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UBICOMP Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213-113-214-114-215

Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing

Fullname:Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
Editors:Nigel Davies; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Itiro Siio
Location:Nottingham, United Kingdom
Dates:2004-Sep-07 to 2004-Sep-10
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3205
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/b99948 hcibib: UBICOMP04; ISBN: 978-3-540-22955-1 (print), 978-3-540-30119-6 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
The CareNet Display: Lessons Learned from an In Home Evaluation of an Ambient Display BIBAFull-Text 1-17
  Sunny Consolvo; Peter Roessler; Brett E. Shelton
This paper addresses users' experiences with an ambient display for the home. We present the design and in situ evaluation of the CareNet Display, an ambient display that helps the local members of an elder's care network provide her day-to-day care. We describe the CareNet Display's design and discuss results of a series of in home deployments with users. We report how the CareNet Display was used and its impact on elders and their care network members. Based on our findings, we offer lessons about how ambient display technologies could be improved to further benefit this growing user community.
Personalized Peripheral Information Awareness Through Information Art BIBAFull-Text 18-35
  John Stasko; Todd Miller; Zachary Pousman; Christopher Plaue; Osman Ullah
This article describes development of the concept of Information Art, a type of ambient or peripheral display involving user-specified electronic paintings in which resident objects change appearance and position to foster awareness of personally relevant information. Our approach differs from others, however, in emphasizing end-user control and flexibility in monitored information and its resultant representation. The article provides an overview of the system's capabilities and describes an initial pilot study in which displays were given to four people to use for an extended period of time. Reactions were quite favorable and the trial use provided suggestions for system improvements.
Reminding About Tagged Objects Using Passive RFIDs BIBAFull-Text 36-53
  Gaetano Borriello; Waylon Brunette; Matthew Hall; Carl Hartung; Cameron Tangney
People often misplace objects they care about. We present a system that generates reminders about objects left behind by tagging those objects with passive RFID tags. Readers positioned in the environment frequented by users read tags and broadcast the tags' IDs over a short-range wireless medium. A user's personal server collects the read events in real-time and processes them to determine if a reminder is warranted or not. The reminders are delivered to a wristwatch-sized device through a combination of text messages and audible beeps. We believe this leads to a practical and scalable approach in terms of system architecture and user experience as well as being more amenable to maintaining user privacy than previous approaches. We present results that demonstrate that current RFID tag technology is appropriate for this application when integrated with calendar information.
Evaluating the Effects of Displaying Uncertainty in Context-Aware Applications BIBAFull-Text 54-69
  Stavros Antifakos; Adrian Schwaninger; Bernt Schiele
Many context aware systems assume that the context information they use is highly accurate. In reality, however, perfect and reliable context information is hard if not impossible to obtain. Several researchers have therefore argued that proper feedback such as monitor and control mechanisms have to be employed in order to make context aware systems applicable and useable in scenarios of realistic complexity. As of today, those feedback mechanisms are difficult to compare since they are too rarely evaluated. In this paper we propose and evaluate a simple but effective feedback mechanism for context aware systems. The idea is to explicitly display the uncertainty inherent in the context information and to leverage from the human ability to deal well with uncertain information. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this feedback mechanism the paper describes two user studies which mimic a ubiquitous memory aid. By changing the quality, respectively the uncertainty of context recognition, the experiments show that human performance in a memory task is increased by explicitly displaying uncertainty information. Finally, we discuss implications of these experiments for today's context-aware systems.
The Error of Our Ways: The Experience of Self-Reported Position in a Location-Based Game BIBAFull-Text 70-87
  Steve Benford; Will Seager; Martin Flintham; Rob Anastasi; Duncan Rowland; Jan Humble; Danaë Stanton; John Bowers; Nick Tandavanitj; Matt Adams; Ju Row Farr; Amanda Oldroyd; Jon Sutton
We present a study of people's use of positional information as part of a collaborative location-based game. The game exploits self-reported positioning in which mobile players manually reveal their positions to remote players by manipulating electronic maps. Analysis of players' movements, position reports and communications, drawing on video data, system logs and player feedback, highlights some of the ways in which humans generate, communicate and interpret position reports. It appears that remote participants are largely untroubled by the relatively high positional error associated with self reports. Our analysis suggests that this may because mobile players declare themselves to be in plausible locations such as at common landmarks, ahead of themselves on their current trajectory (stating their intent) or behind themselves (confirming previously visited locations). These observations raise new requirements for the future development of automated positioning systems and also suggest that self-reported positioning may be a useful fallback when automated systems are unavailable or too unreliable.
