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Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext

Fullname:Proceedings of ECHT'92 the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext
Note:European Conference on Hypertext
Editors:Dario Lucarella; Jocelyne Nanard; Marc Nanard; Paolo Paolini
Location:Milano, Italy
Dates:1992-Nov-30 to 1992-Dec-04
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-547-X (soft); 0-89791-548-8 (hard);; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ECHT92 ACM Order Number 614920
Papers:74
Pages:312
  1. Keynote Speakers
  2. Systems I
  3. Versioning
  4. Experiences
  5. Systems II
  6. Information Retrieval
  7. Hypertext and the Mind
  8. Models for Open Systems
  9. Theoretical Foundations
  10. Models
  11. Architecture
  12. Panels
  13. Cultural Briefings
  14. Demonstrations

Keynote Speakers

The Future of Electronic Literacy: Will Hypertext Ever Find Acceptance? BIBAPDF 1
  Ian Ritchie
The vision of the technologies that will lead to practical interactive electronic literature was clearly expressed by Bush, Engelbart, Nelson and others several decades ago.
   The practical application of such technologies have been established during the last decade. Despite the fact that such hypertext technologies are now largely effective in operation we find that:
  • hypertext technology suppliers have not, in general, found a ready and
       profitable market for their wares. Many suppliers have stumbled and several
       have failed.
  • outside the limited area of arcane technical and procedural documentation it
       is still very difficult to identify a hypertext product which has
       experienced any substantial measure of success.
  • non-hypertext solutions, such as Document Image Processing, and Full-Text
       Retrieval, continue to grow despite their lower effectiveness in many
       practical applications. So what has gone wrong? Were we all over ambitious about the efficacy of interactive documentation? Are we still waiting for the "killer product" to kick-start the market? Can literature and electronic delivery ever mix; or will society look to the electronic device solely to deliver picture and voice? Will the public ever accept text from other than the printed page? The answer lies in a combination of circumstances:
  • The existence of suitable infrastructure, including such factors as high
       bandwidth communications channels and effective marketing channels. If our
       existing channels are compared to, lets say, the transport systems of two
       hundred years ago, how long will it take us to build the equivalents of the
       canals, railways, highways, and air transportation systems that we will
       need? Who will provide them and what will be the commercial basis of their
       success? As we supply solutions which, due to technological inertia, are
       non-optimal; how long will it take us to recover from such cul-de-sacs?
  • The successful new consumer electronic literature products must meet
       demonstrable mass-market needs. Public acceptance will be driven by the
       effectiveness of the product at delivering information in a way which is
       clearly superior to other methods. It will also be driven by factors such
       as style and fashion which are notoriously difficult to predict. The
       attitude of the public was also be damaged by highly visible failures -- and
       there may be several on the way!
  • + History has shown that technology companies have been poor at predicting such
       changes in social behaviour, and that when supplied their products often
       miss the real target. What kind of companies will actually solve these
       problems, and what circumstances will persuade them to make the investment?
  • The elimination of the remaining technology and financial barriers (most
       pertinently the mass production of high quality, portable, low cost display
       devices). Although a preoccupation of the technologists this is probably
       the easiest of these barriers to resolve. At some point these factors will add up. When the effectiveness and transparency of the new publishing product are perceived as overcoming the change and cost required to obtain them (and, incidentally, the new product is blessed by the 'style gurus') the public will adopt it enthusiastically. The cellular telephone and the fax machine are such examples from 1980s. This presentation will consider the factors which will influence the adoption of electronic literature as a mainstream product. It will draw on the results of previous technology-led market adoption patterns and will try to predict the future of electronic literature.
  • Virtual Reality and the Future of Hypertext BIBAPDF 2
      Jay David Bolter
    Virtual Reality has been largely conceived in terms of the visual. Other senses, sound and touch, although given roles, are clearly quite secondary. What VR presents to the user is images, not texts. What role might text play in Virtual Reality? This is particularly important for exponents of hypertext, because VR threatens to become the hot new topic, and perhaps to diminish interest and research in hypertext. One could convincingly argue there is no real direct competition: VR and hypertext can evolve side by side for different purposes. VR is useful for simulation and training, for medical imaging, for telepresence, and so on. Hypertext serves for databases of text materials, pedagogy, and interactive fiction and nonfiction. But even if VR and hypertext continue to evolve side by side, it remains interesting to consider how the two might merge.
       Virtual Reality and hypertext are products of two different communication technologies. Virtual Reality has its closest affinity to television, which is a perceptual medium. Hypertext comes out of the tradition of writing. Both VR and hypertext claim to be new ways of expressing information, although with different emphases.
       In VR, one sees and touches a perceptual space; in hypertext one reads and writes in a textual space. Can the two be combined? In particular, can the space of virtual reality be hypertextualized? One way to introduce text into virtual reality would be to write upon the surfaces in the virtual space. This would give us a virtual book, whose structure is expressed architecturally in three dimensions. The book becomes a space that the reader enters and explores, a space in which the relationships among the surfaces define relationships among the verbal ideas in the text. A more radical possibility would be to turn the entire virtual space into a symbolic structure. Several hypertext systems are already moving in this direction: the concept maps in hypertext systems are examples of symbolic spaces in two dimensions. A third dimension would expand the possibilities of representation. Such a hypertextualized virtual space might allow the creation of texts unlike any that have ever been written.
    Video Nodes and Video Webs: Uses of Video in Hypermedia BIBAPDF 3
      Simon Gibbs
    Digital video consists of temporally correlated audio and visual data elements. Audio elements are basically sequences of digitized audio samples, while visual elements are sequences of raster frames. In either case the sequences may not be stored explicitly, but instead stored in a compressed representation, or an alternate representation from which the sequences are produced (as when audio is synthesized from a symbolic representation, such as musical notation, or video frames are rendered from animation data).
       Because of the temporal nature of digital video, its production and consumption often requires specialized devices capable of the real-time handling of streams of data. Until recently this equipment was expensive and not readily available. However a number of significant advances are now taking place that are greatly increasing the use of digital video. These developments include advances in high-bandwidth networks and protocols facilitating real-time transfer of digital video; improvements in storage media such as high-capacity magnetic disks and writable CDs; faster rendering rates for graphics hardware allowing real-time animation; greater availability of special-purpose audio and video processors on workstations; and better computer interfaces to both commercial and professional video products such as camcorders, VCRs, and video mixers. Another significant development is real-time compression and decompression hardware for digital video. The compressed video has data rates comparable to bus and disk bandwidths and so opens the possibility of video recording and playback from conventional secondary storage devices. In addition, an anticipated future development having broad-impact on the use of video, will be the emergence of standards for HDTV.
       In light of these changes, new possibilities are arising for application developers -- in particular those who aim to enhance hypertext, or hypermedia, with video capabilities. Early interactive video systems relied on analog read-only videodisc technology. This "first generation" of video-based hypermedia provided very good video quality, but suffered from limitations imposed by the videodisc. Now digital video offers a way around many of the drawbacks of the videodisc -- digital video can be edited and modified, it can be processed, and, like any other form of data, it can be stored and retrieved from conventional storage systems.
       This presentation will focus on implications of digital video for hypermedia. A short overview of video technology will be provided, introducing such topics as video formats, video compression, and video editing. Several low-cost platforms for running digital video applications will be described and illustrated with short videotapes.
       Finally we consider a number of traditional hypertext issues in the context of digital video. Approaches to linking video with other information, techniques for structuring video and increasing interactivity during playback, and new forms of composition and navigation will be presented. Many of these techniques are now being explored in prototype systems. Examples of existing prototypes will be used to illustrate the potential of digital video when used in hypermedia systems.

