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UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Access to Today's Technologies

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Access to Today's Technologies
Note:Volume 7 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9175
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20678-3 hcibib: UAHCI15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-20677-6 (print), 978-3-319-20678-3 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. Design and Evaluation Methods and Tools for Universal Access
    2. Universal Access to the Web
    3. Universal Access to Mobile Interaction
    4. Universal Access to Information, Communication and Media

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 1

Design and Evaluation Methods and Tools for Universal Access

Elderly Speech-Gaze Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Cengiz Acartürk; João Freitas; Mehmetcal Fal; Miguel Sales Dias
Elderly people face problems when using current forms of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Developing novel and natural methods of interaction would facilitate resolving some of those issues. We propose that HCI can be improved by combining communication modalities, in particular, speech and gaze, in various ways. This study presents elderly speech-gaze interaction as a novel method in HCI, a review of literature for its potential of use, and discusses possible domains of application for further empirical investigations.
Keywords: Multimodal; Gaze; Eye tracking; Speech; Elderly; Interaction
Design Engineering and Human Computer Interaction: Function Oriented Problem Solving in CAD Applications BIBAKFull-Text 13-24
  Gisela S. Bahr; Stephen L. Wood; Anthony Escandon
CAD Software such as CREO and SolidWorks are used to develop mechanical parts and assemblies and do not explicitly support the function of the feature, component, part or assembly. Therefore, the reasoning of why and how a design is developed has not been incorporated into current CAD systems. At the same time, CAD systems support sophisticated functions such automated routing, modelling and simulation of dynamic and geometric properties and design solutions tracking. In this paper we investigate (a) to what degree CAD tools have advanced beyond drafting tools to include cognitive supports that facilitate problem solving and (b) which possibilities exist to enhance CAD with cognitive tools that with focus on the intersection between cognitive psychology, interaction design and design engineering remain unexplored.
Keywords: Engineering design; Design reasoning; Design support; Design cognition; Problem solving; Creo; SolidWorks; Functional fixedness
Assessing the Inclusivity of Digital Interfaces -- A Proposed Method BIBAKFull-Text 25-33
  Michael Bradley; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
In the assessment of the inclusivity of products with interfaces for digital devices, there are difficulty and validity issues relating the cognitive demand of using and learning an unfamiliar interface to the capabilities outlined in the population source data. This is due to the disparity between the types of cognitive tasks used to create the source data, and those needed to operate a digital interface.
   Previous work to understand the factors affecting successful interactions with novel digital technology interfaces has shown that the user's technology generation, technology prior experience and their motivation are significant. This paper suggests a method which would permit digital interfaces to be assessed for inclusivity by similarity to known interaction patterns. For a digital device interface task that contained a non-transparent or novel interaction pattern, then the resulting cognitive workload could also be assessed.
Keywords: Inclusive design; Exclusion audit; Errors; Older user; Usability; Prior experience
Socio-Technical Barriers Induced by the Design of Emerging Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 34-45
  Samuel B. Buchdid; Roberto Pereira; Heiko H. Hornung; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
Emerging technologies may impose barriers on groups of people or even the whole society. These barriers are of a socio-technical nature and impact the acceptance, adoption and use of technology. In this paper we investigate Interactive Digital TV (iDTV) as an example of such emerging technology. We identify and discuss socio-technical barriers that arise in the domain of iDTV. As our method, we present, analyze and discuss a study of iDTV application design situated in the real context of a Brazilian broadcasting company. News and documents from the Brazilian Digital TV Forum portal were used to understand external forces that act on Digital TV and the society. Our findings indicate that iDTV acceptance is negatively influenced by project decisions that do not consider socio-technical constraints, and also the beneficial of the "Socially Aware Computing" perspective to propose design solutions that make sense for stakeholders, including end users.
Keywords: Interactive Digital TV; Human-Computer Interaction; Socially Aware Computing; Organizational Semiotics; Participatory Design
Consideration of Measuring Human Physical and Psychological Load Based on Brain Activity BIBAKFull-Text 46-53
  Hiroaki Inoue; Shunji Shimizu; Ishihara Hirotaka; Yuuki Nakata; Hiroyuki Nara; Takeshi Tsuruga; Fumikazu Miwakeichi; Nobuhide Hirai; Senichiro Kikuchi; Satoshi Kato; Eiju Watanabe
In Japan and developed countries, it has become aged society, and wide variety welfare device or system have been developed. But these evaluation methods of welfare device or system are limited only stability, intensity and partial operability. Because of, it is not clear to determine the standard to evaluation for welfare device or system of usefulness. Therefore, we will attempt to establish the standard for evaluation about usefulness for objectively and quantitatively for including non-verbal cognition. We examine the relationship between human movements and brain activity, and consider the evaluation method of welfare devices and systems to measure the load and fatigue which were felt by human. In this paper, we measure the load for sitting and standing movement using NISR. We tried to make sure for the possibility of the quantitatively estimation for physical or psychological load or fatigue by measuring of brain activity using NIRS (Near Infra Red Spectroscopy). As results, when subjects perform the movement task, the statistical significant difference was shown in the specific part of the brain region.
Keywords: NIRS; EMG; Welfare technology; Useful welfare device evaluation
Defining Acceptable Interaction for Universal Access BIBAKFull-Text 54-63
  Simeon Keates
Many new assistive input systems developed to meet the needs of users with functional impairments fail to make it out of the research laboratory and into regular use by the intended end users. This paper examines some of the reasons for this and focuses particularly on whether the developers of such systems are using the correct metrics for evaluating the functional attributes of the input technologies they are designing. In particular, the paper focuses on the issue of benchmarking new assistive input systems against a baseline measure of useful interaction rate that takes allowance of factors such as input success/recognition rate, error rate, correction effort and input time. By addressing each of these measures, a more complete understanding of whether an input system is practically and functionally acceptable can be obtained.
