HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | UAHCI Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2014: 8th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Design for All and Accessibility Practice

Fullname:UAHCI 2014: 8th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Design for All and Accessibility Practice
Note:Volume 7 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8516
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07509-9 hcibib: UAHCI14-4; ISBN: 978-3-319-07508-2 (print), 978-3-319-07509-9 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2014-06-22 Volume 4
    1. Web Accessibility
    2. Design for all in the Built Environment
    3. Global Access Infrastructures
    4. User Experience in Universal Access

UAHCI 2014-06-22 Volume 4

Web Accessibility

A Framework to Facilitate the Implementation of Technical Aspects of Web Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Roberto Cícero de Oliveira; André Pimenta Freire; Débora Maria Barroso Paiva; Maria Istela Cagnin; Hana Rubinsztejn
The expansion of the internet has become apparent in recent years, both by the number of users, and by the number of services available on the network. Considering such an expansion it is essential that the content be accessible to all people, regardless their abilities or different disabilities. Thus, it is necessary that IT professionals dedicate time and effort in planning accessible online solutions. In this paper, we proposed the Homero framework in order to support the development of accessible interface layer of web applications. Developed using the PHP language, the Homero framework automates the generation of web pages in accordance with guidelines defined in Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. In order to provide evidence of the quality of web applications generated using the framework, an empirical study was conducted. The results showed the effectiveness of Homero to assist the development of accessible web applications, achieving level AAA in automatically detectable WCAG 2.0 success criteria.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Framework; Empirical Study; Web Interfaces; WCAG
Preserving Privacy -- More Than Reading a Message BIBAKFull-Text 14-25
  Susanne Furman; Mary Theofanos
Social media has become a mainstream activity where people share all kinds of personal and intimate details about their lives. These social networking sites (SNS) allow users to conveniently authenticate to the third-party website by using their SNS credentials, thus eliminating the need of creating and remembering another username and password but at the same time agreeing to share their personal information with the SNS site. Often this is accomplished by presenting the user with a dialog box informing them that they will be sharing information. We were interested in determining if SNS users authenticating to a third-party website with their SNS credentials, were reading the informational message and if changing the message format would impact the choice to continue or cancel. Format type did not alter the participant's choice to continue. Eye-tracking data suggests that the participants who chose to continue read some of the words in the message.
Keywords: Access to the Web; privacy; eye tracking; authentication
An Ergonomic Evaluation of the Adaptation of Polish Online Stores to the Needs of the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 26-36
  Krzysztof Hankiewicz; Marcin Butlewski; Wieslaw Grzybowski
Recently websites have been a key intermediary in the exchange of information. The share of trade conducted based on online services transactions is also dynamically growing. Among people using online services and communicating this way, are now also the elderly. These are often people whose first contact with these technologies occurred during adulthood. Many of elderly people did not use a computer in their work, and their first contact with the Internet has been during their retirement. In conclusion, the currently operating focus in Poland on young online shoppers is faulty. With the increasing proportion of elderly people in Polish society and the dissemination of computer technology among them, the need for senior-friendly online stores will grow. The choice of this form of purchase will be decided by convenience, price, range of goods and delivery terms. However, the ultimate determinants of whether elderly users will enjoy the benefits of online shopping are the ergonomic features of services, particularly criteria such as: security, ease of use, rule transparency and ascetic aesthetics.
Keywords: elderly design; ergonomic evolution; usability; online shops for seniors
A Showcase for Accessible Online Banking BIBAKFull-Text 37-45
  Sebastian Kelle; Christophe Strobbe; Gottfried Zimmermann
Online banking systems pose especially high requirements to web architectures with particular respect to the end-user interface. Although the number of online banking users is steadily increasing, they commonly face "one-size-fits-all" user interfaces rather than personalized user interfaces that are tailored to their individual needs and preferences. In this paper we present a prototypical online banking demonstrator that is based on the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII), a new technical framework for the development, identification and delivery of accessibility services, assistive technologies and automatic personalization capabilities; and on the Universal Remote Console (URC) technology, a framework for pluggable user interfaces.
Keywords: Accessibility; Web accessibility; online banking; GPII; URC; URC Light
Using Eye Tracking to Understand the Impact of Cognitive Abilities on Search Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 46-57
  Efi A. Nisiforou; Eleni Michailidou; Andrew Laghos
Nowadays, there is an increase of studies that examine individuals' cognitive characteristics in correlation to visual perception. The present study investigated the association between cognitive abilities and Web page complexity. Specifically, differences within simple, medium and complex Web pages were observed among the field dependent, independent and mixed cognitive groups via a task completion time with the use of the eye tracking technology. The results showed that task completion time is significantly different in medium and complex pages between the FD and FI users, while, in the simple pages, no statistical differences appeared. Furthermore, it was supported that users' FD-I cognitive construct style can be identified using innovative techniques like eye tracking studies by analyzing users' scan path and heat maps.
Keywords: Field Dependent-Independent; cognitive abilities; visual complexity; ViCRAM algorithm; eye tracking
Making Web Pages and Applications Accessible Automatically Using Browser Extensions and Apps BIBAKFull-Text 58-69
  Ignacio Peinado; Manuel Ortega-Moral
Web accessibility depends on three factors: the semantics of the web contents, the assistive technologies (ATs) and the capabilities of the web browsers (Fernandes, Lopes, & Carriço, 2011). Moreover, the widespread implementation of Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) poses new challenges for ensuring the equality of access to dynamic web content. This paper presents the development of a solution that will automatically activate the accessibility features and the available ATs in two web browsers that take more than 50% of web browsers market share, and depending on the expressed needs and preferences of the user. The two extensions presented will take advantage of the infrastructures developed in CLOUD4all and APSIS4all in order to inject CSS and JavaScript in any web pages, as well as activating non-out-of-the-box ATs, and hence guaranteeing access to both static HTML pages and Rich Internet Applications.
Keywords: e-Accessibility; Web accessibility; ATs; adaptation of accessibility features; CLOUD4all; APSIS4all
The German Web 2.0 Accessibility Survey BIBAKFull-Text 70-76
  Michael Pieper
The German BIENE award (Barrierefreies Internet Eröffnet Neue Einsichten / Accessible Internet Provides New Insights) happened to be a best practice competition for accessible websites organized by the social association "Aktion Mensch" and the endowment "Digitale Chancen". For the last 2010 competition 224 web pages have been checked for their barrier free accessibility. Web applications that facilitate interactive sharing of user generated content have been of particular importance. In this respect it soon turned out, that Web 2.0 services cannot only be made accessible by applying common design guidelines and ad-hoc adaptations. In addition to conventional software ergonomic verification procedures, accessibility validation has to rely on sociological reasoning about unique Web 2.0 entities and corresponding usage obstacles. Empirically these considerations have been conceptualized by an online survey amongst 671 respondents with all kinds of different disabilities, carried out by "Aktion Mensch".
