Bookmark: J.ASIST.45.369
Title: Human-computer interaction
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: Annual Review of Information Science and Technology
Date: 2011
Volume: 45
Pages: 369-430
Absract: The history of library and information science is covered, along with HCI research in human factors, information systems, and computer science (CHI).

Bookmark: J.AIMag.45.369
Title: AI and HCI: Two fields divided by a common focus
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: AI Magazine
Date: 2009
Volume: 30
Number: 4
Pages: 48-57
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/UM/People/jgrudin/publications/history/AImagazine.pdf
Absract: Although AI and HCI explore computing and intelligent behavior and the fields have seen some crossover, until recently there was not very much. This article outlines a history of the fields that identifies some of the forces that kept the fields at arm's length. AI was generally marked by a very ambitious, long-term vision requiring expensive systems, although the term was rarely envisioned as being as long as it proved to be, whereas HCI focused more on innovation and improvement of widely used hardware within a short time scale. These differences led to different priorities, methods, and assessment approaches. A consequence was competition for resources, with HCI flourishing in AI winters and moving more slowly when AI was in favor. The situation today is much more promising, in part because of platform convergence: AI can be exploited on widely used systems.

Title: Going critical: Perspective and proportion in the epistemology of Rob Kling
Author: King, John L.
Author: Iacono, S.
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: The Information Society
Date: 2007
Volume: 23
Number: 4
Pages: 251-26
Keywords: critical perspective, social informatics
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/UM/People/jgrudin/publications/history/Rob-TIS.pdf
Absract: One foundational element of Rob Kling's body of research and writing is its critical perspective on the nature, role and dynamics of computerization. His main argument was that one should view as dubious any statements that are not grounded in empirical evidence or theoretical analysis, particularly when the implications appear to benefit those making the statements, such as vendors, the public press, and government officials. Rob's work was replete with successful instances of critical refutation, in which he challenged assumptions or statements about computerization and provided convincing alternative interpretations. Much of his work delivered powerful indictments against sloppy conjecture and hyperbolic statements that claimed either utopian or dystopian outcomes from computerization. At the same time, some of his own assessments of the implications of emerging technologies tended to be dismissive and marginalizing, revealing in his own thinking some of the weaknesses he relished in pointing out in others' rhetoric and writing. This paper identifies intellectual traps inherent in critical perspectives that can catch even the most acute practitioners. The objective is to help elucidate and stabilize the epistemological foundations for Rob's critical perspective on the role of computerization.

Bookmark: J.CACM.50.5.83
Title: Universal accessibility as a multimodal design issue
Author: Obrenovic, Zeljko
Author: Abascal, Julio
Author: Starcevic, Dusan
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 2007
Volume: 50
Number: 5
Pages: 83-88
Keywords: universal usability
Copyright: © Copyright 2004 Association for Computing Machinery
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link
Absract: Creating adaptable solutions to address diverse users and situations.

Title: Why personas work: The psychological evidence
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Book: The persona lifecycle: Keeping people in mind
Editor: Pruitt, J.
Editor: Adlin, T.
Date: 2006
Pages: 642-663
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/UM/People/jgrudin/publications/personas/PersonaBook.pdf
Absract: The power of personas to engage and inform team members was described in the introduction to this book. But why does engagement lead to better design? How do detailed pictures of fictional people contribute? How detailed should they be -- are stereotypes enough? This chapter addresses the psychological foundations of persona use. It describes theories and findings that explain their effectiveness. We can use personas without understanding the underlying psychology. Alan Cooper has remarked on their "surprising" power without exploring the source of their effectiveness. But by understanding how they work we can design better personas, select appropriate complementary methods, and embed personas in effective processes.

Title: Three faces of HCI
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
Date: 2005-10
Volume: 27
Number: 4
Pages: 46-62
Keywords: History, human-computer interaction, human factors, information systems, design, discretion, performance, HCI History
Weblink: doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2005.67
Absract: Human-computer interaction is considered a core element of computer science. Yet it has not coalesced; many researchers who identify their focus as human-computer interaction reside in other fields. The author examines the origins and evolution of three HCI research foci: computer operation, information systems management, and discretionary use. Efforts to find common ground and forces that have kept them apart are described.

