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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Access to Learning, Health and Well-Being

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Access to Learning, Health and Well-Being
Note:Volume 9 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9177
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20684-4 hcibib: UAHCI15-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-20683-7 (print), 978-3-319-20684-4 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 3
    1. Universal Access to Education
    2. Universal Access to Health Applications and Services
    3. Games for Learning and Therapy
    4. Cognitive Disabilities and Cognitive Support

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 3

Universal Access to Education

Criteria for Designing Blended Learning Materials for Inclusive Education: Perspectives of Teachers and Producers BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Ingo K. Bosse
Inclusion and learning with media are both global megatrends in 21st century education and both are stimulating profound changes for educational institutions. While there is consensus that media education offers special opportunities for inclusive classrooms, most of the blended learning platforms currently on offer are not accessible to and thus not usable for students with special needs. It is a challenge for both teachers and producers of media based learning materials to meet the needs of all students. The purpose of the exploratory study presented here was to collect qualitative data on the didactical requirements for inclusive learning materials from the perspectives of teachers and producers. The subject of the study was "Planet School", the most important blended learning platform available for schools in Germany. To include the perspectives of experienced teachers the first research module had a focus on their practical experiences in inclusive classrooms. Based on participatory observation and interviews it was possible to develop recommendations for the design of blended learning materials for inclusive education. The second module focused on the perspectives of the producers. Based on the results of module one the responsible public broadcaster developed criteria for the design of materials, modules, and activities for inclusive education. This article compares the different perspectives. This procedure will lead to the development of a blended learning platform that addresses the needs of different types of learners and offers accessible and usable materials including movies, television broadcasts, and interactive and multimedia content for students with different prerequisites for learning.
Keywords: E-inclusion; Blended learning; Broadcasters; Inclusive education; Inclusive multimedia learning materials
Interaction Design of Digital Teaching Improves Teaching and Learning Effectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 15-22
  Tsung-Chou Chang; Ya-Fen Tsai; Fong-Gong Wu
With increasing penetration of mobile device like smart mobile phone, appropriate cloud system can be a good match for powerful teaching aid in classroom. Hu-man Computer Interaction is an important part of visual ergonomics and cognitive ergonomics. It focuses on mental process including perception, memory, inference and motor reaction, etc. The application of teaching is to expect that students can use active learning through interactive design to pay more attention on and complete various tasks instructed by teachers. Therefore, interactive teaching-aided software can not only make teaching activities vivid and variations but also increase students' attention and the willingness of active learning in classroom. The rise of "flipped classroom" in 2007 was also a teaching concept to propose that student should be returned to a learning body and interaction of teacher and student in classroom should be given attention. This study is to explore the relevant literatures for active learning, interactive design, action learning and flipped classroom, etc., supported by interactive design based on the concept of flipped classroom immediate feedback that how teaching media-Zuvio improves teacher's teaching skill through mobile APP and cloud system. The result of this study can be used as improvement of teachers' teaching effectiveness and students' learning outcomes.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Visual ergonomic; Cognitive ergonomics; Active learning; Flipped classroom; Mobile APP; Interaction design
Exploring the Interactivity Issues of the Stereoscopic 3D Systems for Design Education BIBAKFull-Text 23-30
  Li-Chieh Chen; Yun-Maw Cheng; Po-Ying Chu; Frode Eika Sandnes
Stereoscopic 3D displays have been used by some research groups to present learning contents for education. However, in the highly interactive situations, the intertwined depth cues may result in symptoms that hamper the usability of such systems. In this research, an experiment was conducted to explore the interactivity issues. Thirty students were invited to participate in the experiment. The first task was to identify the differences between printed pictures and 3D virtual models. The second task was to point out ergonomic or design problems in a single piece of furniture or pairs of chairs and tables. Based on the analysis, discomfort caused by model rotation did contribute to the degree of overall discomfort. Even all participants had the background of using 3D modeling systems, some still experienced different levels of symptoms. Their comments indicated that adaptive adjustments of disparity and control response ratio were necessary in the highly interactive situations.
Keywords: Stereoscopic 3D displays; Design education; Interactivity issues
Enhancing Blended Environments Through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping of LMS Users' Quality of Interaction: The Rare and Contemporary Dance Paradigms BIBAKFull-Text 31-42
  Sofia B. Dias; Sofia J. Hadjileontiadou; José Alves Diniz; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis
Nowadays, higher education institutions (HEIs) are facing the need of constant monitoring of users' interaction with Learning Management Systems (LMSs), in order to identify key areas for potential improvement. In fact, LMSs under blended (b-) learning mode can efficiently support online learning environments (OLEs) at HEIs. An important challenge would be to provide flexible solutions, where intelligent models could contribute, involving artificial intelligence and incertitude modelling, e.g., via Fuzzy Logic (FL). This study addresses the hypothesis that the structural characteristics of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) can efficiently model the way LMS users interact with it, by estimating their Quality of Interaction (QoI) within a b-learning context. This work proposes the FCM-QoI model, consisting of 14 input-one output concepts, dependences and trends, considering one academic year of two dance disciplines (i.e., the Rare and Contemporary Dances) of the LMS Moodle use. The experimental results reveal that the proposed FCM-QoI model can provide concepts interconnection and causal dependencies representation of Moodle LMS users' QoI, helping educators of HEIs to holistically visualize, understand and assess stakeholders' needs. In general, the results presented here could shed light upon designing aspects of educational scenarios, but also to those involved in cultural preservation and exploitation initiatives, such as the i-Treasures project (http://i-treasures.eu/).
Keywords: Blended learning scenarios; Moodle learning management system; Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs); Quality of Interaction (QoI); Rare and contemporary dance; i-Treasures
Once Upon a Tablet: A School Toy in the Making BIBAKFull-Text 43-53
  Isabel Cristina G. Fróes
The current paper introduces the definitions of playful literacy and multimodal hyper-intertextuality, key concepts when researching children's use of digital tablets. The pilot investigation, which took place in spring 2014 in Denmark, is part of a larger cross-cultural comparative project exploring what emergent behaviors are present when preschool children use and play with tablets in their formal learning environments. In order to map the array of play and usage of such devices for this research, after the first round of observations, the tablet taxonomy was outlined and has been applied as a guide for the subsequent rounds of data collection. The proposed definitions are a valuable contribution to the field of multisensory interfaces, due to their pervasiveness on digital mobile platforms.
Keywords: Tablet; Play; Interaction design; Intertextuality; Literacy; Education
AfterNext: Decoding the Future of Higher Education in 2030 BIBAFull-Text 54-65
  Myk Garn
In the world of academic innovation there are many experts; experienced entrepreneurs who know what needs to be done next to improve faculty and student success in the rapidly changing environment of academe. More bandwidth, more funding, more professional development, more attention to quality and to test security; all very important -- and all very unhelpful when one is tasked with visioning not what should come next -- but what will come AFTER next.
   Higher education is in the midst of turbulent change. An academic culture steeped in reflection and teaching is being disrupted and reconstructed into a globally connected ecosystem of networked, 24X7X365 co-creators and co-learners. Roles and paradigms held dear and true are challenged. The rate of change, the unpredictable, unrelenting emergence of new, disruptive models makes planning and preparing for the future even more conflicted, confusing -- and critical.
   This was the challenge facing the University System of Georgia in 2013. A recently completed report on distance learning needs had surfaced many critical needs -- but few visionary directions -- for the System to consider or plan from. This need was clear to Chancellor "Hank" Huckaby in November of 2013 when he addressed a convening of the System's leading educational entrepreneurs at a symposium entitled "MOOCs and Beyond." Challenging the leaders to examine and explore the future fearlessly, he acknowledged, "...we don't know what lies beyond...and that's important." This observation framed and guided the System initiative, and Georgia's intent, to "Invent the Beyond."
From Trebizond to Al-Andalus: Visualizing the Late Medieval Mediterranean BIBAKFull-Text 66-76
  Eurydice S. Georganteli; Ioanna N. Koukouni
No place can better represent the meeting of cultures in late medieval Europe than the Mediterranean. Intellectual, artistic, and societal interactions during this time have impacted material culture on many levels. These interactions are yet visible in coins, monuments, cityscapes, languages, music, ideas, knowledge, and technologies. Byzantine, medieval Islamic, Norman, Italian, and Crusader coins have been the dominant evidence of cultural interactions between opposing Mediterranean shores. This paper presents aspects of cultural encounters in the late medieval Mediterranean, visualized in storylines and accompanying digitized datasets, and supported by computer technologies and related digital applications.
