 Analysis of User's Work Activity and Software Design
3.3 "Course of Action": A Theoretical and Methodological Framework for Analysing the Characteristics of User Work Activity
	3.3.1 Theory of Human Behaviour, Analysis of User Work Activity and Software Design
	3.3.2 A Theoretical Object of Scrutiny: The "Course of Action", Characteristics of Phenomena Under Consideration
	3.3.3 The Concept of "Sign of Action"
	3.3.4 Methodology for Analysis of the Course of Action
	3.3.5 Creating a Model of the Course of Action
	3.3.6 Different Levels of User Action Analysis
3.4 From Analysis of Course of Action to Software Design
	3.4.1 The Ergonomics Diagnosis
	3.4.2 Development of Ergonomic Recommendations
	3.4.3 Design of an Office Automation Integrator
	3.4.4 Design of a Database Retrieval System for Documentation
	3.4.5 Design of Integrated Mailing and Filing Applications
	3.4.6 The Problem of Re-Use of Results
3.5 Conclusion
	3.5.1 The Theoretical and Methodological Framework to Understand User Action
	3.5.2 Integration of Ergonomics into the Design Process
3.6 References
Absract: The analysis of software use can be applied to improve the design of new software applications. The orientation adopted is to analyse constraints of use through direct observations in real work situations. Problems of observation and protocol analysis are discussed. In order to give input to the design process as early as possible, analysis is conducted in existing situations, on prototypes and then on the new software. Three examples of ergonomics input to design projects are presented.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.93
Title: The SANE Toolkit for Cognitive Modelling and User-Centred Design
Section: 1 -- Supporting the Design Process from Conception to Use
Author: Bosser, Tom
Author: Melchior, Elke-Maria
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 4
Pages: 93-125
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
4.1 Introduction
	4.1.1 System Architecture of Interactive Computer Applications
	4.1.2 Human Factors Test of Validation Early in the Design Process -- 'Just in Time'
	4.1.3 Prototyping, Test of Validation
4.2 Task Analysis and Task Modelling
	4.2.1 Job Analysis and Work Analysis
	4.2.2 Task Analysis and the Design of New Work Environments
	4.2.3 Representation of Tasks
4.3 Models of User Knowledge
	4.3.1 Models of Procedural Knowledge for Using Computers
	4.3.2 The Representation of Device-Related Knowledge
	4.3.3 SANE -- The Interaction Model of a Device
	4.3.4 Simulation of User Procedures
	4.3.5 Complexity of User Procedures
	4.3.6 User Knowledge
	4.3.7 Two Strands of SANE: Cognitive Modelling and a Computer-Aided Design of Interactive Applications
4.4 The SANE Toolkit
	4.4.1 Evaluation Capabilities Offered in SANE
	4.4.2 Documentation and User Support Functions
	4.4.3 Application of SANE Modelling
4.5 A Scenario for Using the SANE Toolkit
	4.5.1 An Example: Cash Dispenser
	4.5.2 Requirements Analysis and Task Modelling
	4.5.3 Constructing a SANE Interaction Model of the Device
	4.5.4 Validation of the Interaction Model of the Device
	4.5.5 Documentation and User Support Functions
4.6 Conclusion
4.7 Further Development of SANE
4.8 References
Absract: The SANE toolkit is a modelling language and a set of software tools for modelling cognitive operator procedures in well defined domains such as human computer interaction. A SANE model represents precisely the user-visible functionality of a device and the tasks performed by the user: the interaction model of the device. Activity charts can be transferred from CASE tools and developed in the considerably more precise interaction model, which can be used as a prototype. With a fully developed model, including a task model, user procedures can be simulated and render the user knowledge model, which serves for validation of the interaction model and as a basis for constructing user support functions. Validation includes verification -- the proof that the defined tasks can be performed with the device -- and validation, a quantitative estimate of the cognitive workload involved in performing the tasks. The decisive advantages offered by SANE are the speed and efficiency of modelling, the fact that incomplete functional specifications can be used and the automatic generation of documentation. Typical application domains are interactive systems tailored to specific applications, for example NC-machines, transaction processing, telecom terminals or systems in vehicles.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.127
