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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2014: 8th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Aging and Assistive Environments

Fullname:UAHCI 2014: 8th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Aging and Assistive Environments
Note:Volume 6 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8515
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07446-7 hcibib: UAHCI14-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-07445-0 (print), 978-3-319-07446-7 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2014-06-22 Volume 3
    1. Design for Aging
    2. Health and Rehabilitation Applications
    3. Accessible Smart and Assistive Environments
    4. Assistive Robots
    5. Mobility, Navigation and Safety

UAHCI 2014-06-22 Volume 3

Design for Aging

MobileQuiz: A Serious Game for Enhancing the Physical and Cognitive Abilities of Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Thomas Birn; Clemens Holzmann; Walter Stech
The ageing process involves physical and cognitive challenges. It is a known fact that (outdoor) physical activity can help to counter these issues and improve the quality of life. One way to motivate older adults doing exercises are serious games. They embody the concept of game-based learning and exercising, and they are designed to solve a problem along with providing and engaging training experience. Based on recent research, we have developed a concept of an outdoor serious game, which has been designed to keep older adults mobile and enhance their cognitive abilities at the same time. We have developed a prototype and evaluated it in a user study with elderly participants. The results show a high acceptance by the test participants, indicating that this kind of game is interesting for the target group. The usability of the prototype has also been evaluated and shows good average scores.
Keywords: Serious games; accessible games; design for aging
Does Web Design Matter? Examining Older Adults' Attention to Cognitive and Affective Illustrations on Cancer-Related Websites through Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 15-23
  Nadine Bol; Jennifer C. Romano Bergstrom; Ellen M. A. Smets; Eugène F. Loos; Jonathan Strohl; Julia C. M. van Weert
This study examines how adults pay attention to cognitive and affective illustrations on a cancer-related webpage and explores age-related differences in the attention to these cognitive and affective webpages. Results of an eye-tracking experiment (n = 20) showed that adults spent more time attending to the illustrations on the cognitive webpage than the illustrations on the affective webpage. Furthermore, older adults spent about 65% less time fixating the webpages than younger adults. Whereas older adults had less attention for illustrations on the cognitive webpage then younger adults, they spent equal time viewing the illustrations on the affective webpage as younger adults.
Keywords: eye tracking; aging; attention; fixation duration; cancer-related information; cognitive and affective illustrations; e-health
Heuristics in Ergonomic Design of Portable Control Devices for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 24-33
  Marcin Butlewski; Edwin Tytyk; Kamil Wróbel; Slawomir Miedziarek
The prolonging life expectancy and, as a result of it, the growing number of people of elderly age means that more attention should be devoted to the design of ergonomic equipment which includes the needs of this group of customers. Elderly people often suffer due to poorly designed technical facilities, which discourages them from using equipment to improve the quality of their lives. The article summarizes the identified needs of elderly people in relation to control devices along with the general guidelines for the ergonomic design and design approaches for people with disabilities including: universal design, inclusive design, design-for-all, barrier-free design, and accessible design. Among the most important limitations of elderly people are included: reduced psychomotor and sensory efficiency and range of motion, decreased strength, and a decreased ability to remember. In this way a checklist is comprised of criteria such as anthropometric compatibility, ease of use and handling, transparency and visibility, tolerance for error, sensory substitution, and palpability and feelings. The list of identified criteria is evaluated by users resulting in a quantification of individual requirements. Based on interviews with users, an identification and classification is also made of the basic groups of control devices used by the elderly. As a result of these measures checklists are obtained to evaluate each group of the control devices, which examine the typical and commonly used devices in the Polish market. Some selected devices have also been subjected to an evaluation during arranged performance situations involving elderly persons. The information obtained during this is discussed within the article.