Keywords: Accessibility; Usability; Human-Computer Interaction; Web 2.0
Automated Accessibility Evaluation Software for Authenticated Environments BIBAKFull-Text 77-88
  Elisa Maria Pivetta; Daniela Satomi Saito; Carla da Silva Flor; Vania Ribas Ulbricht; Tarcísio Vanzin
Web accessibility has been the subject of much discussion regarding the need to make Web content accessible to all people, regardless of their abilities or disabilities. While some testing techniques require human intervention, accessibility can also be evaluated by automated tools. Automated evaluation tools are software programs that examine the code of Web pages to determine if they conform to a set of accessibility guidelines that are often based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Version 2.0 (WCAG 2.0), developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). In this context, the purpose of this study is to analyze an automated software program for evaluating authenticated environments and verify the usability of this tool, since automated systems require precision and reliability in terms of both results and use in any type of environment. With this in mind, this paper aimed at evaluating the ASES software by means of a heuristic evaluation carried out by three experts. The analysis revealed major accessibility problems, as well as improper functioning of available tools and inconsistency of results. Furthermore, ASES was found to have problems of efficiency, interaction, validity, and reliability in the results presented. Considering that this is an open-source accessibility testing tool that can be found on a government web site, the correction or improvement of the system's deficiencies identified in this study is highly recommended, as there is a lack of software available to evaluate authenticated environments.
Keywords: Automated evaluation tool; heuristic evaluation; usability
High-Literate and Low-Literate User Interaction: A Comparative Study Using Eyetracking in an Emergent Economy BIBAKFull-Text 89-100
  Letícia Régis Di Maio; Ney Wagner Freitas Cavalcante; Simone Bacellar Leal Ferreira; José Luiz dos Anjos Rosa; Aline Silva Alves
The information technology including, increasingly, the services offered to citizens, this necessitates the development of web pages accessible to everyone, regardless of education level. Whereas a significant portion of the Brazilian population is within the low literacy profile, the objective of this research was to analyze the different forms of navigation among users of high and low literacy. Data were collected through user testing through eye tracking. The experiences of interaction were performed from two tasks initiated in the Google search engine and completed in two popular sites. At the end, some suggestions were proposed interface improvements.
Keywords: Accessibility; Low-Literate Users; Eyetracking; Interface
Accessibility Driven Design for Policy Argumentation Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 101-108
  Dimitris Spiliotopoulos; Athanasios Dalianis; Georgios Kouroupetroglou
This paper discusses the design of a web interface for policy argumentation modeling. Given the complexity of the interface the WAI-ARIA descriptions were used to ensure that the data were accessible and the visual-heavy presentation was simplified. Conclusions were drawn as to the usefulness of the WAI-ARIA guidelines to an elaborate design of user interaction with highly dynamic content.
Keywords: web interface; policy modeling; WAI-ARIA; accessibility
Practical Eye Tracking of the Ecommerce Website User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 109-118
  Wilkey Wong; Mike Bartels; Nina Chrobot
Eye tracking is a productive tool in researching the user experience of ecommerce websites. Because information throughout the online path to purchase is communicated visually, gaze behavior is among the most effective and informative means of testing the extent to which a given ecommerce site facilitates a smooth transaction. The process of analysis typically involves examining the characteristics and patterns of visual attention during the online shopping process. Eye-tracking metrics are used in conjunction with data-based visualizations and traditional usability techniques to answer a variety of questions about the online shopping process. Principles of appropriate design, execution and analysis of an ecommerce eye-tracking study are discussed, along with relevant case examples.
Keywords: eye tracking; ecommerce; usability; user experience; visual behavior analysis; heat map
An Accessible CAPTCHA System for People with Visual Disability -- Generation of Human/Computer Distinguish Test with Documents on the Net BIBAKFull-Text 119-130
  Michitomo Yamaguchi; Toru Nakata; Takeshi Okamoto; Hiroaki Kikuchi
We propose a new scheme of CAPTCHA that does not become a perceptual barrier for disable people. Our CAPTCHA system generates the tests in verbal style, so its use is not limited in specific perceptual channels. The tests are composed of several phrases and there are two kinds of tests: Human users try to (1) distinguish a phrase of strange meaning from others, and (2) identify the common topic among them. In our test we utilize open documents for material. Note that there is quite a large amount of documents on the net, so we can generate brand-new tests every time. One may say that adversaries can look for the phrases over the Internet and get several hints. Our system hides the sources by substituting the consonants of the phrases against such an attack. The mechanism is designed to imitate the phenomenon called "consonant gradation" of natural languages.
Keywords: universal design; aid for the visually-impaired; verbal interaction; information security

Design for all in the Built Environment

City -- Mass Communication Space -- Access to Information in Relation to the Composition of the City BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Agata Bonenberg
Streets and squares in the cities were created so that they could constitute public space -- space of a social integration. Important social binding agent is a common, direct access to information, ability of passing it on and undertaking actions appropriate to its response. In an era of information revolution, new information and communication technologies enriched social contacts. Access to information no longer requires direct interpersonal contact due to which the contact became less related to city space. The subject of the article is the evolution of city space with relation to the access to information. The contemporary closing of which is the phase of multimedia mass communication and city spaces designed for information society.
Keywords: City; mass-communication space; access to information; urban composition
Brand Visual Identity in Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 143-152
  Wojciech Bonenberg
The article presents brand visual identity research results in architectural designing. Architectural brand concept has been presented, the key visual features of architectural forms building the brand have been discussed. The method of creating the architectural brand visual model and the measurements of the brand power in exemplary locations have been presented. The research is aimed at answering the following questions:
  • - What actions should be taken for an architectural form to shape a strong
       brand i.e. so that the brand is noticed and appreciated as a significant
       element of the city attractiveness?
  • - What should be done to improve the quality of architecture as a brand i.e.
       the ability to create competitive advantage of the location?
    Keywords: architecture; brand; visual identity
  • Technical Progress and Ergonomics in Contemporary Domestic Kitchen BIBAKFull-Text 153-162
      Jerzy Charytonowicz; Dzoana Latala-Matysiak
    Technical progress, thanks to which the contemporary kitchen achieved the current shape, initiated changes going towards adapting the kitchen equipment to widely understood needs of the user. The whole of current studies concerning the ergonomics of the kitchen area in apartment is insufficient, it doesn't fulfill contemporary designing requirements. Verifying and updating previous research, supplementing them and presenting in the form of designing criteria is essential. Taking into consideration all needs of contemporary family, diverse by age, fitness and agility, it is necessary to provide optimal and widely understood quality of kitchen area.