Keywords: Late medieval Mediterranean; Cultural heritage; Coins; Intercultural dialogue; Digital cultural heritage; Mobile applications; Cloud-based platforms; Personalization
STEM Scalable Model for Enhancing Secondary and Postsecondary Student On-Line Services BIBAKFull-Text 77-88
  Noel Gregg; April Galyardt; Robert Todd
The purpose of this paper is to examine the BreakThru e-mentoring model for scalability purposes. Two aspects of this STEM e-mentoring program were examined: (1) the use of virtual environments and social media settings; and (2) the development of e-mentoring relationships (i.e., quality and engagement). Three secondary and three postsecondary institutions participated in the project. Mentors (n=33) were recruited from postsecondary faculty, secondary teachers, graduate students, and business leaders. Of the BreakThru participants (n=188), 57% of the students continued in the program for multiple years. Specific design issues are described as essential for developing and measuring the outcomes of a similar student on-line resource.
Keywords: Scalable model; STEM; Disability; E-mentoring; On-Line services; Virtual world; Social media
A TUI-Based Storytelling for Promoting Inclusion in the Preschool Classroom BIBAKFull-Text 89-100
  Julián Esteban Gutiérrez Posada; Heiko Hornung; Maria Cecília Martins; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
Technologies such as Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) take advantage of the natural ability of children to tell stories, play and explain their personal and social behavior. TUI technologies can be designed to constitute scenarios of technology use for all and thus benefit inclusive schools. Challenges of designing such scenarios in the classroom include distraction of students, acceptance by teachers, and inclusion of students with disabilities. In this paper we focus on investigating the acceptance of a TUI environment, designed for the educational context of creating, sharing and telling stories collaboratively. We present a system as background for an evaluation of acceptance based on the Self Assessment Manikin model. Two groups of subjects participated in the evaluation: a group of HCI specialists, and a group of teachers working in an inclusive educational context. The pilot study with HCI specialists established a baseline showing that the system potentially has a high acceptance rate. The teachers reported in a subsequent study high levels of Pleasure and Arousal while we detected greater variance in the Dominance dimension. Although we do not see this variance as critical, it requires attention for the more complex modes of the system.
Keywords: TUI; Storytelling; Narrative; SAM
Delivering User-Centered Content on an Inclusive Mobile Platform: How to Produce It and Use It! BIBAKFull-Text 101-108
  Valerie C. Haven
The adoption of mobile learning in higher education is facilitating new avenues for inclusive and accessible learning. The bedrock for these learning environments is the accessible software/hardware included in newer smart devices. Non-traditional learners such as those from diverse racial, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds as well as learners with disabilities are gaining access to higher education using these technologies.
   Even though inclusive technology is opening doors to the non-traditional learner, reliance on the access features within technology is still causing barriers to education. One barrier is that technology continues to evolve rapidly and with each upgrade new interface issues arise. The second barrier is that the dependence on smart devices to provide access to education does not address inaccessible course design and delivery of educational content.
Keywords: Mobile learning; Inclusive learning; Accessibility; Inclusive content; Productivity tools; Synergistic Learning Theory (S.L.T.)
Preparing All Students for 21st Century College and Careers BIBAKFull-Text 109-119
  Margo Izzo; Alexa Murray; Andrew Buck; Victor Johnson; Eliseo Jimenez
Preparing all students for lifelong success in a rapidly changing global economy requires schools to reconsider both what and how educators teach and students learn in the 21st century. This paper presents examples of curricula, programs, and delivery methods that promote increased learning in core academics, technology, and life and career skills for students with disabilities at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Three initiatives, EnvisionIT (EIT), Ohio's STEM Ability Alliance (OSAA), and Transition Options in Postsecondary Settings (TOPS), provide models of engendering 21st century skills utilizing 21st century tools that support all students' transition from high school to college and careers.
Keywords: 21st century skills; College and career readiness; Employment; Students with disabilities; Self-advocacy; STEM; Technology; Transition
Universal Access to Media and the California Community Colleges Online Education Initiative BIBAKFull-Text 120-126
  Michael James Jayme Johnson
The California Community College system launched the Online Education Initiative in 2014 to address the needs of students and to more effectively leverage the collective resources of the 113 campuses to provide the services needed for degree completion and transfer to university. Providing a common base of instructional technology resources, student services, and a statewide exchange of courses, and with all of this being universally accessible, the Online Education Initiative is one of the most ambitious efforts to address the needs of online students and educators in the history of California.
Keywords: Online education; Accessibility; Adaptable computing; OEI; California; Digital ecosystem
How Competency-Based Education Can Fulfill the Promise of Educational Technology BIBAKFull-Text 127-136
  Sally M. Johnstone; David E. Leasure
Even with today's sophisticated technologies, we usually are still exporting the classroom as if that is the ideal learning environment. Learning science has advanced a great deal in the past several centuries since the lecture became the most common form of 'teaching' at colleges and universities. There is a lot we know about how people learn, yet very few faculty members are learning experts. There is good evidence that adaptive or personalized learning environments help more students be successful, but these are hard to implement in traditional settings. The use of a competency-based education model can facilitate the use of these new learning environments to benefit students.
Keywords: Competency-based education; CBE; Personalized learning; Adaptive learning; Student success; WGU
Leveraging Virtual Worlds for Electronic Mentoring BIBAKFull-Text 137-148
  Christopher Langston; Nathan Moon; Robert Todd; Noel Gregg; Gerri Wolfe
The Georgia STEM Accessibility Alliance's BreakThru electronic mentoring program responds to a National Science Foundation request for research on virtual worlds to support outcomes for students with disabilities. It also addresses student advancement through critical junctures to STEM careers, particularly from secondary to post-secondary education, and from the undergraduate to graduate level. BreakThru has developed from an exploration of technology platforms into a full-fledged mentoring program that currently enrolls 85 students and 38 mentors. The overall aim of BreakThru is to increase the persistence in STEM of students with disabilities who are enrolled in the program. Toward this end, efficacy is measured in part through enrollment and retention of secondary and postsecondary students with disabilities into virtual mentoring. BreakThru is unique among mentoring programs due to its use of the virtual world Second Life to support or implement most project activities.
Keywords: Second life; Electronic mentoring; Students with disabilities; Persistence; Retention; STEM
Integrating Motion-Capture Augmented Reality Technology as an Interactive Program for Children BIBAKFull-Text 149-156
  Chien-Yu Lin; Chien-Jung Chen; Yu-Hung Liu; Hua-Chen Chai; Cheng-Wei Lin; Yu-Mei Huang; Ching-Wen Chen; Chien-Chi Lin
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of free interactive games invention program on jumping performance. This study design interactive games using motion capture technology that enable participant to interact using body motion in augmented environment. Scratch 2.0, using an augmented-reality function via webcam, creates real world and virtual reality merge at the same screen. Scratch-based motion capture system which uses physical activities as the input stimulate. This study uses a webcam integration that tracks movements and allows participants to interact physically with the project, to enhance the motivation of children in elementary. Participants are 7 children in elementary school; the independent variable was some interactive games arranged by the authors, the dependent variable was the immediate effect by the intervention program on jumping performance. The experimental location was in a classroom of elementary school. The results show the Scratch-base free support system could be allowed the participants some clues, so they could have the motivation to do physical activities by themselves. The participants have a significant achievement via free Scratch-base augmented reality instead of traditional activities.
Keywords: Physical activity; Scratch 2.0; Augmented-reality; Webcam; Motion capture
A JBrick: Accessible Robotics Programming for Visually Impaired Users BIBAKFull-Text 157-168
  Stephanie Ludi; Scott Jordan
Despite advances in assistive technology, challenges remain in pre-college computer science outreach and university programs for visually impaired students. The use of robotics has been popular in pre-college classrooms and outreach programs, including those that serve underrepresented groups. This paper describes the specific accessibility features implemented in software that provides an accessible Lego Mindstorms NXT programming environment for teenage students who are visually impaired. JBrick is designed to support students with diverse visual acuity and who use needed assistive technology. Field tests over several days showed that JBrick has the potential to accommodate students who are visually impaired as they work together to program Lego Mindstorms NXT robots.