Bookmark: J.TOG.23.3.416
Title: VisualIDs: Automatic Distinctive Icons for Desktop Interfaces
Section: Research Contributions
Author: Lewis, J. P.
Author: Rosenholtz, Ruth
Author: Fong, Nickson
Author: Neumann, Ulrich
Journal: ACM Transactions on Graphics
Date: 2004
Volume: 23
Number: 3
Pages: 416-423
Copyright: © Copyright 2004 Association for Computing Machinery
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link
Weblink: web.mit.edu/rruth/www/Papers/VisualIDs.pdf
Absract: Although existing GUIs have a sense of space, they provide no sense of place. Numerous studies report that users misplace files and have trouble wayfinding in virtual worlds despite the fact that people have remarkable visual and spatial abilities. This issue is considered in the human-computer interface field and has been addressed with alternate display/navigation schemes. Our paper presents a fundamentally graphics based approach to this 'lost in hyperspace' problem. Specifically, we propose that spatial display of files is not sufficient to engage our visual skills; scenery (distinctive visual appearance) is needed as well. While scenery (in the form of custom icon assignments) is already possible in current operating systems, few if any users take the time to manually assign icons to all their files. As such, our proposal is to generate visually distinctive icons ("VisualIDs") automatically, while allowing the user to replace the icon if desired. The paper discusses psychological and conceptual issues relating to icons, visual memory, and the necessary relation of scenery to data. A particular icon generation algorithm is described; subjects using these icons in simulated file search and recall tasks show significantly improved performance with little effort. Although the incorporation of scenery in a graphical user interface will introduce many new (and interesting) design problems that cannot be addressed in this paper, we show that automatically created scenery is both beneficial and feasible.

Bookmark: J.ANNREVPSY.54.491
Title: Human-Computer Interaction: Psychological Aspects of the Human Use of Computing
Author: Olson, Gary M.
Author: Olson, Judith S.
Journal: Annual Review of Psychology
Date: 2003
Volume: 54
Pages: 491-516
Weblink: arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145044
Absract: Human-computer interaction (HCI) is a multidisciplinary field in which psychology and other social sciences unite with computer science and related technical fields with the goal of making computing systems that are both useful and usable. It is a blend of applied and basic research, both drawing from psychological research and contributing new ideas to it. New technologies continuously challenge HCI researchers with new options, as do the demands of new audiences and uses. A variety of usability methods have been developed that draw upon psychological principles. HCI research has expanded beyond its roots in the cognitive processes of individual users to include social and organizational processes involved in computer usage in real environments as well as the use of computers in collaboration. HCI researchers need to be mindful of the longer-term changes brought about by the use of computing in a variety of venues.

Bookmark: J.IEEEIC.6.2.46
Title: Achieving Universal Usability by Designing for Change
Section: Usability and the Web
Author: Perlman, Gary
Journal: IEEE Internet Computing
Date: 2002
Volume: 6
Number: 2
Pages: 46-55
Standard number: ISSN: 1089-7801
Copyright: Copyright © 2002 IEEE. All Rights Reserved.
Weblink: csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/ic/2002/02/w2046abs.htm
Absract: Partitioning function-, language-, and platform-specific elements of an interface into pieces that can be incorporated into templates lets developers adapt to requirement changes and provides universal usability.

Bookmark: J.CACM.43.5.84
Title: Universal Usability -- Pushing human-computer interaction research to empower every citizen
Author: Shneiderman, Ben
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 2000
Volume: 43
Number: 5
Pages: 84-91
Copyright: Copyright © 2000 ACM
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link
Weblink: www.cs.umd.edu/~ben/p84-shneiderman-May2000CACMf.pdf
Absract: The goal of universal access to information and communications services is compelling. Enthusiastic networking innovators, business leaders, and government policymakers see opportunities and benefits from widespread usage. But even if they succeed and the economies of scale bring low costs, computing researchers will still have much work to do. They will have to deal with the difficult question: How can information and communications services be made usable for every citizen?

Bookmark: J.ANNREVPSY.48.61
Title: Human-Computer Interaction: Psychology as a Science of Design
Author: Carroll, John M.
Journal: Annual Review of Psychology
Date: 1997
Volume: 48
Pages: 61-83
Weblink: arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.61
Absract: Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

Title: Computer-supported cooperative work: History and focus
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: IEEE Computer
Date: 1994
Volume: 27
Number: 5
Pages: 19-26
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/groups/coet/Grudin/papers/IEEEComputer1994.pdf
Weblink: History updated

Title: Groupware and social dynamics: Eight challenges for developers
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 1994
Volume: 37
Number: 1
Pages: 92-105
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link

Title: Measuring Usability: Preference vs. Performance
Author: Nielsen, Jakob
Author: Levy, Jonathan
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 1994
Volume: 37
Number: 4
Pages: 66-75
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link

Title: Interactive Systems: Bridging the gaps between developers and users
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: IEEE Computer
Date: 1991
Volume: 2
Number: 4
Pages: 59-69
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/groups/coet/Grudin/papers/IEEEComputer1991.pdf