Keywords: ergonomic design; heuristic methods; design; ergonomics; devices for the elderly
Efficiency of a Video and a Tutorial in Teaching Older Adults to Interact with Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 34-45
  Jorge Ribeiro; Ana Correia de Barros
While smartphones and tablets increasingly offer the possibility to act as healthcare devices, older adults, who may benefit from these new technologies, might be left behind due to technological illiteracy and lack of proper instructions. This study documents an experiment to evaluate and compare different instructional methods to teach older adults to perform a task on a smartphone. Although we did find that older adults were able to learn, no significant differences between instructional methods were found, and retention period is not known. The qualitative analysis suggests some influence of the users' initial perception of task difficulty over task performance.
Keywords: Older adults; learning; smartphone; instructional materials
Reassuring the Elderly Regarding the Use of Mobile Devices for Mobility BIBAKFull-Text 46-57
  António Cunha; Paula Trigueiros; Tiago Lemos
People facing threats of mobility loss have their self-confidence shaken and tend to reduce their physical activity. As is well-known, the decreased physical activity, particularly for the elderly, is one of the factors that contribute to accelerating the deterioration of their health with consequent loss of autonomy and quality of life. Today, GPS-based technologies available on mobile devices offer many solutions to help guide users around much of the world. However, there are several known factors that act as barriers to the use of these technologies, such as user unfamiliarity with these devices, the complexity of geographical information and the difficulty of typing the origin and destination locations. In this paper we propose a solution for mobile devices that seeks to promote user confidence in daily mobility, especially among the elderly. We present the main system functionalities and the interface design.
Keywords: Active aging; Mobile applications; daily mobility
Towards Mobile Accessibility for Older People: A User Centered Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 58-68
  José-Manuel Díaz-Bossini; Lourdes Moreno; Paloma Martínez
As people age, they experience a decline in a wide variety of their abilities such as vision, hearing, mobility and so on. Mobile technologies could be used to improve their quality of life in a wide set of situations such as security, autonomy or personal communication. One of the main threats in the use of mobile devices by our elders is the accessibility barriers that exist on the devices and mobile applications. Unfortunately, addressing these issues is even harder in new devices like smartphones or tablets where there is not a proper set of guidelines focusing on this domain. Based on our own set of accessibility guidelines, an accessibility evaluation of two mobile applications with elderly involvement has been carried out in this work. The outcomes support the suitability of the set of accessibility guidelines proposed as a method to evaluate; on the other hand the data collected from the study with users provide interesting findings about the perception of the older users when they interacting with mobile applications.
Keywords: Accessibility; Older people; Android; Mobile Interfaces; evaluation
Design of a Social Game for Older Users Using Touchscreen Devices and Observations from an Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Lilian Genaro Motti; Nadine Vigouroux; Philippe Gorce
Previous studies about tactile interaction by older adults show some important design considerations that should be applied in order to create more usable and accessible applications. The related results have been applied during the development of a serious game destined to support a social activity with older adults using touchscreen devices. An exploratory study investigates the use of touchscreen mobile devices by 17 older adults and 5 children. The results of an empirical observation allow a description of the participants' appreciation of touchscreen devices, a typology of common errors, the gesture strategies of tactile interaction and design proposals to support interaction.
Keywords: Serious game; interaction techniques; touchscreen; older adults; interaction error; participative user-centered method
A Survey and Design Implementation of the Elder's Outgoing Preference: The Local Bus System BIBAKFull-Text 79-87
  Jeichen Hsieh; Chang-Chan Huang
In bus system, to provide appropriate services for passenger demand cannot be ignored. When the trend, low birth rate with senior citizens, is coming in our country, re-understanding bus passenger information needs and information behavior must be concerned in an being E-government. By information seeking (behavior) and participating observation the passengers, need and behavior are surveyed. After understanding the local bus system, the research suggests an information schema to solve the problem to fit the information meaning of the information seeking.
Keywords: Preference; Bus System; Information Seeking; Information Need
Understanding Independent Living Requirements: A Study of Shanghai Seniors BIBAKFull-Text 88-97
  Shan Huang; Hua Dong
There are more and more empty-nested elderly in China, and they need to maintain independent living with support from the family and the community. This paper discusses the meaning of independence in later life and the crucial dimensions of independence. Interviews were conducted with 51 older persons living in a community in Shanghai to understand the independent living requirements from older people's perspective. Physical capabilities, typical problems in daily living, and life styles were discussed, which offers insights into how to improve independence in later life for older people living in communities.
