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W4A Tables of Contents: 040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2014 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A)

Fullname:W4A'14: Web for All Conference
Editors:Jeffrey P. Bigham; Yevgen Borodin; Luis Carriço
Location:Seoul, Korea
Dates:2014-Apr-07 to 2014-Apr-09
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2651-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: W4A14
Links:Conference Website
  1. Evaluations and users
  2. Policies and guidelines
  3. Web browsing and personalization
  4. W4A camp report
  5. After dinner "William Loughborough" speech
  6. Google student award
  7. Gamification
  8. The Paciello group accessibility challenge
  9. Mobility
  10. Education
Universal design in online and higher education through ICT BIBAFull-Text 9
  Sang-Mook Lee
Some people go as far as to claim that computer is a gift of god for people with disability. As a quadriplegic person paralyzed neck down as a result of sudden accident and yet who manages to conduct competitive research in earth science, there may not be a better example of this statement than I. In addition, the recent advances in open online education (such as OCW, MOOC, edX) offer new opportunities for people with disability. One of the important challenges for those with disability, sometimes more than the handicap itself, is that they are often shut out from the general public education, and in the end, it is this lack of education that can be a limiting factor in one's life.
   Online education can be one of many tools for non-disabled students, and while its effectiveness can be debated among educators and those alike, it can be the only means of accessing information for people with severe disability. Thus it should be explored and investigated further. In Korea, we are developing new online technology and inclusive contents for people with disability, especially in the areas of STEM education for college and precollege level learning. We believe that this is a step towards so-called universal design in higher education and independent living. Furthermore, it is expected that our innovative approach will not only help people with disability but also reach out to a wider community of general mass, including those that are willing to take extra effort to master college-level online courses, improve their scientific skills and expand their knowledge base, which will in turn lead to new job opportunities in this knowledge-based economy and society.

Evaluations and users

Evaluation of DysWebxia: a reading app designed for people with dyslexia BIBAFull-Text 10
  Luz Rello; Ricardo Baeza-Yates
In this paper we present the evaluation of DysWebxia, a reading app for iOS devices, specially designed for people with dyslexia. DysWebxia integrates previous results about the best way to present text for people with dyslexia together with a unique feature, the ability to show synonyms on demand for complex words. Although the new algorithm used for this unique feature is language independent, our first prototype is for Spanish. To evaluate DysWebxia we carried out two different user studies. One to evaluate the quality of the synonyms on demand that included 32 participants with dyslexia and 38 strong readers without dyslexia, and another one to evaluate the usability of the app based on 12 participants. Our results show that the quality of the synonyms generated by the new algorithm outperforms a frequency based baseline, and that the participants found DysWebxia very usable. Therefore, we show that this app may have in the future a large impact for people with dyslexia.
Measuring and comparing the reliability of the structured walkthrough evaluation method with novices and experts BIBAFull-Text 11
  Christopher Bailey; Elaine Pearson; Voula Gkatzidou
Effective evaluation of websites for accessibility remains problematic. Automated evaluation tools still require a significant manual element. There is also a significant expertise and evaluator effect. The Structured Walkthrough method is the translation of a manual, expert accessibility evaluation process adapted for use by novices. The method is embedded in the Accessibility Evaluation Assistant (AEA), a web accessibility knowledge management tool. Previous trials examined the pedagogical potential of the tool when incorporated into an undergraduate computing curriculum. The results of the evaluations carried out by novices yielded promising, consistent levels of validity and reliability. This paper presents the results of an empirical study that compares the reliability of accessibility evaluations produced by two groups (novices and experts). The main results of this study indicate that overall reliability of expert evaluations was 76% compared to 65% for evaluations produced by novices. The potential of the Structured Walkthrough method as a useful and viable tool for expert evaluators is also examined.
Wizard-of-Oz evaluation of speech-driven web browsing interface for people with vision impairments BIBAFull-Text 12
  Vikas Ashok; Yevgen Borodin; Svetlana Stoyanchev; Yuri Puzis; I. V. Ramakrishnan
People with visual impairments typically interact with the Web using screen readers that perform serial text-to-speech narration of the content. Although they rely on keyboard shortcuts to navigate through the content quickly, browsing fatigue caused by too many keyboard presses and clicks, increased cognitive load caused by having to remember many shortcuts, and information overload from having to listen to irrelevant content, are all too common. Speech-based interaction modality has the potential to address these shortcomings by allowing users to engage in a dialog with an intelligent agent capable of translating user commands/requests to system actions and generating appropriate responses to them.
   This paper presents empirical findings of a Wizard-of-Oz user study conducted with 24 blind subjects to provide a baseline for gauging the usability and effectiveness of speech interfaces for non-visual web access. Specifically, study participants were required to complete a set of typical web browsing tasks using unrestricted speech commands ranging from simple commands such as "click the search button", to complex commands such as "buy this product". Unknown to the participants, these commands were executed by the wizard and appropriate responses were generated with the help of a screen reader. An important byproduct emerging from the study is a new dialog corpus for non-visual web access that will provide pivotal reference data for exploring the design space underlying the development of high performance dialog systems for web accessibility.
Are users the gold standard for accessibility evaluation? BIBAFull-Text 13
  Amaia Aizpurua; Myriam Arrue; Simon Harper; Markel Vigo
User testing is considered a key part of web accessibility evaluation. However, little is known about how effective is for identifying accessibility problems. Our experience, informed by a series of studies with blind users, corroborates that a website with a significant number of guideline violations can be perceived as accessible, and on the contrary, some participants may not perceive a highly accessible website as accessible. Accessibility guidelines are often criticised by their partial coverage and questionable validity. However, we should be very careful about making categorical statements in this regard as there are a number of variables that may introduce biases in user tests. We identify sources of bias related to user expertise, the experimental setting, employed language and reporting that, if not adequately controlled, may influence on the validity and reliability of the evaluation results. We discuss the limitations and practical implications of user testing with blind users for web accessibility evaluation.