Keywords: Interaction rate; Universal access; HCI; Input technologies; Error rate; Assistive technologies; Acceptability
The Bridge Connecting Theory to Practice -- A Case Study of Universal Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 64-73
  Yilin Elaine Liu; Seunghyun (Tina) Lee; Ljilja Ruzic Kascak; Jon A. Sanford
In a typical design process, the decision making process by which desirable and predictive outcomes are achieved is clearly defined by problem definition, goals and objectives setting, design criteria development, design solution generation and evaluation of the solutions. In contrast, the current literature on Universal Design typically jumps from Universal Design as an ideal and set of principles to Universal Design as an artifact. Without interpreting Universal Design principles into specific design criteria, it is not possible to understand design intent, reliably evaluate design outcomes, replicate design processes or outcomes, or generalize findings to other products and environments. In this paper, an universal design process has been proposed and illustrated in a case study of a universally designed voting system in which Universal Design has been applied throughout the design process in a consistent and explicit way to produce a desirable Universal Design outcome.
Keywords: Universal design; Design process; User interface
Camera Mouse + ClickerAID: Dwell vs. Single-Muscle Click Actuation in Mouse-Replacement Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 74-84
  John Magee; Torsten Felzer; I. Scott MacKenzie
Point-and-click interface modalities are a pervasive method of interacting with graphical user interfaces. Users of mouse-replacement interfaces use alternative input devices to replace the mouse for pointing and clicking. We present a comparison of click actuation modalities with users of the Camera Mouse, a motion-tracking mouse interface. We compare dwell-time click generation against detecting a single intentional muscle contraction with an attached sensor (ClickerAID). A preliminary evaluation was conducted as well as an in-depth case study with a participant with the neuromuscular disease Friedreich's Ataxia. The case study shows modest temporal differences among the test conditions in movement time and throughput, though the participant subjectively favored the ClickerAID interface.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Mouse-replacement interfaces; Camera mouse; ClickerAID; Dwelling; Intentional muscle contractions; Neuromuscular diseases; Friedreich's ataxia
Analyzing the Design Space of Personal Informatics: A State-of-practice Based Classification of Existing Tools BIBAKFull-Text 85-97
  Fredrik Ohlin; Carl Magnus Olsson; Paul Davidsson
We are presently seeing a rapid increase of tools for tracking and analyzing activities, from lifelogging in general to specific activities such as exercise tracking. Guided by the perspectives of collection, procedural, and analysis support, this paper presents the results from a review of 71 existing tools, striving to capture the design choices within personal informatics that such tools are using. The classification system this creates is a contribution in three ways: as a standalone state-of-practice representation, for assessing individual tools and potential future design directions for them, and as a guide for new development of personal informatics tools.
Keywords: Personal informatics; Quantified self; State-of-practice; Design choices; Classification
Eye Tracking Evaluation of User Experience on Large-Scale Displays BIBAKFull-Text 98-108
  Andrew Schall
Recent advancements in technology have made eye tracking less expensive, much easier to use, and flexible enough to track a variety of display sizes and configurations. Larger high-resolution displays have become an increasingly prominent format for many users. New user behavior patterns have been emerging between primary and secondary (also known as second screen) displays. This paper describes a new research approach in order to understand what attracts user attention and identifies what they see when interacting with these devices. A case study is presented that demonstrates the procedures and findings for a study that involves eye tracking of a large-screen television display. The study described is a user experience evaluation of dynamic on-screen content presented as a part of the display during a television program.
Keywords: Eye tracking; Large-scale displays; Television; User experience; Second screen; Study design; Case study
Design and Development of Multimodal Applications: A Vision on Key Issues and Methods BIBAKFull-Text 109-120
  Samuel Silva; Nuno Almeida; Carlos Pereira; Ana Isabel Martins; Ana Filipa Rosa; Miguel Oliveira e Silva; António Teixeira
Multimodal user interfaces provide users with different ways of interacting with applications. This has advantages both in providing interaction solutions with additional robustness in environments where a single modality might result in ambiguous input or output (e.g., speech in noisy environments), and for users with some kind of limitation (e.g., hearing difficulties resulting from ageing) by yielding alternative and more natural ways of interacting. The design and development of applications supporting multimodal interaction involves numerous challenges, particularly if the goals include the development of multimodal applications for a wide variety of scenarios, designing complex interaction and, at the same time, proposing and evolving interaction modalities. These require the choice of an architecture, development and evaluation methodologies and the adoption of principles that foster constant improvements at the interaction modalities level without disrupting existing applications. Based on previous and ongoing work, by our team, we present our approach to the design, development and evaluation of multimodal applications covering several devices and application scenarios.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction; Design and development; Evaluation
Creating Forms and Disclosures that Work: Using Eye Tracking to Improve the User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 121-131
  Jonathan Strohl; Christian Gonzalez; Jacob Sauser; Soodeh Montazeri; Brian Griepentrog
Forms and disclosures are a central component of business and customer interactions. However, they often lack good visual organization or clear and concise language, highlighting a distinct need for more extensive usability testing and research. In particular, eye tracking serves as an excellent tool for evaluating and improving paper and electronic forms. In this paper, we present numerous examples of the benefits of eye tracking for form usability as well as practical considerations for conducting eye tracking on paper forms. In addition, we provide two case studies of paper form eye tracking. One involves a paper diary designed to track users' television viewing habits and the other is a multi-page government form. Our experiences suggest that paper forms are amenable to traditional usability testing practices and also benefit from the additional insights gained through eye tracking.