Title: Product Usability
Section: 1 -- Supporting the Design Process from Conception to Use
Author: Bertaggia, Nadia
Author: Montagnini, Gianni
Author: Novara, Francesco
Author: Parlangeli, Oronzo
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 5
Pages: 127-175
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Usability Issues
	5.2.1 Designing for Usability
	5.2.2 Planning for Usability
5.3 Testing in a Commercial Environment
5.4 The Organisational Context for Usability Management
	5.4.1 The Politics of Testing
	5.4.2 Integrating Human Factors and Software Development
5.5 Development of the Usability Evaluation Methodology
	5.5.1 Evaluating Usability in a Human Factors Laboratory: General Issues
	5.5.2 The Olivetti View
	5.5.3 Setting up a Human Factors Laboratory
	5.5.4 Exploiting Results from the Laboratory
5.6 A Methodology for Experimental Design, Data Collection and Data Analysis
	5.6.1 Preparation of the Test
	5.6.2 Selection of the User Sample
	5.6.3 Selection of Tasks
	5.6.4 User Training
	5.6.5 Performing the Tests
	5.6.6 Data Collection
	5.6.7 Data Analysis
	5.6.8 Feedback of Results to Designers
5.7 A Case Study of the Methodology in Use
	5.7.1 Preparation of the Test
	5.7.2 Selection of the User Sample
	5.7.3 User Training
	5.7.4 Selection of Benchmark Tasks
	5.7.5 Experimental Procedure
	5.7.6 Data Collection
	5.7.7 Data Analysis
	5.7.8 Conclusions
5.8 Bridging the Gap
	5.8.1 Usability Assurance in the Customer Organisation
	5.8.2 Field Activities: Results Obtained
	5.8.3 Customer Orientation
5.9 General Conclusions
5.10 References
Absract: In this chapter consideration is given to external market changes and the consequent need for improved software products, which have given a new impetus to the search for integrating human factors during product development. Several problems arise in a commercial environment before meeting general acceptance in introducing different software development methods. These are mainly related to a well rooted company culture. Firm steps have been taken to increase awareness of the importance of these issues, thus creating the environment for setting up a human factors laboratory. The method of usability evaluation, its applicability and potential usefulness within an industrial reality is discussed. A laboratory methodology is proposed to gather qualitative and quantitative information on product usability which should, once elaborated, be fed back appropriately to interested parties in the company. Research work on pre- and post- implementation actions, from a supplier's perspective, is also discussed.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.177
Title: The Computer Human Factors Database
Section: 1 -- Supporting the Design Process from Conception to Use
Author: Phillips, Kathryn
Author: Galer, Margaret
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 6
Pages: 177-200
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The Development of the Computer Human Factors Database
	6.2.1 Sources of Information
	6.2.2 Searching the Literature
6.3 Tools to Aid Retrieval from the Database
	6.3.1 The Computer Human Factors Thesaurus
	6.3.2 The Computer Human Factors Classification
6.4 The Structure of the Database
	6.4.1 The Range of the Database
	6.4.2 The On-Line Database
6.5 Performing a Search on the Database
6.6 The Development of the User Interface
6.7 A Typical Search on the Computer Human Factors Database
	6.7.1 Database Interrogation Techniques
	6.7.2 A Sample Search on the Computer Human Factors Database
6.8 A Computer Human Factors Information Service
6.9 Conclusion
6.10 References
Absract: A unique bibliographic database dealing specifically with the field of Computer Human Factors has been developed. The database brings together the diversified literature of the field while omitting areas where human factors do not apply. A user interface has been developed according to human factors principles which will cater for the needs of a wide variety of potential users. A user-centred design approach has been adopted throughout the process of development, utilising the expertise of human factors specialists within the UK and throughout Europe.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.203
Title: Design of Dialogues for Human-Computer Interaction
Section: 2 -- Developments in Interface Design
Author: Haubner, Peter
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 7
Pages: 203-236
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Design and Evaluation of User Interfaces