Policies and guidelines

The United States' legislative impact on eaccessibility: what the European Union can learn BIBAFull-Text 14
  Robert Huffaker
Drawing parallels between the mechanisms of legislation in the United States and the European Union that ensure the accessibility of technologies to people with disabilities throughout both regions, this paper examines various forms of laws and mandates and their respective ways of enforcement. Legislation examined are also reflected to the technology they affect and in this paper websites in particular are investigated. After looking at indicators such as the Measuring eAccessibility Study and the role of public procurement, this paper examines the state of eAccessibility in both regions to see what lessons can be brought forth to the European Union, with the coming of the new EU Accessibility Act.
'The new accessibility panic': remaining challenges to the achievement of Australia's national transition strategy BIBAFull-Text 15
  Denise Wood; Scott Hollier
The Australian Government made a commitment in 2010 to ensure that all Federal, State and Territory websites would be accessible and meet World Wide Web (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) Level AA conformance [1] through its National Transition Strategy (NTS) by the end of 2014 [2]. However, as Wood and Hollier [3] foreshadowed in 2013, the recently released NTS 2012 Progress Report confirms that the targets for the first stage of the NTS implementation plan (Level A conformance by the end of 2012) proved unrealistic [4]. Moreover, the Chief Information Officer with the Australian Government Information Management Office (AGIMO), Glen Archer, acknowledges it is unlikely that the targets set for the final stage of the implementation plan (Level AA conformance) will be met by the end of 2014 [5]. This paper reports the findings from content analysis of postings to AGIMO blogs, and our reflections on the discussions of students enrolled in an online Professional Certificate in Web Accessibility Compliance course, to identify key factors that have contributed to the challenges experienced by government departments in achieving NTS targets. The final section of the paper explores the implications and proposes strategies that could assist in addressing the identified barriers.
Global considerations in creating an organizational web accessibility policy BIBAFull-Text 16
  David Sloan; Sarah Horton
Awareness of the nature and implication of legislation and policy regarding web accessibility in different countries is important in guiding organizational web accessibility policy. Our review of published legislation and supporting documentation relating to disability rights and digital accessibility in five countries -- Australia, Brazil, China, India and South Africa -- reveals diversity in the nature and extent of legislation and policy, but offers some indication of trends that could inform a global web accessibility policy.
The role of accessibility in a universal web BIBAFull-Text 17
  Shawn Lawton Henry; Shadi Abou-Zahra; Judy Brewer
"Universal design" is the process of creating products that are usable by people with the widest possible range of abilities, operating within the widest possible range of situations; whereas "accessibility" primarily refers to design for people with disabilities. While the focus of accessibility is disabilities, research and development in accessibility brings benefits to everyone, particularly users with situational limitations, including device limitations and environmental limitations. Awareness and understanding of the benefits of web accessibility to users without disabilities is growing in some areas with the rapid increase of web-enabled devices such as mobile phones, tablets, televisions, and more; with the increasing focus on the growing number of older web users; and with wider web reach in areas with high incidence of low literacy, low bandwidth, older technology, etc. Although there is significant overlap between designing for accessibility and designing for situational limitations, addressing one set of needs does not necessarily provide sufficient solutions for other needs. Keeping accessibility focused on disabilities encourages research and development on meeting the specific needs of people with disabilities. This communications paper explains the importance of "accessibility" continuing to focus on people with disabilities, while further integrating accessibility with web design, development, and research in other areas, including those covered under universal design and design for all. It also describes how the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) are working to address accessibility and related user needs throughout the technologies of the Web, and invites all interested parties to participate in research and development to further integrate accessibility for people with disabilities in ways that benefit all.
HEUA: a heuristic evaluation with usability and accessibility requirements to assess web systems BIBAFull-Text 18
  Ana Luiza Dias; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes; Paulo Cesar Masiero
Nowadays, the Web represents the main way of providing computing services to a huge variety of users with different characteristics. Thus, accessibility and usability features become even more critical to a Web application's success. Researchers have been worried in providing mechanisms to serve as guidelines that Web systems should provide, in terms of usability and accessibility requirements. However, there not exists an instrument to provide a measure to help the specialists to verify how much these requirements are presented in a Web system. In this paper, we describe HEUA, a proposed questionnaire to assess the usability and accessibility of existing (or legacy) Web systems, to support measuring how much effort a Web system needs to be improved.