Keywords: Eye tracking; Usability testing; Form design; User experience research
Using Interpretive Structural Modeling to Make Decisions for Direction of Caring Design BIBAKFull-Text 132-142
  Ming-Tang Wang
Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying relationships among specific items, which define a problem or an issue. The natural caring is born with human beings; besides caring persons the natural environment is also important. In this research, Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is used to make decision for design direction of rescuing injury in landslide disaster, recognized the main target to solve ease of use and independent problems (level 1) and the main problem are reliability issues (level 2), the safe issue (Level 3), the security issue (level 4) for the proposed stretcher. Finally, the design direction is concluded, new stretcher structure was proposed to be independent and confident for conveying, and collecting the scenario for ATV drag rescue stretcher.
Keywords: Caring design; Design direction; ISM; Make decision
How to Construct UX and Story in HCI or Service Design BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Toshiki Yamaoka; Misako Sakamoto
The three attributions of products, the four stories, the ten feelings and the six experiences are important items in HCI or service design. The three attributions of products: usefulness, usableness and desirableness, the four stories: historical story, newest story, fictitious story and actual story, the ten feelings: joy, familiarity, surprising, satisfaction, lovely, longing, expectation, comfort, interest, impression, experience: experience of obtaining something, unusual experience, experience of getting something after doing tasks, experience of getting convenience, experience of longing for something, experience of feeling through the five senses. These items are integrated into a basic or applied UX-Story system diagram. These relationship are clarified and UX designer or engineer can construct a flame of UX design or service design.
Keywords: UX; Story; UX-Story system diagram; HCI; Service design

Universal Access to the Web

Social Networks: Technological and Social Aspects of Social Network-Mediated Interaction of Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 153-161
  Laura Burzagli; Paolo Baronti; Lorenzo Di Fonzo
Services for the social interaction of elderly persons are here considered here and described. After an initial analysis, the implementation within the framework of an existing Social Network Site, such as Facebook, is proposed.
Keywords: Social network sites; Elderly people; Social interaction
Accessibility in E-Commerce Tools: An Analysis of the Optical Inclusion of the Deaf BIBAKFull-Text 162-173
  Maria Eduarda de Araújo Cardoso; Daniela de Freitas Guilhermino; Rafaella Aline Lopes da Silva Neitzel; Laura Sanchéz Garcia; Roberto Elero Junior
The deaf communities are members of a unique culture and language, the Sign Language. Worldwide, the spoken/oral language is predominant, however, Deaf may encounter several hindrances to establish social relationships using spoken/oral language. E-commerce systems are significantly important not only to the listeners, but also to the Deaf, as E-commerce systems are the main vehicle for online shopping. Currently, the majority of the population shops online; nevertheless, the conditions in which information is disclosed in such systems may not appropriately respect the particularities of the Deaf. In this context, this paper supports the hypothesis that, identifying the accessibility requirements for the Deaf, the development of inclusive E-commerce systems is feasible and, thus, ensuring that the benefits and utilities provided by E-commerce systems are also accessible by deaf people. Therefore, in order to prove our hypothesis, the implications that the Sign Language (first language of the Deaf infers to the communication, to improve the accessibility of such environments, must be identified. This paper investigates the necessities of the deaf community when accessing Web systems, and based on evaluation mechanisms, analyses the environments developed using E-commerce tools concerning accessibility aspects.
Keywords: Accessibility; Web accessibility; Deaf community; E-commerce tools
Generating User Interfaces for Users with Disabilities Using Libraries of XSLT, UIML, and Stylesheet Files BIBAKFull-Text 174-182
  Lawrence Henschen; Julia Lee; Ning Li; Xia Hou
We describe a method for reconfiguring and reformatting documents, in particular web pages, to meet the needs of users with different abilities. The method merges our previous work on semantic markup [1] and presentation of intelligent documents [2] with a new approach to interoperability of document processing [3]. Semantic markup provides information about the purpose of elements in a document, in the spirit of HTML5 [4]. The work on intelligent documents provides means for dynamically adding functionality to a presentation system. The first new concept in this paper is to use XSLT [5] to reformat and reconfigure the material in a document to better meet the needs of a user. The second new concept is to create public libraries of XSLT, UIML, and stylesheet files for classes of users with different needs. A user then configures his or her browser for that user's abilities. When the browser opens a document, it retrieves an appropriate publicly accessible library to use in transforming and presenting the document.
Keywords: Universal access; XSLT translation; UIML; Semantic mark-up; Document presentation
Medium-Fidelity Usability Evaluation for the American Community Survey Website BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Temika Holland; Erica Olmsted-Hawala
The American Community Survey (ACS) website provides supplementary information about ACS participation and about ACS data (e.g., data collection, data utilization, survey procedures, etc.). Additionally, the ACS website is a portal to the American Fact Finder (AFF) for access to ACS data. The U.S. Census Bureau is undergoing a new initiative to change the look and feel of Census sites, and various design features have been modified on a web based prototype for the redesigned American Community Survey (ACS) website, including navigational tools and layout. Feedback on whether users of the site would be able to obtain the information they need given the new design features was warranted. The site was tested in its early stages of development using a web-based prototype with limited functionality (i.e., medium-fidelity). Eye tracking was incorporated in the evaluation of the site to gain an in-depth understanding of users' visual interaction and to add support to observed findings. In addition, differences in eye-fixation duration on Areas of Interest during optimal task performance and non-optimal task performance were explored.