    Keywords: domestic kitchen; technical progress; ergonomics
    A Virtual Dressing Room for People with Asperger's Syndrome BIBAKFull-Text 163-170
      Line Gad Christiansen; Anthony Lewis Brooks; Eva Petersson Brooks; Torben Rosenørn
    Using the Virtual Dressing Room (VDR) system, which is created as a research project between different companies and universities in Denmark and funded by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, a usability study has been conducted with people with Asperger's Syndrome (AS), the initial aim was to determine if the people with AS would use the VDR system and understood it, as a second aim, the findings was used to determine a set of design goals. Seven teenagers with AS participated in the study, in the age range from 15 to 17 years old. A questionnaire was used before the study, to determine the target groups interests and how/if they purchase clothes. Through observations and video recording of the usability study, a qualitative interaction analysis provided a set of design goals to be used when designing for this target group. The goals emphasized the importance of an easy accessible and consistent solution with a limited amount of options and the importance of the user's own preferences.
    Keywords: Asperger's Syndrome; Autism; Design Goals; Usability Study; Virtual Dressing Room; Virtual Environment; Questionnaire
    MoviBed -- Sleep Analysis Using Capacitive Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 171-181
      Maxim Djakow; Andreas Braun; Alexander Marinc
    Sleep disorders are a wide-spread phenomenon that can gravely affect personal health and well-being. An individual sleep analysis is a first step in identifying unusual sleeping patterns and providing suitable means for further therapy and preventing escalation of symptoms. Typically such an analysis is an intrusive method and requires the user to stay in a sleep laboratory. In this work we present a method for detecting sleep patterns based on invisibly installed capacitive proximity sensors integrated into the bed frame. These sensors work with weak electric fields and do not disturb sleep. Using the movements of the sleeping person we are able to provide a continuous analysis of different sleep phases. The method was tested in a prototypical setup over multiple nights.
    Keywords: Capacitive proximity sensor; sleep analysis; smart furniture
    Contribution of Augmented Reality Solutions to Assist Visually Impaired People in Their Mobility BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
      Benoît Froissard; Hubert Konik; Alain Trémeau; Éric Dinet
    The study is dedicated to analyze opportunities of augmented reality eyewear solutions for visually impaired people in a context of mobility. In order to perfectly understand the needs of low vision individuals, their expectation towards visual aids, and to clearly define crucial requirements, an experimental study has been carried out in a re-adaptation clinic. 58 patients with different visual pathologies have been carefully selected by vision-care professionals. During experiments and interviews, professional techniques developed for teaching patients to efficiently use their visual residual capabilities have been analyzed. One of the main objectives was to show the usefulness and the importance to put in the loop all actors to be able to derive relevant knowledge essential to success in the design and in the development of new visual aids dedicated to facilitate mobility of low vision people. The first results are encouraging and they tend to demonstrate the interest to use embedded augmented reality systems in order to propose helpful solutions easily adaptable to the specificities of the different visual troubles affecting mobility.
    Keywords: Visual impairment; augmented reality; virtual reality; eyewear; residual capability; handicap compensation; optometry; mobility aids
    The Evolution of Public Hygiene and Sanitary Facilities in the Context of Urbanization Processes and Social Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 192-203
      Anna Jaglarz
    The evolution of public places and facilities for personal hygiene is directly related to the history of urbanization and to people awareness of public health and its relationship to sanitation. Throughout history, this awareness has varied extremely both between cultures and periods and produced widely disparate responses in spite of virtually identical needs. Availability of technology, variable over the centuries, was dependent on the social and cultural requirements of the times. On the one hand, the new technologies developed in order to meet the growing needs, on the other technological achievements were ignored and not used by years. An example can be a legacy and the inheritance from civilizations such as the Cretans and Romans who accomplished amazingly great feat as regard engineering and the production of hygienic and sanitary facilities, with supplying the warm and cold running water, flushing systems, steam rooms and a lack of such appliances centuries later, when because of the civilization development the basic technology would seem to be far more advanced. It is possible to say that the form of hygienic and sanitary environment of man has always been reflecting the social and economic aspects, which are a consequence of widely understood, changeable, both individual and social needs, and of the cultural and technical progress of civilizations resulting from them. Experiences and achievements of previous generations are a base of the contemporary model of the societies life. Understanding and analysis of the contemporary needs related to public hygiene and sanitary area and possibilities of its shaping should be based on an analysis of earlier experiences in this field.
    Keywords: public health; public hygiene; public bathing; hygienic practices; public hygienic-sanitary facilities; public bath; public toilet; public restroom; public bathrooms design; development of public hygienic-sanitary spaces; history of urbanization
    Tradition and Innovation in Architectural Education BIBAKFull-Text 204-214
      Nina Juzwa; Katarzyna Ujma-Wasowicz
    The presentation is devoted to the problem of introducing computers into the educational process during the last semester of architectural studies for a master's degree. Non-linear structures become almost the principle of design through modifying the traditional, orthogonal image of architecture. Students are open to the creation of concepts which modify the traditional orthogonal spatial system of architecture.
       The two-level system of teaching at the course of graduate studies results in students with varying degree of preparation being admitted. This fact in conjunction with large exercise groups and a relatively short time allocated for the project require methodical preparation of the classes. The shaping of the future form of an object can be presented using a freehand sketch, mock-ups or computer models. These tools correspond to the subsequent three phases of the development of the project: exploration of ideas and the context of the environment, working out variants for decisions on functional solutions, spatial and aesthetic concretization of design solutions. In the opinion of the authors of the paper extending the discussion in the first two phases of the teaching process, that take place without the use of computer drawing, leads to a higher originality of the solutions and to an increased efficiency in their preparation.
       The above thoughts, supported by examples, are the subject of this presentation.
    Keywords: architectural design; teaching in architecture; sketch; mock-up; computer model; idea; concept; dialog in architecture
    Specch.io: A Personal QS Mirror for Life Patterns Discovery and "Self" Reshaping BIBAKFull-Text 215-226
      Alessandro Marcengo; Luca Buriano; Marina Geymonat
    This paper describes the process that led to the design of the Specch.io framework. Specch.io is a platform for seamless data collection, mash-up, visualization and exploration of personal data. The project is part of an internal research track focused on the usage of technology to promote and foster individual well-being from a biopsychosocial (BPS) perspective. The objective of Specch.io, is to reveal and raise awareness on individual life patterns, generating integration and meaning about aspects of the "self" that can hardly be captured from a subjective point of view.