Web browsing and personalization

An analysis of personalized web accessibility BIBAFull-Text 19
  Nádia Fernandes; Nikolaos Kaklanis; Konstantinos Votis; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Luís Carriço
This paper presents an experimental study designed to understand the differences of performing personalized Web accessibility evaluations or generic evaluations. We used the WaaT evaluator, which can perform personalized WCAG 2.0 based evaluation. We claim that these tools can be used by an individual to understand if a page is accessible to himself, before wasting time browsing its content.
   Our study shows that there are considerable differences between the generic and the personalized evaluation results. It also shows that the number of barriers found in accessing pages is in average considerably lower for users with upper limb and cognitive impairments than for those with vision and hearing impairments. Finally, we argue that common accessibility evaluation metrics are inadequate to understand the differences between these user perspectives of the same page. For a particular metric, we show that score differences are diminished and sometimes even mislead the perception of the accessibility quality.
Exploratory study of web navigation strategies for users with physical disabilities BIBAFull-Text 20
  J. Eduardo Pérez; Myriam Arrue; Xabier Valencia; Lourdes Moreno
Plenty of research works have been carried out to analyze users' behaviour when navigating on the Web. In this sense, the behaviour of people with disabilities has been one of the most explored issues in order to detect and mend the accessibility barriers they usually encounter. Many accessibility guidelines tend to gather people with similar disabilities in the same cluster and provide similar solutions for all of them. However, the navigation behaviour is affected not only by the type of disabilities but also by other variables such as Assistive Technology (AT) used or the level of expertise and website features. We conducted an exploratory study with 11 users with similar physical disabilities, specifically people with upper-body physical impairments. They performed two tasks on a website using their usual AT. This study shows the heterogeneity of their navigation strategies. In addition, these preliminary results bring to light several website adaptations which could improve their productivity and satisfaction.
Predictive, accessible web automation: a longitudinal study BIBAFull-Text 21
  Yury Puzis; Yevgen Borodin; I. V. Ramakrishnan
The problem of efficient, usable non-visual web access remains inadequately solved, despite its critical importance to a significant number of visually-impaired existing and potential Web users. Web automation, a process of automating browsing actions on behalf of the user, has the potential to significantly improve the usability and accessibility of non-visual web browsing. Automation Assistant is an accessible web automation system designed specifically for this purpose. Until now, however, Automation Assistant was only evaluated in a short-term, controlled experiment. In this paper we report preliminary results on a longitudinal study designed to explore the long term practicality of the approach to accessible web automation taken by Automation Assistant. The study involves a single participant and can be considered a pilot of a future experiment involving a large number of participants and benefiting from the lessons learned during the pilot.
Overcoming the new accessibility challenges using the sweet framework BIBAFull-Text 22
  Gollapudi Vrj Sai Prasad; T. B. Dinesh; Venkatesh Choppella
For many, Accessibility is about disability and aiding the disabled user. We argue for a much broader definition: One that is inclusive of not only the disabled and the technologically deprived, but also the able-bodied, who may still be facing linguistic, socio-cultural, cognitive type barriers. Further, we discuss how to overcome this new broad set of barriers (which have elsewhere been called New Accessibility). Modification of original static content to new target content -- a technique of Renarration -- is modeled as a webpage transformation. This is operationally realized as "Sweets". Sweets are external meta data used for transformation of the web page. They are collaboratively and socially produced either by humans or human triggered Sweet based web applications. The entire web architecture featuring Sweets, their repositories and their web applications is explained and shared as a potential mechanism for overcoming New Accessibility barriers. Two web applications, Alipi and Mural Annotation for IDH, are finally showcased to highlight that Sweets based architecture does indeed help in facing the barriers of New Accessibility.