Bookmark: J.MISQ.13.3.319
Title: Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology
Author: Davis, F. D.
Journal: MIS Quarterly
Date: 1989
Volume: 13
Number: 3
Pages: 319-340
Contents:
PERCEIVED USEFULNESS
1. Using the system in my job would enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly
2. Using the system would improve my job performance
3. Using the system in my job would increase my productivty
4. Using the system would enhance my effectiveness on the job
5. Using the system would make it easier to do my job
6. I would find the system useful in my job
PERCEIVED EASE OF USE
7. Learning to operate the system would be easy for me
8. I would find it easy to get the system to do what I want it to do
9. My interaction with the system would be clear and understandable
10. I would find the system to be flexible to interact with
11. It would be easy for me to become skillful at using the system
12. I would find the system easy to use

Bookmark: J.CACM.32.10.1164
Title: The Case Against User Interface Consistency
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 1989
Volume: 32
Number: 10
Pages: 1164-1173
Weblink: research.microsoft.com/research/coet/Grudin/papers/CACM1989.pdf
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Citation
Absract: Designers striving for user interface consistency can resemble Supreme Court justices trying to define pornography: each of us feels we know it when we see it, but people often disagree and a precise definition remains elusive. A close examination suggests that consistency is an unreliable guide and that designers would often do better to focus on users' work environments.

Title: Why groupware applications fail: Problems in design and evaluation
Author: Grudin, Jonathan
Journal: Office: Technology and People
Date: 1989
Volume: 4
Number: 3
Pages: 245-264

Bookmark: J.CACM.31.4.428
Title: Cost/benefit analysis for incorporating human factors in the software lifecycle
Author: Mantei, Marilyn
Author: Teorey, Toby J.
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 1988
Volume: 31
Number: 4
Pages: 428-439
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link
Absract: New software engineering techniques and the necessity to improve the user interface in increasingly interactive software environments have led to a change in traditional software development methods. Methodologies for improvement of the interface design, an overview of the human factors element, and cost/benefit aspects are explored.

Bookmark: J.CACM.28.3.300
Title: Designing for usability: key principles and what designers think
Author: Gould, John D.
Author: Lewis, Clayton
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 1985
Volume: 28
Number: 3
Pages: 300-311
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link
Absract: This article is both theoretical and empirical. Theoretically, it describes three principles of system design which we believe must be followed to produce a useful and easy to use computer system. These principles are: early and continual focus on users; empirical measurement of usage; and iterative design whereby the system (simulated, prototype, and real) is modified, tested, modified again, tested again, and the cycle is repeated again and again. This approach is contrasted to other principled design approaches, for example, get it right the first time, reliance on design guidelines. Empirically, the article presents data which show that our design principles are not always intuitive to designers; identifies the arguments which designers often offer for not using these principles -- and answers them; and provides an example in which our principles have been used successfully.

Bookmark: J.BRMIC.17.2.203
Title: Electronic Surveys
Author: Perlman, Gary
Journal: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers
Date: 1985
Volume: 17
Number: 2
Pages: 203-205
Keywords: statistical computing, methods
Contents:
An Electronic Survey Administration System
    Construction
    Presentation
    Distribution and Collection
Design and Implementation
Concluding Remarks
    Availability
    Enhancements
    Limitations
        Experience
        Resources
        Confidentiality
References
Absract: A programming language and computer system for the design, administration, and distribution of surveys are described. A special-purpose programming language allows the concise definition of a survey. The definition is passed to a program generator that creates a program for presenting questions and gathering answers. Conventions for distribution and collection of surveys are discussed. The system reduces many of the problems associated with conducting a survey.

Bookmark: J.UXWORLD.85.11.11.75
Title: USENET: Doing Research on the Network
Author: Perlman, Gary
Journal: UNIX/World
Date: 1985
Volume: 11
Number: 11
Pages: 75-81
Keywords: computer-supported cooperative work, user interfaces
Contents:
Gathering Simple Information
Gathering Strategic Information
Spying on the Net
Net Surveys
Group Program Construction
Conferences
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References (4)
Absract: USENET is a UNIX-based computer system network used for distributing news. It is an informal but extensive medium for communication of ideas and sharing of information. In this paper, I recount some research experiences with computer network bulletin boards, in this case, UNIX netnews. I discuss cases where netnews has been used for gathering simple information, marketing information, corporate espionage intelligence, public opinion surveys, for group program construction, and for netconferencing. I conclude that networks are an effective way to do new forms of research not possible using other media.

Bookmark: J.CACM.26.4.295
Title: Composing letters with a simulated listening typewriter
Author: Gould, John D.
Author: Conti, John
Author: Hovanyecz, Todd
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 1983
Volume: 26
Number: 4
Pages: 295-308
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link
Absract: With a listening typewriter, what an author says would be automatically recognized and displayed in front of him or her. However, speech recognition is not yet advanced enough to provide people with a reliable listening typewriter. An aim of our experiments was to determine if an imperfect listening typewriter would be useful for composing letters. Participants dictated letters, either in isolated words or in consecutive word speech. They did this with simulations of listening typewriters that recognized either a limited vocabulary (1000 or 5000 words)or an unlimited vocabulary. Results suggest that some versions, even upon first using them, could be at least as good as traditional methods of handwriting and dictating. Isolated word speech with large vocabularies may provide the basis for a useful listening typewriter.