    Keywords: Quantified Self; Personal Informatics; Self-Ethnography; Self-Experimentation; Life-logging; Ubiquitous Computing; Human-Computer Interaction; Info visualization
    Analysis of Natural Lighting with Regard to Design of Sustainable Office Buildings in Poland BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
      Dariusz Masly; Michal Sitek
    The study was a part of a larger research project which was devoted to simulation-based design analysis for daylit office spaces in Southern Poland. The paper consists of two main parts. The influence of various facade systems, light-shelves and fixed shading systems on daylight factor in the analysed office space is presented in the first part. These introductory analyses allowed to identify the optimal facade for an office building. The second part of the project included the comprehensive analysis of selected best performing architectural solutions. These analysis examined how lighting conditions were changing during typical time of an office work throughout the year. Illuminance levels and visual comfort were analysed. New issues like the performance of external retractable venetian blinds were added. This paper also investigates how state of the art simulation technology can be used to integrate natural lighting design strategies into the early stages of architectural design process.
    Keywords: natural lighting design strategies; daylight analysis; sustainable office buildings; indoor environment quality
    Induction Machine Faults Leading to Occupational Accidents BIBAKFull-Text 237-245
      Beata Mrugalska
    In order to obtain high performance and safety degree in machine operation it is necessary to identify potential machine faults. Such faults may have an effect on the machine itself but may also lead to accidents at work. Thus, the activities aiming at the identification of the relation between the failure causes and their effects seem to be necessary to be undertaken. With this purpose, the first part of the paper concerns the analysis of machine faults. In order to achieve it, induction machines are chosen and are widely discussed. In the next part of it the issues of occupational risk are presented, in particularly statistical data about accidents at work in Polish enterprises. It allows to determine the problem of faults and their influence on workers' safety in industrial environment.
    Keywords: induction machine; occupational accident; machine fault
    The Controversy between the Human Factors and Ergonomics Demands and the Current Designing Rules of Contemporary Stadiums BIBAKFull-Text 246-256
      Zdzislaw Pelczarski
    The research concerns determining factors of the development of architectural form of modern stadiums and leads to conclusion that the size and shape of the field of game, which is the field of observation, is derivative of the game rules, with no any regard to the factors defining visual comfort of spectators. These game rules, having been invented over one hundred years ago, had not account for the entertaining character of the action on the pitch, nor for the need of co-existence between the field and huge spectator stands.
       The interiors of future stadiums should be shaped considering correct relationship between the needs of spectators and arena. The appropriate standards of the visibility, adjusted to anatomical features of human eye perception, should have the supreme priority in these relationships, consequently causing, as an outcome of these corrected standards, changes in the shape and size of the arena.
    Keywords: human factors; ergonomics; contemporary stadium; designing
    Living without Boundaries: A Brazilian Observatory BIBAKFull-Text 257-266
      Alexandra Pereira-Klen; Edmilson Rampazzo Klen; Tatiana Capitanio; Filippe Barros
    This paper introduces the project: "Human Diversity: a lens on the Program Living without Boundaries". The project "Human Diversity", financed by the Brazilian Social Development Ministry, puts the "Design for All lens" on the Program in order to conduct studies and research with the aim to support the assessment as well as to help conducting and indicating adjustments to improve the Program's implementation. In this work the focus is put on the tools, techniques and approaches that are being used to build up the "Brazilian Accessibility Observatory".
    Keywords: Universal Design; Brazilian National Plan; Accessibility Observatory
    Impact of New Design Techniques on Environmental Orientation of Architectural Form-Finding BIBAKFull-Text 267-278
      Romuald Tarczewski
    The paper presents problems related with influence of new techniques of building modeling on creation of architectural form. Short historical context is presented, which allows reader to became familiar with some oldest issues related to the exchange of information in the investment process. It is followed by study of architect-structural engineer relations and changes caused by new paradigms of aesthetics, referred to as "free-form design".
    Keywords: free-form modeling; organic forms; spatial structures; shell and spongy structures; 3D modeling
    Kitsch in Architecture -- Contemporary Polish Hotels BIBAKFull-Text 279-290
      Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska; Joanna Jablonska
    Kitsch has become embedded in the landscape of Polish cities and villages and is especially well represented in the architecture of hotels. It portrays society's relentless yearning for the wealth and tradition of extensive old-style mansions combined with economical building materials, restrictions of computer aided design and the desire to pander to mass tastes. In effect, there are produced over-scaled, not ergonomic, cheap accommodation facilities, filled with plastic and gypsum ornaments, which are unfamiliar to local culture. Drawing on a number of case studies this paper investigates the causes of kitsch manifestation and its effect on the surroundings and proposes methods of protecting the urban and rural landscape from devastation.
    Keywords: Design for Quality of Life Technologies; kitsch in architecture; context design; computer aided design
    Day-Lighting and Sun Protection in Hospital Facilities -- Assessment of the Used Solutions BIBAKFull-Text 291-302
      Joanna Tymkiewicz; Magdalena Jamrozik-Szatanek
    The paper is a recapitulation of research into hospital buildings, focused on defining the advantages and disadvantages of the applied sun-protection systems and indication of the types of benchmark solutions. Proper selection of sun-protection systems in health care units is very important, because it contributes to creating the conditions of day lighting and their impact on patients' physiology. Moreover, sun protection systems influence the architecture of buildings -- their external image and aesthetics of the interiors, ergonomics of rooms, providing comfort for the main groups of users: patients and medical staff, and contributing to energy-efficiency of buildings. The scope of the presentation is to draw particular attention to the complexity of this issue from users' perspective.
    Keywords: day-lighting; hospital; sun protection; sun blinds
    Notheime -- Ergonomically Designed Crisis Houses of the Building Cooperative "Schlesische Heimstätte" BIBAKFull-Text 303-313
      Jadwiga Urbanik
    In Germany after World War I in years 1918-1923 inflation was a decisive negative economic factor. Since 1923 the inflation process started to increase suddenly. Since July 1923 German currency lost its function of means of payment. Cash was changed into valuables as quickly as possible. Economic development was totally crippled.
       In Wroclaw need for flats was enormous. It was much bigger than in other German cities. In June 1919 building cooperative "Schlesische Heimstätte", provinzielle Wohnungsfürsorgegesellschaft m.b.H (Silesian Homestead, provincial company supporting housing construction, Ltd.), was founded in Wroclaw as part of Prussian housing act. It acted under the aegis of Ministry of Social Care.
       In the first years after WWI, at the time of great postwar crisis, Ernst May -- a young architect beginning his career, was appointed as a manager of "Schlesische Heimstätte". The company was to supply people of modest means with healthy and properly furnished flats at low prices.
       In the first half of the twenties so called crises houses (Notheime) were proposed. The propositions of the smallest houses were introduced in 1919-1920. They were dwelling summer houses with a room, small barn and toilet. They were to be enlarged or replaced with new buildings after the economic situation would have improved.