W4A camp report

W4A camp report: "2013 edition" BIBAFull-Text 23
  Markel Vigo; Julio Abascal
We provide pointers to the issues that are going to be hot topics in the following years according to our community. First, engineering accessibility through sound methodologies and sampling methods remains a challenge. Secondly, analysing behavioural data to infer barriers and emergent task models is a game changer that switches the paradigm from top-down to a bottom-up approach where users are not grouped by their abilities, but by their individual differences in an accessibility continuum. Finally, tackling the access needs in the developing regions will allow the explosion of crowdsourced applications that can potentially improve the living conditions of many. We argue that these issues should not be missed in a broader accessibility research agenda.

After dinner "William Loughborough" speech

Can a blind person understand your world? BIBAFull-Text 24
  Chieko Asakawa
Computers have changed the lives of blind people by allowing us to access vast amounts of information on the net. Now we can read daily newspapers, hear digital textbooks, shop for goods online, and join online social networks. However, "sensing the surrounding real world" is still challenging for such tasks as checking the colors of merchandise, responding to street signs, or recognizing smiling faces. Driving a car is still one of the largest challenges, but technology is continually breaking new ground. The expansion of online data is now pushing machine learning techniques and crowd sourcing methods, which together enable blind people to understand ever more about the real world. Just as importantly, these same technologies can help sighted people better understand the world, too. We have entered an era of assisted cognition, not only for persons with disabilities, but for everyone. In this talk, I will offer predictions about near-future possibilities and discuss how these technologies can change our lives.
Holistic web accessibility in a society of technology convergence BIBAFull-Text 25
  Kun-Pyo Lee
Web accessibility is subject to the paradigm of convergence. The web plays a crucial role in this paradigm. Increasingly, it becomes a platform for an ecosystem where users with different products, services, and activities work together organically and complement each other. To cope with this complex system I suggest Holistic Web Accessibility through design, which converges Technology with Activity in designing for seamless product ecosystems and holistic human experiences.