Keywords: Accessibility; Robotics; Visual impairment
Effects of Superimposing Salient Graphics on Learning Material BIBAKFull-Text 169-178
  Shu Matsuura; Takumi Shigihara
We investigate the effects of superimposing animated graphics of a virtual character (VC) on physics simulation learning material. Eye-tracking experiments revealed that the VC drew attention to the animated simulation display in a tutorial mode in which the user remained passive to instruction. No similar effect of superimposing was found when the user was engaged in the interface of waiting for key-in mode. Visual incongruity together with contextual congruity is believed to work as a stimulus to raise interest in the intuitive elements of the material. As one application, we describe the development of a visual annotation system based on augmented reality technology. The annotations were visualized in stereoscopic three-dimensional graphics using a see-through wearable binocular-type display. This system is useful for users to obtain in-depth knowledge individually from a large projected image shared with an entire class. This is expected to enable learners to retrieve knowledge at their own paces, while raising interest in the entire view.
Keywords: Learning materials; See-through wearable display; Augmented reality; Stereoscopic 3D
Determining the Efficacy of Communications Technologies and Practices to Broaden Participation in Education: Insights from a Theory of Change BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Nathan W. Moon; Robert L. Todd; Noel Gregg; Christopher L. Langston; Gerri Wolfe
BreakThru is the core project of the Georgia STEM Accessibility Alliance (GSAA), which is supported by the Research in Disabilities Education (RDE) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Launched in 2010, GSAA is one of 10 RDE Alliances throughout the United States designed to broaden the participation and achievement of people with disabilities in STEM education and careers. The most distinctive feature of GSAA has been its use of virtual worlds and online communications platforms to support or implement most project activities. Empirical findings have informed the creation of a theory of change to explain how characteristics of technologically mediated mentoring practices may positively impact students' internal characteristics across five indicators (intention to persist, increased self-advocacy, increased self-determination, decreased math anxiety, and decreased science anxiety). Successful internalization of these characteristics may be expected to increase students' intention to persist in STEM education and support concrete steps to persist. This project seeks to fill a critical research gap and inform the field about the potential efficacy of e-mentoring programs and how they might be evaluated. It also seeks to determine appropriate methodologies and approaches for doing so.
Keywords: STEM education; Disability; Accessibility; Electronic mentoring; Evaluation; Theory of change
Enhancing Students' Motivation to Learn Software Engineering Programming Techniques: A Collaborative and Social Interaction Approach BIBAKFull-Text 189-201
  Ricardo Rodrigues Nunes; Daniela Pedrosa; Benjamim Fonseca; Hugo Paredes; José Cravino; Leonel Morgado; Paulo Martins
To motivate students to study advanced programming techniques, including the use of architectural styles such as the model-view-controller pattern, we have conducted action research upon a project based-learning approach. In addition to collaboration, the approach includes students' searching and analysis of scientific documents and their involvement in communities of practice outside academia. In this paper, we report the findings of second action research cycle, which took place throughout the fourth semester of a six-semester program. As with the previous cycle during the previous academic year, students did not satisfactorily achieve expected learning out-comes. More groups completed the assigned activities, but results continue to reflect poor engagement in the communities of practice and very low performance in other learning tasks. From the collected data we have identified new approaches and recommendations for subsequent research.
Keywords: Motivation; Learning programming; Collaboration; Social interaction; Communities of practice; Project-based learning; Problem-based learning
Guidelines for Designing Accessible Digital (Text) Books: The Italian Case BIBAKFull-Text 202-213
  Eliseo Sciarretta; Andrea Ingrosso; Alessandra Carriero
In this paper, the authors analyze the state of the art of digital publishing, with particular attention towards what is going on in Italy, and investigate eBooks' accessibility features, in order to understand whether this growing phenomenon may represent a resource and a possibility of inclusion for all individuals, regardless of their (dis)abilities, their needs and their interests, and how to make this possible. Given the recent turmoil around the so-called School 2.0 and the subsequent need to guarantee every student the right to a profitable and successful school career, the discussion will focus on issues related to digital textbooks, aiming at elaborating a proposal of guidelines and editorial techniques which can assist the process of preparation of works all learners can access, discarding the "one-size-fits-all" logic, but rather adapting to individual needs.
Keywords: Accessibility; Learning; School; Ebook; Guideline; Universal access
The Evolution of an Online Approach to Preparing Young Students with Disabilities for College and Careers BIBAKFull-Text 214-223
  Clark A. Shingledecker; Jennifer Barga
This paper describes an initiative to address the underrepresentation of persons with disabilities (PwD) in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields using online educational methods. The objectives of the program are to build motivation for pursuing STEM careers among students with disabilities in middle school and early high school and to improve their preparation for postsecondary education. We first outline the problem of underrepresentation of PwD in STEM and present the underlying reasoning for targeting younger students and addressing the objectives using online methods. Next, we describe the development of online content designed to increase STEM career motivation and college readiness and the initial implementation of the program using a series of informal educational webcasts aimed at students with disabilities and their parents. In the final section of the paper, we identify some of the lessons-learned about online educational approaches from the original implementation, and describe a subsequent evolution of the program using multilevel web-based content designed to reach a wider range of problem stakeholders including teachers and rehabilitation counselors.
Keywords: Students with disabilities; STEM careers; Online education; College preparation
The Promise and Pitfalls of Virtual Worlds to Enhance STEM Education Success: Summary of the GSAA BreakThru Model BIBAKFull-Text 224-235
  Robert L. Todd
The Georgia STEM Accessibility Alliance (GSAA) is a research project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Research in Disabilities Education (RDE) program, grants 1027635 and 1027655. A collaborative RDE Alliance, it combines the expertise of the University of Georgia and the Georgia Institute of Technology. Launched in 2010 and projected for completion in 2016, GSAA is one of 10 RDE Alliances throughout the United States designed to broaden the participation and achievement of people with disabilities in STEM education and careers. Although the GSAA encompasses many innovative features to achieve its goals, its core features are the use of virtual worlds (Second Life) and online and smartphone technologies to enhance student success through mediated mentoring, collectively referred to as the BreakThru project. This paper will provide a brief summary of the status of the use of virtual worlds in STEM education, as well as an overview of the GSAA BreakThru goals, theory of change, demographics, and subject participation. It will posit conclusions that can be advantageous in future research on online, mediated approaches to enhanced education, to ensure the maximum potential for all students to complete educational goals.
Keywords: STEM education; Disability; Accessibility; Electronic mentoring; Virtual worlds; Online education
Quality Analysis of Polish Universities Based on POE Method -- Description of Research Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 236-242
  Dorota Winnicka-Jaslowska
The paper summarizes the research experiences of the author, related to the pilot quality assessment studies of university buildings and campuses in Poland. The studies are linked by the method Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE). The scope of the quality analyses conducted by the author in University of Silesia in Katowice was the general efficiency assessed from the point of view of organizational and behavioral needs of users. The main research tools of the pilot quality assessment studies carried out by the author was focused on the selected buildings and university campus space. The discussed University of Silesia is currently undergoing changes in its campus. In the beginning of the 21st until nowadays some important buildings of University were erected and opened up. The University authorities are planning new facilities and extension of the campus site. The author's analyses were used for pre-design studies. The analyses gave grounds for students' conceptual designs concerning further growth of the University.
Keywords: University building; Campus; Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE); Users; Higher education; HE
E-mentoring Supports for Improving the Persistence of Underrepresented Students in On-line and Traditional Courses BIBAKFull-Text 243-251
  Gerri Wolfe; Noel Gregg
On-line education has broadened access to college allowing the same educational opportunities as students enrolled at a traditional campus. The increase in on-line enrollment is over shadowed by course drop out and failure rates which are higher than campus-based rates. With many underrepresented students facing barriers to campus-based education, on-line courses hold great appeal. However, the on-line environment has posed challenges due to the limited availability of support services which can lead to frustration and subsequent withdrawal from courses. The purpose of this paper is to explore e-mentoring using the BreakThru e-mentoring model as a back drop. Three aspects of the e-mentoring program will be examined: (1) factors associated with how underrepresented students use social media tools, including virtual platforms, while participating in an e-mentoring program; (2) factors contributing to the development of mentee/mentor relationships; and (3) factors which affect a mentee's increased persistence in a STEM major.
Keywords: E-mentoring; On-line courses; Underrepresented college students; Disability; Virtual platforms social media; Persistence; STEM
Comparison Research Between ICT-Based Design and Traditional Design for Hearing Impaired Children BIBAKFull-Text 252-263
  Ying Yang; Junnan Yu; Wenyi Cai; Ting Han
There are about 27.8 million hearing impaired people in China, and among them 137 thousand are children under six. Traditional approaches of hearing and speech rehabilitation for children are using medical treatments at first and subsequently following a speech training in professional institutes, to make up the delayed speech development. It has been found that there are some weaknesses in traditional approaches.
