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VAMR Tables of Contents: 13-113-214-114-215

VAMR 2013: 6th International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, Part I: Designing and Developing Virtual and Augmented Environments

Fullname:VAMR 2014: 6th International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, Part I: Designing and Developing Virtual and Augmented Environments
Note:Volume 16 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Randall Shumaker; Stephanie Lackey
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8525
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07458-0 hcibib: VAMR14-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-07457-3 (print), 978-3-319-07458-0 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. VAMR 2014-06-22 Volume 1
    1. Interaction Devices, Displays and Techniques in VAMR
    2. Designing Virtual and Augmented Environments
    3. Avatars and Virtual Characters
    4. Developing Virtual and Augmented Environments

VAMR 2014-06-22 Volume 1

Interaction Devices, Displays and Techniques in VAMR

Classification of Interaction Techniques in the 3D Virtual Environment on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Eliane Balaa; Mathieu Raynal; Youssef Bou Issa; Emmanuel Dubois
3D Virtual Environments (3DVE) are more and more used in different applications such as CAD, games, or teleoperation. Due to the improvement of smartphones hardware performance, 3D applications were also introduced to mobile devices. In addition, smartphones provide new computing capabilities far beyond the traditional voice communication. They are permitted by the variety of built-in sensors and the internet connectivity. In consequence, interesting 3D applications can be designed by enabling the device capabilities to interact in a 3DVE. Due to the fact that smartphones have small and flat screens and that a 3DVE is wide and dense, mobile devices present some constraints: the environment density, the depth of targets and the occlusion. The pointing task faces these three problems to select a target. We propose a new classification of the existing interaction techniques, according to three axis of classification: a) the three discussed problems (density, depth and occlusion); b) the first two subtasks of the pointing task (navigation, selection); and c) the number of targets selected by the pointing technique (1 or N). In this paper we will begin by presenting a state of the art of the different pointing techniques in existing 3DVE, structured around three selection techniques: a) Ray casting, b) Curve and c) Point cursor. Then we will present our classification, and we will illustrate the classification of the main pointing techniques for 3DVE. From this classification, we will discuss the type of interaction that seems the most appropriate to perform this subtask optimally.
Keywords: Interaction techniques; 3D Virtual environment; mobile devices; environment density; depth of targets; occlusion; Augmented Reality
Multimodal Interfaces and Sensory Fusion in VR for Social Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 14-24
  Esubalew Bekele; Joshua W. Wade; Dayi Bian; Lian Zhang; Zhi Zheng; Amy Swanson; Medha Sarkar; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Difficulties in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communications as well as repetitive and atypical patterns of behavior, are typical characteristics of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Advances in computer and robotic technology are enabling assistive technologies for intervention in psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). A number of research studies indicate that many children with ASD prefer technology and this preference can be explored to develop systems that may alleviate several challenges of traditional treatment and intervention. The current work presents development of an adaptive virtual reality-based social interaction platform for children with ASD. It is hypothesized that endowing a technological system that can detect the feeling and mental state of the child and adapt its interaction accordingly is of great importance in assisting and individualizing traditional intervention approaches. The proposed system employs sensors such as eye trackers and physiological signal monitors and models the context relevant psychological state of the child from combination of these sensors. Preliminary affect recognition results indicate that psychological states could be determined from peripheral physiological signals and together with other modalities including gaze and performance of the participant, it is viable to adapt and individualize VR-based intervention paradigms.
Keywords: Social interaction; virtual reality; autism intervention; multimodal system; adaptive interaction; eye tracking; physiological processing; sensor fusion
Multi-modal Interaction System to Tactile Perception BIBAKFull-Text 25-34
  Lorenzo Cavalieri; Michele Germani; Maura Mengoni
Haptic simulation of materials is one of the most important challenges in human-computer interaction. A fundamental step to achieve it regards the definition of how human beings can encode the information acquired by different sensorial channels' stimulation. In this context, this paper presents the study, implementation and evaluation of a multi-modal cutaneous feedback device (CFD) for the simulation of material textures. In addition to tactile stimulation, two further sensory components (e.g. eyesight and hearing) are integrated to support the user to better recognize and discriminate different classes of materials and then, overcome previous identified drawbacks. An experimental protocol is tuned to assess the relevance of each stimulated channel in material texture recognition. Tests are carried out with real and virtual materials. Result comparison is used to validate the proposed approach and verify the realism of simulation.