Google student award

Accessibility and smart data: the case study of mPASS BIBAFull-Text 26
  Catia Prandi
The growing availability of data gathered by people via personal sensing and crowdsourcing is changing the way data are collected, provided and perceived. Information is becoming too much to actually make sense and this leads to an increasing demand of Smart Data. We can intend Smart Data as information obtained by large data and extracted by intelligent algorithms to meet people needs. This concept easily matches with well-known accessibility issues, solutions and techniques. Moreover, Smart Data is an emerging solution to prevent the large amount of data from becoming a new challenge in the e-accessibility field. In this context, my research is devoted to apply Smart Data to improve e-accessibility in a mobile crowdsourcing and sensing application designed to support users with disabilities in avoiding urban accessibility barriers.
Intelligent assistive communication and the web as a social medium BIBAFull-Text 27
  Karl Wiegand
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) describes strategies and technologies commonly used by people for whom spoken interaction is extremely difficult or infeasible. AAC includes facial expressions, sign languages, and picture cards, as well as high-tech devices. Most AAC systems present users with hierarchical arrays of symbols that are sequentially selected to construct messages. Although speed of message construction and ease of use are critical, these systems are often slow and require fatiguing physical movements. Our work challenges three main assumptions common to AAC that influence design decisions and place increased demands on the user rather than the system. We leverage natural language processing and machine learning to design intelligent communication interfaces that shift the cognitive and physical burden from the user to the system to allow for faster, less fatiguing communication. This work has implications for both face-to-face and Web-based communication. AAC users are increasingly turning to the Web for social interaction, and W4A provides a unique opportunity to explore how to leverage intelligent interfaces to lower the barriers to active participation in the World Wide Web.


Making Arabic PDF books accessible using gamification BIBAFull-Text 28
  Hend AlRouqi; Hend S. Al-Khalifa
Most of online Arabic books are not accessible to Arab people with visual impairments. They cannot read online books because they are usually scanned images of the original ones. There is also a problem in PDF encoding of some of the textual books. One of the solutions is to use an Arabic OCR to convert scanned books into text; however Arabic OCR is still in its early stages and suffers from many limitations. In this paper we propose the use of human recognition skills to replace OCR limitations by incorporating the concepts of crowdsourcing and gamification. Our proposed system is in the form of a mobile recall game that presents players with word images segmented from the books to be converted into text. The players' answers are checked using techniques similar to what is used in word spotting. We initially implemented two components of the system; the segmentation, and the feature extraction and matching components. For the feature extraction and matching component, which is used to verify the player's answers, we performed four tests to choose a similarity measure threshold for accepting an entered word as a correct answer. Future work will consider other means of input correctness assurance.
Introducing game elements in crowdsourced video captioning by non-experts BIBAFull-Text 29
  Hernisa Kacorri; Kaoru Shinkawa; Shin Saito
Video captioning can increase the accessibility of information for people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing and benefit second language learners and reading-deficient students. We propose a caption editing system that harvests crowdsourced work for the useful task of video captioning. To make the task an engaging activity, its interface incorporates game-like elements. Non-expert users submit their transcriptions for short video segments against a countdown timer, either in a "type" or "fix" mode, to score points. Transcriptions from multiple users are aligned and merged to form the final captions. Preliminary results with 42 participants and 578 short video segments show that the Word Error Rate of the merged captions with two users per segment improved from 20.7% in ASR to 16%. Finally, we discuss our work in progress to improve both the accuracy of the collected data and to increase the crowd engagement.

The Paciello group accessibility challenge

Marker-assisted recognition of dynamic content in public spaces BIBAFull-Text 30
  Andréa Britto Mattos; Ricardo Herrmann; Carlos Cardonha; Diego Gallo; Priscilla Avegliano; Sergio Borger
In this work we present an image processing-based assistant for helping visually impaired citizens with the task of recognizing dynamic content within fixed layouts of displays in public spaces. Our solution relies on the placement of markers, in order to facilitate the location and recognition of target objects and, at the same time, provide hints to users about how to better position their mobile device's cameras to capture the whole information contained in the display.
APSIS4all: personalisation as a strategy to ensure accessibility and enhance user experience of public digital terminals BIBAFull-Text 31
  R. Ignacio Madrid; Christopher Bailey
APSIS4all aims to personalise the user experience of Public Digital Terminals such as Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and Ticket Vending Machines (TVMs) in order to overcome existing accessibility barriers faced by a range of groups including users with disabilities, older people and those less familiar with ICT. APSIS4all allows the user to configure the user interface of digital terminals to suit their personal needs and preferences using an on-line wizard. Once users get to a terminal a minimal gesture is required to activate the most appropriate interface and the terminal automatically adapts to the individual user. Initial evaluations have shown that this solution significantly enhances the user experience when compared to traditional terminals.
Widget design authoring toolkit BIBAFull-Text 32
  Elaine Pearson; Franck-Olivier Perrin
The Widget Design Authoring Toolkit (WIDGaT) is an online code-free widget creation tool aimed at non-technical teach and support staff.
Listen to everything you want to read with Capti narrator BIBAFull-Text 33
  Yevgen Borodin; Yuri Puzis; Andrii Soviak; James Bouker; Bo Feng; Richard Sicoli; Andrii Melnyk; Valentyn Melnyk; Vikas Ashok; Glenn Dausch; I. V. Ramakrishnan
Capti Narrator is a new cross-platform application for convenient, hands-free consumption of digital content, enabling users to listen to news, blogs, documents, unprotected e-books, and more while commuting, cooking, working out, anywhere, anytime. Capti will improve the productivity of students, busy professionals, language learners, people with print disabilities, and anyone else who wants to listen to content instead of reading it from the screen.