    Systems I

    Multicard: An Open Hypermedia System BIBAKPDF 4-10
      Antoine Rizk; Louis Sauter
    This paper describes the Multicard hypermedia system which has been developed following an open systems approach. Multicard provides a hypermedia toolkit that allows programmers to create and manipulate distributed basic hypermedia structures; an interactive authoring/navigation tool which is itself based on the toolkit; an advanced scripting language; a multimedia composition editor, as well as a communication protocol that allows the integration of various editors and applications into a single hypermedia network.
       One of Multicard's features is that it does not itself handle the contents of the nodes. Instead, it communicates with different editors, running as separate processes, using a set of messages called the M2000 protocol. Multicard has so far been connected in this way to around five different M2000 compliant editors and applications ranging from a basic text editor and data sheet to sophisticated desktop publishing and multimedia composition systems. M2000 compliant editors automatically benefit of the Multicard linking facilities and composite structures. Using the Multicard scripting language, M2000 compliant editors can also annotate their contents with scripts and communicate with each other using event and message transmission.
    Keywords: Muilticard, M2000, Hypermedia toolkit
    SEPIA: A Cooperative Hypermedia Authoring Environment BIBAPDF 11-22
      Norbert Streitz; Jorg Haake; Jorg Hannemann; Andreas Lemke; Wolfgang Schuler; Helge Schutt; Manfred Thuring
    In this paper, we report about the design, development, and implementation of the SEPIA cooperative hypermedia authoring environment. It provides results on the following aspects of SEPIA: persistent and shared data storage, hypermedia data model with composites, sophisticated and comprehensive authoring functionality, support for a new rhetoric and for cooperative work. We start by identifying the challenge of hypermedia authoring and production which serves as the driving force for our development. Using interacting problem spaces as the vehicle for modelling the dynamic aspects of authoring, we arrive at a set of requirements answered by the concept of "activity spaces". The design of coherent hyperdocuments is facilitated by our "construction kit". Furthermore, we describe the extensions and modifications necessary to support multiple authors with the cooperative version of SEPIA. The central issue of the paper is the system architecture and its implementation. We describe the basis for access to shared hyperdocuments, the activity space browsers, the integration of multimedia functionality (audio, graphics, pictures), and the integration of a video conferencing system.
    Combining Hypertext and Structured Documents in Grif BIBAPDF 23-32
      Vincent Quint; Irene Vatton
    This paper presents the experience gained in developing and using the hypertext functions of the Grif system. Grif is a structured document editor based on the generic structure concept: each document is represented in the system by its logical structure which is an instance of a generic structure. This notion of logical structure encompasses both hierarchical structures (as is usual in structured documents) and non-hierarchical links (as is usual in hypertext).
       The document model on which Grif is based is presented, focusing on the different types of links. Various applications using these links are also described. It is shown that the approaches of electronic documents and hypertext, which are often opposed to each other, can be combined for building more powerful integrated systems.

    Versioning

    Structural and Cognitive Problems in Providing Version Control for Hypertext BIBAKPDF 33-42
      Kasper Østerbye
    This paper discusses issues related to providing version control in hypertext systems. Many of the software engineering issues in versioning also apply to hypertext, but the emphasis on linking and structure in hypertext raises some new problems. The issues can roughly be divided into two categories. Datamodel issues, which will be referred to as structural issues, and user interface issues, which will be referred to as cognitive issues. Both structural and cognitive issues will be described and divided into simpler problems which will be named and described, and it will be shown that composites serve as a good starting point for solving both structural and cognitive problems of versioning.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Version control, Data models
    CoVer: A Contextual Version Server for Hypertext Applications BIBAPDF 43-52
      Anja Haake
    Key problems of version support for hypertext systems arise from the fine-grained, heavily interlinked structure of hyperdocuments. Integration of version support aggravates cognitive overhead problems during version creation and disorientation during version selection. Starting from the need to support versioning in our hypermedia publishing environment, we designed the CoVer hypermedia version server. CoVer maintains context information with the versions that guides version creation and in particular helps in version identification.
       The key concept is task tracking: Users change their network in order to perform a task. These tasks can guide meaningful, automatic version creation. Being stored persistently as contextual version information they serve version identification. Moreover, CoVer maintains the derivation history of hyperdocuments across document boundaries and tracks the influence of annotations on the creation of new versions and the start-up of new tasks.

    Experiences

    Two Years before the Mist: Experiences with Aquanet BIBAPDF 53-62
      Catherine C. Marshall; Russell A. Rogers
    Aquanet is a collaborative hypertext tool that combines elements of frame-based knowledge representation and graphical presentation. In this paper, we examine the first major application of the tool in an analysis task, a two year long technology assessment that resulted in almost 2000 nodes and more than 20 representational types. First, we cover the implications of the representational resources provided and representational decisions that were made. Then we discuss how spatial layout was used in lieu of the complex relations Aquanet's data model supports. Finally, we show how distinct regions emerged to reflect particular activities and how they were subsequently used as the basis for a later collaboration on a similar task.
    UNIX Guide: Lessons from Ten Years' Development BIBAPDF 63-70
      P. J. Brown
    Development of the Guide hypertext system has been progressing at the University of Kent since 1982. The paper looks back over the mistakes and successes of the last ten years, with a view of drawing some lessons for the future development of hypertext. The reader is not assumed to be a Guide user, and the lessons learned apply to hypertext systems in general.
    Design Strategies for Scenario-Based Hypermedia: Description of its Structure, Dynamics, and Style BIBAPDF 71-80
      Ryuichi Ogawa; Eiichiro Tanaka; Daigo Taguchi; Komei Harada
    This paper describes design strategies for scenario-based hypermedia, which presents media composite nodes according to timed scripts. In order to translate an author's story into timed scripts within a hypermedia framework, we present a design model with four different levels of scenario specifications. In these levels an author specifies details of 1) global structure described as the hierarchy of composite nodes with sequencing relationship between them, 2) detailed structure of a composite node described as a set of subnodes and navigation flow between them, 3) content specification of multimedia data, and 4) time and spatial presentation style of media data included in each node. Design strategies based on the model were applied to the authoring of a CD-ROM based English listening course for Japanese students. The design work was accomplished as a joint project with English teachers, and our scenario-based hypermedia system, Videobook, was used as the authoring platform. This paper reports the details of the design strategies in each level and discusses how they made the authoring efficient while promoting the quality of the course.