Keywords: Usability; Eye tracking; Task performance; Fixation duration
Effects of Facebook Like and Conflicting Aggregate Rating and Customer Comment on Purchase Intentions BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Yu-Hsiu Hung; Hsueh-Yi Lai
The conflict between an aggregate rating and a customer's comment oftentimes cause consumers' negative feelings on the quality of a product. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether such conflict influenced an individual's purchase intentions. Particularly, this study looked at how social influence mediated the effects of a conflicting aggregate rating and a customer's comment on purchase intention. To achieve the goal, an online mixed factorial experiment was conducted with one hundred and eighty-four student volunteers. The independent variables of interest were: consistency of aggregate rating and customer comment and number of Facebook likes. The dependent variable was purchase intention. In this study, participants were mainly recruited through the social groups on Facebook. Participants were instructed to provide their degrees of purchase intentions to snack food on our experimental website (containing pages reflecting differing treatment conditions under the independent variables). Results of the experiment showed that the conflict between a aggregate rating and a customer's comment, as well as the number of Facebook likes respectively had significant impacts on purchase intentions. Results of this study have implications on the design of social interfaces on social commerce websites.
Keywords: Aggregate rating; Customer comment; Purchase intention
(Digital) Social Innovation Through Public Internet Access Points BIBAKFull-Text 201-212
  Christoph Kaletka; Bastian Pelka
The post-industrial innovation system with its distinct focus on social innovation allows for theoretical and conceptual connections between innovation research and new fields of social practice. In this article we elaborate on the potential of social innovation and especially digital social innovation to tackle digitally excluded persons' needs. Public internet access points are key infrastructures driving the digital inclusion of marginalized persons. Empirical results presented in this paper shows that these players act socially innovative by creating collaborative spaces for digital inclusion, by developing hybrid staff competence profiles and by creating community-based, intergenerational learning content. The paper relates research perspectives from the social innovation and the digital inclusion discourse and argues against the background of research and development results of six EU funded projects on social innovation and/or digital inclusion in the years 2011-2015.
Keywords: Telecentre; Digital gap; Digital inclusion; Social innovation; Digital social innovation
On the Need for Assistance in HTML5 Web Authoring Systems BIBAKFull-Text 213-220
  Julia C. Lee; Lawrence J. Henschen
HTML5 incorporates semantics, including among others the purpose and intention of the web author, as an integral part of the language and specification. The goal is to allow more sophisticated browsers to render the content in ways that are appropriate for both the platform and the abilities of the user, thereby achieving universal access. However, achieving that goal depends on web authors using the elements and attributes correctly. We illustrate why this will be difficult for most web authors. We propose that web editors be enhanced to provide guidance to web authors in the correct and proper usage of the HTML5 features and give some examples of how this might work.
Keywords: HTML5; WAI-ARIA; Semantic web; Universal access
A WYSIWYG Editor to Support Accessible Web Content Production BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
  Hedi Carlos Minin; Javier Jiménez Alemán; Carolina Sacramento; Daniela Gorski Trevisan
In a world where lay users on web languages and standards are responsible to produce content to web, it's essential the presence of tools which support the creation of accessible content. This paper proposes to make Web accessibility concepts more understandable to these users with the incorporation of WCAG 2.0 accessibility guidelines in HTML WYSIWYG editors they use. For that we designed and prototyped such Editor and performed preliminaries usability tests with target users. Results shown that accessibility warnings were easy to understand and to apply but difficult to perceive them.
Keywords: Accessibility guidelines; WYSIWYG HTML editor; WCAG 2.0; ATAG 1.0
Video Accessibility on the Most Accessed Websites -- A Case Study Regarding Visual Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 231-241
  Johana M. Rosas-Villena; Bruno Ramos; Rudinei Goularte; Renata P. M. Fortes
The availability of video content has increased along with the popularity of the Web due to the large amount of interactive systems and video sharing. This scenario should be carefully considered by video authors since the content needs to be accessible to a variety of final users (including people with disabilities). Although efforts have been made to improve accessibility for embedded videos on webpages, there still the need to develop accessibility solutions for video content. In this study we aim to analyze the video accessibility on the most accessed websites, identify the accessibility controls they had or not and which navigation mode they used to help people with visual disabilities. We analyze each video player of the top 50 websites to identify which controls they use. Also, we made a case study with a blind user, who was interviewed too. As results we realize that the most accessed websites are not accessible. Additionally, the blind user reported the problems he has to understand video content, to navigate through webpages and to use video players. The most accessed websites did not have accessible controls, only two sites allow to watch videos with captions. The blind user has reported main issues and barriers that he usually faced while trying to access video contents in the websites, and these comments are specially lessons that all video developers should have in mind.
Keywords: Facilitas player; Video accessibility; Blind users
The Accessibility of Web-Based Media Services -- An Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 242-252
  Norun C. Sanderson; Weiqin Chen; Siri Kessel
Online digital media is becoming the most important arena for general information sharing and public debate. Making this arena accessible to all is essential for equal participation in today's society. However, the accessibility of web-based media services has not been given much attention despite their importance for the democracy of our society. The overall objective for this research is to gain knowledge on universal design of websites containing complex multimedia, in order to ensure equal access for diverse groups operating different devices in various situations. To achieve this objective, we have conducted heuristic evaluations of the news web pages at the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK), the authoring tools for journalists, and focus group interviews on the accessibility of NRK.no. The preliminary results show that although participants expressed general positive attitude towards the design of NRK.no, many accessibility challenges remain to be addressed.