	7.2.1 Where Did We Start From?
	7.2.2 Product Design as a Component of the Development Process
	7.2.3 Incorporation of Human Factors into the Design Model
	7.2.4 Evaluation of User Interfaces
7.3 Perspectives
7.4 References
Absract: The chapter reports on work conducted in three phases. In the first phase, examples of implemented dialogues were analysed with regard to user needs and system weakpoints. From cognitive psychology concepts models of user characteristics are derived in order to gain knowledge for interface design. Further, formalisms are surveyed for formal descriptions of dialogue structures with emphasis on human factors aspects. In a second phase a concept for the integrated planning, design, and evaluation of user interfaces is discussed including a method for describing dialogues, and guidelines for dialogue design. The guidelines are exemplified by prototyped sample solutions in the form of scenarios. For selected important dialogue features experimental tests are reported. Finally, in the third phase, the applications of results are discussed. Perspectives are given for exploitation and further research and development activities.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.237
Title: Direct Manipulation User Interface
Section: 2 -- Developments in Interface Design
Author: Gorner, Claus
Author: Vossen, Paulus
Author: Ziegler, Jurgen
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 8
Pages: 237-279
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Characteristics of Direct Manipulation
	8.2.1 Definitions
	8.2.2 Classification of Manipulative Techniques
	8.2.3 Directness
8.3 Empirical Studies of Direct Manipulation Interaction
	8.3.1 Comparative Studies: Direct Manipulation versus Other Interaction Styles
	8.3.2 Predictive Studies: Learnability and Complexity of Direct Manipulation Interaction
	8.3.3 Discussion
8.4 Design Guidelines
	8.4.1 Presentation Components
	8.4.2 Selection Components
	8.4.3 Interaction Methods
	8.4.4 Manipulation of Applications
	8.4.5 Manipulation of Documents
	8.4.6 Manipulation of Drawings
	8.4.7 Manipulation of Forms
	8.4.8 Manipulation of Texts
	8.4.9 Invocation of Functions
8.5 Designing Direct Manipulation Interfaces
	8.5.1 Design of Interface Objects and Functions
	8.5.2 Development of Views on Objects and Functions
	8.5.3 Definition of Dialogue Sequences
	8.5.4 Focussing and Manipulation of Objects
	8.5.5 Layout and Visual Presentation of Objects and Functions
8.6 References
Absract: Direct manipulation is a new interaction technique for human-computer interaction which has gained considerable relevance in recent years. In this chapter, characteristics and design issues of direct manipulation interfaces are discussed. The chapter provides empirical results on complexity and transfer of learning between different applications. Finally, a methodological approach to designing direct manipulation interfaces in conjunction with design guidelines is presented.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.281
Title: Design and Evaluation of Applications with Speech Interfaces -- Experimental Results and Practical Guidelines
Section: 2 -- Developments in Interface Design
Author: van Nes, Floris
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 9
Pages: 281-297
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Instructions: The Spoken Manual
9.2.1 General
9.2.2 Performance
9 2 4 Practical Guidelines for Instructional Messages
9.3 Comments: A Voice Annotation System
	9.3.1 General
	9.3.2 Control of the System
	9.3.3 Voice versus Text Annotations
	9.3.4 Practical Guidelines for Voice Annotation
9.4 Text Creation and Production: Voice-Actuated Typewriters
	9.4.1 General
	9.4.2 Performance
	9.4.3 Preference
	9.4.4 Conclusion
	9.4.5 Practical Guidelines for Speech-to-Text Conversion
9.5 Consultation: Reference to Notes by Voice Input
	9.5.1 General
	9.5.2 Performance
	9.5.3 Preference
	9.5.4 Conclusion
	9.5.5 Practical Guidelines for Voice Consultation
9.6 Voice Commands for System Control -- Generic Findings with Actual Speech Recognition
	9.6.1 General
	9.6.2 Cursor Control by Voice Commands
	9.6.3 Recognition Performance
	9.6.4 Hindrance from Headsets
	9.6.5 Hindrance to Others
	9.6.6 Practical Guidelines for Using Speech Recognition
9.7 References