Keywords: Elettrocutaneous feedback; haptic; multi-modal stimulation
Principles of Dynamic Display Aiding Presence in Mixed Reality Space Design BIBAKFull-Text 35-43
  Inkyung Choi; Jihyun Lee
In this study, presence principles were developed for dynamic display design and evaluation of dynamic display for designing mixed reality space. This is a research to classify the indicators collected through the researches about the existing measurement and evaluation of the existence felling and information suggestion methods in mixed reality as the evaluation principles of the displays and multimodal's interfaces that construct the mixed reality. Additionally, by constructing QFD evaluation frame based on this presence principles and evaluating the interface that composes the mixed reality, research results were tried to be reflected in the future works.
Keywords: Spatial Presence; Dynamic Display; Mixed Reality; Presence Principles
Combining Multi-Sensory Stimuli in Virtual Worlds -- A Progress Report BIBAKFull-Text 44-54
  Julia Fröhlich; Ipke Wachsmuth
In order to make a significant step towards more realistic virtual experiences, we created a multi-sensory stimuli display for a CAVE-like environment. It comprises graphics, sound, tactile feedback, wind and warmth. In the present report we discuss the possibilities and constraints tied to such an enhancement. To use a multi-modal display in a proper way, many considerations have to be taken into account. This includes safety requirements, hardware devices and software integration. For each stimulus different possibilities are reviewed with regard to their assets and drawbacks. Eventually the resulting setup realized in our lab is described -- to our knowledge one of the most comprehensive systems. Technical evaluations as well as user studies accompanied the development and gave hints with respect to necessities and chances.
Keywords: Multi-Sensory Stimuli; Wind; Warmth; Presence; Virtual Reality
R-V Dynamics Illusion: Psychophysical Influence on Sense of Weight by Mixed-Reality Visual Stimulation of Moving Objects BIBAKFull-Text 55-64
  Satoshi Hashiguchi; Yohei Sano; Fumihisa Shibata; Asako Kimura
When humans sense the weight of real objects, their perception is known to be influenced by not only tactile information but also visual information. In a Mixed-Reality (MR) environment, the appearance of touchable objects can be changed by superimposing a computer-generated image (CGI) onto them (MR visual stimulation). In this paper, we studied the psychophysical influence on the sense of weight by using a real object that has a CGI superimposed on it. In the experiments, we show CGI representing the inertial force caused by the movable objects inside, while the subject swings the real object. The results of the experiments show that the subjects sensed weight differently when being shown the CGI animation.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Sense of Weight; Visual Stimulation; Psychophysical Influence
Expansion of the Free Form Projection Display Using a Hand-Held Projector BIBAFull-Text 65-74
  Kaoru Kenjo; Ryugo Kijima
We developed the multi projection system that supplement the free form projection display (FFPD) that virtual object image projected onto the real object with the projection of hand-held projector. This system enabled the users to expansion of projection area and look see the interesting area by covert to high-definition display. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of user's stereoscopy by visual gap of images projected each projector.
Study of an Interactive and Total Immersive Device with a Personal 3D Viewer and Its Effects on the Explicit Long-Term Memories of the Subjects BIBAFull-Text 75-84
  Evelyne Lombardo
We studied an interactive (functional and intentional interactivity) and immersive (technical and psychological immersion) device with a personal 3D viewer (360° vision and environmentally ego-centered) and its effects on the explicit long-term memories of the subjects (4 groups of 30 students for a total of 120 subjects) (2007 and 2012). We have tested memory, communication and feeling of presence in our virtual environment with a canonic test of presence (Witmer and Singer, 1998). This article is a reflection on these 3D devices and their impact on the long term memory of the students, and on their presence sensation.
Research and Simulation on Virtual Movement Based on Kinect BIBAFull-Text 85-92
  Qi Luo; Guohui Yang
Kinect is a line of motion sensing input devices by Microsoft for Xbox 360 and Xbox One video game consoles and Windows PCs. Based around a webcam-style add-on peripheral, it enables users to control and interact with their console/computer without the need for a game controller, through a natural user interface using gestures and spoken commands. The virtual simulation system is designed in the paper. Key Technologies of the Simulation System based on Virtual movement such us Characters in skinned binding technology, Kinect data capture, Movement data extraction and processing model, Depth of the image to bone, Sports redirection module and Skeleton model with motion data node bound are introduced in the paper.