Keywords: Independence; older people; capability; activities of daily living
Investigating the Effects of User Age on Readability BIBAKFull-Text 98-105
  Kyung Hoon Hyun; Ji-Hyun Lee; Hwon Ihm
This paper focuses on creating a guideline for style, line spacing, size, text box and age group combinations of Korean fonts for different electronic displays. Reading time and recall time were measured to analyze the readabilities among various typographical layouts. The importance of typographical elements were different among the age group: line height and font sizes are the most important element for 20s to skim through the documents; font style and line height for 30s; line height and font size for 50+. Although, 20s, 30s and 50s had similarities on recalling speed since the font size and the line heights were the two most important readability elements. Thus, it is clear that the typographical layouts need to be designed differently based on the target user of the design. The optimized font combination for readability was also generated.
Keywords: Font Readability; Conjoint Analysis; Korean Typography
Involving Senior Workers in Crowdsourced Proofreading BIBAKFull-Text 106-117
  Toshinari Itoko; Shoma Arita; Masatomo Kobayashi; Hironobu Takagi
Seniors have a wealth of knowledge and free time, so they are a promising workforce for crowdsourced tasks. Currently senior workers are hardly involved in real applications. We have started an experimental project that crowdsources proofreading micro-tasks to volunteer workers to efficiently produce accessible digital books. By design, the majority of the workers in this project are senior citizens. In this paper, we report the findings of our experiment in which we tested four working hypotheses about the behavioral characteristics of senior workers. We also discuss skill management to improve task performance and motivation encouragement for long-term involvement of senior workers.
Keywords: Senior Workforce; Elderly; Ageing; Micro-tasks; Crowdsourcing; Gamification; Accessibility
Leveraging Web Technologies to Expose Multiple Contemporary Controller Input in Smart TV Rich Internet Applications Utilized in Elderly Assisted Living Environments BIBAKFull-Text 118-128
  Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; Panagiotis E. Antoniou; Antonis Billis; Georgios Bamparopoulos; Costas Pappas; Panagiotis D. Bamidis
This work describes a lightweight framework allowing internet applications to access controllers such as the Wii remote, Wii balance board and MS Kinect irrespective of proximity or configuration. This is achieved by utilizing predetermined schemas for encapsulating the controller information and transferring this data through standard internet communication technologies (RESTFUL services and Web Sockets) in platform independent, device naïve ways. These features of the framework provide Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) with ubiquitous access to sophisticated human computer interaction schemes for diverse uses. The proliferation of Smart TVs as central information hubs in elderly assisted living environments, along with the need for simple gesture control schemes for these demographics, provides one application of this framework. Thus, we demonstrate how this service can be incorporated for developing internet applications and how it can be utilized for providing intuitive interaction methods for RIAs deployed through Smart TVs in elderly assisted living environments.
Keywords: cross-device communication; smart home; elderly; ambient assisted living; ubiquitous communication technologies; exergaming serious gaming
Senior User's Color Cognition and Color Sensitivity Features in Visual Information on Web-Interface BIBAKFull-Text 129-137
  Migyung Lee; Jinwan Park
At seeing from the viewpoint of HCI, the problems relevant to the use of smart devices like mobile phone, tablet PC are not limited to young people. Each user experiences smart devices with respectively different use abilities. When senior generations use smart devices, the color environment on a device's screen may take an important role in their usability. We conducted a survey targeting some senior generations with an application program for this experiment in various color environments on a tablet PC's screen. From the survey, we found that male and female senior generations preferred for larger text size and more distinctive brightness contrast between the text's color and the background color, and also preferred for opposite color combinations. Color arrangement commonly being preferred for by seniors was clear, dynamic high-chromatic color combinations, and unfavorable arrangements were dull, static low-chromatic color combinations. However, there were gender differences in 2nd and 3rd preferring color combinations. While female seniors preferred soft-feeling color combinations, but male seniors did hard-feeling color combinations. From this survey, we identified the existence of gender differences in the preferred color combinations as well as the senior people's general visual ability.