Absract: Man-computer communication is still predominantly monomedial: computer input is generated by manual means, mostly the keyboard, and output is presented visually, usually on a CRT. To enrich this communication speech may be applied, both as an input and output medium. This chapter describes human factors research on the application of speech in four areas: HELP messages, annotation of documents, speech-to-text conversion and electronic diary-keeping. In the latter three areas voice commands were also used for system control. Regarding the first area, instruction (HELP messages), it was found that learning may proceed as fast with speech as with text and possibly be more thorough. A number of subjects preferred speech over text for learning. In the second area, annotation of documents, voice annotations turned out to be more efficient to make than text annotations which is reflected in preference rates: 2-1. This picture changes for receiving annotations from somebody else, however: processing times are the same or longer for voice than for text annotations, and only 25% of subjects preferred processing voice annotations. In the third area, speech-to-text conversion, subjects preferred voice over manual commands for layout and typographic control as well as for corrective purposes. Voice commands were also preferred over manual ones in the fourth area, diary keeping. Practical guidelines are given for the application of speech in all four areas, including the use of speech recognition per se.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.299
Title: Multimedia Interfaces
Section: 2 -- Developments in Interface Design
Author: Koller, Franz
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 10
Pages: 299-315
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
10.1 Human Factors Issues for the Design of Multimedia Systems
10.2 Application Domains of Multimedia
	10.2.1 Training and Diagnosis for Machine Maintenance
	10.2.2 Information System
10.3 Design Issues for Multimedia Systems
10.4 Development of Multimedia User Interface
	10.4.1 Selected Development Systems for Multimedia
	10.4.2 Hardware
	10.4.3 Software Tools
	10.4.4 Integration of Media
10.5 Further Developments
10.6 References
Absract: Multimedia techniques offer an increasing potential for improving human computer interaction and for defining new areas of computer applications. In this context, a range of new design issues is emerging which has to be addressed by prototype developments and human factors studies. Therefore an important aim of the HUFIT project was the design and realization of improved multimedia interfaces. Based on a model specified according to human factors requirements prototypes were realized. This chapter gives an introduction into the application domains and prerequisites of multimedia. It also indicates some design issues for the development of multimedia interfaces. Two prototype systems are described. An information system on hypercard and the prototype system MULTEX (Koller and Ziegler [1]) which extends the capabilities of diagnostic expert system applications by means of a multimedia user interface. Through these new features, the system not only provides better support for the diagnostic task itself but also offers intelligent help and on-the-job training facilities. Technically, the system integrates speech input and output, text, graphics, animation and video. These media allowed information to be conveyed in a more illustrative manner.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.319
Title: DIAMANT -- A User Interface Management System for Object-Oriented Interfaces
Section: 3 -- Software Tools to Support User-Centred Design
Author: Trefz, Bernhard
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 11
Pages: 319-343
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
11.1 Overview
11.2 Introduction
	11.2.1 Project Objectives
	11.2.2 User Interface Implementation and User Interface Management Systems
	11.2.3 Architecture of DIAMANT
11.3 Editor for the Interactive Composition of Graphical Interfaces
11.4 User Interface Description Language (UIDL)
	11.4.1 Description of UIDL
	11.4.2 Discussion of the Language
11.5 The Library
11.6 Hardware and Software Requirements for Using DIAMANT
11.7 Implementation Examples
11.8 Conclusion
11.9 References
Absract: This chapter describes the User Interface Management System DIAMANT. The system consists of several components. A graphical editor allows a dialogue designer to combine interactively predefined interaction objects and thus specifying the layout of a user interface. A special object-oriented language is used to specify the dynamic behaviour of a user interface. The run time system of DIAMANT controls the defined user interface during run time and provides facilities for inter-process communication. These facilities can be used to establish a Client-Server Model between the user interface and the non-interactive kernel of a system. Each of the components is described in this chapter. Several examples on the usage of DIAMANT are given.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.345