A Natural User Interface for Navigating in Organized 3D Virtual Contents BIBAKFull-Text 93-104
  Guido Maria Re; Monica Bordegoni
The research activity presented in this paper aim at extending the traditional planar navigation, which is adopted by many desktop applications for searching information, to an experience in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. In particular, the work proposes a system that allows the user to navigate in virtual environments, in which the objects are spatially organized and sorted. The visualization of virtual object has been designed and an interaction method, based on gestures, has been proposed to trigger the navigation in the environment. The article describes the design and the development of the system, by starting from some considerations about the intuitiveness and naturalness required for a three-dimensional navigation. In addition, an initial case study has been carried out and consists in using the system in a virtual 3D catalogue of furniture.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Natural User Interfaces; Navigation; Gestures; Virtual Catalogue
Requirements for Virtualization of AR Displays within VR Environments BIBAKFull-Text 105-116
  Erik Steindecker; Ralph Stelzer; Bernhard Saske
Everybody has been talking about new emerging products in augmented reality (AR) and their potential to enhance our daily life and work. The AR technology has been around for quite a while and various use cases have been thought and tested. Clearly, the new AR Systems (e.g. Vuzix m100, Google Glasses) will bring its use to a new level. For planning, designing and reviewing of innovative AR systems and their application, virtual reality (VR) technology can be supportive. Virtual prototypes of AR Systems can be expired and evaluated within a VR environment (e.g. CAVE).
   This paper proposes the virtualization of AR displays within VR environments and discusses requirements. A user study investigates the necessary pixel density for the legibility of a virtual display in order to verify the significance of guidelines given by ISO 9241-300. Furthermore, equations examine the suitability of various VR systems for display virtualization within VR environments. This will enable reviews of various display systems in a virtual manner.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; Virtualization; Display; User Study
Robot Behavior for Enhanced Human Performance and Workload BIBAKFull-Text 117-128
  Grace Teo; Lauren Reinerman-Jones
Advancements in technology in the field of robotics have made it necessary to determine integration and use for these in civilian tasks and military missions. Currently, literature is limited on robot employment in tasks and missions, and few taxonomies exist that guide understanding of robot functionality. As robots acquire more capabilities and functions, they will likely be working more closely with humans in human-robot teams. In order to better utilize and design robots that enhance performance in such teams, a better understanding of what robots can do and the impact of these behaviors on the human operator/teammate is needed.
Keywords: Human-robot teaming; Robot behavior; Performance; Workload

Designing Virtual and Augmented Environments

Subjective-Situational Study of Presence BIBAKFull-Text 131-138
  Nataly Averbukh
The paper is devoted to the description of the interview approach to reveal presence state and its types such as environmental, social and personal presence. The questions of the interview is described and analyzed in detail. The questions were formulated in view of the subject's behavior and the reactions during tests. Also the answers of the test subjects are analyzed from a perspective of sense of presence revealing. The interview method proved its efficiency. This method allowed to identify in practice types of presence being under researching. In addition, it has enabled a better understanding of the dynamics of the perception changes in the case of presence. The flexibility of this method allows to adjust it under specific virtual environment, and to clarify all key aspects to understand presence.
Keywords: sense of presence; interview approach; types of presence
Development of a Squad Level Vocabulary for Human-Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 139-148
  Daniel Barber; Ryan W. Wohleber; Avonie Parchment; Florian Jentsch; Linda Elliott
Interaction with robots in military applications is trending away from teleoperation and towards collaboration. Enabling this transition requires technologies for natural and intuitive communication between Soldiers and robots. Automated Speech Recognition (ASR) systems designed using a well-defined lexicon are likely to be more robust to the challenges of dynamic and noisy environments inherent to military operations. To successfully apply this approach to ASR development, lexicons should involve an early focus on the target audience. To facilitate development a vocabulary focused at the squad level for Human Robot Interaction (HRI), 31 Soldiers from Officer Candidate School at Ft. Benning, GA provided hypothetical commands for directing an autonomous robot to perform a variety of spatial navigation and reconnaissance tasks. These commands were analyzed, using word frequency counts and heuristics, to determine the structure and word choice of commands. Results presented provide a baseline Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV) and a foundation for development of HRI technologies enabling multi-modal communications within mixed-initiative teams.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; human-robot teaming; mixed-initiative teams; speech recognition
Towards an Interaction Concept for Efficient Control of Cyber-Physical Systems BIBAKFull-Text 149-158
  Ingo Keller; Anke Lehmann; Martin Franke; Thomas Schlegel
In this work, we introduce our interaction concept for efficient control of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The proposed concept addresses the challenges of the increased amount of smart/electronic devices along with increasingly complex user interfaces. With a dual reality approach, the user is able to perform the same action in the physical world as well in the virtual world by synchronizing both. We solve thereby the most important compelling issue of ease of use, flexibility, and bridging the gap between both worlds. Our approach is substantiated by two test scenarios by means of a characteristically CPS setting.