   Since the emergence of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies), they have been applied in many different fields, especially in the education field. ICTs have an obvious advantage in education. In this paper, the application of ICTs in speech training has been proposed, and a comparison with traditional speech training approaches has been made. Based on these research findings, a speech training prototype, New Voice was developed.
Keywords: Design for pleasure of use; Human Factors / System Integration; Training design and analysis; ICT-based design

Universal Access to Health Applications and Services

Haptics-Enabled Surgical Training System with Guidance Using Deep Learning BIBAKFull-Text 267-278
  Ehren Biglari; Marie Feng; John Quarles; Edward Sako; John Calhoon; Ronald Rodriguez; Yusheng Feng
In this paper, we present a haptics-enabled surgical training system integrated with deep learning for characterization of particular procedures of experienced surgeons to guide medical residents-in-training with quantifiable patterns. The prototype of virtual reality surgical system is built for open-heart surgery with specific steps and biopsy operation. Two abstract surgical scenarios are designed to emulate incision and biopsy surgical procedures. Using deep learning algorithm (autoencoder), the two surgical procedures were trained and characterized. Results show that a vector with 30 real-valued components can quantify both surgical patterns. These values can be used to compare how a resident-in-training performs differently as opposed to an experienced surgeon so that quantifiable corrective training guidance can be provided.
Keywords: Virtual surgical training system; Haptic device; Machine learning; Deep learning algorithm; Autoencoder; Motion tracking and quantification
A Goal- and Context-Driven Approach in Mobile Period Tracking Applications BIBAKFull-Text 279-287
  Richard A. Bretschneider
Over the past few years the interest in period tracking apps increased, which represent a sub-genre of quantified self apps in women health. They are available in a variety of complexity levels ranging from simple menstruation diaries up to applications with complex fertility calculation algorithms. The goal of this paper is to propose an approach for a period tracking app with an adaptive user interface that takes the users goal and context into account. Our research focusses on the motivations to use a period tracker, the questions that users have regarding their cycle data and how a quantified self app could help in answering these questions.
Keywords: Self-tracking; Period tracking; Context; User experience; Personalization; User monitoring; Quantified self
Unforeseen Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 288-299
  Mads Christophersen; Peter Mørck; Tue Odd Langhoff; Pernille Bjørn
Wearable health-tracking devices are being adopted by American self-insured companies to combat rising health insurance costs. The key motivation is to discourage employees' unhealthy behavior through monitoring their data. While wearable health-tracking devices might improve users awareness about personal health, we argue that the introduction of such devices in organizational settings also risk introducing unforeseen challenges. In this paper we unpack the unforeseen challenges and argue that wearable health-tracking devices in organizational settings risk disciplining employees, by tempting or penalizing them financially. Further, health concerns are reduced to numbers through wearable health-tracking devices providing surveillance of bodies, impacting people's lives. We stress how important it is that designers and researchers find ways to address these challenges in order to avoid future abuse of personal health data collected from wearable health-data tracking devices.
Keywords: Wearable Health-Tracking devices; Health data; Health insurance; Differentiated pricing; Wellness programs; Personal healthcare records; Privacy; Surveillance; Disciplining; Health as numbers
Rehabilitation of Balance-Impaired Stroke Patients Through Audio-Visual Biofeedback BIBAKFull-Text 300-311
  Cristina Gheorghe; Thomas Nissen; Daniel Christensen; Paula Epure; Anthony Brooks; Eva Petersson Brooks
This study explored how audio-visual biofeedback influences physical balance of seven balance-impaired stroke patients, between 33-70 years-of-age. The setup included a bespoke balance board and a music rhythm game. The procedure was designed as follows: (1) a control group who performed a balance training exercise without any technological input, (2) a visual biofeedback group, performing via visual input, and (3) an audio-visual biofeedback group, performing via audio and visual input. Results retrieved from comparisons between the data sets (2) and (3) suggested superior postural stability between test sessions for (2). Regarding the data set (1), the testers were less motivated to perform training exercises although their performance was superior to (2) and (3). Conclusions are that the audio component motivated patients to train although the physical performance was decreased.
Keywords: Audio-visual biofeedback; Stroke rehabilitation; Postural stability
Speech Driven by Artificial Larynx: Potential Advancement Using Synthetic Pitch Contours BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Hua-Li Jian
Despite a long history of development, the speech qualities achieved with artificial larynx devices are limited. This paper explores recent advances in prosodic speech processing and technology and assesses their potentials in improving the quality of speech with an artificial larynx -- in particular, tone and intonation through pitch variation. Three approaches are discussed: manual pitch control, automatic pitch control and re-synthesized speech.
Keywords: Artificial larynx; Fundamental frequency; Assistive technology
Multimodal Feedback for Balance Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 322-330
  Bruce J. P. Mortimer; Braden J. McGrath; Greg R. Mort; Gary A. Zets
This paper describes development of an activity based, multimodal balance rehabilitation training device. Various sensors can be used, including a force plate, inertial sensors, and depth sensing cameras, and various combinations of visual, auditory and tactile feedback can be configured depending on the rehabilitation task and activity. Tactile feedback is presented via a lightweight belt that is worn on the torso. Generally, visual feedback is only needed at the start of rehabilitation training (task orientation) while tactile feedback may be used to augment balance control. Tactile feedback can be configured as a cue that certain movement targets or limits have been reached or as an immediate indicator of the variance in postural sway. Tactile feedback allows the subject to naturally concentrate on the functional rehabilitation task, and is less reliant on visual or verbal cues.
Keywords: Balance; Rehabilitation; Tactile feedback
A Virtual Reality System for Occupational Therapy with Hand Motion Capture and Force Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 331-337
  Kouki Nagamune; Yosuke Uozumi; Yoshitada Sakai
This study proposes a virtual reality system for occupational therapy with hand motion capture and force feedback. Force feedback is realized by using a vibration motor. In the experiment, the proposed system was applied for three health males. The results with force feedback were close to the setting distance more than the results without force feedback. As a future work, actual working task used in clinical situation should be applied to this system.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Occupational therapy; Force feedback
Methodology for Evaluating the Usability of Public Equipment for Physical Activity: An Approach to Interface with Blind and Low Vision Individuals BIBAKFull-Text 338-344
  Sabrina Talita de Oliveira; Maria Lucia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto
The objective of this study is to present a methodology for evaluation of public equipment, from usability issues, ergonomics and accessibility. We believe that products of common use can be used by normal people and by people with disabilities. Thus, we decided to develop a methodology for evaluate public exercise equipment in Brazil, as a group of blind and low vision users constantly use such products. The methodology aims to measure the User Experience using the products of outdoor gyms, showing criteria of satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, intuitiveness, pleasantness and perception of pain or discomfort.
Keywords: Public gyms; User experience; Usability; Blind people; Low vision
Virtual Liver Surgical Simulator by Using Z-Buffer for Object Deformation BIBAKFull-Text 345-351
  Katsuhiko Onishi; Hiroshi Noborio; Masanao Koeda; Kaoru Watanabe; Kiminori Mizushino; Takahiro Kunii; Masaki Kaibori; Kosuke Matsui; Masanori Kon
Virtual surgical simulator which is using computer graphics is much popular system than before. It is generally used in the medical areas, such as medical hospital or medical university. The simulator uses virtual organ models like liver, brain and so on. These models are usually based on the scanning data from patients and are used as volume models. Fortunately, the volume model is familiar with its cutting or deforming operation in a surgical system. For this reason, there are many kinds of surgical simulation or navigation systems using the volume model. However, visual reality of the volume model is not sufficient for human being including doctors. This means that the doctors cannot identify shape or location of a target organ from volume objects. In order to overcome this, we should use the translating method, such as marching cubes method and so on, for getting precisely polygon models which is included normal vectors of volume object. However, the method is quite time consuming and consequently the doctors cannot operate the virtual model in real-time.
   On these observations, we propose the virtual surgical simulator for operating the human liver in a virtual environment, which is based on the cooperation of polygon models and Z-buffer in GPU. By using parallel processing of GPU, the simulator allows uses to cut or deform a virtual liver model by using several kinds of medical tools like a scalpel in this system. In addition, visual reality of polygon model is wonderful for a doctor to identify its shape or location because this model maintains their precise normal vector.