Keywords: Smart device; Aging Society; Senior Generation; Color Cognition; Color Combination
The Analysis and Research of the Smart Phone's User Interface Based on Chinese Elderly's Cognitive Character BIBAKFull-Text 138-146
  Delai Men; Dong Wang; Xiaoping Hu
With the rapid development of modern information era, smart phones have become an irreversible trend to replace the tradition ones. With the trend of aging population in China, we can't underestimate the rapidly growing population of the Chinese elderly people and increasingly demanding for smart phone. The UI, which is short for user interface, is referred to the collection of interactive methods between phone users and interior phones system. And the research on UI is becoming more and more important in the research of smart phone. By doing the survey which combined the elderly's cognition with the smart phones' UI design, the thesis is aimed at acquiring the methods of UI design for elderly people so that the smart phones can conform to them better. In this way, the smart phones' functions can be totally applied to them and elderly people's vision enjoyment can be improved.
Keywords: Elderly people; User interface; Smart phone; Design method; Elderly's cognition
Ergonomic Principles to Improve the Use of Cognitive Stimulation Systems for the Elderly: A Comparative Study of Two Software Tools BIBAKFull-Text 147-154
  Gabriel Michel; Eric Brangier; Mélissa Brun
The aim of our communication is to present results of an evaluation of two cognitive stimulation software tools ("ProfessionalTool" and "StudyTool") and to give recommendations to improve their usability. The evaluation was conducted using a test user on a group of 32 seniors (average age 78.19 years) and a group of 15 people (mean age 30.47 years). The "ProfessionalTool" software includes thirty exercises targeting different cognitive skills. The second software -- "StudyTool"- has been designed by our team applying user-centered design. The performances of these interfaces were measured using a questionnaire of satisfaction and a heuristic inspection observation grid, based on ergonomic criteria. The scores obtained by each group and each method of data collection were calculated and compared. An important result is that the number of problems encountered by users in the cognitive stimulation tasks is M=10.09 with ProfessionalTool; i.e. a senior user remained stuck for ten minutes on a settings screen. The results of the questionnaire also indicate problems concerning visual ergonomics guidelines, workload, control and error handling, uniformity and consistency, significance and compatibility. This experience highlights the importance of ergonomics in cognitive stimulation software. Their adaptation to a specific public need is often insufficient, especially as the users have troubles with memory and attention. Our study enables us to make a positive contribution of ergonomic human-computer interaction to cognitive stimulation. Beyond the actual effect of cognitive stimulation that is no longer in doubt, the challenge is to support the use and empower the user. This is only possible through tailored interactions.
Keywords: Ergonomics; User Experience; Gamification; Persuasive Technology; Emotional Design; Motivation
Assessing the Elderly's Emotional Responses while Interact with Movies Enriched with Additional Multimedia Content BIBAKFull-Text 155-166
  Kamila Rios da Hora Rodrigues; Cesar A. C. Teixeira; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris
The elderly population is faced with barriers when using new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). These barriers include their low ability to read, as well as fears or lack of involvement with the media content. With the interactivity provided by the interactive Digital TV (iDTV), it is possible to attract greater interest among this audience. This paper provides data from a case study conducted to analyze the emotional responses of the elderly when interacting with a movie enriched with additional multimedia content. This content was added in excerpts with narrative structures that can trigger feelings of doubt or dissatisfaction and require reasoning or prior knowledge of the subject. The results suggest that the elderly prefer to watch TV more passively and without the intervention of other media. Considering the results a set of good practices and strategies was formulated for the design and of TV programs for this audience.