Keywords: cyber-physical system; smart home; dual reality interaction; synchronized environments
3D Design for Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 159-169
  Ivar Kjellmo
How do you define a good concept when designing augmented reality apps for mobiles? This paper focuses on design processes technically, graphically and conceptually in the development of 3D content for Augmented Reality on mobile devices. Based on experiences in the development and implementation of a course in 3D design for Augmented Reality at NITH (The Norwegian School of IT), challenges and methods in creating concepts, optimized graphics and visually coherent content for AR will be discussed.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Virtual Reality; Mixed reality; Education; 3D design; Concepts; Presence in augmented and virtual reality
Don't Walk into Walls: Creating and Visualizing Consensus Realities for Next Generation Videoconferencing BIBAFull-Text 170-180
  Nicolas H. Lehment; Philipp Tiefenbacher; Gerhard Rigoll
This contribution examines the problem of linking two remote rooms into one shared teleconference space using augmented reality (AR). Previous work in remote collaboration focusses either on the display of data and participants or on the interactions required to complete a given task. The surroundings are usually either disregarded entirely or one room is chosen as the "hosting" room which serves as the reference space. In this paper, we aim to integrate the two surrounding physical spaces of the users into the virtual conference space. We approach this problem using techniques borrowed from computational geometric analysis, from computer graphics and from 2D image processing. Our goal is to provide a thorough discussion of the problem and to describe an approach to creating consensus realities for use in AR videoconferencing.
Transparency in a Human-Machine Context: Approaches for Fostering Shared Awareness/Intent BIBAKFull-Text 181-190
  Joseph B. Lyons; Paul R. Havig
Advances in autonomy have the potential to reshape the landscape of the modern world. Yet, research on human-machine interaction is needed to better understand the dynamic exchanges required between humans and machines in order to optimize human reliance on novel technologies. A key aspect of that exchange involves the notion of transparency as humans and machines require shared awareness and shared intent for optimal team work. Questions remain however, regarding how to represent information in order to generate shared awareness and intent in a human-machine context. The current paper will review a recent model of human-robot transparency and will propose a number of methods to foster transparency between humans and machines.
Keywords: transparency; human-machine interaction; trust in automation; trust
Delegation and Transparency: Coordinating Interactions So Information Exchange Is No Surprise BIBAKFull-Text 191-202
  Christopher A. Miller
We argue that the concept and goal of "transparency" in human-automation interactions does not make sense as naively formulated; humans cannot be aware of everything automation is doing and why in most circumstances if there is to be any cognitive workload savings. Instead, we argue, a concept of transparency based on and shaped by delegation interactions provides a framework for what should be communicated in "transparent" interactions and facilitates that communication and comprehension. Some examples are provided from recent work in developing delegation systems.
Keywords: flexible automation; adaptive/adaptable automation; Playbook®; delegation; Uninhabited Aerial Systems; trust; transparency; supervisory control
Trust and Consequences: A Visual Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 203-214
  Emrah Onal; John O'Donovan; Laura Marusich; Michael S. Yu; James Schaffer; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Tobias Höllerer
User interface (UI) composition and information presentation can impact human trust behavior. Trust is a complex concept studied by disciplines like psychology, sociology, economics, and computer science. Definitions of trust vary depending on the context, but are typically based on the core concept of "reliance on another person or entity". Trust is a critical concept since the presence or absence of the right level of trust can affect user behavior, and ultimately, the overall system performance. In this paper, we look across four studies to explore the relationship between UI elements and human trust behavior. Results indicate that UI composition and information presentation can impact human trust behavior. While further research is required to corroborate and generalize these results, we hope that this paper will provide a reference point for future studies by identifying UI elements that are likely to influence human trust.