    Systems II

    An Object-Oriented Scripting Environment for the WEBSs Electronic Book System BIBAPDF 81-90
      J. Monnard; J. Pasquier-Boltuck
    This paper presents the scripting facilities built or top of WEBSs, an interactive system for the creation and consultation of electronic books. The scripting environment relies on the same object-oriented software architecture used in the design of the WEBSs application, rendering it consistently integrated with the other components of the system.
       Scripts enhance the application in two ways. First, the ability to combine basic WEBSs actions allows users to easily define new high-level functions like, for example, the automatic creation of tables of contents and indexes. Secondly, the behavior of the objects that constitute an electronic book can be enriched by writing scripts that will be automatically executed each time a triggering object performs a specific action. The main originality of our scripting model resides in the fact that a script may be attached not only to an individual object, but also to all objects of a specific class, or to all objects in a certain set.
    Matching Hypertext Models to Hypertext Systems: A Compilative Approach BIBAKPDF 91-101
      Andrea Caloini
    Many authors have proposed sophisticated models to describe hypertexts at different levels and for different purposes and have provided in-house developed systems implementing their models. However, hypertext-hypermedia application development is often carried on using commercial hypertext systems based on a very simple model.
       This paper presents HCT (Hypertext Compiling Tools), a set of tools to translate hypertext-hypermedia applications designed using a high-level model (HDM, Hypermedia Design Model) into applications implemented by a commercial hypertext system (ToolBook). Although each single tool is specific to either HDM or ToolBook, the approach is presented in a more general way.
       Results obtained in application development are summarized.
    Keywords: Hypertext models, Hypertext systems, HDM, Hypertext engine, Compilation

    Information Retrieval

    Making Use of Hypertext Links when Retrieving Information BIBAPDF 102-111
      H. P. Frei; D. Stieger
    Hypermedia links were invented to support the manual browsing through large hypertext or hypermedia collections. However, retrieving specific portions of information in such a collection cannot be achieved by browsing only; retrieval mechanisms are necessary. In this paper we show how to use the semantic content of hypertext links for retrieval. We present special purpose indexing and retrieval algorithms that exploit the node and link content. First retrieval results in a hypertext test collection are presented: the results are clearly better than those obtained when the links are ignored. The hope is that these results can be extended to hypermedia information and that they can be improved by more sophisticated indexing algorithms.
    Hypertext Paradigm in the Field of Information Retrieval: A Neural Approach BIBAKPDF 112-121
      Alain Lelu; Claire Francois
    Application of the hypertext paradigm to information retrieval requires 1) an automatic generation of hypertext links, 2) a compact graphical representation of the data. After a brief review of the family of neural algorithms required for deriving a compact and relevant representation of a documentary database, as well as links between synthetic "topics" and documents, we present a user interface based on these grounds. This representation is two-step: 1) a global topics map, 2) local topic axes, ranking both terms and documents according to the values of their "centrality index". A prototype, running in a Macintosh environment and implementing a basic version of this browser, is then described and commented.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Information retrieval, Graphic user interface, Neural networks, Cluster analysis
    Information Retrieval from Hypertext using Dynamically Planned Guided Tours BIBAPDF 122-130
      Catherine Guinan; Alan F. Smeaton
    In using any hypertext system a user will encounter many technical problems which have been well-documented in the literature. Two of the more serious problems with using hypertext are user disorientation and the retrieval of information. Another less often addressed problem is that of the logical sequencing of nodes. In the work reported in this paper we address these three problems by combining Hammond and Allinson's guided tour metaphor and Frisse's information retrieval techniques to dynamically create guided tours for users in direct response to a user's query. One of the features of our method is that we take advantage of typing of information links in the hypertext to generate a tour which has a judicious sequencing of nodes rather than a simple presentation of hypertext nodes in order of similarity to the user's query. Our method was empirically tested on a population of 125 users who generated a total 973 individual tours and all user actions and responses to questions were logged. The results of this evaluation are presented in this paper.
    Cognitive Processing of Hyperdocuments: When Does Nonlinearity Help? BIBAPDF 131-140
      Jean-Francois Rouet
    This paper presents a review of empirical research on the cognitive processing of nonlinear documents, with the purpose of understanding when and how hypertext presentation might facilitate text comprehension and learning activities. Empirical studies conducted so far have used various methods, and focused on a wide range of populations, types of documents, and reading or learning tasks. Although hypertext is generally associated with information networks, a few interesting studies address the issues of computer assistance to linear text comprehension. A second group of studies investigate the use of nonlinear documents for general learning purposes. Although these studies are mainly concerned with linear-nonlinear comparisons, some of them address the effects of different design options. Finally, a third group of studies compare information retrieval in linear versus nonlinear documents. Overall, there is no consistent evidence for the advantage of hypertext over linear presentation formats. Instead, the efficiency of nonlinear documents varies according to (a) subjects' expertise (b) interface features and (c) task requirements. In an attempt to provide an interpretative framework for these empirical findings, the notion of cognitive monitoring is briefly outlined. I conclude with a few implications for future hypertext research.

    Hypertext and the Mind

    Imagined Conversations: The Relevance of Hypertext, Pragmatism, and Cognitive Flexibility Theory to the Interpretation of "Classic Texts" in Intellectual History BIBAPDF 141-148
      Robert Alun Jones; Rand Spiro
    What does it mean to understand a "classic text" in the history of social thought? Recent pragmatist arguments in intellectual history suggest that it is a matter of placing the text within some larger context, viewing it from a variety of perspectives, and "using it" to satisfy one's own interests and purposes. What is the best means to "advanced knowledge acquisition"? Recent theories of learning in cognitive psychology suggest that we view "ill-structured knowledge domains" as landscapes, to be "criss-crossed" in a variety of directions, from multiple perspectives. Hypertext is a technology for doing both of these things. Quite independently, but sharing a foundation in pragmatism and the later Wittgenstein, each of these disciplines thus encourages further research in the development and implementation of hypertext systems for learning. Such research is being carried out in the Hypermedia Laboratory and the Cognitive Flexibility Laboratory at the University of Illinois, with implications for the way hypertext systems are designed and implemented, and the pedagogical problems to which they are applied.
    Where's the Hypertext? The Dickens Web as a System-Independent Hypertext BIBAPDF 149-160
      George P. Landow; Paul Kahn
    This paper reports the comparative evaluations by fifteen experienced hypertext users of three hypertext systems (Intermedia, Interleaf WorldView, and Storyspace) to carry out both simple information retrieval and more complex cognitive tasks. In contrast to approaches that compare hypertext versions of print documents to print documents, our research began with materials originally created for an electronic environment -- the award-winning Dickens Web. The evaluators' detailed narratives, which show that hypertext documents can exist independently of specific hypertext systems, also suggest points that designers of hypertext systems and hypertext authors must take into account. These points include the value of full-text search vs. link following, and the importance of content expertise. Finally, we report on the importance of single- vs. bi-directional thinking, multiple linking from a single point, and web views.
    Contours of Constructive Hypertexts BIBAPDF 161-170
      Mark Bernstein; Michael Joyce; David Levine
    Discussion of hypertext rhetoric and criticism has focused on small, fixed hypertexts that are typically used by casual readers for comparatively short periods. Here we explore complex, constructive hypertexts, intended to inform and to influence dedicated and thoughtful readers. Recurrence and multivalence, both deplored in small hypertexts, prove from study of more complex texts to be very valuable. While static, graph-theoretic measures facilitate understanding of local hypertext structure, the structures of meaning or contours we observe in current hypertext fiction and scholarship do not appear to reside in static structures, but rather in the complex and dynamic perceptions of the engaged reader.
    Toward a Rhetoric of Information Texts BIBAPDF 171-180
      Stuart Moulthrop
    This paper begins by asking why hypertext researchers publish their work in print and compose their hypertexts from previously printed sources. It argues that these practices limit the development of hypertext rhetoric by privileging a discrete or granular model of discourse: nodes as stable units connected by purely transitional links. The paper explores the limits of the node/link model, suggesting that links can take on certain properties of nodes and vice versa. Drawing on the phenomenological critique of rationalist mechanism developed by Winograd and Flores, the paper presents an alternative discourse model for hypertext which regards nodes and links in complementarity, as contingent structures subject to conceptual "breakdown." Applying this model to actual communication practices, the paper invokes Zuboff's distinction between "automating" and "informating" applications of technology, outlining a rhetoric based on a constantly evolving textual structure in which object relations remain fluid. A new term is proposed, the informand, to designate the communal, interactive discursive space created by informating systems like hypertexts and artificial realities. The paper concludes by urging experimentation with informating practices in hypertext, a move away from print models and toward all-electronic composition.