       Because of the lack of building materials after WWI, building cooperatives used substitute materials. Traditional natural materials were recommended in all designs -- walls built from bricks and plastered, wooden truss and roof covered with tile. In order to find cheap solutions old local building materials were used. Walls could be built from dried clay blocks, limestone, calcareous slag or wood. Shingled or even thatched roof houses were suggested.
       A lot of attention was paid for economically and ergonomically designed layout of crises houses. They were to solve the enormous dwelling problems in Wroclaw and Silesia.
    Keywords: interwar period; "Schlesische Heimstätte"; dwelling houses; crisis houses; Notheime
    Ergonomic Solutions of Facilities and Laboratory Work-Stands at Universities BIBAKFull-Text 314-321
      Dorota Winnicka-Jaslowska
    The scope of the paper is the design of laboratories in consideration of modern technologies and modern manners of work: ways of shaping and arranging laboratory facilities, depending on the equipment and process technology. Following the introduction, the functional and spatial programming process of laboratory stands at the Faculty of Bio-Medical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, devised by the author of this paper will be discussed.
    Keywords: laboratory work-stand; universities; ergonomic solutions

    Global Access Infrastructures

    PGA: Preferences for Global Access BIBAKFull-Text 325-336
      Richard Schwerdtfeger; Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Jutta Treviranus; Colin Clark; Jess Mitchell; Lisa Petrides; Lisa McLaughlin; Cynthia Jimes; Jim Tobias; Sheri Trewin; Michelle Brennan
    This paper highlights the research for year one of the Preferences for Global Access (PGA) project whose long term goal is to define a cross-platform preference acquisition system to acquire a user's needs and preferences for accessing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as part of a cloud-based Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII).
    Keywords: accessibility; cloud GPII; inclusive
    Federated Databases and Supported Decision Making BIBAKFull-Text 337-347
      Denis Anson; Yao Ding
    Currently, information required to make informed choices of appropriate assistive technology products is scattered among broad, general-purpose databases and narrow, focused databases. The vocabulary used to describe features has not been standardized, and can be very hard to interpret by end-users of assistive technology. The described project will create a federated Unified Listing of assistive technologies for information and communication technologies, and develop a Shopping Aid, using information provided by the individual to filter products and services from the Unified Listing to those that are relevant to the individual. By examining needs information across users, the Shopping Aid will be able to suggest additional needs that are common among people like the user, and to make recommendations for upgrading choices when the probably benefit exceeds the individual's cost of change.
    Keywords: GPII; Supported Decision Making; Federated Database; Shopping Aid
    Common Terms Registry BIBAKFull-Text 348-357
      Tony Atkins; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
    This paper will focus on the rationale behind and the work to date on the Common Terms Registry, a database that improves the ability to articulate Assistive Technology needs and solutions by providing a common vocabulary of clearly defined terms.
    Keywords: assistive technologies
    Evaluating the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure: Cloud4all Evaluation Framework BIBAKFull-Text 358-367
      Eleni Chalkia; Juan Bautista Montalva Colomer; Silvia de los Rios Perez; Ivan Carmona Rojo
    Moving rapidly into digital economy expands the need for accessibility coming from the growing number of people with disabilities, in various contexts. Additionally, ubiquitous computing has amplified the need for interactive systems to be able to adapt to their context of use, enhancing their utility while preserving usability. Cloud4all project [0] aims to develop a complete new paradigm in accessibility, by replacing adaptation of individual products and services, with auto-configuration of any mainstream product or service, using cloud technologies to activate and augment any natural accessibility the product or service has, based upon a set of the user's Needs & Preferences (N&Ps). In order to assess this goal, Cloud4all has developed an evaluation framework, as part of the User Centred Design (UCD) iterative process. This paper provides an overview of the 1st pilots' evaluation framework, together with ideas and plans about the general framework of the pilot test.
    Keywords: Accessibility; evaluation framework; auto-configuration; scenario; usability; user experience; Cloud4all
    Enabling Architecture: How the GPII Supports Inclusive Software Development BIBAKFull-Text 368-377
      Colin Clark; Antranig Basman; Simon Bates; Kasper Galschiøt Markus
    The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure is an international effort to build tools, components, services and a sustainable community to support personalized digital inclusion[1]. The GPII is building the critical infrastructure needed by developers to produce the next generation of low-cost assistive technology and highly flexible applications that can adapt to the needs and preferences of individuals across web, desktop, and mobile platforms.
       To deliver on these ambitious goals, the GPII architecture team has created an evolving suite of development tools, idioms, and resources to support the creation of an inclusive infrastructure.
    Keywords: Accessibility; inclusive design; GPII; development tools; assistive technology; JavaScript; Node.js; Inversion of Control
    Federating Databases of Assistive Technology Products: Latest Advancements of the European Assistive Technology Information Network BIBAKFull-Text 378-389
      Valerio Gower; Renzo Andrich; Andrea Agnoletto
    Detailed information on the Assistive Technology (AT) Products available on the market is of paramount importance for many different stakeholders: people with disabilities and their family members, AT professionals, manufacturers/suppliers of AT products, researcher and developer, and policy makers. Since 2005 the organizations responsible for the major European AT information systems have joined together to create the European Assistive Technology Information Network (EASTIN). The core of the EASTIN network is the web portal www.eastin.eu that provides, in all the EU official languages, information on AT products and related material. In the last few years the EASTIN association promoted a series of projects aimed at improving the web portal and expanding the network to cover all the EU countries. This paper describes the main results of such projects.
    Keywords: Assistive Technology information systems; Database Federation
    The GPII on Desktops in PCs OSs: Windows and GNOME BIBAKFull-Text 390-400
      Javier Hernández Antúnez; Colin Clark; Kasper Markus
    Since The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure [1] aims to become an international standard, one of the biggest challenge of the GPII project is to support the many Operating Systems that are running in our Personal Computers. Nowadays, we make an extensive use of personal computers -- both laptops and desktops -- and their Operating Systems in a lot of circumstances, and as a result of this, we can say that a lot of people could have difficulties when they start using a new computer. Add to this the diversity of different software applications that people use and their many different restrictions of use, and the problem becomes bigger when a person needs some Assistive Technology [2] to use a computer efficiently. As part of the Cloud4all project, the implementation of the GPII on PC OSs is taking place to address these problems. By having a first version of this implementation, the GPII is ready to help the users to solve their problems when using a new PC's OS for the first time.