Keywords: Universal design; Web accessibility; Media service; Heuristic evaluation; Focus group; WCAG; ATAG
Interactive Software Technology for Deaf Users: Mapping the HCI Research Landscape that Focuses on Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 253-264
  Alexandros Yeratziotis; Panayiotis Zaphiris
The purpose of this paper is to chart research developments in HCI literature that focuses on accessibility for the deaf user group. A map for this particular landscape has been constructed based on a review of the four most relevant sources in HCI that focuses on accessibility, from 2000 to 2013. The map describes topics of research that are covered under the umbrella of Interactive Software Technology (IST) for deaf users in HCI literature that focuses on accessibility. To construct the map and identify these topics a systematic approach was applied, involving a number of stages and employing several research methods (literature review, focus group and card sorting). The resulting map, which underwent three revisions, consists of 23 code categories in total: 3 main categories, 8 subcategories, 7 second-level subcategories and 5 third-level subcategories. This paper can act as a guide for other researchers interested in conducting research within this landscape.
Keywords: Map; Deaf user; HCI; Accessibility; Interactive software technology

Universal Access to Mobile Interaction

Speech Recognition Native Module Environment Inherent in Mobiles Devices BIBAFull-Text 267-278
  Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez; Erika Hernández Rubio; Amilcar Meneses Viveros; Francisco J. Hernández-Castañeda
Applications on mobile devices have been characterized for their usability. The voice is a natural means of interaction between users and mobile devices. Traditional speech recognition algorithms work in controlled media are targeted to specific population groups (e.g. age, gender or language to name of few), and also require a lot of computational resources so that the algorithms are effective. Therefore, pattern recognition is performed in mobile applications as web services. However, this type of solution generates high dependence on Internet connectivity, so it is desirable to have an embedded module for this task that does not consume many computational resources and have a good level of effectiveness. This paper presents an embedded mobile systems for voice recognition module is presented. This module works in noisy environments, it works for any age of users and has proved that it can work for several languages.
Advances on Breathing Based Text Input for Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 279-287
  Jackson Feijó Filho; Wilson Prata; Thiago Valle
This paper highlights the progress of exploring a puffing activated keyboard for mobile phones. This approach aims to stand as an assistive technology for users with motor disabilities. From the implementation of prior versions we were able to identify recurring and persistent issues, such as ambient noise handling and keyboard layout. Some of these issues were detected during the experiments and some were reported by users. The advances achieved in this work are narrated from the outcomes of the implementation and experimentation of a mobile phone application that handles e.g. background noise by performing signal processing and a new keyboard layout.
BeaconPass: A Location Based APP Game for Traveler BIBAKFull-Text 288-297
  Tsung-Yuan Ho; Chien-Hsu Chen; Sheng-Fen Chien; Yi-Hsuan Chen; Su-Yu Liu; Juan Sebastian Bayona
BeaconPass is a smartphone/tablet application inspired by shared problems among travelers. Following our previews research; lack of internet access, GPS inaccuracy, battery life and insufficient site-specific information, reflect on travelers getting lost and missing on their touring expectations. Thus it was decided that the application's goal is to narrow the gap between previously planned activities and the exploration of a city. Beacon technology was selected as the means, from which the application would develop, to ease the exploration of a city. Given the potential that beacon technology holds for showcasing a wide offer of visiting alternatives, on a site-specific basis, the application has been packaged into a game that seeks to encourage the traveler to meet unplanned locations. Graphically, the game uses a "pirate's journey" metaphor that allows the user to level up while engaging in an open exploration of the city.
Keywords: Ibeacon; Location based game; APP; Traveler; Service design; Mobile application
Difference in Readability of Mobile Devices by Age Groups BIBAKFull-Text 298-305
  Kohei Iwata; Yuki Ishii; Tatsuya Koizuka; Takehito Kojima; R. Paul Lege; Masaru Miyao
We carried out experiments to evaluate the readability of e-books under various conditions of illuminance. We used two types of e-paper, Amazon Kindle Paperwhite and Sony Reader, as well as plain paper as a reference. In this study, we focused on the effects of the contrast ratios between characters and background of e-book readers in terms of readability. This study found a dependency between the contrast ratio of the text of each device and their readability according to age groups.
Keywords: Evaluation of accessibility; Usability; Readability; User experience; Contrast ratio; E-books; E-paper; Kindle paperwhite; Sony reader
Mobile Assistive Technology Mapping and Integration BIBAKFull-Text 306-317
  Luis Felipe Jimenez; Patricia Morreale
Assistive technology (AT) is designed to identify and provide individuals with disabilities independence and equal access to interact with their environment. With this type of assistance, people can maximize their independence and their performance of tasks they were not able to accomplish before. The research project illustrated here identifies one approach for an campus accessibility map to allow a population with mobility impairments to improve their daily experience when navigating through the Kean University campus. This project integrates an accessible campus map design with an interactive Android navigation mobile application to permit the identification of convenient accessible pathways within campus. In the project design phase, after a review of available accessibility maps elsewhere, usability studies were conducted in order to ensure that the application will meet the needs of the users. In the development phase, an accessibility layer was created on top of Google maps to display the accessible information on campus buildings, including convenient paths. This two-phase approach provides all students and visitors with critical accessibility information about the Kean University campus, while assisting researchers to design better overall user experiences in human computer interaction.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Accessibility; User experience; Navigation experience
Finger-Based Pointing Performance on Mobile Touchscreen Devices: Fitts' Law Fits BIBAKFull-Text 318-329
  Sandi Ljubic; Vlado Glavinic; Mihael Kukec
In this paper we investigate the utility of Fitts' law for predicting the performance of finger-based pointing on mobile touchscreens, by taking into account both different screen sizes and appropriate interaction styles. The experimental design bases on randomly generating pointing tasks in order to provide a wider range of both suitable target sizes and required finger movements, thus targeting a better representation of common pointing behavior with respect to the usual static test design with a smaller set of predetermined tasks. Data obtained from the empirical study was evaluated against Fitts' law, specifically its revision which defines target size as the smaller dimension of a 2D shape. Results show a strong model fit with our data, making the latter a fair predictor of pointing performance on mobile touchscreen devices. Altogether ten finger-based pointing models are derived, revealing Fitts' law pragmatic utility regarding various mobile devices, interaction styles, as well as real target sizes commonly found in mobile touchscreen interfaces.