    Models for Open Systems

    Towards an Integrated Information Environment with Open Hypermedia Systems BIBAKPDF 181-190
      Hugh Davis; Wendy Hall; Ian Heath; Gary Hill; Rob Wilkins
    This paper examines open hypermedia systems, and presents the case that such systems provide a step forward for dealing with large, dynamic data sets in distributed, heterogeneous environments by allowing users to access and integrate information and processes in richer and more diverse ways than has previously been possible. In particular, the enhanced Microcosm model for open hypermedia is examined, and the ways in which it provides such an environment are discussed. The paper continues by investigating the advantages and the shortcomings of this model and identifies the areas in which further work must be completed before such systems can become widely adopted, such as the granularity of source and destination anchors, editing and version control. Some attempts to provide solutions to these problems are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: Open, Hypermedia, Integration, Microcosm
    Design Issues for a Dexter-Based Hypermedia System BIBAPDF 191-200
      Kaj Grønbæk; Randall H. Trigg
    This paper discusses experiences and lessons learned from the design of an open hypermedia system, one that integrates applications and data not "owned" by the hypermedia. The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model [8] was used as the basis for the design. Though our experiences were generally positive, we found the model constraining in certain ways and underdeveloped in others. For instance, Dexter argues against dangling links, but we found several situations where permitting and supporting dangling links was advisable. In Dexter, the data objects making up a component's contents are encapsulated in the component; in practice, references to objects stored apart from the hypermedia structure should be allowed. We elaborate Dexter's notion of composite component to include composites that "contain" other components and composites with structured contents, among others. The paper also includes a critique of Dexter's notion of link directionality, proposes a distinction between marked and unmarked anchors, and discusses anchoring within a composite.

    Theoretical Foundations

    Gram: A Graph Data Model and Query Language BIBAPDF 201-211
      Bernd Amann; Michel Scholl
    We present a model for data organized as graphs. Regular expressions over the types of the node and edges are used to qualify connected sub-graphs. An algebraic language based on these regular expressions and supporting a restricted form of recursion is introduced. A natural application of this model and its query language is hypertext querying.
    Fishing for Clarity in Hyperdocuments with Enhanced Fisheye-Views BIBAPDF 212-221
      K. Tochtermann; G. Dittrich
    It is known that fisheye-views prove beneficial to users who get lost in hyperspace. Until now, the fisheye-view strategy, introduced by Furnas, is only applicable in structures where the necessary components of the fisheye-view function can be defined. Unfortunately, directed graphs are structures where the fisheye-view function of Furnas cannot be applied. Therefore the fisheye-view concept was of limited value in hyperdocuments represented by such graphs. To overcome this lack, this paper proposes an enhancement of Furnas' function to allow its application in hyperdocuments of that kind.
       We will begin with a short review of Furnas' well-known fisheye-view concept. Thereafter, we will discuss the problems that arise when one attempts to apply the concept in so-called "unstructured" hyperdocuments. The results of this discussion lead to the development of a function which satisfies the requirements of the concept, and allows its use in hyperdocuments of almost any structure. To show that the fisheye-view concept of Furnas remains fulfilled, an appropriate theorem is formulated. The result is that the benefits of the fisheye-view concept can now be appreciated in "unstructured" hyperdocuments. In closing, we offer a detailed example, which illustrates the behavior of the enhanced fisheye-view function.

    Models

    An Extensible Data Model for Hyperdocuments BIBAPDF 222-231
      Paul De Bra; Geert-Jan Houben; Yoram Kornatzky
    We present an extensible data model for hyperdocuments. It is intended to serve as the basis for integrating hypermedia systems with other information sources, such as object-oriented database management systems, information retrieval systems, and engineering CAD tools. Hyperdocuments are described by means of a small number of powerful constructs that integrate their structural and behavioral aspects. The different instantiations and combinations of these constructs yield an open class of hyperdocuments. Nodes, anchors, and links are all considered first-class objects and modeling constructs are applicable to all of them. These constructs permit a description of the multiple levels of functionality of an object within a hyperdocument, and the packaging of the different views of an object. Composite objects range over an extensible collection of structures including networks, sets, time-lines, and three-dimensional space CAD models.
    Towards a Better Support for Hypermedia Authoring: The HYDESIGN Model BIBAPDF 232-241
      Michael Marmann; Gunter Schlageter
    Hypermedia systems are becoming an important information system class for a wide range of new and fascinating applications. But current systems still have some unpleasant restrictions. For example, only few hypermedia systems support the design of higher level hypermedia objects beyond the basic node-link paradigm. There are further restrictions concerning the modularization of the overall design and the reuse of (complex) hypermedia resources. HYDESIGN is the prototype of an extensible hypertext/hypermedia system which addresses these restrictions. The crucial part of the development is the data management component, the HYDESIGN-engine, which has been built on top of the GemStone object-oriented database management system. A first prototype of a graphical user interface, the HYDESIGN-GUI, has been developed in Smalltalk-80.
       This paper focuses on central features of the HYDESIGN data model representing the conceptual basis of the HYDESIGN-engine. Aggregate links of different types are introduced which allow for the creation of higher level hypermedia networks. SBL-nodes represent particular composite nodes offering the capability of defining (nested) local environments with particular behaviour. Also different options for the sharing of hypermedia resources are proposed. HYDESIGN further supports navigation as well as query based access in an integrated approach. As a whole, HYDESIGN aims at a better support for the hypermedia design process by the provision of powerful structuring facilities.
    Using Statecharts to Model Hypertext BIBAPDF 242-250
      Yi Zheng; Man-Chi Pong
    This paper describes how to use statecharts to model hypertext. Statechart is a formal graphical model based on state transition diagram and hypergraph. The statechart model is compared with other models for hypertext based on simple node-and-link graph, first-order logic formulae, hypergraph, and petri net. The features of statecharts relevant to the modeling of hypertext are described. Statecharts for the common features in frame-based and scrolling-based hypertext are given. Then statecharts are used to model the various buttons supported in a real-life production hypertext system, Guide (both the Unix version and the version marketed by Owl International Inc.). These examples illustrate that statecharts can be used to abstract the structure from the content of hypertext, and to model the structure and the browsing semantics of hypertext clearly and vividly.