Keywords: Z-buffer; Liver surgical simulator; GPU; Object deformation
Fashion Design for Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach BIBAKFull-Text 352-363
  Mariana Rachel Roncoletta
The aim of this research is presenting intersections points concerned with health, fashion and design with the propose of allowing multidisciplinary studies to enter into a dialogue by employing the same language. Qualitative methodology was applied on the bias of epistemological Constructivism. It was analysed and compared secondary sources through a biographic review. It was concluded that the examples of The Alternative Limb Project, a hybrid project, are intended to embody fashion as a socio-cultural phenomenon can foster social-cultural inclusion for people with disability. It is possible to discern a feasible approximation of the outlook of the designer in the area of health with the outlook of the designer in the area of fashion, so that, in partnership, they can foster effective socio-cultural inclusion and improve physical health in a way that culminates in a better quality of life and state of well-being.
Keywords: Fashion design; Health; People with disability
Smart Mirror Where I Stand, Who Is the Leanest in the Sand? BIBAKFull-Text 364-373
  Marianna Saba; Riccardo Scateni; Fabio Sorrentino; Lucio Davide Spano; Sara Colantonio; Daniela Giorgi; Massimo Magrini; Ovidio Salvetti; Novella Buonaccorsi; Ilaria Vitali
In this paper we introduce the Virtuoso project, which aims at creating a seamless interactive support for fitness and wellness activities in touristic resorts. The overall idea is to evaluate the current physical state of the user through a technology-enhanced mirror. We describe the state of the art technologies for building a smart mirror prototype. In addition, we compare different parameters for evaluating the user's physical state, considering the user's impact, the contact requirements and their cost. Finally we depict the planned setup and evaluation setting for the Virtuoso project.
Keywords: Smart mirrors; Self-monitoring; Wellbeing monitoring; Design for quality of life technologies; Resort
A Virtual Reality Lower-Back Pain Rehabilitation Approach: System Design and User Acceptance Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 374-382
  Wu-Chen Su; Shih-Ching Yeh; Si-Huei Lee; Hsiang-Chun Huang
Low back pain (LBP) affects people of all ages and it is a very common health problem globally. Eighty percent of all people may have experienced LBP in their life. Furthermore, there is no perfect strategy which can be used to treat all kinds of LBP patients. Moreover, LBP rehabilitation takes a long period of time, while patients may lack motivation to finish the entire course of treatment. As a result, LBP poses substantial impact on individuals, organizations and society. Fortunately, the advancement of computing hardware and software offer us a virtual reality based solution in the rehabilitation field. For example, cheaper and highly accurate wearable devices can also be used to coordinate with analytical software packages in order to carry out motion tracking and measure a patient's movement promptly and effectively.
   Therefore, in this study, a VR-based LBP rehabilitation system utilizing wireless sensor technologies to assist physiotherapists and patients in undertaking three stages of rehabilitation exercises for low back health is proposed. The major functions of this VR system are as follows: (1) Monitor and correct a patient's posture to establish basic movement patterns. (2) A physiotherapist can customize appropriate rehabilitation programs for an individual patient in order to enhance muscle strength and endurance. (3) Provide supports to a patient so as to establish whole body and joint stability.
   A total of twenty LBP patients have been recruited for this study, and a user acceptance of technology questionnaire is used to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of the system proposed. Participants are treated 2-3 times a week for 4-6 weeks and experimental results demonstrate that uses of this VR system for rehabilitation courses have a high degree of technology acceptance and patients are willing to continue to use this system for LBP rehabilitation in the future.
Keywords: Wireless sensor IMU; Virtual reality; Low back pain
'Weather' Wearable System: A Design Exploration to Facilitate the Collaboration and Communication with Chronic Pain Patients BIBAKFull-Text 383-393
  Xin Tong; Diane Gromala; Amber Choo; Mahsoo Salimi; Jeewon Lee
Unpredictable spikes in pain intensity can easily interrupt the lives of chronic pain patients. The uncertainty of when these painful experiences will occur inhibits positive communications and collaborations with friends, families or co-workers in daily life. In this paper, the authors explore an affective design space for developing a wearable technology piece using real-time biofeedback monitoring capabilities. The intent of the device is to mitigate chronic pain patients' pain uncertainty in order to facilitate daily collaborations between the worker who lives with chronic pain and co-workers through social signaling. This exploratory design process, including the wearable system organization and presentation rationale, was developed in participatory design collaboration with target users: a chronic pain patient and people she works with in an academic workplace context. After three iterations, two prototypes were developed; each addresses the control of privacy and information sharing issues. In future work, appropriate evaluation methods will be explored and the iterative design prototype also will be improved based on user feedback. The long-term goal is to improve the wearable's applicability in a variety of social contexts, and applicability for other chronic conditions.
Keywords: Wearable computing system; Chronic pain; Collaboration and communication; Uncertainty mitigation
The Benefits of Haptic Feedback in Telesurgery and Other Teleoperation Systems: A Meta-Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 394-405
  Bernhard Weber; Clara Eichberger
A quantitative review of empirical studies investigating the effects of haptic feedback in teleoperation or virtual reality systems is provided. Several meta-analyses were conducted based on results of 58 studies with 1104 subjects from the medical and other teleoperation domains, revealing positive, substantial effects of kinesthetic force feedback on task performance (Hedges' g=0.62-0.75) and force regulation (g=0.64-0.78) and positive, but small effects on task completion time (g=0.22). Vibrotactile substitution of force feedback results in significantly lower effects on task performance (g=.21). Yet, exaggerated force production can be avoided effectively. Finally, we found evidence that the magnitude of the force feedback effects are moderated by task characteristics like force regulation demands and complexity.
Keywords: Haptics; Force feedback; Vibrotactile; Sensory substitution; Teleoperation; Telemanipulation; Telerobotics; Telesurgery; Virtual reality; Simulation

Games for Learning and Therapy

An Evaluation Method of Educational Computer Games for Deaf Children Based on Design Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 409-419
  Rafael dos Passos Canteri; Laura Sánchez García; Tanya Amara Felipe; Diego Roberto Antunes; Carlos Eduardo Iatskiu
Computer games have been used for a long time as a valuable tool in the teaching and learning of a variety of subjects. The Deaf communities and in particular the Deaf children have different learning needs compared to hearing children. For this reason, there have been, even timidly, some educational games that focusing on such children. However, as these games do not have a standard methodology for development, they usually do not meet the needs of the target audience. Therefore, this paper proposes a method for evaluating the quality and suitability of existing educational games for Deaf children through a tested set of design guidelines for Deaf children games. Two computer educational games for Deaf are evaluated. In addition, after the evaluation, a case study is presented to demonstrate the redesign of a game based on the guidelines and the results obtained.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Deaf culture; Social inclusion; Computer games; Educational games; Education of deaf children
Resonance: An Interactive Tabletop Artwork for Co-located Group Rehabilitation and Play BIBAKFull-Text 420-431
  Jonathan Duckworth; Nick Mumford; Karen Caeyenberghs; Ross Eldridge; Scott Mayson; Patrick R. Thomas; David Shum; Gavin Williams; Peter H. Wilson
In this paper we describe the design and development of Resonance, an interactive tabletop artwork that targets upper-limb movement rehabilitation for patients with an acquired brain injury. The artwork consists of several interactive game environments, which enable artistic expression, exploration and play. Each environment aims to encourage collaborative, cooperative, and competitive modes of interaction for small groups (2-4) of co-located participants. We discuss how participants can perform movement tasks face-to-face with others using tangible user interfaces in creative and engaging activities. We pay particular attention to design elements that support multiple users and discuss preliminary user evaluation of the system. Our research indicates that group based rehabilitation using Resonance has the potential to stimulate a high level of interest and enjoyment in patients; facilitates social interaction, complements conventional therapy; and is intrinsically motivating.
Keywords: Interactive art; Group interaction; Tabletop display; Movement rehabilitation; Acquired brain injury
Increasing Super Pop VR™ Users' Intrinsic Motivation by Improving the Game's Aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 432-441
  Sergio García-Vergara; Hongfei Li; Ayanna M. Howard
During physical therapy intervention protocols, it's important to consider the individual's intrinsic motivation to perform in-home recommended exercises. Physical therapy exercises can become tedious thus limiting the individual's progress. Not only have researchers developed serious gaming systems to increase user motivation, but they have also worked on the design aesthetics since results have shown positive effects on the users' performance for attractive models. As such, we improved the aesthetics of a previously developed serious game called Super Pop VR™. Namely, we improved the game graphics, added new game features, and allowed for more game options to provide users the opportunity to tailor their own experience. The conducted user studies show that participants rank the version of the game with the improved aesthetics higher in terms of the amount of interest/enjoyment it generates, thus allowing for an increase in intrinsic motivation when interacting with the system.