    Keywords: Accessibility; Internet Access; Health; Social inclusion; Cloud
    Amara: A Sustainable, Global Solution for Accessibility, Powered by Communities of Volunteers BIBAKFull-Text 401-411
      Dean Jansen; Aleli Alcala; Francisco Guzman
    In this paper, we present the main features of the Amara project, and its impact on the accessibility landscape with the use of innovative technology. We also show the effectiveness of volunteer communities in addressing large subtitling and translation tasks, that accompany the ever-growing amounts of online video content. Furthermore, we present two different applications for the platform. First, we examine the growing interest of organizations to build their own subtitling communities. Second, we present how the community-generated material can be used to advance the state-of-the-art of research in fields such as Statistical Machine Translation with focus on educational translation. We provide examples on how both tasks can be achieved successfully.
    Keywords: Amara; online platform; user engagement; subtitles; translation; crowdsourcing; volunteer communities; lecture translation; statistical machine translation
    AT and GPII: Maavis BIBAKFull-Text 412-420
      Steve Lee; Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Amrish Chourasia
    Maavis is a computer framework that provides an extremely simple way to perform common place computer activities like playing media, viewing photos, accessing web information and making video calls. It is ideal for use with a touch screen. A fundamental principal is that it does not appear to be a computer and yet affords access to computer technology that is of benefit and interest to older users, especially those with age related mental health issues. It also has applications for people with learning difficulties or physical disabilities, or even simple kiosk interfaces as it is designed to work best with a touch screen. Integration of Maavis with the GPII has undergone successful validation tests and further development work is ongoing.
    Keywords: Accessibility; touch screen; learning disabilities; aging; dementia
    Cloud4all: Scope, Evolution and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 421-430
      Manuel Ortega-Moral; Ignacio Peinado; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
    There are currently important barriers that hinder the access to ICT, especially for the elderly and people with disability. This paper presents the approach adopted by the Cloud4all Consortium to create the technical core of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII). The GPII aims at producing a real impact on achieving global access to ICT. Already in the second half of the project, the current status of developments and main outcomes are presented together with the key components of the architecture. Cloud4all is compared to other approaches to the same problem, defining the scope of the project and unveiling the upcoming new challenges as a result of the research.
    Keywords: Cloud4all; Auto-Personalisation from preferences; cloud; accessibility; personalisation; GPII; context-awareness; matchmaking
    Requirements for the Successful Market Adoption of Adaptive User Interfaces for Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 431-442
      Matthias Peissner; Andreas Schuller; Daniel Ziegler; Christian Knecht; Gottfried Zimmermann
    The concept of adaptive user interfaces is a promising solution for providing users with a wide range of individual needs with accessible technology. Developers only have to implement one generic solution to offer a multitude of individually optimised concrete user interfaces. Whereas a lot of technical functionalities and characteristics of adaptive user interfaces are already solved, there is still no widespread market adoption of adaptive UI technologies. This paper presents a collection of requirements for adaptive user interface systems that can enable widespread market adoption. Furthermore it identifies strategies and individual answers, how these requirements can be addressed and met in future systems building on the Prosperity4all approach. It gives a comparison of existing research solutions and how they compare with the stated requirements.
    Keywords: Adaptive user interface; adaptive systems; accessibility; user characteristics; market adoption; requirements
    Prosperity4All -- Setting the Stage for a Paradigm Shift in eInclusion BIBAKFull-Text 443-452
      Matthias Peissner; Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Jutta Treviranus; Gianna Tsakou
    This paper provides an overview of the recently started Prosperity4All project. Prosperity4all aims at a paradigm shift in eInclusion. It focuses on developing the infrastructure to allow a new ecosystem to grow; one that is based on self-rewarding collaboration, that can reduce redundant development, lower costs, increase market reach and penetration internationally, and create the robust cross-platform spectrum of mainstream and assistive technology based access solutions required. This will be done through a process based on true value propositions for all stakeholders and resulting in a system that can profitably serve markets as small as one, at a personally and societally affordable cost.
    Keywords: Accessibility; ecosystem
    Prosperity4All -- Designing a Multi-Stakeholder Network for Economic Inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 453-461
      Jutta Treviranus; Colin Clark; Jess Mitchell; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
    People with disabilities are disproportionately affected by systemic global economic problems such as digital exclusion, income disparity, unemployment and poverty. The Prosperity4all project, an international consortium supported in part by the European Union FP7 program, is seeking to address the economic exclusion of consumers and producers at the margins, including people with disabilities. This article discusses the economic or business design models being considered in this emerging initiative. Like the work that the platform supports, the platform itself must be designed for diversity.
    Keywords: inclusive design; value chains; user experience; accessibility
    A Novel Infrastructure Facilitating Access to, Charging, Ordering and Funding of Assistive Services BIBAKFull-Text 462-473
      Gianna Tsakou; Helen C. Leligou; Nikos Katevas
    Given that, nowadays, access to ICT is required for almost any kind of education, employment and commerce form, and is increasingly required for travel, it is mandatory to focus on integrating groups of users with any type of disability at a personally and societally affordable cost. In this paper, we outline an ICT-enabled novel infrastructure that significantly facilitates user access to a large set of specialised assistive services and enables small ICT players (e.g. web entrepreneurs) to develop novel services "on user/user group demand" supported by crowd funding. Our vision is to create an infrastructure that can move ideas more quickly from conception to market and consumer availability, that can be more efficient by being better targeted to user needs, that can move users closer to researchers and developers to ensure that the full range of needs are better addressed and that can reduce both the development and operation cost of assistive services. The system we propose consists of the Assistance on Demand (AoD) service infrastructure which aims to be a gateway for accessing on demand diverse types of human and machine-based assistive services. This AoD is accompanied by a flexible payment infrastructure that aims at enabling, for all relevant stakeholders (end users, service providers, etc.), the easy, flexible and reliable handling of multiple bills for different services, while at the same time supporting crowd-funding, as necessary, for user-driven assistive technology (AT) or service development. In this paper, we present the state-of-the-art technologies and approaches that will serve as the basis for the design and development of the AoD and payment infrastructures and then we discuss the requirements that these intertwined systems have to fulfill and draw high-level design directions.
    Keywords: Service platform; Assistance on Demand; micro-payments; service description and ranking; non-functional ranking; crowd-funding
    Prosperity as a Model for Next-Generation Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 474-482
      Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Jutta Treviranus; Colin Clark; Matthias Peissner; Gianna Tsakou
    We propose a multisided platform approach that is user-based but seeks to provide an infrastructure that supports all stakeholders, making it easier for vendors to design, market and support access features, products, and services and that makes it easier for consumers to find, secure, and use access features, products and services, individually or mixed, on any device they encounter. The system is designed to support use by both mainstream and assistive technology developers and to draw new people into the ecosystem in new roles including developers as resources and users and clinicians as developers. Central to this latter role is a developer space that provides rich resources in the form of tools, component, frameworks, service infrastructures, guidelines, how-to's, mentors, testers, and marketing aids to help both experienced and new developers enter the market and to broaden the range of people contributing to include both non-disability-related researchers/developers and less technical consumers and professionals.