    Architecture

    Hyperform: Using Extensibility to Develop Dynamic, Open and Distributed Hypertext Systems BIBAKPDF 251-261
      Uffe Kock Wiil; John J. Leggett
    An approach to flexible hyperbase (hypertext database) support predicated on the notion of extensibility is presented. The extensible hypertext platform (Hyperform) implements basic hyperbase services that can be tailored to provide specialized hyperbase support. Hyperform is based on an internal computational engine that provides an object-oriented extension language which allows new data model objects and operations to be added at run-time.
       Hyperform has a number of built-in classes to provide basic hyperbase features such as concurrency control, notification control (events), access control, version control and search and query. Each of these classes can be specialized using multiple inheritance to form virtually any type of hyperbase support needed in next generation hypertext systems.
       This approach greatly reduces the effort required to provide high quality customized hyperbase support for distributed hypertext applications. Hyperform is implemented and operational in Unix environments. This paper describes the Hyperform approach, discusses its advantages and disadvantages, and gives examples of simulating the HAM and the Danish HyperBase in Hyperform. Hyperform is compared with related work from the HAM generation of hyperbase systems and the current status of the project is reviewed.
    Keywords: Extensible hyperbase, Hypertext platform, Object-oriented extension language
    Specifying Temporal Behavior in Hypermedia Documents BIBAPDF 262-271
      M. Cecelia Buchanan; Polle T. Zellweger
    We have designed and implemented a system for creating, editing, and displaying hypermedia documents. This system uses an improved document model with two major features. First, it allows authors to specify temporal synchronization constraints among events of interest within media segments. Second, it allows asynchronous material, such as user interaction, links, or programs, to be combined with richly coordinated synchronous material in a single hypermedia document. The system incorporates a linear programming algorithm to solve the temporal constraints. This process automatically constructs a schedule for displaying a document and may involve stretching or shrinking media segments. Because synchronization constraints record the author's intentions and because the system creates schedules automatically, both creating documents and maintaining them throughout their life cycles should be easier.
    Hyperdocuments as Automata: Trace-Based Browsing Property Verification BIBAKPDF 272-281
      P. David Stotts; Richard Furuta; J. Cyrano Ruiz
    In many hypertext systems, meaningfully traversing a document depends on capabilities, features, and navigational aids that are part of the browser implementation. For example, if a reader browses to a node that has no out links, then backing up, or "warping" to the table of contents can allow the browsing session to continue.
       If hyperdocuments are to become interchangeable among hypertext systems, rather than being readable only on the systems from which they are authored, one obvious but complex approach is to try and standardize on (most likely, very many) browsing features and behaviors, forming some standard union of the capabilities of current major implementations. This approach molds (or perhaps restricts) future systems, since new browsing "features" must then be worked into such a standard. An alternate approach, used in this paper, is to de-emphasized browser features and emphasize inherent document structure with browsing semantics. An author should be able to create document structure so that the desired meaningful access patterns are inherently allowed by links rather than by browser capabilities.
       We present a method of analyzing the browsing properties of a hypertext document by examining the links alone. This method is not specific to any particular hypertext system or document authoring format. With it, an author can be certain that a document will allow particular access patterns when read on any browser implementation that has a single navigation operation: direct link following. The method requires a mental shift in how a hyperdocument is conceived abstractly. Instead of treating the links of a document as defining a static directed graph, they are thought of as defining an abstract program, termed the links-automaton of the document. A branching temporal logic notation, termed HTL*, is introduced for specifying properties a document should exhibit during browsing. An automated program verification technique called model checking is then used to verify that these specifications are met by the behavior of the links-automaton. We illustrate the generality of our technique by applying it first to a Trellis document, and then to a Hyperties document.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Place/transition nets, Petri nets, Browsing semantics, Synchronization, Security, Temporal logic, Verification, Access control, Versions, Model checking

    Panels

    Hypermedia Production: Hand-Craft of Witchcraft? BIBAPDF 282-283
      Mark Bernstein; Michael Bieber; Richard Furuta; Michael Kibby; Catherine Marshall; Paolo Paolini
    Many successful hypermedia systems are hand-crafted; creating and navigating their networks of nodes and links is entirely under user control. In other systems, concern for the economics of manually linking large bodies of existing information, coupled with a desire to promote more responsive and reconfigurable interfaces, has spurred the development of automated tools, intensional or virtual structures, automatic node content generation and automatic link discovery.
       Some claim that, apart from annotation features such as commenting, the significant hypermedia systems of the future will be entirely automated.
       In this panel we explore the potential and dangers of automating hypermedia.
    Open Hypermedia Architectures and Linking Protocols BIBAPDF 284
      Randall Trigg; W. Ward Clark; Wendy Hall; Norman Meyrowitz; Amy Pearl
    Most computer users today work with heterogeneous environments that include software from many vendors, multiple platforms needing to communicate, and information bases on remote machines. Their needs are often not for increased functionality in any particular application, but integration among existing applications.
       In the last few years, this need has been addressed through proposals for open hypertext architectures and linking protocols. In principle, these allow linking across diverse applications and even across platforms. Rather than a monolithic hypermedia system presenting its own editors for various media, the user sees a framework into which existing editors can be "plugged" and a linking protocol with which to interconnect them. Though the framework is usually a separate program, the hope is that support for such open linking will one day migrate into the operating system. Indeed, protocols from Apple and Microsoft are steps in this direction.
       Though the participants on this panel bring their own perspectives and backgrounds to the problem area, all share a belief that the future of hypermedia is not with systems that "own the world", but with those that attempt to "connect the world". Furthermore, the panelists and the projects they represent have developed significant open hypermedia architectures and linking protocols and can draw on experience with real users.
    Business Opportunities in Hypermedia Applications BIBAPDF 285
      Attilio Stajano; Bruno Cerboni; Giovanni Degli Antoni; Hans Mulder; Gerard Roucairol; Erich Neuhold; Eddy Odijk; Pier Carlo Ravasio; Jan Ritchie; Jack Schiff
    Research on hypertext and hypermedia systems has been ongoing for many years and attractive demonstrator systems have been displayed showing the potential of these technologies. Is there a real market behind the hypermedia applications? We are frequently offered a very optimistic view on the size and maturity of such a market.
    Hypermedia Readability BIBAPDF 286
      Roberto Polillo; Mark Bernstein; Franca Garzotto; Lynda Hardman; Paul Kahn
    Since the appearance of the first hypertext applications, it is customary to blame the hypertext technology for "disorienting" readers and causing "cognitive overload". On the other hand, the user interface of many hypertext and hypermedia applications on the market is often very poorly designed. Many applications show a tendency to "over-linking" or "over-buttoning", and only a few show a clearly recognizable structure.