Keywords: Technological rehabilitation; Super Pop VR™; V R T M; Physical therapy; Game aesthetics; Serious games
Games for Change: The Strategic Design of Interactive Persuasive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 442-453
  Igor Revoredo Hosse; Rachel Zuanon
Games for Change are designed to promote positive social impacts leading to reflection and behavior change of the players. However, it is a challenge to develop games that are motivators and, at the same time, stimulate positive changes. Therefore, in order to help designers to achieve these objectives, thirteen (13) design elements divided into three (3) structural strategic foci were proposed. To validate these elements, the Games for Change Ecocity (Brazil) and Half The Sky -- The Game (USA) were analyzed. As a result, the design elements proposal helped to identify which aspects of each one of the analyzed games were responsible for the performance regarding the players behavior change and ability to motivate.
Keywords: Game Design; Games for Change; Motivation to Play; Flow
Developing a Digital Game for Domestic Stroke Patients' Upper Extremity Rehabilitation -- Design and Usability Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 454-461
  Lan-Ling Huang; Mei-Hsiang Chen; Chao-Hua Wang; Chang-Franw Lee
Digital games have been proven effective in upper extremity rehabilitation for stroke patients in addition to arousing higher motivation and feelings of pleasure. A well designed upper extremity rehabilitation digital game should intentionally meet the purpose of rehabilitation. Therefore, it is desirable to domestically develop digital upper extremity rehabilitation games for the local hospitals as well as individual users. We are proposing this research to develop such digital games for rehabilitation and their feasibility assessment. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the usability and feasibility associated with using this game. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: (1) the set of upper extremity rehabilitation game was named as upper extremity rehabilitation gardening game (UERG game). It is special designed for domestic stroke patients. (2) This UERG game uses Kinect's skeletal tracking features and motion sensor to interaction with patients. (3) design features are as following: game contents include three difficult levels according to different upper limb motor function recovery stages; to record user's motor performance; to provide feedback information (for example: to record the completed the task time and to detect whether the user has compensatory action, etc.). (4) A total of 10 patients to assess this set of games. The results showed that 90% of patients reported that using UERG game in treatment increased their treatment motivation.; 70% of them reported that this games is very interactive; 80% patients considered this game is conducive to recovery their upper extremity functions; 80% patients considered the feedback information provided help them to understand their performance in each session after training; 60% patients indicated the game interfaces were easy to operate and learning; 90% of patients reported that this game is enjoyment and satisfied with this game for rehabilitation. They are willing to continue to use.
Keywords: Upper extremity rehabilitation; Stroke; Digital gaming design; Usability assessment
An Integrated Playful Music Learning Solution BIBAKFull-Text 462-471
  Kristoffer Jensen; Søren Frimodt-Møller
This paper presents an integrated solution using IT technologies to help a (young) musician learn a piece of music, or learn how to play an instrument. The rehearsal process is organized in sequences, consisting of various activities to be 'passed'. Several games are investigated that help in learning especially difficult parts, or in the learning of an instrument. The integrated solution, demonstrated on a tablet, proposed in this paper also includes tools that assist the musician in the rehearsal process. Feedback consists of computer tracking that supports self-assessment of rehearsal quality together with shared audio and video material that can be viewed by teacher and peers.
Keywords: Informal learning; Music rehearsal; Mobile applications; Gamification; Low-fidelity prototyping
A Game-like Application for Dance Learning Using a Natural Human Computer Interface BIBAKFull-Text 472-482
  Alexandros Kitsikidis; Kosmas Dimitropoulos; Deniz Ugurca; Can Bayçay; Erdal Yilmaz; Filareti Tsalakanidou; Stella Douka; Nikos Grammalidis
Game-based learning and gamification techniques are recently becoming a popular trend in the field of Technology Enhanced Learning. In this paper, we mainly focus on the use of game design elements for the transmission of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) knowledge and, especially, for the learning of traditional dances. More specifically, we present a 3D game environment that employs an enjoyable natural human computer interface, which is based on the fusion of multiple depth sensors data in order to capture the body movements of the user/learner. In addition, the system automatically assesses the learner's performance by utilizing a combination of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) with Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) approach and provides feedback in a form of a score as well as instructions from a virtual tutor in order to promote self-learning. As a pilot use case, a Greek traditional dance, namely Tsamiko, has been selected. Preliminary small-scaled experiments with students of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki have shown the great potential of the proposed application.
Keywords: Dance performance evaluation; Natural human computer interface; Traditional dances
Augmentation of Board Games Using Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Arturas Kulšinskas; Ciatialin Bialan; Nicholas Bukdahl; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This paper contains details about research into the effect of digital augmentation on social presence in board games. A case study of the board game Tobago was performed during the project and a prototype application for smartphones was developed in order to compare the players' social presence in traditional and augmented versions. A repeated measures experiment was carried out with 15 subjects, during which both quantitative and qualitative data was collected. The results of the experiment show that while digital augmentation did not increase social presence in this board game, transferring some of the physical elements to digital medium is a viable game design choice.
Keywords: Board game; Smartphones; Digital augmentation; Social presence
Games Accessibility for Deaf People: Evaluating Integrated Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 493-504
  Ana L. K. Waki; Guilherme S. Fujiyoshi; Leonelo D. A. Almeida
The lack of accessibility in digital games imposes barriers for people with disabilities. Currently there is not a standardized set of guidelines however there are researches that consisted in integrating guidelines disperse in several sources as, for example, the integrated set of guidelines for games accessibility for deaf people proposed by Waki, Fujiyoshi and Almeida. In this study we propose and conduct a process for evaluating that set of integrated guidelines that is composed of two complementary evaluation techniques that articulates predictive evaluations with prospective game developers and workshops with deaf gamers. The results provided us with information: (a) on whether the set of integrated guidelines is sufficient for determining accessibility of digital games; and (b) for refining the set of integrated guidelines.
Keywords: Deaf people; Games; Accessibility; Evaluation; Guidelines
Enhancing Self-Motivation Through Design of an Accessible Math App for Children with Special Needs BIBAKFull-Text 505-513
  J. MacCalla; Jin Xu; Ayanna Howard
The inclusion of learning activities using tablet devices in the classroom environment continues to grow. Unfortunately, this corresponding increase has not correlated with a growth in accessible content for children with special needs. In fact, most children with a reported disability take fewer science and math courses than mainstream students primarily due to the unavailability of information in accessible formats. In this paper, we discuss an educational App that makes math engaging to students while being accessible to children with special needs. We then present a pilot study to collect empirical evidence on how well the app self-motivates the user. Results from the study, which involved thirty-four participants, show significant measures of self-motivation when using the educational math app.
Keywords: Accessible math; Special needs; Gamification; Intrinsic motivation
The Use of Multisensory User Interfaces for Games Centered in People with Cerebral Palsy BIBAKFull-Text 514-524
  Eliza Oliveira; Glauco Sousa; Icaro Magalhães; Tatiana Tavares
The evolution of user interfaces has improved the user experience, especially the sensory features. Also, the sensory aspect is crucial for the interaction, mainly for the development of effective assistive technologies. This study presents a game for people with Cerebral Palsy (CP). CP refers to a range of clinical syndromes characterized by motor disorders and postural changes that may or may not be associated with cognitive impairment and speech disorders. Due to restricted motor condition, sports and games become difficult for people with CP. Our challenge is to offer an alternative to people with PC based on tangible and multisensory devices. The use of a robotic ball allowed remote manipulation, which makes this solution useful for people with physical disabilities. Also, an user centered design process was adopted. The game encourages people to interact by using different control devices, making it an important resource for promoting play in these users.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Multisensory devices; Cerebral palsy; Games; User study; Tangible interfaces
SPELTRA: A Robotic Assistant for Speech-and-Language Therapy BIBAKFull-Text 525-534
  Vladimir Robles-Bykbaev; Martín López-Nores; Juan Ochoa-Zambrano; Jorge García-Duque; José Juan Pazos-Arias
The Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) is an area focused on the rehabilitation of people suffering from different kinds of disorders and disabilities related with language and communication. According to latest estimates of the World Health Organization, most countries do not have appropriate structures to provide healthcare and rehabilitation services for those people. This problem becomes more complex on developing countries, due the lack of professionals and ICT-based tools to support the several activities that must be performed by the Speech and Language Pathologists (SLPs). On those grounds, this paper presents a robotic assistant with the aim to help SLPs during the therapy activities. This approach is based on an integrative environment that relies on mobile ICT tools, an expert system, a knowledge layer and standardized vocabularies. This proposal has been tested on 26 children suffering from different kind of disabilities, and the results achieved have shown important improvements in some activities related with SLT like reduction of the time required to prepare patients for therapy, and better response of children to perform tasks.