Marker-based image recognition of dynamic content for the visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 34
  Andréa Britto Mattos; Carlos Cardonha; Diego Gallo; Priscilla Avegliano; Ricardo Herrmann; Sergio Borger
The access to information displayed in public spaces is a challenge faced by visually impaired people for which image processing techniques have the potential to deliver satisfactory solutions. However, object recognition algorithms must initially locate possible candidates in the images, which is a hard task in complex scenes. In this article, we introduce an image processing technique that relies on the incorporation of markers to panels and boards with fixed layouts displaying dynamic content. The markers allow: a) locating the objects to be recognized; b) correcting perspective in the input images; c) limiting the training set size for supervised learning; and d) guiding the visually impaired by indicating how they should position their devices for adequate pictures. The proposed technique can be used for automatic recognition of texts and images and is suitable for deployment on mobile devices, providing more independence to the citizens. Results of preliminary tests on vending machines show that this method is robust enough to be used in practice.
Friendsourcing the unmet needs of people with dementia BIBAFull-Text 35
  João Martins; José Carilho; Oliver Schnell; Carlos Duarte; Francisco M. Couto; Luís Carriço; Tiago Guerreiro
The decay of cognitive abilities associated with dementia severely impacts the quality of life of a person and his surrounding ecosystem. First, people with dementia (PwD) increasingly forget the events in their lives leading to depression, isolation and faster cognitive deterioration. Second, their caregivers, besides the emotional burden that having someone close in such a condition carries, are also likely to be overwhelmed with responsibilities and duties in maintaining the PwD with a balanced and decent lifestyle. Our approach tries to address this by providing a prosthetic memory captured in two ways: 1) automatically captures data from the PwD's smartphone and enriches it with automatically retrieved data from the web and, 2) a private social network group (friendsourcing) used to validate and personalize the relevant events in the PwD's life. By sharing the load among a limited but still populated set of trustworthy people we aim to maintain the caregiving process feasible and maintain more people engaged with the PwD. Overall, the ultimate goal is to provide reminiscence, safety and cognitive aids for the PwD that are up-to-date and personally relevant.
JustSpeak: enabling universal voice control on Android BIBAFull-Text 36
  Yu Zhong; T. V. Raman; Casey Burkhardt; Fadi Biadsy; Jeffrey P. Bigham
In this paper we introduce JustSpeak, a universal voice control solution for non-visual access to the Android operating system. JustSpeak offers two contributions as compared to existing systems. First, it enables system wide voice control on Android that can accommodate any application. JustSpeak constructs the set of available voice commands based on application context; these commands are directly synthesized from on-screen labels and accessibility metadata, and require no further intervention from the application developer. Second, it provides more efficient and natural interaction with support of multiple voice commands in the same utterance. We present the system design of JustSpeak and describe its utility in various use cases. We then discuss the system level supports required by a service like JustSpeak on other platforms. By eliminating the target locating and pointing tasks, JustSpeak can significantly improve experience of graphic interface interaction for blind and motion-impaired users.
A survey of open accessibility data BIBAFull-Text 37
  Chaohai Ding; Mike Wald; Gary Wills
This paper presents the research of using Linked Data for enhancing accessibility data, especially for accessible travelling. With the aim of addressing the gap between users' special needs and accessibility data, this research initially explores the current situation of open accessibility data. Open accessibility data is the data related to the accessibility issues and associated with geographical data, which could benefit people with disabilities or special needs. This paper proposed a survey of open accessibility data in UK based on the datasets retrieved from five different resources. After examining the features of each dataset, a mapping approach using Semantic Web technologies is proposed to interlink these datasets together to generate a linked open accessibility repository and link this repository to other resources on the Linked Open Data Cloud (LODC). As a result, this research would not only benefit people with disabilities, but also contribute to a novel method to address accessibility information barriers by establishing a linked open accessibility data repository for publishing, integrating and consuming the accessibility data.
Investigating the appropriateness and relevance of mobile web accessibility guidelines BIBAFull-Text 38
  Raphael Clegg-Vinell; Christopher Bailey; Voula Gkatzidou
The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develop and maintain guidelines for making the web more accessible to people with disabilities. WCAG 2.0 and the MWBP 1.0 are internationally regarded as the industry standard guidelines for web accessibility. Mobile testing sessions conducted by AbilityNet document issues raised by users in a report format, relating issues to guidelines wherever possible. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation that examines how effectively and easily these issues can be related by experts to the guidelines provided by WCAG 2.0 and MWBP 1.0.