Title: INTUIT: A Computer Assisted Software Engineering Support for User-Centred Design
Section: 3 -- Software Tools to Support User-Centred Design
Author: Russell, Fred
Author: Pettit, Phil
Author: Elder, Simon
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 12
Pages: 345-370
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Development Philosophy
12.3 Role of INTUIT and its Users
	12.3.1 User Role
	12.3.2 System Design Role
	12.3.3 System Tasks
	12.3.4 Interface Styles
12.4 Architecture and Design Principles
	12.4.1 Architecture
	12.4.2 INTUIT User Interface Subsystem
	12.4.3 Design Constructs Subsystem (DCS)
	12.4.4 Human Factors Knowledge Subsystem
	12.4.5 Design Principles
12.5 Tutorial Walkthrough of INTUIT in Use
12.6 Conclusions
12.7 References
Absract: The trend towards automated support for the development of software is now firmly established. In line with the growing sophistication of knowledge-based CASE (Computer Assisted Software Engineering) tools, ICL has developed INTUIT, a concept generator CASE tool. In this tool the design process is presented by the SSADM structured design methodology, and the human factors advice and interface style support is intimately connected to the SSADM design objects. INTUIT is a hybrid system in that it is object, frame and rule based (using Intellicorp's KEE system) and enables inferential reasoning to be applied to the interaction between the interface objects during a design session.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.373
Title: Developing Intelligent Decision Support Systems Through User-Centred Design: A Managerial Planning Application
Section: 4 -- Exemplar of the Application of User-Centred Design
Author: Laios, Lampros
Author: Marmaras, Nikos
Author: Giannacourou, Maria
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 13
Pages: 373-412
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
13.1 Introduction
	13.1.1 Decision-Making in Ill-Defined Complex Tasks
	13.1.2 Decision-Makers' Cognitive Skills
	13.1.3 Intelligent Decision Support Systems -- Ergonomic Requirements
	13.1.4 User-Centred Design for IDSSs
13.2 Development of a Prototype for Supporting Strategic Managerial Planning
	13.2.1 Feasibility Phase
	13.2.2 Development
	13.2.3 Prototype Evaluation
13.3 Concluding Remarks
13.4 References
Absract: The work presented in this chapter addresses the problems of designing effective and usable systems supporting ill-defined complex tasks requiring decision making. The different phases of the development of a system supporting managerial strategic planning are described in order to present the problems encountered in such an endeavour as well as the contributions of the user-centred design.

Bookmark: E.Galer.92.415
Title: Human Factors in the I.T. Software Design Process -- The Way Forward
Section: 5 -- Conclusions
Author: Harker, Susan
Author: Eason, Ken
Author: Ziegler, Jurgen
Book: Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology
Editor: Galer, Margaret
Editor: Harker, Susan
Editor: Ziegler, Jurgen
Date: 1992
Number: 14
Pages: 415-426
City: Amsterdam
Publisher: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers
Copyright: © Copyright 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers
Contents:
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The Changing Pattern of Demands for Human Factors
	14.2.1 Increased Product Specialisation
	14.2.2 Changing Expectations in User Organisations
	14.2.3 Supporting the Work of Organisations and Groups
14.3 The Future Development of User Interface Technologies
	14.3.1 New Input and Output Techniques
	14.3.2 Virtual Realities
	14.3.3 Ubiquitous Computers and their User Interfaces
	14.3.4 Multimedia and Hypermedia Systems
14.4 The Requirement for Progressive Adaptability
14.5 Supporting the Design Process
14.6 Conclusion
14.7 References
Absract: Having indicated the achievements of the HUFIT project, this chapter seeks to identify future trends in the demand for human factors inputs to the design of IT systems. These are seen to rest on the growing complexity and sophistication of the applications for which user organisations expect support and the emerging opportunities presented by technological innovation. In particular it is necessary to take account of changes in the ways in which systems will be developed to match specific end user needs and the demand for flexible and usable tools to support the development process.