    Cultural Briefings

    Multimedia Encyclopaedia of Philosophy Sciences BIBAPDF 287
      Renato Parascandalo
    The goal of this project is the world-wide dissemination of advanced philosophy concepts, through the exploitation of new technologies.
       The world famous "Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici" (Italian Institute for Philosophy Studies), ensures the scientific supervision of the project; the "Encyclopaedia Treccani" and the "Poligrafico dello Stato" (the nation official printing institution) are responsible for the editorial policy; the Politecnico di Milano provides assistance for Computer technology.
       The core the of the project is the collection of large amount of videotapes, containing interviews with "protagonists": the most prestigious philosophers, philosophy scholars and scientists, who have warmly co-operated. Since '86 more than 400 interviews, corresponding to more than 900 hours of tapes, have been conducted. In addition, thousands of slides and more than 100 hours of video-tapes, documenting important aspects of archaeology, architecture, painting and sculpture, have been included. Five different series of video-cassettes have been prepared: The Roots of the Philosophy Thought, Philosophy and Today, The Origin of Thought in the World, The Masters of Thinking, The Universe of Knowledge.
       Short excerpts (5 minutes) are broadcasted everyday, nation-wide, by TV channels. Before the end of the year Radio Transmissions will start. Special editions for College and High school students are in preparation.
       All the different editions outline specific aspects and a specific usage of the material. A special version is supposed, in the future, to include all the previous editions: the interactive version, being prepared through the co-operation with the Department of Electronics of Politecnico di Milano. It is an Hypermedia application that allows search, queries and above all, navigation across the complex material. Guided tours and views, either predefined or created by the reader, allow personalized "reading sessions".
       Overall the project is a reaction to the current schizophrenic situation: as the technology advances provide more means for communication, human beings realize that they have less to say. Paul Ricoeur, a prestigious member of the scientific board of the project, considers this gap between technology of communication and cultural communication as one of the most dangerous pathologies of modern society.
    Hypermedia for Teaching and Learning: A Multimedia Guide to the History of European Civilization (MuG) BIBAPDF 288
      Umberto Eco
    The MuG project has been designed and developed at "Istituto di Discipline della Comunicazione", University of Bologna, by D. Barbieri, B. Bassi, G. Blasi, A. Fogli, L. Freina, C. Marmo, M. Mattioli, P. Niccolai, D. Singer under supervision of Umberto Eco. The project has been sponsored by Olivetti.
       MuG is a hypermedia system providing a unitary representation of the events of European culture and history. The system is designed to cover subjects related to Political, Social and Economic history, as well as the history of Science and Technology, Arts, Literature, Philosophy and Religion enabling the user to switch easily from one cultural aspect to the other.
       The initial prototype partially covers European civilization in the 17th Century, but the project concerns the whole history of Europe.
       MuG is meant as a teaching aid for students of the first years of University curricula and the last years of secondary schools. The ultimate purpose of the system is to constitute a useful tool for historical research and presentation as well as teaching.
       The system is shaped into three interconnected environments:
  • Interactive Chronologies, an environment with information retrieval features
       enabling the user to navigate among graphical chronological overviews of
       given period regarding specific topics and places. Topics and places are
       represented by a large set of keywords organized into a Thesaurus. From a
       given Chronology, the user can zoom in and out, according to the semantic
       structure of the Thesaurus (temporal zooming is also handled): when zooming
       in, less important events can appear. The user can choose to organize the
       contents of the overview according to either topics or places. More expert
       users can also query the system by typing, or by selecting keywords from the
       Thesaurus.
  • The Cardfile, a text-only hypertext providing quick reference cards about
       units of historical information (plus a set of dictionary-like definitions).
       The Cardfile is accessible both from the Chronologies and the Books; it is
       an ever-present reference tool also providing an informative intermediate
       step from a synoptic to a narrative representation of the historical events.
  • The Library, a large set of hypertextual "Books" devoted to specific topics,
       authors or issues, presented in a multimedia fashion, including text,
       images, animation, speech and music. Here information appears in a more
       narrative form, closer to the habits of readers of paper history books.
       Historical-geographical atlases, textual, visual and musical anthologies are
       also part of the Library. MuG is implemented in Toolbook, and runs on personal computers following the MPC standard.
  • Hypertext: Beyond the End of the Book BIBAPDF 289
      Robert Coover
    For the narrative artist, hyperspace has all the charm of a starry sky in August: the weather's comfortable, the twinkle's alluring, but the vista's intimidatingly awesome. The simple linear trajectories of the earthbound, once thought confining and inflexible, are seen to have a certain reassuring structure, an "A" and a "B" between which narrative, ever on the go, might safely move, feet on the ground. It's pretty out there in infinity, but if you head out, how do you get home again?
       Creative artists are still fumbling in this new space, this new medium, toying with the possibilities of multidimensionality, nonlinearity, interactivity, polyvocality, and, increasingly, the incorporation of other arts, visual, kinetic, and aural, but not yet convinced that narrative, as we lovingly know it, can overcome the motionsickness associated with the absence of gravity.
       Most academic hypertext projects preserve a sense of gravity by allowing a body of informational satellites to circle loosely about some core subject, a poem, say, or an historical event, a social entity, a philosophical or legal problem, etc., and such models might well serve artistic projects but they cannot define or delimit them. Nor does it help to implant a line. All these centuries of resisting the tyranny of the line, and suddenly it is gone as though it never existed, but reinventing it, though an option for some, is a bit like building a road in outer space so we can take our cars out there.
       Most narrative artists, for the moment, prefer to stay home where the environment's friendly and there's plenty of company. They still like the familiar paths with their beginnings, middles, and ends, even if not always traveled in that order. The navigational procedures are still so demanding out there in hyperspace, that there's too little time to appreciate style, voice, eloquence, character, story. Links and maps seem more compelling than text, as though the ancillas of book culture -- the tables of contents, the indices and appendices, the designs and jackets and headers -- might have swallowed up the stuff inside. There's an appeal in interactivity -- and a threat. And, maybe worst of all, where's closure out there? How do you know when one journey's over and another can begin?
       So the field is largely left at present to the rash, the young, the enterprising. Flights are being made in vehicles that seem as creaky at times as the tin spaceships of the old silent movies, and few of the adventures escape the atmosphere of print technology, but with each foray something new is added to the craft, the orbits widen, the manuals expand. Perhaps the greatest stimulus to these explorations is the promise of a multimedia instrument panel. Hyperspace may always be a bit hostile to the isolated traveler. Creative projects in it may more resemble a multitalented film production than the private writing of a book or poem.