Keywords: Interactive Digital TV; Narrative Structures; Additional Multimedia Content; Emotional Responses; Elderly and Interaction Design
Improving Text-Entry Experience for Older Adults on Tablets BIBAKFull-Text 167-178
  Élvio Rodrigues; Micael Carreira; Daniel Gonçalves
Touchscreen interfaces are increasingly more popular. However, they lack haptic feedback, making it harder to perform certain tasks. This is the case of text-entry, where users have to constantly select one of many small targets. This problem particularly affects older users, whose deteriorating physical and cognitive conditions, combined with the unfamiliarity with technology, can discourage them from using touch devices. In this study, we analyze the performance and behavior of 20 older adults when inputting text on a tablet. We tested a baseline QWERTY keyboard, as well as 2 variants that use text prediction in order to aid seniors typing. From our results, we derive a set of design implications that aim to improve the performance and usability of virtual touch keyboards, specifically for the older users.
Keywords: Older adults; Text-Entry; Tablet; Pre-Attentive Interfaces
AgeCI: HCI and Age Diversity BIBAKFull-Text 179-190
  Samuel Silva; Daniela Braga; António Teixeira
We present an overview of recent works in which age is an important driving factor for Human-Computer Interaction design and development. These serve as starting grounds to discuss current practices and highlight challenges that might serve as beacons for future research in the field.
Keywords: age diversity; overview
Personalized Hand Pose and Gesture Recognition System for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 191-202
  Mahsa Teimourikia; Hassan Saidinejad; Sara Comai; Fabio Salice
Elderly population is growing all over the globe. Novel human-computer interaction systems and techniques are required to fill the gap between elderly reduced physical and cognitive capabilities and the smooth usage of technological artefacts densely populating our environments. Gesture-based interfaces are potentially more natural, intuitive, and direct. In this paper, we propose a personalized hand pose and gesture recognition system (called HANDY) supporting personalized gestures and we report the results of two experiments with both younger and older participants. Our results show that by sufficiently training our system we can get similar accuracies for both younger and older users. This means that our gesture recognition system can accommodate the limitations of an ageing-hand even in presence of hand issues like arthritis or hand tremor.
Keywords: gestural interaction; gesture recognition system; elderly
Easy Handheld Training: Interactive Self-learning App for Elderly Smartphone Novices BIBAKFull-Text 203-214
  Yosuke Toyota; Daisuke Sato; Tsuneo Kato; Hironobu Takagi
Smartphones have great potential for elderly people to enrich their lives. Elderly people, however, hesitate to use smartphones compared to younger people due to several factors such as anxieties about the difficulties of unfamiliar devices and the lack of daily assistance. Moreover, a conventional research reported that elderly IT novices struggled with basic operations in the first stage. Hence, we tried to find the common issues faced by the elderly with no previous smartphone experience and then created an interactive self-learning application (app) of the basic smartphone operations. Our demonstration app was designed to give "hands-on" experience by using integrated real videos. Results of usability testing showed that the subjects easily learned by themselves how to operate the smartphones without background information. The subjective evaluation results showed that the app engaged the interest of the subjects and also gave them confidence about acquiring operational skills by themselves.
Keywords: Interactive self-learning app; real videos; elderly people; user interfaces; smartphones

Health and Rehabilitation Applications

On Clinical, Philosophical, Ethical and Behavioural Concepts for Personalised Insilico Medicine Supporting "Co-production of Health" BIBAKFull-Text 217-227
  Niels Boye
Telemedical technology is constructed with the purpose of compensating distance in delivery of healthcare provisions within institutional frameworks utilizing supply-side-driven service models and ICT to "organise the delivery of healthcare". The aim of this paper is to outline "a framework of understanding" (clinical, philosophical, and ethical concepts) that uses technology to deliver personalised insilico medicine for use in daily demand-driven "Coproduction of Health" -- and hence, take advantage of distance from healthcare resources and make health management of a chronic medical condition inclusive and pervasive in society; however, still founded in evidence-based medicine including use of computer-supported behavioural science models to "organise the consumption of health". Personalised insilico supported "Co-production of Health" encompasses the five levers of change compiled by the high level eHealth2020 task force of the EU -- #1: My data, my decisions, #2: Liberate the data, #3: Connect up everything, #4: Revolutionise health, and #5: Include everyone. The framework uses the WHO definition of health and the concept of "health capital" and introduces the "Digital Health Continuum" from 100% citizen to 100% patient and the associated ranges of "professional healthcare delivery" and "co-produced health management"- thus fusing and augmenting current supply-side driven service models with an ICT-supported and demand-side driven service model. Insilico personalised medicine implemented through the Coproduction of Health service-model is to be seen as a paradigmatic example of mobilizing -- for the individual -- all available health resources within social hubs empowered by design of innovative and collaborative frameworks to align otherwise conflicting, silo-shaped, and scattered interests.