Particle Filters for Location Estimation in Ubiquitous Computing: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 88-106
  Jeffrey Hightower; Gaetano Borriello
Location estimation is an important part of many ubiquitous computing systems. Particle filters are simulation-based probabilistic approximations which the robotics community has shown to be effective for tracking robots' positions. This paper presents a case study of applying particle filters to location estimation for ubiquitous computing. Using trace logs from a deployed multi-sensor location system, we show that particle filters can be as accurate as common deterministic algorithms. We also present performance results showing it is practical to run particle filters on devices ranging from high-end servers to handhelds. Finally, we discuss the general advantages of using probabilistic methods in location systems for ubiquitous computing, including the ability to fuse data from different sensor types and to provide probability distributions to higher-level services and applications. Based on this case study, we conclude that particle filters are a good choice to implement location estimation for ubiquitous computing.
Some Assembly Required: Supporting End-User Sensor Installation in Domestic Ubiquitous Computing Environments BIBAFull-Text 107-124
  Chris Beckmann; Sunny Consolvo; Anthony LaMarca
This paper explores end-user sensor installation for domestic ubiquitous computing applications and proposes five design principles to support this task. End-user sensor installation offers several advantages: it can reduce costs, enhance users' sense of control, accommodate diverse deployment environments, and increase users' acceptance of the technology. The five design principles are developed from the design and in situ evaluation of the sensor installation kit for the Home Energy Tutor, a domestic ubiquitous computing application. To generalize the design principles, factors affecting sensor installation are outlined, and the advantages of end-user sensor installation for three ubiquitous computing application domains are discussed.
Rapid Authoring of Mediascapes BIBAFull-Text 125-142
  Richard Hull; Ben Clayton; Tom Melamed
Ubiquitous computing promises to enable new classes of application. In this paper, we present research intended to accelerate the exploration of the space of possible application values by enabling domain specialists to develop, deploy and evaluate experimental applications, even if they do not have programming skills. We present a framework for the rapid authoring of mediascapes, a commercially important class of media-oriented, context-sensitive, mobile applications. A case study is described in which two artists without prior experience of ubiquitous computing successfully and quickly deployed experimental mediascapes in an urban square. A discussion of their experience suggests future work aimed at closing the gap between application emulation and reality.
CAMP: A Magnetic Poetry Interface for End-User Programming of Capture Applications for the Home BIBAFull-Text 143-160
  Khai N. Truong; Elaine M. Huang; Gregory D. Abowd
As the trend towards technology-enriched home environments progresses, the need to enable users to create applications to suit their own lives increases. While several recent projects focus on lowering barriers for application creation by using simplified input mechanisms and languages, these projects often approach application creation from a developer's perspective, focusing on devices and their interactions, rather than users' goals or tasks. In this paper, we present a study that examines how users conceptualize applications involving automated capture and playback of home activities and reveals a breadth of home applications that people desire. We introduce CAMP, a system that enables end-user programming for smart home environments based on a magnetic poetry metaphor. We describe how CAMP's simple interface for creating applications supports users' natural conceptual models of capture applications. Finally, we present a preliminary evaluation of CAMP and assess its ability to support a breadth of desired home applications as well as the user's conceptual model.
Designing Capture Applications to Support the Education of Children with Autism BIBAFull-Text 161-178
  Gillian R. Hayes; Julie A. Kientz; Khai N. Truong; David R. White; Gregory D. Abowd; Trevor Pering
We explore the social and technical design issues involved in tracking the effectiveness of educational and therapeutic interventions for children with autism (CWA). Automated capture can be applied in a variety of settings to provide a means of keeping valuable records of interventions. We present the findings from qualitative studies and the designs of capture prototypes. These experiences lead to conclusions about specific considerations for building technologies to assist in the treatment of CWA, as well as other fragile demographics. Our work also reflects back on the automated capture problem itself, informing us as computer scientists how that class of applications must be reconsidered when the analysis of data in the access phase continually influences the capture needs and when social and practical constraints conflict with data collection needs.