    Demonstrations

    Combining Hypertext and Structured Documents in GRIF BIBA 290
      Vincent Quint
    GRIF is a structured document editor based on the generic structure concept: each document is represented in the system by its logical structure which is an instance of a generic structure. This notion of logical structure encompasses both hierarchical structures and non-hierarchical links. The demonstration shows the integration of hypertext features in structured documents and some applications.
    The HYTEA Project: Tools and Applications BIBA 290
      Jack Schiff
    The aim of the ESPRIT project HYTEA is to build a set of tools to improve the design, the implementation, and the maintenance, of large Hypertext/Hypermedia applications. We will demonstrate the whole process of application development with the HYTEA tools, and will generate different running applications from the same conceptual design. We will also show several full size applications, in various domains, which have been previously developed with the HYTEA tools.
    The KHS Authoring System BIBA 290
      Rainer Hammwohner
    The Konstanzer Hypertext System ("KHS") has been developed as a testbed for experiments in hypertext construction and navigation support. KHS comprises an object-oriented abstract hypertext model and several generic interfaces according to different instances of this model From this generic level, concrete hypertext models and interfaces can be derived for specific domains. The use of KHS will be demonstrated, and hypertexts developed with KHS will be shown.
    The Hypermedia Authoring Environment SEPIA BIBA 290
      Norbert Streitz
    SEPIA supports groups of authors creating and revising hypermedia documents in a cooperative work context. SEPIA support the different tasks encountered when creating hyperdocuments and provides different modes of collaborative work, which allow authors to share a hyperdocument, to be aware of coauthors' actions, to share views on the hyperdocument, and to jointly edit hyperdocuments. SEPIA employs the CHS Cooperative Hypermedia Server implemented on top of the DBMS "Sybase".
    The Hypermedia Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences BIBA 290-291
      Paolo Paolini; Renato Parascandalo
    The Hypermedia Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences is the interactive, computer based version of the Multimedia Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences, which has been produced by RAI-DSE as a set of TV and Radio Programs, and video tapes integrated with booklets for large distribution. The Hypermedia Encyclopedia stores video and text material presenting interviews to the major today's philosophers as well as related philosophical information; its information access mechanisms include and integrate navigation, guided tours, and queries.
    A Hypertext for Learning Operational Research BIBA 291
      A. Colorni
    This systems is one of the first attempt in applying hypertext to Operational Research (OR), integrating traditional material of OR classes with different instruments for didactical use. The system organizes and interrelates various elements: descriptive parts (texts), numerical exercises, a set of didactical games, and a significant number of OR applications.
    Electronic Lecture Notes BIBA 291
      Paolo Paolini
    This demo will show a number of hypertext lecture notes developed within the SSD-SIA program of Politecnico di Milano for undergraduate and graduate classes (e.g., Electrotechnics, Budget Analysis, Latin). The design of these applications share the same structured approach (based on the HDM model). Various functionalities such as self defined guided tours and annotation facilities have been specifically defined for training and learning.
    Hypermovie: An Authoring Tool for Video-Disk Based Teaching BIBA 291
      Augusto Celentano
    The demonstration presents HyperMovie, a system for the production and the fruition of interactive, videodisc-supported presentations based on pre-existing video material. HyperMovie is based on a hypermedia-based model which integrates and synchronizes the fruition of the video sequences, their ordering, their grouping in autonomous units of fruition, and the timing and the transition effects governing their displaying.
    INFOSHARE: A Network-Based Cooperation Tool BIBA 291
      Giuseppe Salvato
    Developed at ENICHEM, one of the largest chemical company worldwide, INFOSHARE is a hypertext tool that supports cooperative work. INFOSHARE has been especially designed to address the needs of people working in R&D teams, who must share data, schedules, and various types of knowledge, and in general must interact and cooperate in accumulating and retrieving knowledge and producing technical documentation. It is implemented in Hypercard.
    MuG: Multimedia Guide to the History of European Civilization BIBA 291-292
      Bruno Bassi
    The hypermedia system MuG, developed within a project coordinated by Umberto Eco, provides a unitary representation of the events of European culture and history. It covers subjects related to political, social and economic history, as well as the history of science and technology, arts, literature, philosophy and religion, enabling the user to switch easily from one cultural aspect to the other. The system is intended as a learning tool for universities and high schools, as well as a tool for historical research, presentation, and teaching.
    The Multimedia Editor PIM BIBA 292
      Renato Martucci
    PIM is an editor for building sequences of synchronized multimedia objects and for organizing pre-existing multimedia objects sequentially. Multiple sequences can be managed at the same time, through a user interface which displays multimedia objects as small rectangles on a bidimensional frame.
    The CHE Hypermedia Environment BIBA 292
      Renato Martucci
    The Common Hypermedia Environment -- CHE -- allows integrating and viewing in a uniform way, various type of heterogeneous information, thus providing a high degree of interoperability. It has been designed to support knowledge work, publishing, development of courseware and training material, and, more generally, cooperative work.
    From Infinity to Infinity (a Multimedia History of the Universe) BIBA 292
      Renato Martucci
    Sponsored by CERN in Geneva, this application describes the history of the Universe from the Big Bang to our days. From a historical map of the universe, the reader can explore the evolution of the Universe as well as investigate specific topics that are relevant in a given context. The application is available in four different languages.
    HYPERCRESTS: A General Purpose Distributed Hypermedia System BIBA 292
      M. A. Pacelli; F. Pacelli
    Hyper CRESTS is a distributed hypermedia system based on a new abstract hypertext model and on a system software architecture able to exploit the model potentialities. The system is designed to operate in a multiplatform environment. The platform consists of an "Hypermedia Server" (RS/6000-AIX) and some "User Workstation" (PS/2-OS/2), connected through a local area network using TCP/IP as the communication protocol.
    Coulomb and Electrostatics: A Hypermedia Approach to History of Physics in Education BIBA 292
      Lidia Falomo
    "Coloumb and Electrostatics" is a hypermedia for learning and teaching Physics under an historical perspective. It has been realized both in for Macintosh platforms (HyperCard + Micromind Director) and for DOS environments (Linkway + Storyboard). It includes texts, graphics, sound, qualitative animations, interactive quantitative simulations of physical experiments, colour pictures. The system has been designed for undergraduate students and high school teachers.
    SI.MO.N. -- A Modular Navigation System BIBA 293
      Giuseppe Simonetti
    SIMON is a hypertext and hypermedia development tool. The demo will exhibit how the author can use SIMON in order to create hypertexts, and will discuss the SIMON project philosophy. We will be also show some applications developed with SIMON in the fields of education, training, and organization.
    A Reference Manual for Hydrological Observations BIBA 293
      Virgilio Anselmo
    This hypertext manual provides an organized a review of standard instruments for hydrological and agro-meteorological observations. The focus of the information available in the application is on the accuracy requirements as requested by W.M.O. The manual has been conceived as a quick reference tool for local operational services staff as well for graduate students.
    Ecoland, a Hypermedia Prototype for Environmental Education BIBA 293
      Donatella Cesareni