Keywords: Trust; cooperation; user interface; visualization; design; typology; model
Choosing a Selection Technique for a Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 215-225
  Danilo Souza; Paulo Dias; Beatriz Sousa Santos
Bearing in mind the difficulty required to create virtual environments, a platform for Setting-up Interactive Virtual Environments (pSIVE) was created to help non-specialists benefit from virtual applications involving virtual tours where users may interact with elements of the environment to extract contextual information. The platform allows creating virtual environments and setting up their aspects, interaction methods and hardware to be used. The construction of the world is done by loading 3D models and associating multimedia information (videos, texts or PDF documents) to them.
   A central interaction task in the envisioned applications of pSIVE is the selection of objects that have associated multimedia information. Thus, a comparative study between two variants of the ray-tracing selection technique was performed. The study also demonstrates the flexibility of the platform, since it was easily adapted to serve as a test environment.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Virtual Environments; Selection
Augmented Reality Evaluation: A Concept Utilizing Virtual Reality BIBAFull-Text 226-236
  Philipp Tiefenbacher; Nicolas H. Lehment; Gerhard Rigoll
In recent years the field of augmented reality (AR) has seen great advances in interaction, tracking and rendering. New input devices and mobile hardware have enabled entirely new interaction concepts for AR content. The high complexity of AR applications results in lacking usability evaluation practices on part of the developer. In this paper, we present a thorough classification of factors influencing user experience, split into the broad categories of rendering, tracking and interaction. Based on these factors, we propose an architecture for evaluating AR experiences prior to deployment in an adapted virtual reality (VR) environment. Thus we enable rapid prototyping and evaluation of AR applications especially suited for applications in challenging industrial AR projects.

Avatars and Virtual Characters

Good Enough Yet? A Preliminary Evaluation of Human-Surrogate Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 239-250
  Julian, IV Abich; Lauren E. Reinerman-Jones; Gerald Matthews; Gregory F. Welch; Stephanie J. Lackey; Charles E. Hughes; Arjun Nagendran
Research exploring the implementation of surrogates has included areas such as training (Chuah et al., 2013), education (Yamashita, Kuzuoka, Fujimon, & Hirose, 2007), and entertainment (Boberg, Piippo, & Ollila, 2008). Determining the characteristics of the surrogate that could potentially influence the human's behavioral responses during human-surrogate interactions is of importance. The present work will draw on the literature about human-robot interaction (HRI), social psychology literature regarding the impact that the presence of a surrogate has on another human, and communications literature about human-human interpersonal interaction. The review will result in an experimental design to evaluate various dimensions of the space of human-surrogate characteristics influence on interaction.
Keywords: human-robot interaction; human-surrogate interaction; communications; social psychology; avatar; physical-virtual avatar
A Design Methodology for Trust Cue Calibration in Cognitive Agents BIBAKFull-Text 251-262
  Ewart J. de Visser; Marvin Cohen; Amos Freedy; Raja Parasuraman
As decision support systems have developed more advanced algorithms to support the human user, it is increasingly difficult for operators to verify and understand how the automation comes to its decision. This paper describes a design methodology to enhance operators' decision making by providing trust cues so that their perceived trustworthiness of a system matches its actual trustworthiness, thus yielding calibrated trust. These trust cues consist of visualizations to diagnose the actual trustworthiness of the system by showing the risk and uncertainty of the associated information. We present a trust cue design taxonomy that lists all possible information that can influence a trust judgment. We apply this methodology to a scenario with advanced automation that manages missions for multiple unmanned vehicles and shows specific trust cues for 5 levels of trust evidence. By focusing on both individual operator trust and the transparency of the system, our design approach allows for calibrated trust for optimal decision-making to support operators during all phases of mission execution.
Keywords: Trust; Trust Calibration; Trust Cues; Cognitive Agents; Uncertainty Visualization; Bayesian Modeling; Computational Trust Modeling; Automation; Unmanned Systems; Cyber Operations; Trustworthiness
Effects of Gender Mapping on the Perception of Emotion from Upper Body Movement in Virtual Characters BIBAFull-Text 263-273
  Maurizio Mancini; Andrei Ermilov; Ginevra Castellano; Fotis Liarokapis; Giovanna Varni; Christopher Peters
Despite recent advancements in our understanding of the human perception of the emotional behaviour of embodied artificial entities in virtual reality environments, little remains known about various specifics relating to the effect of gender mapping on the perception of emotion from body movement. In this paper, a pilot experiment is presented investigating the effects of gender congruency on the perception of emotion from upper body movements. Male and female actors were enrolled to conduct a number of gestures within six general categories of emotion. These motions were mapped onto virtual characters with male and female embodiments. According to the gender congruency condition, the motions of male actors were mapped onto male characters (congruent) or onto female characters (incongruent) and vice-versa. A significant effect of gender mapping was found in the ratings of perception of three emotions (anger, fear and happiness), suggesting that gender may be an important aspect to be considered in the perception, and hence generation, of some emotional behaviours.