Title: Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages
Author: Shneiderman, Ben
Journal: IEEE Computer
Date: 1983
Volume: 16
Number: 8
Pages: 57-69
Weblink: doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.1983.1654471

Bookmark: J.VISLAN.84.17.4.380
Title: Graphical Abstractions of Technical Documents
Author: Perlman, Gary
Author: Erickson, Thomas D.
Journal: Visible Language
Date: 1983
Volume: 17
Number: 4
Pages: 380-389
Keywords: documentation user interfaces
Contents:
1. Good Technical Writing
2. Traditional Aids: Summary/Predictive Statistics
3. A More General Approach: Abstractions
4. Two Graphical Abstraction Programs
    4.1 HEADINGS: Extract Section Headings
    4.2 PUNC: Punctuation Graphs of Sentences
    4.3 ABSTRACT: Combining the Two Programs
5. Comparison of Graphical and Numerical Techniques
    5.1 Graphical Representations of Readabilty
    5.2 Deficiencies of Numerical Techniques
        5.2.1 Sentential Analysis: Parenthetical Remarks
        5.2.1 Sentential Analysis: Lists
        5.2.3 Document Analysis: Headings and Paragraphs
6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Absract: Good technical writing demands clear and concise communication that allows readers to skim documents for efficient access to information. To aid technical writers, many computer programs have been written to analyze writing style in the hopes of improving writing standards. The programs have tended to be of a numerical statistical nature, summarizing a document or predicting its ``goodness.'' We feel that such programs hide more information is advisable to help writers understand where and why their documents may have difficulties. After introducing the general concept of an abstraction of a document, we describe the other side of the textual analysis coin: graphical displays of text that enhance structural components of a document. We describe two programs for graphical textual analysis: one generates displays of the logical structure of sections of a document; the other generates graphs of the complexity of individual sentences. While these programs are not the final statement of abstract text analysis, they point to a new direction in which we think writing aids should be going.

Bookmark: J.BRMI.82.14.4.417
Title: Experimental Control Programs for the UNIX Operating System
Author: Perlman, Gary
Journal: Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation
Date: 1982
Volume: 14
Number: 4
Pages: 417-421
Keywords: methods, statistical computing

Bookmark: J.MATTCH.82.76.7.462
Title: Making Mathematical Notation More Meaningful
Author: Perlman, Gary
Journal: The Mathematics Teacher
Date: 1982
Volume: 76
Number: 7
Pages: 462-466
Keywords: human factors, education, documentation
Contents:
A notation should be concise, precise, and promote generalization.
Symbols should be mnemonic, familiar, and unique.
Existing notation should be maintained.
Format should reflect organization.

Bookmark: J.Datamation.27.139
Title: The Trouble with Unix: The User Interface is Horrid
Author: Norman, Donald A.
Journal: Datamation
Date: 1981
Volume: 27
Number: 12
Pages: 139-150
Note: Reprinted in Pylyshyn, Z. W., & Bannon, L. J., eds. Perspectives on the Computer Revolution, 2nd revised edition, Hillsdale, NJ, Ablex, 1989.

Bookmark: J.CACM.23.7.396
Title: The keystroke-level model for user performance time with interactive systems
Author: Card, Stuart K.
Author: Moran, Thomas P.
Author: Newell, Allen
Journal: Communications of the ACM
Date: 1980
Volume: 23
Number: 7
Pages: 396-410
Keywords: human-computer interface, human-computer interaction, user model, user performance, cognitive psychology, ergonomics, human factors, systems design, KLM
Weblink: ACM Digital Library Link
Absract: There are several aspects of user-computer performance that system designers should systematically consider. This article proposes a simple model, the Keystroke-Level Model, for predicting one aspect of performance: the time it takes an expert user to perform a given task on a given computer system. The model is based on counting keystrokes and other low-level operations, including the user's mental preparations and the system's responses. Performance is coded in terms of these operations and operator times summed to give predictions. Heuristic rules are given for predicting where mental preparations occur, When tested against data for 10 difference systems, the model's prediction error is 21 percent for individual tasks. An example is given to illustrate how the model can be used to produce parametric predictions and how sensitivity analysis can be used to redeem conclusions in the face of uncertain assumptions. Finally, the model is compared to several simpler versions. The potential role for the Keystroke-Level Model in system design is discussed.