Keywords: Fitts' law; Pointing performance; Mobile devices; Touchscreens; Finger input
Behavioral Biometrics for Universal Access and Authentication BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Liam M. Mayron
Behavioral biometrics, such as gait, voice, handwriting, and keystroke dynamics can provide a method of authenticating users that is both secure and usable, particularly on mobile devices. Behavioral biometrics can often be collected in the background, without requiring a specific security task to be completed by the user. Many behavioral biometrics can be recorded with hardware that has already been deployed in many mobile devices. In this paper, we consider the use of behavioral biometrics for authentication in systems designed for universal access. Requirements for security and authentication are discussed, and several behavioral biometrics are introduced. Considerations for universal access are presented.
Keywords: Biometrics; Behavioral biometrics; Security; Usability; Authentication
Evaluation of the Android Accessibility API Recognition Rate Towards a Better User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Mauro C. Pichiliani; Celso M. Hirata
Mobile applications are based on interactive common UI elements that represents pointing targets visible on the screen. The usage of mobile applications in eyes-free scenarios or by individuals with vision impairments requires effective alternative access to visual elements, i.e. accessibility features. Previous works evaluated the accuracy of UI element's identification by accessibility APIs on desktop applications reporting that only 74% of the targets were correctly identified, but no recent research evaluated the accuracy for similar mobile APIs. We present an empirical evaluation based on the Android accessibility API that computes the UI recognition accuracy rate on ten popular mobile applications. Our findings indicate that accessibility average recognition rate is 97%.
Keywords: Accessibility; Android; Mobile; API; Evaluation; User interface; User experience
Smartphones as User Interfaces in Public Events BIBAKFull-Text 350-359
  Maximiliano Romero; Marta Zambelli; Arturo Di Lecce; Simone Pontiggia
Nowadays, smartphone has become a diffused interface with digital world in daily life. The present paper describes an interactive installation based on smartphone appliance designed to control multimedia user experience. A survey of other case studies is presented. The entire system and function are described in detail. The user test and the results are presented as support of the conclusion. Is it possible to find an interactive presentation of the project at www.phycolab.it/pickchroma
Keywords: Smartphone; User Interface; Interaction design; Physical Computing
A Model for the Use of Social Paradigms in Mobile Ubiquitous Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 360-371
  Vitor Santos
The mobile devices and their use for Internet access, for georeferentiation and services consumption had a huge increase. Nowadays, these devices ability to establish cooperation networks and to interact intelligently and cooperatively with the surrounding environment has growing importance. In this work we present a model where a minimum set of features and information could be embedded in mobile devices to dynamically enable their integration into computer systems with pre-defined formal structure. It is argued that if a device is only partially competent to perform a particular role in a given context, may yet play this role in collaboration with other devices also partly responsible for the performance of this role in this context. This model is inspired by concepts originating in organization theory and sociology as they are typical, the notions of "social role", "ownership" and "responsibility."
Keywords: Mobile computing; Context-aware computing; Organization theory; Knowledge systems

Universal Access to Information, Communication and Media

An Enriched ePub eBook for Screen Reader Users BIBAKFull-Text 375-386
  Valentina Bartalesi; Barbara Leporini
Our study aims at obtaining ePub accessibility for all, including screen reader users. Since an ePub document is made up of several (X)HTML files, we analysed and worked with those (X)HTML tags that affect the blind user's experience in the reading. As a case study we developed an "enriched" ePub book which applies technical solutions (i.e. tags and attributes) with the purpose to overcome the accessibility and usability issues observed when interacting via screen reader. In this work we present the results collected through an online survey conducted with 25 users to evaluate the "enriched" ePub compared with the original PDF format in terms of accessibility and usability. Positive responses about the proposed solutions emerged from the survey: the easy access to the table of content, to the images, to the text and also the ease of navigation. In short, 88% of the users preferred the ePub format instead of the PDF. This confirms that quite simple technical solutions can really improve the reading experience for not only visually impaired people. The results from the survey also showed accessibility issues and limitations of the screen readers and eBook reader software which still exist.
Keywords: eBook accessibility; eBook usability; ePub format; Blind users
On the Understandability of Public Domain Icons: Effects of Gender and Age BIBAKFull-Text 387-396
  Gerd Berget; Frode Eika Sandnes
Icons and symbols are often deployed in graphical user interfaces. It is commonly believed that icons add to the user friendliness of products. Developers have great trust in icon libraries and they are likely to use icons they understand themselves without verifying users' understanding. Interfaces relying on icons that are misinterpreted can lead to erroneous operation. In this study a set of icons in the public domain was interpreted by 64 participants to assess how well general icons are understood. Of the 105 icons included only 67 were correctly identified by all the raters. The results confirm that some basic icons are universally known. However, nearly half of the icons where not identified by all. Recognition correlated with gender, as males were more likely to identify icons connected to masculine concepts and females were more likely to recognize icons connected to feminine concepts. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the age of the participants and icons depicting ideas from the past versus timeless icons. The results thus support the practice of user testing of icons rather than relying on assumptions.