AR Navigation System Using Interaction with a CG Avatar BIBAFull-Text 274-281
  Hirosuke Murata; Maiya Hori; Hiroki Yoshimura; Yoshio Iwai
This paper describes a navigation system that is guided by a CG avatar using augmented reality (AR) technology. Some existing conventional AR navigation systems use arrows for route guidance. However, the positions to which the arrows point can be unclear because the actual scale of the arrow is unknown. In contrast, a navigation process conducted by a person indicates the routes clearly. In addition, this process offers a sense of safety with its expectation of arrival at the required destination, because the user can reach the destination as long as he/she follows the navigator. Moreover, the user can communicate easily with the navigator. In this research, we construct an AR navigation system using a CG avatar to perform interactively in place of a real person.
Virtual Humans for Interpersonal and Communication Skills' Training in Crime Investigations BIBAKFull-Text 282-292
  Konstantinos Mykoniatis; Anastasia Angelopoulou; Michael D. Proctor; Waldemar Karwowski
Virtual Humans (VHs) have been employed in multidisciplinary fields to advance interpersonal skills critical to many professional, including law enforcement agents, military personnel, managers, doctors, lawyers and other professionals. Law enforcement agencies in particular have faced a growing need to develop human to human interpersonal training to increase interviewing and interrogation skills. In this paper, we present a prototype VE that has been developed to provide law enforcement agents with effective interview and interrogation training and experiential learning. The virtual training environment will need to be tested and formally evaluated to verify the benefits compared to live exercises and traditional training techniques.
Keywords: Virtual Human; Training; Law enforcement agents; Interpersonal Skills; Virtual Environment
The Avatar Written upon My Body: Embodied Interfaces and User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 293-304
  Mark Palmer
There is a growing consensus that the perception of our body is emergent and has a plasticity that can be affected through techniques such as the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Alongside this we are seeing increased capabilities in technologies that track and represent our movements on screen. This paper will examine these issues through the RHI and conditions such as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) and consider the possibilities offered by these technologies for therapeutic use. It addition it will examine the issues raised for all users, asserting that we have reached a point where we can no longer afford assume that these are merely tools of representation.
Keywords: Avatar; Body Image; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome; Motion Sickness; Emergent
How Does Varying Gaze Direction Affect Interaction between a Virtual Agent and Participant in an On-Line Communication Scenario? BIBAKFull-Text 305-316
  Adam Qureshi; Christopher Peters; Ian Apperly
Computer based perspective taking tasks in cognitive psychology often utilise static images and auditory instructions to assess online communication. Results are then explained in terms of theory of mind (the ability to understand that other agents have different beliefs, desires and knowledge to oneself). The current study utilises a scenario in which participants were required to select objects in a grid after listening to instructions from an on-screen director. The director was positioned behind the grid from the participants' view. As objects in some slots were concealed from the view of the director, participants needed to take the perspective of the director into account in order to respond accurately. Results showed that participants reliably made errors, attributable to not using the information from the director's perspective efficiently, rather than not being able to take the director's perspective. However, the fact that the director was represented by a static sprite meant that even for a laboratory based experiment, the level of realism was low. This could have affected the level of participant engagement with the director and the task. This study, a collaboration between computer science and psychology, advances the static sprite model by incorporating head movement into a more realistic on-screen director with the aim of a.) Improving engagement and b.) investigating whether gaze direction affects accuracy and response times of object selection. Results suggest that gaze direction can influence the speed of accurate object selection, but only slightly and in certain situations; specifically those complex enough to warrant the participant paying additional attention to gaze direction and those that highlight perspective differences between themselves and the director. This in turn suggests that engagement with a virtual agent could be improved by taking these factors into account.