Keywords: health; wellbeing; evidence-based medicine; telemedicine; prevention; non-communicable chronic diseases; NCDs; information and communication technology
Training and Learning in e-Health Using the Gamification Approach: The Trainer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 228-237
  Pierpaolo Di Bitonto; Nicola Corriero; Enrica Pesare; Veronica Rossano; Teresa Roselli
One of the basic conditions to learn is motivation. Thus it is essential for learning environments to motivate the students to proceed into the learning process. Several researches propose the inclusion of new technological trends, such as the Gamification, to engage the users. In this paper the solution adopted in UBICARE system, where the Gamification approach has been used for training and learning purposes, is presented. The Gamification was used in the simulation of clinical cases aimed to both empower the patients to adopt healthy life-style and train the medical and paramedical staff about diagnostic procedures, therapeutic interventions and follow-up of patients. In particular, the paper presents the trainer interaction that is useful in order to keep the system up to date over time and to allow the definition of clinical cases tailored on the basis of users' needs.
Keywords: e-health; gamification; game based learning; learning by doing
Challenges When Engaging Diabetic Patients and Their Clinicians in Using E-Health Technologies to Improve Clinical Outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 238-247
  Brian Edward Dixon; Abdulrahman Mohammed Jabour; Erin O'Kelly Phillips; David G. Marrero
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than 285 people worldwide and the fourth leading cause of death. Increasing evidence suggests that many DM patients have poor adherence with prescribed medication therapies, impacting clinical outcomes. Patients' barriers to medication adherence and the extent to which barriers contribute to poor outcomes, however, are not routinely assessed. We designed a dashboard for an electronic health record system to integrate DM disease and medication data, including patient-reported barriers to adherence. The dashboard was pilot tested at multiple ambulatory clinics to examine whether integrated electronic tools can support patient-centered decision-making processes involving complex medication regimens for DM and other chronic diseases. During pilot testing, we encountered several challenges when engaging patients and clinicians in using the dashboard as well as a portal used to gather self-reported psychosocial information directly from patients. In this paper we explore those challenges and suggest methods for better supporting the adoption and use of e-health technologies to improve care delivery processes as well as health outcomes for populations like diabetic patients.
Keywords: Medication Adherence; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Computerized Medical Records Systems; Personal Health Records; Physician-Patient Relations; Drug Monitoring; Patient-Centered Care
Mobile Healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 248-255
  Miwako Doi; Kazushige Ouchi
It is important to easily and cheaply monitor elderly person's activities of daily living in order to allay the anxiety of their relatives and caregivers. We developed a smartphone-based monitoring system. A smartphone of the elderly person continuously recognizes indoor-outdoor activities by using only built-in sensors and uploads the activity log to a web server. By accessing the server, relatives etc. at remote locations can browse the log to make sure the elderly person is safe and sound. The evaluation experiment showed that the proposed system had practical recognition accuracy and satisfied the users' needs.