Keywords: Icons; Recognition; Gender; Age
Visual Communication of Lovely Characters in Digital Development Arena BIBAKFull-Text 397-405
  Cheih-Ying Chen; Xu-Qin Zhunag
The term character economy starts to emerge, when a particular image is authorized and transferred onto a variety of goods sold into retail channels and formed economic benefits, thus the creation of character economy, such as: Hello Kitty, Mickey Mouse, Angry Birds and other images. In addition, with the increase sales for tablets and smartphones, and the economic rise of APP, we can foresee that besides the basic content and function demands in digital development, the interface design of digital APP has included design elements and symbol values to attract consumers, which will create a more diverse human sensory experience and a luminous digital humanities civilization. Our plan is to look into these characters' simple designs, forthright colors, and cute images, and research the influence of these symbolic characters on consumers' willingness to spend, we explored the consumer preference related to these lovely characters in consumer goods industry and digital development arena.
Keywords: Lovely characters; Character economy; Digital APP
Universal Access to Alternate Media BIBAKFull-Text 406-414
  Lars Ballieu Christensen; Tanja Stevns
This paper discusses the need for automated alternate media solutions in a world of increasing mainstream inclusion. While society as a whole is shifting from educational, vocational and social segregation of people with disabilities towards inclusion and equal rights, the need to support the blind, partially sighted, dyslexic and other print impaired with textual material in alternate formats remains. Production of alternate media is non-trivial and subject to significant skills and technical proficiency. However, the shift towards mainstream inclusion also means distribution, dilution and erosion of competencies, practices and experience involved in producing alternate media. RoboBraille, an alternate media conversion service, has attempted to distil the competencies and experience of producing alternate media into a set of automated workflows. While emerging digital media and technical platforms should make it easier to obtain alternate versions of mainstream publications, a number of counterproductive measures work in the opposite direction.
Keywords: Alternate media; Inclusion; Braille; E-books; Audio books; Digital accessibility; Universal design; Copyright
A Grounded Theory Approach for Designing Communication and Collaboration System for Visually Impaired Chess Players BIBAKFull-Text 415-425
  Sujit Devkar; Sylvan Lobo; Pankaj Doke
Social interactions for visually impaired take place in the traditional way, such as meeting and calling, digital platforms are largely not utilized by them. Empirical research for visually impaired has focused largely on accessibility, usability and is yet to understand the problems from CSCW aspect holistically. We carried out a qualitative study of communication and collaboration activities for 43 visually impaired chess players in India. Through semi-structured interviews, the participants' experiences in using existing collaboration and communication channels were noted. A Grounded Theory based analysis was performed using Atlas.ti and themes were identified. Research indicates that -- social collaboration and 'staying in touch', searching and sharing new information, exploiting existing ways of mobile interactions, and having several interests help visually impaired in their daily lives for social collaboration and communication. This study provides insights concerning designing CSCW mediums for them.
Keywords: Grounded theory; Visually impaired; Human-computer interaction; Communication and collaboration mechanism; Computer Supported Collaborative Work
Context-Aware Communicator for All BIBAKFull-Text 426-437
  Paola García; Eduardo Lleida; Diego Castán; José Manuel Marcos; David Romero
We describe the design of a communicator for people with speech impairments of several ages, but that can also be used by everybody. The design is based on the accurate definition of user models and profiles from which we extracted technical goals and requirements. The current design shows the factors to consider to provide a successful communication between users. The system is prepared to be used with children and elderly people with some kind of speech impairment. Moreover, the communicator is able to spontaneously adapt to each user profile and be aware of the situation, summarized in: location, time of the day and interlocutor. Therefore, the vocabulary to be used relates to a particular situation with the possibility to be broadened by the user if needed. This "vocabulary" is not restricted only to the word or syntactic domain but to pictograms and concepts. Several machine learning tools are employed for this purpose, such as word prediction, context-aware communication and non-syntactic modeling. We present a prototype scenario that includes examples of the usage of our target users.
Keywords: Communicator; Augmentative and alternative communication; Pictograms; Word prediction; Context-aware communication; Non-syntactic modeling; Speech impairment
Mediating Asymmetries in Family Communication: Supporting the eInclusion of Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 438-448
  Francisco J. Gutierrez; Sergio F. Ochoa; Julita Vassileva
Background: The rise of mobile Web-based technologies has diversified the mechanisms used by people to socialize, which results in issues in family communication. Among these concerns, the reluctance of older adults to use digital media may cause them social isolation, leading to negative effects in their physical and mental health.
   Objective: This paper aims to formalize a model to mediate asymmetries in cross-generational communication and support the eInclusion of older adults.
   Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews to the members of 20 cross-generational families. Following the grounded theory approach, we identified emerging themes regarding asymmetries in family communication practices when older adults are involved. We then derived and formalized computer-based mediation strategies using a model-driven engineering approach.
   Results: We identified three main sources of asymmetries: (1) implicit family agreements in terms of social interaction, (2) capability and preferences for using particular media, and (3) unbalanced socio-affective coupling between the involved parties. The proposed model addresses these asymmetries and provides strategies to coordinate the communication effort of family members with their elders.