Keywords: Theory of mind; on-line communication; gaze direction; engagement

Developing Virtual and Augmented Environments

An Image Based Approach to Hand Occlusions in Mixed Reality Environments BIBAKFull-Text 319-328
  Andrea F. Abate; Fabio Narducci; Stefano Ricciardi
The illusion of the co-existence of virtual objects in the physical world, which is the essence of MR paradigm, is typically made possible by superimposing virtual contents onto the surrounding environment captured through a camera. This works well until the order of the planes to be composited is coherent to their distance from the observer. But, whenever an object of the real world is expected to occlude the virtual contents, the illusion vanishes. What should be seen behind a real object could be visualized over it instead, generating a "cognitive dissonance" that may compromise scene comprehension and, ultimately, the interaction capabilities during the MR experience. This paper describes an approach to handle hand occlusions in MR/AR interaction contexts by means of an optimized stereo matching technique based on the belief propagation algorithm.
Keywords: mixed reality; hand occlusion; disparity map
Assembly of the Virtual Model with Real Hands Using Augmented Reality Technology BIBAKFull-Text 329-338
  Poonpong Boonbrahm; Charlee Kaewrat
In the past few years, studying in the field of Augmented Reality (AR) has been expanded from technical aspect such as tracking system, authoring tools and etc. to applications ranging from the fields of education, entertainment, medicine to manufacturing. In manufacturing, which relies on assembly process, AR is used for assisting staffs in the field of maintenance and assembly. Usually, it has been used as a guidance system, for example using graphical instructions for advising the users with the steps in performing the maintenance or assembly operation. In assembly training, especially for small, expensive or harmful devices, interactive technique using real hands may be suitable than the guiding technique. Using tracking algorithm to track both hands in real time, interaction can occurs by the execution of grasp and release gestures. Bare hand tracking technique, which uses gesture recognition to enable interaction with augmented objects are also possible. In this paper, we attempted to use marker based AR technique to assemble 3D virtual objects using natural hand interaction. By applying the markers to fit on fingertip and assigned the corresponding virtual 3D finger that have physical properties such as surface, volume, density, friction and collision detection properties to them, interaction between fingers and objects could be executed. This setup was designed on a PC based system but could be ported to iOS or Android, so that it would work on tablet or mobile phones as well. Unity 3D game engine was used with Vuforia AR platform. In order to grab and move the virtual object by hand, the shape of the virtual finger (Vulforia's target) has been investigated. Appropriate friction coefficient were applied to both virtual fingers and the object and then at least two virtual fingers were force to press on the 3D virtual object in opposite directions so that frictional force is more than gravitational force. To test this method, virtual model of LEGO's mini-figures which composed of five pieces, was used and the assembly could be done in just a short time. Comparing with other popular technique such as "gestures recognition", we have found that our technique could provide more efficient result in term of cost and natural feeling.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Manufacturing; Assembly Process; Virtual Object Assembly
Future Media Internet Technologies for Digital Domes BIBAKFull-Text 339-350
  Dimitrios Christopoulos; Efstathia Hatzi; Anargyros Chatzitofis; Nicholas Vretos; Petros Daras
The paper outlines the primary challenges and principles for museums and venues that wish to accommodate social and Future Media Internet (FMI) technologies, incorporating the experiences gathered through the EXPERIMEDIA project experiments.
Keywords: Future Museums; New Media; Infrastructure; Smart Devices; EXPERIMEDIA Project
Fast and Accurate 3D Reproduction of a Remote Collaboration Environment BIBAKFull-Text 351-362
  ABM Tariqul Islam; Christian Scheel; Ali Shariq Imran; Oliver Staadt
We present an approach for high quality rendering of the 3D representation of a remote collaboration scene, along with real-time rendering speed, by expanding the unstructured lumigraph rendering (ULR) method. ULR uses a 3D proxy which is in the simplest case a 2D plane. We develop dynamic proxy for ULR, to get a better and more detailed 3D proxy in real-time; which leads to the rendering of high-quality and accurate 3D scenes with motion parallax support. The novel contribution of this work is the development of a dynamic proxy in real-time. The dynamic proxy is generated based on depth images instead of color images as in the Lumigraph approach.
Keywords: 3D reproduction; remote collaboration; telepresence; unstructured lumigraph rendering; motion parallax
From Image Inpainting to Diminished Reality BIBAKFull-Text 363-374
  Norihiko Kawai; Tomokazu Sato; Naokazu Yokoya
Image inpainting, which removes undesired objects in a static image and fills in the missing regions with plausible textures, has been developed in the research fields of image processing. On the other hand, Diminished Reality (DR), which visually removes real objects from video images by filling in the missing regions with background textures in real time, is one of the growing topics in Virtual/Mixed Reality, and considered as the opposite of Augmented Reality. In this paper, we introduce the state-of-the-art of image inpainting methods and how to apply the image inpainting to diminished reality.