'This All Together, Hon?' Ubicomp in Non-office Work Environments BIBAFull-Text 179-195
  John Sherry; Scott Mainwaring; Jenna Burrell; Richard Beckwith; Tony Salvador
Ubiquitous computing technologies offer the promise of extending the benefits of computing to workers who do not spend their time at a desktop environment. In this paper, we review the results of an extended study of non-office workers across a variety of work domains, noting some key characteristics of their practices and environments, and examining some challenges to delivering on the ubicomp promise. Our research points to three important challenges that must be addressed, these include: (a) variability across work environments; (b) the need to align disparate, sometimes conflicting interests; and (c) the need to deal with what appear to be informal ways of creating and sharing knowledge. As will be discussed, while daunting, these challenges also point to specific areas of focus that might benefit the design and development of future ubicomp systems.
Security and Trust in Mobile Interactions: A Study of Users' Perceptions and Reasoning BIBAFull-Text 196-213
  Tim Kindberg; Abigail Sellen; Erik Geelhoed
This paper describes an investigation into the trust and security concerns of users who carry out interactions in ubiquitous and mobile computing environments. The study involved demonstrating an "electronic wallet" to pay for a meal in a simulated restaurant, and analyzing subjects' responses based on structured interviews. We asked the users to rank-order five payment methods including three choices for the payment target, and both wired and wireless connections. The analysis led us to classify the users into trust-, social- and convenience-oriented clusters. We provide a detailed analysis of the users' reasoning about trust-related issues, and draw conclusions about the design of secure interaction technologies for ubiquitous computing.
WatchMe: Communication and Awareness Between Members of a Closely-Knit Group BIBAFull-Text 214-231
  Natalia Marmasse; Chris Schmandt; David Spectre
WatchMe is a personal communicator with context awareness in a wristwatch form; it is meant to keep intimate friends and family always connected via awareness cues and text, voice instant message, or synchronous voice connectivity. Sensors worn with the watch track location (via GPS), acceleration, and speech activity; this is classified and conveyed to the other party, where it appears in iconic form on the watch face. When a remote person with whom this information is shared examines it, their face appears on the watch of the person being checked on. The working prototype was used as the focus of interviews to gauge the desirability of such a device.
Everyday Encounters with Context-Aware Computing in a Campus Environment BIBAFull-Text 232-249
  Louise Barkhuus; Paul Dourish
As ubiquitous computing technologies mature, they must move out of laboratory settings and into the everyday world. In the process, they will increasingly be used by heterogeneous groups, made up of individuals with different attitudes and social roles. We have been studying an example of this in a campus setting. Our field work highlights the complex relationships between technology use and institutional arrangements -- the roles, relationships, and responsibilities that characterize social settings. In heterogeneous groups, concerns such as location, infrastructure, access, and mobility can take on quite different forms, with very different implications for technology design and use.
Cooperative Artefacts: Assessing Real World Situations with Embedded Technology BIBAFull-Text 250-267
  Martin Strohbach; Hans-Werner Gellersen; Gerd Kortuem; Christian Kray
Ubiquitous computing is giving rise to applications that interact very closely with activity in the real world, usually involving instrumentation of environments. In contrast, we propose Cooperative Artefacts that are able to cooperatively assess their situation in the world, without need for supporting infrastructure in the environment. The Cooperative Artefact concept is based on embedded domain knowledge, perceptual intelligence, and rule-based inference in movable artefacts. We demonstrate the concept with design and implementation of augmented chemical containers that are able to detect and alert potentially hazardous situations concerning their storage.