Keywords: Speech-language therapy; Mobile applications; Expert system; Robotic assistant
Multimodal Videogames for the Cognition of People Who Are Blind: Trends and Issues BIBAKFull-Text 535-546
  Jaime Sánchez; Ticianne Darin; Rossana Andrade
Multimodal serious games are attractive tools for achieving this goal and helping people with visual disabilities to perceive and to interpret the surrounding world. However, it is fundamental to ensure that the games can stimulate cognitive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of multimodal components in the development and evaluation of games and virtual environments targeting the enhancement of cognitive skills in people who are blind. We analyze the state-of-the-art concerning approaches and technologies currently in use for the development of mental maps, cognitive spatial structures, and navigation skills in learners who are blind by using multimodal videogames. Besides, we identify the current approaches used for designing and evaluating multimodal games in this context. In this paper, we discuss the results on these and related topics and draw from them some trends and issues.
Keywords: Accessible games; Multimodal interfaces; Cognition; Blind people
Designing Accessible Games with the VERITAS Framework: Lessons Learned from Game Designers BIBAKFull-Text 547-554
  Michael James Scott; Fotios Spyridonis; Gheorghita Ghinea
Testing is important to improve accessibility. However, within the serious games area, this can sometimes rely on minimal testing with the use of heuristics and external assistive devices, with limited input from impaired users. Efficiency would be improved if designers could readily evaluate their designs with the assistance of virtual users. The VERITAS framework simulates and presents data on the impact of a virtual user's impairments; thus, facilitating a more efficient approach to inclusive design. This article reports insights into the use of the framework by 31 evaluators from the serious games field. A log-file analysis highlights key areas of concern, which are then further explored through a questionnaire. The findings suggest that the background knowledge of designers should be considered in order to improve acceptance and usability. Specifically, by addressing challenges comprehending interface elements, following the simulation workflow, and reacting to feedback.
Keywords: Accessibility; Universal design; Inclusion; Games; Simulations; VERITAS framework; Designers
Gaze Interaction and Gameplay for Generation Y and Baby Boomer Users BIBAKFull-Text 555-564
  Mina Shojaeizadeh; Siavash Mortazavi; Soussan Djamasbi
As high quality eye tracking devices become more readily available and affordable, gaze interaction is becoming a viable and fun way to interact with games. Because we direct our eyes toward objects that we choose to attend to, gaze is likely to provide a natural way to manipulate objects in certain types of games. However, little work has been done to design and test games that use gaze as an interaction method. Despite the popular belief that the majority of gamers are young, research shows that Baby Boomers also like to play games. Thus, understanding possible differences in interaction preferences of these two generations provides valuable insight for developers who are planning to design gaze-enabled games for these two populations. In this study, we examine the gaze interaction experience of Baby Boomer and Generation Y users by comparing them to the familiar mouse interaction experience.
Keywords: Gaze enabled interactions; Gaze interaction; User experience; Game play; Baby boomers; Human technology interaction; HCI
Ludic Educational Game Creation Tool: Teaching Schoolers Road Safety BIBAKFull-Text 565-576
  Nikolas Vidakis; Efthymios Syntychakis; Kostantinos Kalafatis; Eirini Christinaki; Georgios Triantafyllidis
This paper presents initial findings and ongoing work of the game creation tool, a core component of the IOLAOS (IOLAOS in ancient Greece was a divine hero famed for helping with some of Heracles's labors.) platform, a general open authorable framework for educational and training games. The game creation tool features a web editor, where the game narrative can be manipulated, according to specific needs. Moreover, this tool is applied for creating an educational game according to a reference scenario namely teaching schoolers road safety. A ludic approach is used both in game creation and play. Helping children staying safe and preventing serious injury on the roads is crucial. In this context, this work presents an augmented version of the IOLAOS architecture including an enhanced game creation tool and a new multimodality module. In addition presents a case study for creating educational games for teaching road safety, by employing ludic interfaces for both the game creator and the game player, as well as ludic game design.
Keywords: Educational game; Road safety; Open authorable framework; Ludic game design
Employing Ambient Intelligence Technologies to Adapt Games to Childrens' Playing Maturity BIBAKFull-Text 577-589
  Emmanouil Zidianakis; Ioanna Zidianaki; Danae Ioannidi; Nikolaos Partarakis; Margherita Antona; George Paparoulis; Constantine Stephanidis
Play development is part of the child's growth and maturation process since birth. Games in general, and technologically augmented games in particular, can play a fundamental role in this process. This paper introduces the design, implementation and deployment of a new version of the popular Tower Game integrated within an Ambient Intelligence (AmI) simulation space, based on knowledge stemming from the processes and theories used in occupational therapy. An augmented interactive table and a three-dimensional avatar are employed in order to extend the purpose and objectives of the game, so that its applicability expands to the age group of preschool children from 3 to 6 years old. Various augmented artifacts, such as force-pressure sensitive interactive surface, and augmented pen, and a digital dice are integrated in the environment, aiming to enhance children's play experience. Through such augmented artifacts, the game becomes capable of monitoring and following the progress of each young player, adapt accordingly and provide important information regarding the abilities and skills of the child and his development growth progress over time.
Keywords: User and context modeling and monitoring; User interface adaptation; Ambient intelligence; Computer games; Design for children

Cognitive Disabilities and Cognitive Support

Augmenting Speech-Language Rehabilitation with Brain Computer Interfaces: An Exploratory Study Using Non-invasive Electroencephalographic Monitoring BIBAKFull-Text 593-603
  Abeer Al-Nafjan; Areej Al-Wabil; Yousef Al-Ohali
The design and development of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technologies for clinical applications is a steadily growing area of research. Applications of BCI technologies in rehabilitation contexts is often impeded by the cumbersome setup and computational complexity in BCI data analytics, which consequently leads to challenges in integrating these technologies in clinical contexts. This paper describes a framework for a novel BCI system designed for clinical settings in speech-language rehabilitation. It presents an overview of the technology involved, the applied context and the system design approach. Moreover, an exploratory study was conducted to understand the functional requirements of BCI systems in speech-language rehabilitation contexts of use.
Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI); Speech language pathology; Rehabilitation; Electroencephalography (EEG)
Usability Heuristics for the Design of Interactive Attention Assessment and Rehabilitation Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 604-615
  Layla Al-Salhie; Weaám AlRashed; Areej Al-Wabil
Emerging technologies are beginning to find their way in different health care centers and clinics worldwide for the purpose of assessment and rehabilitation for people with attention deficit disorders. And due to the variation in the practitioners and patients' requirements and preferences for using these technologies, understanding the usability issues has become essential for further development in this domain. In particular, addressing issues of selecting usability evaluation methods and their effectiveness in identifying usability problems. A bespoke heuristic set for the context of intervention programs for developing sustained attention is proposed and tested. In this study, we conducted usability heuristic evaluations on three sustained attention assessment and rehabilitation programs that involve emerging technologies; which are Neurofeedback and eye tracking. The heuristic evaluation was conducted by five evaluators, and the results showed that the proposed heuristic inspection evaluation method was effective in finding major usability problems in programs designed for sustained attention assessment and rehabilitation. Moreover, recommendations were presented regarding the evaluators' experience with the evaluated interactive programs, the contexts of usage, target user communities, and the technical background knowledge of the interaction modalities.
Keywords: Attention; Usability; Heuristic evaluation; Eye tracking; Neurofeedback
The Effect of Dyslexia on Searching Visual and Textual Content: Are Icons Really Useful? BIBAKFull-Text 616-625
  Gerd Berget; Frode Eika Sandnes
Little is known about how dyslexia affects online information seeking. This study addresses the search performance of 21 users with dyslexia and 21 controls in textual versus visual displays. The aim was to investigate whether visual content enhance search performance. Participants were presented with 24 icons and 24 words and asked to locate a target item. Eye-tracking data revealed no differences in performance in visual or textual content in the dyslexia group. There were no significant differences between the user groups on visual tasks. However, users with dyslexia performed significantly slower on textual tasks than controls, mainly due to longer fixation durations. Users in the control group took much less time solving textual tasks than visual tasks. The results indicate that there may be no advantages in replacing textual content with icons for users with dyslexia. However, replacing text with icons may be counterproductive for users without dyslexia.