Helping students keep up with real-time captions by pausing and highlighting BIBAFull-Text 39
  Walter S. Lasecki; Raja Kushalnagar; Jeffrey P. Bigham
We explore methods for improving the readability of real-time captions by allowing users to more easily switch their gaze between multiple visual information sources. Real-time captioning provides deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) users with access to spoken content during live events, and the web has allowed these services to be provided via remotely-located captioning services, and for web content itself. However, despite caption benefits, spoken language reading rates often result in DHH users falling behind spoken content, especially when the audio is paired with visual references. This is particularly true in classroom settings, where multi-modal content is the norm, and captions are often poorly positioned in the room, relative to speakers. Additionally, this accommodation can benefit other students who face temporary or "situational" disabilities such as listening to unfamiliar speech accents, or if a student is in a location with poor acoustics.
   In this paper, we explore pausing and highlighting as a means of helping DHH students keep up with live classroom content by helping them track their place when reading text involving visual references. Our experiments show that by providing users with a tool to more easily track their place in a transcript while viewing live video, it is possible for them to follow visual content that might otherwise have been missed. Both pausing and highlighting have a positive impact on students' scores on comprehension tests, but highlighting is preferred to pausing, and yields nearly twice as large of an improvement. We then discuss several issues with captioning that we observed during our design process and user study, and then suggest future work that builds on these insights.
Towards making mathematics a first class citizen in general screen readers BIBAFull-Text 40
  Volker Sorge; Charles Chen; T. V. Raman; David Tseng
The text to speech translation of mathematical expressions has always been a challenging problem, which has not diminished by more and more content moving to the web. In this paper we present our efforts of making the speech translation of mathematical formulas a first class citizen in ChromeVox, a general screen reader for the Chrome browser. We exploit ChromeVox's ability to handle alternative representations of DOM elements for translation of mathematical content given in a variety of web formats into uniform utterances. We present a format of flexible and adaptable speech rules that support the customization of aural rendering of mathematics and introduce a specially semantically enriched representation of expressions that allows for a more natural reading experience. To further aid understanding of the math we exploit ChromeVox's idea of letting users engage with content on different levels of granularity to enable interactive exploration of complex mathematical formulas.
Remote IT education for senior citizens BIBAFull-Text 41
  Hironobu Takagi; Akihiro Kosugi; Tatsuya Ishihara; Kentarou Fukuda
Information technologies (IT) have great potential to improve the everyday lives of senior citizens, but their lack of skills prevents them from exploiting the possibilities. Skilled seniors can effectively teach unskilled seniors based on their deep understanding of the barriers and needs of their generation, but skilled seniors are scarce. Distant learning methods could be a solution, but their unfamiliarity with IT and strong preference for face-to-face learning are challenges. To make the distant course closer to the face-to-face experience, we developed a remote education system with real-time gesture visualization integrated with multiple audio and video streams between the teachers and learners. In this paper, we will introduce our remote course system and the course design, and then report results of the trial remote course approach.