I Sense a Disturbance in the Force: Unobtrusive Detection of Interactions with RFID-tagged Objects BIBAFull-Text 268-282
  Kenneth P. Fishkin; Bing Jiang; Matthai Philipose; Sumit Roy
A novel method to infer interactions with passive RFID tagged objects is described. The method allows unobtrusive detection of human interactions with RFID tagged objects without requiring any modifications to existing communications protocols or RFID hardware. The object motion detection algorithm was integrated into a RFID monitoring system and tested in laboratory and home environments. The paper catalogs the experimental results obtained, provides plausible models and explanations and highlights the promises and future challenges for the role of RFID in ubicomp applications.
The NearMe Wireless Proximity Server BIBAFull-Text 283-300
  John Krumm; Ken Hinckley
NearMe is a server, algorithms, and application programming interfaces (APIs) for clients equipped with 802.11 wireless networking (Wi-Fi) to compute lists of people and things that are physically nearby. NearMe compares clients' lists of Wi-Fi access points and signal strengths to compute the proximity of devices to one another. Traditional location sensing systems compute and compare absolute locations, which requires extensive a priori calibration and configuration. Because we base NearMe entirely on proximity information, NearMe works "out of the box" with no calibration and minimal setup. Many "location-aware" applications only require proximity information, and not absolute location: examples include discovering nearby resources, sending an email to other persons who are nearby, or detecting synchronous user operations between mobile devices. As more people use the system, NearMe grows in both the number of places that can be found (e.g. printers and conference rooms) and in the physical range over which other people and places can be found. This paper describes our algorithms and infrastructure for proximity sensing, as well as some of the clients we have implemented for various applications.
The ContextCam: Automated Point of Capture Video Annotation BIBAFull-Text 301-318
  Shwetak N. Patel; Gregory D. Abowd
Rich, structured annotations of video recordings enable interesting uses, but existing techniques for manual, and even semi-automated, tagging can be too time-consuming. We present in this paper the ContextCam, a prototype of a consumer video camera that provides point of capture annotation of time, location, person presence and event information associated to recorded video. Both low- and high-level metadata are discovered via a variety of sensing and active tagging techniques, as well as through the application of machine learning techniques that use past annotations to suggest metadata for the current recordings. Furthermore, the ContextCam provides users with a minimally intrusive interface for correcting predicted high-level metadata during video recording.
MouseField: A Simple and Versatile Input Device for Ubiquitous Computing BIBAFull-Text 319-328
  Toshiyuki Masui; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
Although various interaction technologies for handling information in the ubiquitous computing environment have been proposed, some techniques are too simple for performing rich interaction, and others require special expensive equipments to be installed everywhere, and cannot soon be available in our everyday environment. We propose a new simple and versatile input device called the MouseField that enables users to control various information appliances easily without huge amount of cost.
   A MouseField consists of an ID recognizer and motion sensors that can detect an object and its movement after the object is placed on it. The system can interpret the user's action as a command to control the flow of information. In this paper, we show how this simple device can be used for handling information easily in ordinary environments like living rooms, kitchens, and toilets, and show the benefits of using it in the ubiquitous computing environment.
The Iterative Design Process of a Location-Aware Device for Group Use BIBAFull-Text 329-346
  Holger Schnädelbach; Boriana Koleva; Mike Twidale; Steve Benford
We present our approach to the design of two generations of outdoors device that enable visitors to view 3D historical reconstructions when exploring present day sites. Reacting to problems revealed through public trials with our first prototype, we describe how we followed a 'physical form inwards' approach for the design of our second prototype -- Augurscope II. We began by refining the physical form of the interface through a series of push tests with low-tech wooden prototypes and subsequently added sensors and finally refined the software. Our experience with the Augurscope II highlights the importance of prototyping, early involvement of users within the intended setting and the subtleties involved in matching physical form, sensors and software in the development of ubicomp devices.
DOLPHIN: A Practical Approach for Implementing a Fully Distributed Indoor Ultrasonic Positioning System BIBAFull-Text 347-365
  Masateru Minami; Yasuhiro Fukuju; Kazuki Hirasawa; Shigeaki Yokoyama; Moriyuki Mizumachi; Hiroyuki Morikawa; Tomonori Aoyama
Obtaining indoor location information is one of the essential technologies for enriching various ubiquitous computing applications. Although many indoor location systems have been proposed until now, wide-area deployments in everyday environments are still extremely rare. To deploy indoor locating systems beyond laboratory use, we believe that the initial configuration cost of the system should be reduced. This paper describes a fully distributed ultrasonic positioning system which enables us to locate various indoor objects with lower initial configuration cost.