Keywords: Dyslexia; Information search; Icons; Eye-tracking
Defining an Interaction Model for Users with Autism: Towards an Autistic User Model BIBAKFull-Text 626-636
  Andrés Mejía-Figueroa; J. Reyes Juárez-Ramírez
The consideration of Human Factors is an integral part of the design and development of any software system. User Models are used to represent the user's characteristics in a computational environment, forming an integral part of Adaptive Interfaces, by enabling the adaptation of the interface to the user's needs and attributes. In this paper we describe a proposed user model based on Executive Functions and a description of the planned case study, being users with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Keywords: User modelling; Adaptive interfaces; Usability; Accessibility; Autism spectrum disorder; Executive functions
Analysis and Design of Three Multimodal Interactive Systems to Support the Everyday Needs of Children with Cognitive Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 637-648
  Stavroula Ntoa; Asterios Leonidis; Maria Korozi; Eleni Papadaki; Ilia Adami; George Margetis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
The autonomy and independence of users with cognitive impairments can be fostered through cognitive technologies. The use of traditional computer interfaces has however proved to be difficult for these users. This paper proposes three innovative systems to train children with cognitive impairments in three fundamental everyday life activities: (a) familiarizing with the home environments, its objects and activities; (b) learning about money and practicing shopping skills; and (c) learning how to prepare and cook simple meals. All three systems feature multimodal interaction and support multimedia output.
Keywords: Multimodal interactive systems; Children with cognitive impairments; Card-based interaction; Touch; Cooking; Monetary transactions; Learning the home environment
Toward a Piano Lesson System that Gives People with Reduced Cognitive Functioning a Sense of Accomplishment BIBAFull-Text 649-659
  Chika Oshima; Kimie Machishima; Koichi Nakayama
Creative activities provide elderly people with reduced cognitive functioning with a sense of accomplishment in nursing care facilities. Music therapists and their clients usual sing songs and play percussive musical instruments. However, they may not provide a feeling of accomplishment from these kinds of music therapy. Then, we aim to construct a piano lesson support system that can give people with reduced cognitive functioning a sense of accomplishment through playing the piano. In this paper, we conducted experiments in which a participant with higher brain dysfunction took piano lessons using video educational materials. The results of the experiments showed that she participated with enthusiasm and got better at playing the piano. On the other hand, we found several issues to consider. We discussed these issues with consideration of the symptoms according to the depression of cognitive function.
Jurojin: Designing a GPS Device for People Living with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 660-668
  Mark Palmer; Jude Hancock
Memory loss is the most common symptom of dementia. The impact is such that people living with dementia (PLWD) lose the ability to find their way to previously familiar locations, such as local amenities, and without the aid of others, find themselves confined to home. PLWD report they would like to be able to live unsupported for as long as possible [3] and in this regard the ability to walk to amenities also provides exercise which has been shown to be particularly beneficial for PLWD. This paper presents the Jurojin project which arose out of the Dress/Sense competition to design wearable technology that would positively impact on an individual's health. It details the challenges of the design process, examines PPI (Patient and Public Involvement) feedback and considers whether there might be lessons to be learnt beyond simply designing for PLWD.
Keywords: Dementia; GPS; Exercise; Design
Understanding and Improving Collaborative Skills Among Individuals with ASD in a Distributed Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 669-680
  Arpan Sarkar; Joshua Wade; Zachary Warren
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) evidence core impairments regarding social interaction and communication. These impairments can inhibit the ability of individuals with ASD from effectively engaging with peers and collaborating on goal-oriented tasks. Recently collaborative virtual environment (CVE) in which individuals with ASD can interact with one another or with a therapist to achieve some common goal has been proposed for social competence interventions (SCI) for these individuals. In this paper, we present the design of a distributed CVE for playing the classic video game pong to be used for SCI. This collaborative game can be played at several different modes ranging from one player against an artificial agent in one computer to two players against each other in two different computers. The system functionality and robustness were validated through a small user study. In the future, this CVE will be evaluated with children and adolescents with ASD.
Keywords: Collaborative Virtual Environment (CVE); Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Presence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in University Students: Implications for Education and HCI BIBAKFull-Text 681-688
  Debra Satterfield; Christopher Lepage; Nora Ladjahasan
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) in 2014 estimates a prevalence rate of 1 in 68 for persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is five times as prevalent in boys than girls and crosses all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups [1]. Therefore, there is a critical need for the HCI community to better understand the educational and informational needs for persons with ASD. This research identifies persons with ASD in higher education using a recognized autism diagnostic tool and correlates that data to their gender, major field of study, and their indicated preferences with regard to course content, content delivery preferences, and evaluation strategies. The significance of this information applies both to students in HCI who are on the autism spectrum and to university educators with regard to the design of educational materials and courses suitable for both students with and without ASD to achieve academic success.
Keywords: Autism; Academic success; Engineering; Design; Higher education
A Virtual Reality Driving Environment for Training Safe Gaze Patterns: Application in Individuals with ASD BIBAKFull-Text 689-697
  Joshua Wade; Dayi Bian; Jing Fan; Lian Zhang; Amy Swanson; Medha Sarkar; Amy Weitlauf; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
It has been well established that adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) present social and behavioral characteristics that differ significantly from those of their peers without ASD. A growing number of recent studies have begun to look closely at automobile operation characteristics in individuals diagnosed with ASD. Some of this work has suggested that certain driving behaviors demonstrated by those with ASD may pose significant safety concerns to both themselves and other drivers. Expanding on previous work, we designed and tested a gaze-contingent driving intervention system in which drivers were required to not only perform well, but also to look at key regions of interest in the environment such as traffic lights, stop signs, pedestrians and side-view mirrors. We present preliminary results from a study comparing performance outcomes and eye gaze patterns in a group using the gaze-contingent system and a group using a gaze-insensitive, performance-based system.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Eye gaze; Autism intervention
Digital Play Therapy for Children with Developmental Disorders BIBAKFull-Text 698-708
  Yukako Watanabe; Yoshiko Okada; Hirotaka Osawa; Midori Sugaya
Children suffering with learning and developmental disorders require daily training to develop their social skills. However, such daily training is sometimes not provided because it requires interactive help from therapists, and lots of programs required for the training. In this paper, we propose a digital dollhouse that enhances traditional psychological play therapy with digital sensors and computer graphics (CG). The digital dollhouse provides immersive space for children, which develops their communication skills through their imaginary play through the complement of CG for enhancing the understanding of their situation. In this paper we present details of this prototype digital dollhouse. We also categorize requirements for digital play therapy, which are given by psychological viewpoints based on the prototype. Interdisciplinary design processes collaborating with engineers and psychologists show the possibility that digital dollhouses will be used for enhancing the communication, and providing the variety of training program that was difficult to prepare compared with the existent normal therapy devices.
Keywords: Developmental disorders; Children; Digital play therapy; Digital play therapy method; Digital play therapy device
Multimodal Fusion for Cognitive Load Measurement in an Adaptive Virtual Reality Driving Task for Autism Intervention BIBAKFull-Text 709-720
  Lian Zhang; Joshua Wade; Dayi Bian; Jing Fan; Amy Swanson; Amy Weitlauf; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
A virtual reality driving system was designed to improve driving skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An appropriate level of cognitive load during training can help improve a participant's long-term performance. This paper studied cognitive load measurement with multimodal information fusion techniques. Features were extracted from peripheral physiological signals, Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, eye gaze information and participants' performance data. Multiple classification methods and features from different modalities were used to evaluate participant's cognitive load. We verified classifications' result with perceived tasks' difficulty level, which induced different cognitive load. We fused multimodal information in three levels: feature level, decision level and hybrid level. The best accuracy for cognitive load measurement was 84.66%, which was achieved with the hybrid level fusion.
Keywords: Autism; Virtual reality; Multimodal fusion; Cognitive load measurement
Design of a Computer-Assisted System for Teaching Attentional Skills to Toddlers with ASD BIBAKFull-Text 721-730
  Zhi Zheng; Qiang Fu; Huan Zhao; Amy Swanson; Amy Weitlauf; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Attentional skill, which is considered as one of the fundamental elements of social communication, is among the core areas of impairment among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In recent years, technology-assisted ASD intervention has gained momentum among researchers due its potential advantages in terms of flexibility, accessibility and cost. In this paper, we proposed a computer-assisted system for teaching attentional skills to toddlers with ASD, using the "response to name" skill as a specific example. The system was a fully closed-loop autonomous system capable of both providing name prompting from different locations of a room and detecting the child's attention in response to his name prompt. A preliminary user study was conducted to validate the proposed system and the protocol. The results showed that the proposed system and the protocol were well tolerated and were engaging for the participants, and were successful in eliciting the desired performance from the participants.
Keywords: Computer-mediated attention skills teaching; Toddlers with ASD