   Conclusions: By using the proposed model, designers of software that supports family communities can conceive effective mechanisms to coordinate and mediate social communication among cross-generational family members through digital means. This allows the elderly to show a better reaction to digital media, thus facilitating their acceptance and appropriation of information technologies.
Keywords: Family communication; Older adults; Asymmetry; Model; Mediation; Social and digital inclusion
Comparison of Age Groups on the Readability of an E-Reader with a Built-in Light BIBAKFull-Text 449-454
  Yuki Ishii; Tatsuya Koizuka; Kohei Iwata; Takehito Kojima; Paul Lege; Masaru Miyao
We carried out experiments to evaluate the readability of e-paper devices using different systems. In the experiments, we conducted subjective evaluations under staged illuminance conditions. This study found that different age groups showed differences in reading e-paper devices with a built-in light under different conditions of illuminance.
Keywords: Evaluation of accessibility; Usability; User experience; E-books; E-paper; Kindle DX; Ipad; Readability; Illuminance
Visualizing Database-Performance Through Shape, Reflecting the Development Opportunities of Radar Charts BIBAKFull-Text 455-463
  Verena Lechner; Karl-Heinz Weidmann
At a time where databases contain millions of data records and their organization gets complex, the visualization especially of metadata gets a necessity to get an overview of the database performance. In this paper we'll provide an insight into a research project commissioned by Crate Technology GmbH, who developed an elastic SQL Data Store that is massively scalable [1]. The aim of our efforts in the UCT Research Institute is to find different ways to visualize the data state in such a cluster. In particular we investigated the development opportunities of radar charts in database metadata visualization and the visual appearance of the developing shapes. During the paper, the primary challenges of the project will be displayed and comparable products will be investigated. In the last part, we'll give a short insight to our work in progress, deal with the issue of form perception and also present further required efforts.
Keywords: Database visualization; Big data; Form perception; Shape perception; Radar chart; Spider chart; Gestalt perception; HCI; Visualization
Rapid Model-Driven Annotation and Evaluation for Object Detection in Videos BIBAKFull-Text 464-474
  Marc Ritter; Michael Storz; Manuel Heinzig; Maximilian Eibl
Nowadays, the annotation of ground truth and the automated localisation and validation of objects in audiovisual media plays an essential role to keep pace with the large data growth. A common approach to train such classifiers is to integrate methods from machine learning that often demand multiple thousands or millions of samples. Therefore, we propose two components. The first constraints the annotation space by predefined models and allows the creation of ground truth data while providing opportunities to annotate and interpolate objects in keyframes or in-between by granting a user-friendly frame-wise access. The graphical user-interface of the second component focuses on the rapid validation of automatically pre-classified object instances in order to alter the assignment of the class label or to remove false-positives to clean-up the result list which has been successfully applied on the task of Instance Search within the TRECVid evaluation campaign.
Keywords: Model-based annotation; Object detection; Instance search; Rapid evaluation; Image and video processing; Big data
SweetBuildingGreeter: A Demonstration of Persuasive Technology for Public Space BIBAKFull-Text 475-486
  Ted Selker; Shih-Yuan Yu; Che-Wei Liang; Jane Hsu
This paper shows how a persuasive interactive system can impact community behavior. SweetBuildingGreeter includes an interactive display and a gumball dispenser with environmental sensors. It provides media and tangible rewards. It has been located in buildings' public entry areas to encourage people to be conscious of and to empower saving energy. What makes the system ignored or engaging? The first experiment attracted participants to fill out a questionnaire to dispense candy and display problems which could be fixed in the building. Newcomers to the building filled out the questionnaire, but few returned to do it again. The second experiment provided images of energy savings and was effective at making people aware of energy issues, but it did not change their likelihood of using the system. Soliciting people with sound was more effective. This was especially true in a case where people had earlier negative experiences.
Keywords: Persuasive computing; Green technology; ACM H.5.2 information interfaces and presentation; UI styles; Input devices and strategies
Speech Enabled Ontology Graph Navigation and Editing BIBAKFull-Text 487-494
  Dimitris Spiliotopoulos; Athanasios Dalianis; Dimitris Koryzis
Graphs are commonly used to represent multiple relations between many items. Ontology graphs implement the connections and constraints between levels of interdependence between nodes; the nodes themselves being the members of the data types. As part of a design-for-all approach, this paper reports on the use of speech for ontology graph navigation and editing. The graphs can be fully created by using voice commands only, essentially creating large and complex ontologies by speech. The formative usability evaluation and user involvement experimentation results revealed that the introduction of speech, greatly enhanced specific parts of the navigation and improved the speed of editing, especially for the trivial, yet time consuming tasks of editing large and complex graphs.
Keywords: Speech; Ontologies; Graph editing; User interface design
Promoting Better Deaf/Hearing Communication Through an Improved Interaction Design for Fingerspelling Practice BIBAKFull-Text 495-505
  Rosalee Wolfe; John McDonald; Jorge Toro; Souad Baowidan; Robyn Moncrief; Jerry Schnepp
Fingerspelling is a manual system used by many signers for producing letters of a written alphabet to spell words from a spoken language. It can function as a link between signed and spoken languages. Fingerspelling is a vital skill for ASL/English interpreters, parents and teachers of deaf children as well as providers of deaf social services. Unfortunately fingerspelling reception can be a particularly difficult skill for hearing adults to acquire. One of the contributing factors to this situation is a lack of adequate technology to facilitate self-study. This paper describes new efforts to create a practice tool that more realistically simulates the use of fingerspelling in the real world.
Keywords: Deaf; Deaf accessibility; American sign language; Fingerspelling; Voice input