    Keywords: Accessibility; inclusive design; personalization; GPII; infrastructure
    Rehabilitation Engineering and Research Center on Universal Interface and Information Technology Access BIBAKFull-Text 483-493
      Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Amrish Chourasia; Yao Ding; Jim Tobias; Denis Anson
    The incidence of disability is increasing. As we move to a more digital world, people with disabilities, older people, and those with literacy and digital literacy problems face the prospect of losing out due to lack of access to information and communication technology. The rehabilitation engineering research center (RERC) on universal interface and information technology access seeks to promote a new approach to accessibility. This approach involves creating a new infrastructure for the development and delivery of AT and built-in access features. This effort is known as the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII). This RERC will move the idea of GPII from laboratory prototypes to real-world implementation. A library GPII system and a cloud-based decision support tool for assistive technology selection are currently under development. The RERC will also support technology transfer and development of standards to promote accessibility.
    Keywords: Accessibility; Information and communication technology; Cloud; Library; Decision Support; Technology Transfer
    The Library GPII System BIBAKFull-Text 494-505
      Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Amrish Chourasia; Jim Tobias; Steve Githens
    This paper describes the library GPII system (LGS), the first real-world implementation of the GPII (Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure) system. The GPII aims to utilize cloud computing to create the infrastructure to provide affordable assistive services whenever and wherever a user demands them. The interactions of the different stakeholders in the library ecosystem present various challenges to implement such a system. These stakeholders include the library patrons, library staff, government, publishers, software developers and vendors. The development of the LGS will happen in three phases: needs analysis, development and empirical evaluation. Libraries of various sizes and resources will be involved in the development and evaluation of the LGS. We are currently in the first phase and the results of our stakeholder analysis work to-date are presented.
    Keywords: Personalization; GPII; library; assistive technology
    Creating a Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) BIBAKFull-Text 506-515
      Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Jutta Treviranus; Manuel Ortega-Moral; Matthias Peissner; Eva de Lera
    The current accessibility ecosystem that develops and delivers both assistive technologies and access features in mainstream technologies is not able to keep up, provide the diversity of solutions needed, nor reach more that a small portion of those who need them. To address this a large scale effort was proposed to provide an infrastructure that would allow the ecosystem to evolve into a quite different and purportedly more effective and efficient ecosystem. This paper describes the infrastructure, reports on the progress in securing funding and implementing the various components of the infrastructure. A roadmap for the implementation and a timeline are provided along with a discussion of the major challenges going forward.
    Keywords: Accessibility; Digital Literacy; Literacy; Ageing; Cloud Computing; GPII
    The GPII Unified Listing BIBAKFull-Text 516-525
      Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Valerio Gower; Amrish Chourasia
    Individuals with disabilities are often unable to find assistive technology that meets their needs. While different databases of assistive technologies currently exist, individuals with disabilities are not aware of all of them and unable to take advantage of them. The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) Unified Listing's objectives are 1) to create a single unified listing, that covers not only assistive technologies that relate to accessing ICT but also includes access features built directly in to main-stream ICT as well. 2) to create an open marketplace of accessible and personalizable solutions. The unified listing will be bidirectionally federated with databases such as EASTIN. Development of a method to harmonize and federate the data contained in the different databases is complete and work is underway to create a mechanism to extract information relevant to ICT access from the federated data.
    Keywords: Federated databases; EASTIN; accessibility; assistive technologies; access technologies

    User Experience in Universal Access

    Accessibility Evaluation of an Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) Tool BIBAKFull-Text 529-540
      Sandra Baldassarri; Javier Marco; Eva Cerezo; Lourdes Moreno
    People with communication needs use Assistive Technology (AT) to participate in society, be at the family, school among others. There is a variety of different Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) devices due to end-users have different communication needs. AraBoard is an AAC tool developed with the aim to facilitate the functional communication to people with complex communication needs. In this paper, AraBoard tool is presented. In order to ensure the quality of the tool, an accessibility evaluation has been carried out. Following a methodical approach, two main steps have been followed in the evaluation process: (1) Two lists of checkpoints have been developed based on the study and analysis of accessibility standards and related work in the domain of AAC; (2) An evaluation using these resources has been conducted by accessibility experts. The results from the study indicate a high level of accessibility in AraBoard tool, besides some suggestions about new requirements to integrate in the tool have been obtained.
    Keywords: Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC); accessibility; expert evaluation
    Four Data Visualization Heuristics to Facilitate Reflection in Personal Informatics BIBAKFull-Text 541-552
      Andrea Cuttone; Michael Kai Petersen; Jakob Eg Larsen
    In this paper we discuss how to facilitate the process of reflection in Personal Informatics and Quantified Self systems through interactive data visualizations. Four heuristics for the design and evaluation of such systems have been identified through analysis of self-tracking devices and apps. Dashboard interface paradigms in specific self-tracking devices (Fitbit and Basis) are discussed as representative examples of state of the art in feedback and reflection support. By relating to existing work in other domains, such as event related representation of time series multivariate data in financial analytics, it is discussed how the heuristics could guide designs that would further facilitate reflection in self-tracking personal informatics systems.
    Keywords: personal informatics; quantified self; self-tracking; information visualization; feedback; reflection; heuristics
    Measuring the Perception of Facial Expressions in American Sign Language Animations with Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 553-563
      Hernisa Kacorri; Allen Harper; Matt Huenerfauth
    Our lab has conducted experimental evaluations of ASL animations, which can increase accessibility of information for signers with lower literacy in written languages. Participants watch animations and answer carefully engineered questions about the information content. Because of the labor-intensive nature of our current evaluation approach, we seek techniques for measuring user's reactions to animations via eye-tracking technology. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between various metrics of eye movement behavior of native ASL signers as they watch various types of stimuli: videos of human signers, high-quality animations of ASL, and lower-quality animations of ASL. We found significant relationships between the quality of the stimulus and the proportional fixation time on the upper and lower portions of the signers face, the transitions between these portions of the face and the rest of the signer's body, and the total length of the eye fixation path. Our work provides guidance to researchers who wish to evaluate the quality of sign language animations: to enable more efficient evaluation of animation quality to support the development of technologies to synthesize high-quality ASL animations for deaf users.