The Carrot Approach: Encouraging Use of Location Systems BIBAFull-Text 366-383
  Kieran Mansley; Alastair R. Beresford; David Scott
The Active Bat system provides the ability to locate users and equipment with a high degree of accuracy and coverage. Despite this, participation is low. We are concerned that this is symptomatic of a fundamental problem in location-aware computing; specifically the lack of understanding about which applications are useful and what factors motivate people to use them.
   In this paper we provide a retrospective analysis of Bat system usage grounded in game theory. We have analysed the needs of people within the coverage area, and used this to motivate a set of highly targeted location-aware applications which we believe are compelling enough for individuals to induce a gradual increase in participation. This carrot approach has been successful and has increased the number of people who wear their Bat.
   Finally, this paper provides a critique of our experience with the Active Bat system. We suggest a number of refinements that should be considered by developers of future location systems.
ActiveBelt: Belt-Type Wearable Tactile Display for Directional Navigation BIBAFull-Text 384-399
  Koji Tsukada; Michiaki Yasumura
In this paper we propose a novel wearable interface called "ActiveBelt" that enables users to obtain multiple directional information with the tactile sense. Since the information provided by the tactile sense is relatively unobtrusive, it is suited for daily use in mobile environments. However, many existing systems don't transmit complex information via the tactile sense. Most of them send only simple signals, such as vibration in cellular phones. ActiveBelt is a novel belt-type wearable tactile display that can transmit directional information. We have developed prototype systems and applications, evaluated system performance and usability, and demonstrated the possibility of practical use.
An Audio-Based Personal Memory Aid BIBAFull-Text 400-417
  Sunil Vemuri; Chris Schmandt; Walter Bender; Stefanie Tellex; Brad Lassey
We are developing a wearable device that attempts to alleviate some everyday memory problems. The "memory prosthesis" records audio and contextual information from conversations and provides a suite of retrieval tools (on both the wearable and a personal computer) to help users access forgotten memories in a timely fashion. This paper describes the wearable device, the personal-computer-based retrieval tool, and their supporting technologies. Anecdotal observations based on real-world use and quantitative results based on a controlled memory-retrieval task are reported. Finally, some social, legal, and design challenges of ubiquitous recording and remembering via a personal audio archive are discussed.
Infrastructures and Their Discontents: Implications for Ubicomp BIBAFull-Text 418-432
  Scott D. Mainwaring; Michele F. Chang; Ken Anderson
Infrastructures (persistent socio-technical systems over which services are delivered) are normally taken for granted by their users, but are powerful forces of constraint and enablement with implications for the design, use, and adoption of ubiquitous computing. To approach the study of infrastructure from an ethnographic perspective, we conducted an exploratory field study of people for whom infrastructure had become visible due to some form of active engagement (rejecting, augmenting, or caretaking). From considering together individuals as disparate as homeschoolers, gated community dwellers, and voluntary simplicity advocates, a number of challenges and opportunities for ubicomp emerged in terms of appropriation, empowerment, and reflection.
Opportunity Knocks: A System to Provide Cognitive Assistance with Transportation Services BIBAFull-Text 433-450
  Donald J. Patterson; Lin Liao; Krzysztof Gajos; Michael Collier; Nik Livic; Katherine Olson; Shiaokai Wang; Dieter Fox; Henry Kautz
We present an automated transportation routing system, called "Opportunity Knocks," whose goal is to improve the efficiency, safety and independence of individuals with mild cognitive disabilities. Our system is implemented on a combination of a Bluetooth sensor beacon that broadcasts GPS data, a GPRS-enabled cell-phone, and remote activity inference software. The system uses a novel inference engine that does not require users to explicitly provide information about the start or ending points of their journeys; instead this information is learned from users' past behavior. Futhermore, we demonstrate how route errors can be detected and how the system helps to correct the errors with real-time transit information. In addition we present a novel solution to the problem of labeling positions with place names.