    Ecoland is a Hypermedia prototype for environmental education, designed for 12/15 years old students. In Ecoland there are three little towns, each one representing a topic for environmental education: air pollution, water pollution, forest protection. Students are invited to enter these towns, to visit different places, and to find as many information they can about environmental problems related to these places.
    KWICK: the Knowledge Worker's Workbench BIBA 293
      Stefano Scamuzzo
    KWICK is an environment that allows the federation of data handled by heterogeneous and distributed applications, through hypermedia links and object oriented representations. The demo shows how KWICK improves productivity and quality of knowledge workers' work in a scenario including an architect and his colleagues working on a proposal in urban construction business.
    HTLEX: A Law Reference System BIBA 293
      Paolo Gasparri
    HTLEX is a prototype system for retrieving knowledge about laws and legal references among laws. A graphic method, based on the "Hypertext Frame Model", is used to represent and organize the law references in Italian legislation on the screen. The Hypertext Frame draws its inspiration from representative methods of modern arts.
    Multimedia HYPERAGIP BIBA 293
      Marco Benelli
    HYPERAGIP is a hypermedia presentation of AGIP S.p.A., the national oil company in Italy. It contains a great deal of data on the activities in which the company is engaged, and operates on a data bank composed of films, animated drawings, written and recited texts, musical excerpts, graphics, fixed images. The system is built on Olivetti's Im-Age platform (MS Windows 3.1) and Asymmetrics Toolbook Multimedia.
    The Complete Works of St. Thomas Aquinas on CD-ROM BIBA 294
      Andrea Pavanello
    St. Thomas Aquinas CD-ROM, a commercially available product distributed by Editoria Elettronica Editel, contains the complete work of St. Thomas Aquinas in original Latin. This vast compendium has been organized into 118 units and is integrated with 61 additional selections in Medieval Latin. This huge universe of material is explicitly cross-referenced using an especially designed hypertext system.
    The CMIF Editor BIBA 294
      Guido van Rossum
    The CMIF editor is a prototype authoring system for multimedia presentations. Unlike timeline-based presentation editors, the CMIF editor calculates the timing of the document automatically. This is done by interpreting constraints placed by the author on its components, such as "play these parts simultaneously" or "start this part after that part has finished". The system also supports a simple form of hyperlinks, whereby the user can influence the flow through a presentation.
    SIHEN: Sistema Integrado Hypertestual para ENciclopedia BIBA 294
      Ignacio Aedo
    SIHEN is a hypertext system for information processing and creating encyclopedias and dictionaries. It is built on the basis of a single database, including concepts, definitions, and images, as well as relations among them. In addition to data entry and storage, the database is used for searching, linking, selecting and editing the information for any dictionary, book, article, magazine, etc., which can be put together using the initial information.
    DARC -- Document ARchive Controller BIBA 294
      Hasse Haitto
    DARC (Document ARchive Controller) is a multi-user, cross-platform (Sun SPARC/X11 & DOS/Windows 3.1) database application designed for storing, reusing, querying, and navigating, multiple SGML-coded documents. A novelty in DARC is a flexible virtual filing mechanism which allows users to tailor their own view of the database. The views can be stored, combined and shared as well.
    Virtual Reality: Present and Future BIBA 294
      Pierpaolo Muzzolon; Peter Broadwell
    Silicon Graphics will demo State of the Art machines capable of both phenomenal graphics stunts and impressive audio and video tricks. You will hear what integrated Digital Media mean to your future and will expose yourself to tomorrow capabilities. We will also listen to your requests/desires for future products.
    The Document Sampler BIBA 295
      Penny Mitsunaga
    Presently, the online learning tools in Microsoft Word are all implemented as separate pieces. The Document Sampler is our attempt or create a unified documentation/learning package by integrating the various pieces of the online documentation. Most users know what they want to create; by displaying a variety of business documents with individual components identified, users can become aware of the pieces necessary to create a document.
    Motif Applications + LinkWorks = Hyperenvironment BIBA 295
      Ward Clark
    Digital's DECwindows Motif package includes the LinkWorks linking and navigation services that transform a suite of window-based applications into a "hyperenvironment". The LinkWorks environment demo includes DECwindows Motif applications (formal products) and several "hyperapplication" prototypes.
    HyperWriter: An Integrated Hypermedia Architecture BIBA 295
      J. Scott Johnson
    HyperWriter 3.0 provides an integrated authoring environment for creating hypermedia documents including such elements as text, graphics, audio, videos and animation. NTERGAID will demonstrate HyperWriter for DOS, HyperWriter for MS-Windows, HyperWriter for Training and the HyperWriter AutoLinker. HyperWriter for Training integrates full hypertext with computer based testing and grading facilities. The AutoLinker provides a powerful, Awk-based tool for creating hypertext documents in bulk from ASCII, Word, WordPerfect and Ventura Publisher files.
    Hypertext Fiction and Literary Theory BIBA 295
      Paul Kahn
    We will present a selection of hypertext fiction created by students of Robert Coover along with theory collections for teaching British Literature created by George Landow using Storyspace, Interleaf WorldView, and EBT DynaText. HyperCard applications for exploring American Literature by Randy Bass and interactive fiction by Michael Moser will also be shown.
    Teaching Japanese with Hypertext BIBA 295
      Michael McCaskey
    This is a demonstration of Bunpo Kyoshi, a new Japanese teaching program for the Macintosh computer using Hypercard. Each demonstration session combines an overview of Bunpo Kyoshi with step by step presentations of sample lessons. Those attending will have the opportunity to work with lessons on their own if they wish.
    Musical Instruments of the World BIBA 295-296
      Albert O. Cordell
    This demonstration uses material from various media, including text, sound, and video to cultivate an understanding of musical instruments associated with selected countries of the world. Video illustrations are accessed from a laserdisc and enhanced with sound from MIDI, waveform audio, and CD-ROM. The hypermedia environment is enriched by graphics and animation authored in Multimedia Toolbook.
    A Hypermedia and a Hypertext Approach to a Museum Guide BIBA 296
      Maria Alberta Alberti
    Two prototypes of an interactive museum guide have been developed with two different approaches: hypermedia and hypertext techniques. The museum is the Horne Museum in Florence, a collection of paintings, furniture and other art objects for the Tuscanian school of XIV-XVII century. The guide provides informations about the various collections and their dislocations in the museum building, and about their relations with the life and culture of the time.
    Videobook BIBA 296
      Komei Harada
    We present the Videobook authoring system which is aimed at developing hypermedia applications that contain time-based audiovisual data sequences. It provides an intuitive graphical user interface to edit the time-based data sequences and hypermedia data structures. We also present a Videobook application, i.e., a CD-ROM based English listening course to improve the listening skills of Japanese students.
    Multicard: An Open Hypermedia System BIBA 296
      Antoine Rizk
    This demo presents the Multicard hypermedia system which has been developed following an open system approach. Multicard provides a hypermedia toolkit that allows programmers to create and manipulate distributed basic hypermedia structures; an interactive authoring/navigation tool which is itself based on the toolkit; an advanced scripting language; a multimedia composition editor, as well as a communication protocol that allows the integration of various editors and applications into a single hypermedia network.
    The Expanded Books BIBA 296
      Florian Brody
    Just as computers have changed the way you write, they are beginning to transform the way you read. Electronic text is a dynamic medium that enables you to become a more active reader. The Expanded Books allow you to read on the screen with comfort you are used from books on paper while offering search, mark, and annotation features as well as hyperlinks. The presentation will also include the Expanded Books Toolkit that allows everybody familiar with a Macintosh to produce their own Expanded Books.