    Keywords: American Sign Language; accessibility technology for people who are deaf; eye tracking; animation; evaluation; user study
    Metrics and Evaluation Models for Accessible Television BIBAKFull-Text 564-571
      Dongxiao Li; Peter Olaf Looms
    The adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD) in 2006 has provided a global framework for work on accessibility, including information and communication technologies and audiovisual content. One of the challenges facing the application of the UN CRPD is terminology. The interpretation of concepts such as 'disability' and 'accessibility' builds on national traditions and metrics. A second challenge is implementation diversity: different nations and regions have their own interpretation of how media can be made accessible. A third challenge is the increasing number of platforms on which audiovisual content needs to be distributed, requiring very clear multiplatform architectures to facilitate interworking and assure interoperability. As a consequence, the regular evaluations of progress being made by signatories to the UN CRPD protocol are difficult to compare. Using case studies from three emerging economies (Argentina, Brazil and China) as well as industrialized nations including Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the USA), this paper examines the situation facing television accessibility. Having identified and discussed existing metrics and evaluation models for access service provision, the paper identifies options that could facilitate the evaluation of UN CRPD outcomes and suggests priorities for future research in this area.
    Keywords: television; accessibility; access services; metrics
    A Comparing Study between People with Reduced Hand Function and Children BIBAKFull-Text 572-581
      Lena Lorentzen; Johan Eklund
    This study was conducted in collaboration with Tetra Pak® [1] measuring the hand strength, grip ability, hand size to judge how easy it was to open three packages with a group of 10 people with reduced hand function and 14 children, six years old. The result showed that the hand strength between the group with reduced hand function and the children was quite similar. Also the results from the grip ability test and their judgement of how it was to handle the package was similar. The size of the participants' hands was the only thing that really differed between the groups. This is an interesting input for designers developing products and packages that should be easy to use for children, but may be even more interesting for developing products where there is a need to exclude children or child protective packages.
    Keywords: user studies; universal design/design for all/inclusive design; hand function; packaging design; child safety
    T-echo: Promoting Intergenerational Communication through Gamified Social Mentoring BIBAKFull-Text 582-589
      Yuki Nagai; Atsushi Hiyama; Takahiro Miura; Michitaka Hirose
    Intergenerational social mentoring, a mentoring system on social medium between the elderly and the young, will be the one of the platforms for the elderly to make use of their potential. The elderly could have more chances to communicate their knowledge and experience accumulated through their life to the next generations, and the young could try more challenges under the wisdom of crowds. Such systems should 1) have senior-friendly interface, 2) support the rich context-aware communication, and 3) blur some intergenerational gaps. In this paper, we propose "T-echo", a new trial system for intergenerational social mentoring. T-echo is based on the two concepts: "growing gamification" and "calendar-based interface." The field study 15 elderly joined showed that the calendar-notebook interface was friendly for the elderly and have rich contexts for mentoring. Furthermore, growing gamification could be a good mediator between the elderly and the young.
    Keywords: social mentoring; growing gamification; intergenerational communication
    Answers for Self and Proxy -- Using Eye Tracking to Uncover Respondent Burden and Usability Issues in Online Questionnaires BIBAKFull-Text 590-600
      Erica Olmsted-Hawala; Temika Holland; Elizabeth Nichols
    In a study of the American Community Survey online instrument, we assessed how people answered questions about themselves and other individuals living in their household using eye-tracking data and other qualitative measures. This paper focuses on the number of fixations (whether participants looked at specific areas of the screen), fixation duration (how long participants looked at the questions and answers), and number of unique visits (whether participants rechecked the question and answer options). Results showed that for age, date of birth and employment duty questions participants had more fixations and unique visit counts, and spent more time on the screen when answering about unrelated members of their household than when answering about themselves. Differing eye movements for proxy reporting suggest that answering some survey questions for other unrelated people poses more burden on respondents than answering about oneself. However, not all questions showed this tendency, so eye tracking alone is not enough to detect burden.
    Keywords: eye tracking; usability; questionnaire design; proxy reporting; respondent burden
    Experiences from a Long Run with a Virtual Personal Trainer BIBAKFull-Text 601-612
      Paolo Pilloni; Lucio Davide Spano; Fabrizio Mulas; Gianni Fenu; Salvatore Carta
    In this paper, we report on our two-years experience with the commercial application Everywhere Run!, a mobile app that allows people to self monitor their running sessions and stay motivated in pursuing a wellbeing life-style. We consider a time interval of two-years, taking as breakpoint the first release of the application that improved the Virtual Personal Trainer presentation. The quantitative data we report comes from a remote logging of the app usage, while the qualitative data comes from the application reviews on the Google Play Store.
    Keywords: self-monitoring; wellbeing monitoring; virtual trainer; running; Design for Quality of Life Technologies
    Self-monitoring and Technology: Challenges and Open Issues in Personal Informatics BIBAKFull-Text 613-622
      Amon Rapp; Federica Cena
    Personal Informatics (PI), also known as Quantified Self (QS), is a school of thought which aims to use technology for acquiring and collecting data on different aspects of the daily lives of people. These data can be internal states (such as mood or glucose level in the blood) or indicators of performance (such as the kilometers run). Some research was conducted in order to discover the problems related to the usage of PI tools, although none investigated how common users use these tools for tracking their behavior. The goal of this paper is to provide some insights about challenges and open issues regarding the usage of PI tools from the point of view of a common user. To this aim, we provide a theoretical background of personal informatics and a brief review on the previous studies that have investigated the usage pattern of PI tools.
    Keywords: Personal Informatics; Quantified Self; Behavior Change; Selftracking; Gamification
    A User Test with Accessible Video Player Looking for User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 623-633
      Johana Maria Rosas Villena; Rudinei Goularte; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes
    There is a huge availability of videos that have been produced in a very fast and wide way, along with the popularity of Internet. The video authors should carefully consider the scenario since many users have different needs. It is important to keep in mind the user experience because involves a person's behaviors, attitudes, and emotions about using a particular system, for example, the video player. In addition, usability and accessibility of video players need to be considered. The object of this study is to examine users' needs, expectations and requirements for accessible videos. We developed an accessible video player to evaluate with users. We present the results in the form of guidelines, which highlight the characteristics of users; the characteristics that the video need to satisfy the users' needs and the context in which users commonly watch the videos.
    Keywords: user experience; video accessibility; user test
    Can Animated Agents Help Us Create Better Conversational Moods? An Experiment on the Nature of Optimal Conversations BIBAKFull-Text 634-640
      Masahide Yuasa
    We describe a method using animated agents to investigate how humans recognize conversational moods. Conversational moods are usually generated by conversation participants through verbal cues as well as nonverbal cues, such as facial expressions, eye movements, and nods. Identifying specific rules of conversational moods would enable us to construct conversational robots and agents that are not only able to converse naturally, but pleasantly and excitedly. Additionally, these robots and agents would be able to assist us with proper action to generate improved conversational moods in different situations. We propose methods for developing agents that can help improve the quality of our conversations and facilitate greater enjoyment of life.
    Keywords: animated agent; turn taking; nonverbal behavior; conversation