Keywords: image inpainting; diminished reality; augmented reality
A Semantically Enriched Augmented Reality Browser BIBAKFull-Text 375-384
  Tamás Matuszka; Sándor Kámán; Attila Kiss
Owing to the remarkable advancement of smartphones, Augmented Reality applications have become part of everyday life. Augmented Reality browsers are the most commonly used among these applications. The users can search and display interesting places from the physical environment surrounding them by means of these browsers. Some of the most popular AR browsers use only one data source and the openly available datasets are not used. In contrast, the main objective of Linked Open Data community project is to link knowledge from different data sources. This pursuit makes it easier to retrieval information, among others. In this paper, an Augmented Reality browser was presented. Information derived from Linked Open Data was used by the browser as data source. Due to this, the system is able to handle more data sources.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Semantic Web; Location-based Services; Linked Data
Mobile Augmentation Based on Switching Multiple Tracking Method BIBAKFull-Text 385-395
  Ayaka Miyagi; Daiki Yoshihara; Kei Kusui; Asako Kimura; Fumihisa Shibata
This paper presents a localization mechanism for mobile augmented reality systems in various places. Recently, variety of image-based tracking methods have been proposed: artificial marker based methods, and natural feature based methods. However, localization done with only one tracking methods is difficult in all situation. Therefore, we propose a system, which enables users to continually track in various situation by dynamically switching the multiple localization methods. Our proposed mechanism consists of clients, a switcher, and servers. The server estimates the camera pose of the client, and the switcher selects the outstanding localization method. Furthermore, we employed real-time mapping to continually estimate the position and orientation even if the camera is apart from the prior knowledge of the environment. After localization, the newly updated mapping result is stored in the server. Thus, we could continually track even if the environment has changed.
Keywords: mixed reality; localization; tracking
Hand Tracking with a Near-Range Depth Camera for Virtual Object Manipulation in an Wearable Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 396-405
  Gabyong Park; Taejin Ha; Woontack Woo
This paper proposes methods for tracking a bare hand with a near-range depth camera attached to a video see-through Head-mounted Display (HMD) for virtual object manipulation in an Augmented Reality (AR) environment. The particular focus herein is upon using hand gestures that are frequently used in daily life. First, we use a near-range depth camera attached to HMD to segment the hand object easily, considering both skin color and depth information within arms' reaches. Then, fingertip and base positions are extracted through primitive models of the finger and palm. According to these positions, the rotation parameters of finger joints are estimated through an inverse-kinematics algorithm. Finally, the user's hands are localized from physical space by camera-tracking and then used for 3D virtual object manipulation. Our method is applicable to various AR interaction scenarios such as digital information access/control, creative CG modeling, virtual-hand-guiding, or game UIs.
Keywords: Hand Tracking; HMD; Augmented Reality
Matching Levels of Task Difficulty for Different Modes of Presentation in a VR Table Tennis Simulation by Using Assistance Functions and Regression Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 406-417
  Daniel Pietschmann; Stephan Rusdorf
UX is often compared between different systems or iterations of the same system. Especially when investigating human perception processes in virtual tasks and associated effects, experimental manipulation allows for better control of confounders. When manipulating modes of presentation, such as stereoscopy or visual perspective, the quality and quantity of available sensory cues is manipulated as well, resulting not only in different user experiences, but also in modified task difficulty. Increased difficulty and lower user task performance may lead to negative attributions that spill over to the evaluation of the system as a whole (halo effect). To avoid this, the task difficulty should remain unaltered. In highly dynamic virtual environments, the modification of difficulty with Fitts' law may prove problematic, so an alternative is presented using curve fitting regression analyses of empirical data from a within-subjects experiment in a virtual table tennis simulation to calculate equal difficulty levels.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Performance; User Experience; Spatial Presence; Table Tennis Simulation
A Pen Based Tool for Annotating Planar Objects BIBAKFull-Text 418-427
  Satoshi Yonemoto
In recent augmented reality (AR) application, marker-less tracking approaches are often used. Most marker-less tracking approaches force user to capture the front view of a target object during the initial setup. We have recently proposed two image rectification methods for non-frontal view of a planar object. These methods can be applied to reference image generation in marker-less AR. This paper describes a pen based tool for annotating planar objects. Our tool builds upon several interactive image rectification methods, and supports registration of AR Annotations, marker-less tracking and annotation overlay.
Keywords: image rectification; marker-less tracking; AR annotation