Keywords: Activity recognition; Smartphone; Accelerometer; Microphone
Recovery Prediction in the Framework of Cloud-Based Rehabilitation Exergame BIBAKFull-Text 256-265
  Mohamad Hoda; Haiwei Dong; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik
In this paper, we propose a framework of a cost-effective, entertaining, and motivating home-based upper limb rehabilitation system which consists of a cloud system and a client interface. The framework provides real-time feedback to the patient subject, summarizes the feed-back after each session, and predicts the rehabilitation performance. As an implementation of the framework, a Kinect sensor is used to collect real-time data for upper limb joints of the subjects while they are participating in rehabilitation exergames. The Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm is then applied to compare the movement pattern of a patient subject with the movement pattern of a healthy subject. Next, the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) is utilized to forecast the rehabilitation progress of the patients based on their performance history. The prototype of this system is tested on six healthy individuals and one patient. The results show that the patients' movement patterns have a similar curve shape to the healthy individuals' movement patterns and, hence, the DTW algorithm can be used as an effective index to describe the rehabilitation statuses of the subjects. The forecasting method is briefly tested by feeding the rehabilitation status history.
Keywords: Home-based Rehabilitation Framework; Model Matching; ARIMA Prediction; Virtual Reality
A Study on Effect of Media Therapy for the Elderly with Dementia to Nursing Care Quality BIBAKFull-Text 266-277
  Miyuki Iwamoto; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto; Yoshihiro Niki; Doi Teruko; Yuka Kato; Jin Narumoto
Japanese society contains an extremely large elderly population, unprecedented elsewhere in the world. In fact, the elderly make up about 23.3% of the Japanese population. Consequently, the number of elderly people with dementia is also increasing at an unexpectedly rapid pace, with 10% of Japanese citizens over 65 diagnosed with dementia. While group homes are covered by the Japanese "Long-term Care Insurance System," and offer people with dementia a better quality of life, the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, (BPSD), often place a great burden on care staff. Many facilities now suffer from a shortage of care staff. Drug therapies have limited effects on BPSD, so non-pharmacological therapies, like reminiscence therapy, are sometimes used. However, the effects of these techniques are often not medically confirmed. In this study, we introduce a media therapy technique, which enhances reminiscence therapy by using media and information technologies, and report promising results for mitigating BPSD. Also, we investigate the keys to our success. So far, we have conducted our proposed media therapy on two residents in the nursing home. Both cases showed significant improvements, but due to space limitations, we only show the effects on the ability of the care staff to see to the patient's needs. The therapy session allowed care staff to distract the patient from her BPSD and calm her down by offering her topics from her past. For further investigation, we analyzed videos recorded during therapy sessions, with interesting results. Sharing a resident's good memories with care staff is key to quality care, and media and information technologies can facilitate this process. While we only examine one case here, we would like to note that the results of our other resident case indicated similar effects.
Keywords: elderly; reminiscence videos; senior care home; dementia
Neurological Disorders and Publication Abstracts Follow Elements of Social Network Patterns when Indexed Using Ontology Tree-Based Key Term Search BIBAKFull-Text 278-288
  Anand Kulanthaivel; Robert P. Light; Katy Börner; Chin Hua Kong; Josette F. Jones
Disorders of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality. In order to further investigate the nature of the CNS research, we generate from an initial reference a controlled vocabulary of CNS disorder-related terms and ontological tree structure for this vocabulary, and then apply the vocabulary in an analysis of the past ten years of abstracts (N = 10,488) from a major neuroscience journal. Using literal search methodology with our terminology tree, we find over 5,200 relationships between abstracts and clinical diagnostic topics. After generating a network graph of these document-topic relationships, we find that this network graph contains characteristics of document-author and other human social networks, including evidence of scale-free and power law-like node distributions. However, we also found qualitative evidence for Z-normal-type (albeit logarithmically skewed) distributions within disorder popularity. Lastly, we discuss potential consumer-centered as well as clinic-centered uses for our ontology and search methodology.
Keywords: Ontology; information retrieval; neuroscience; networks; indexing; knowledge gaps; semantic medicine; translational medicine; knowledge discovery; neurology; psychiatry
Identifying Mobile Application Design to Enhance the Subjective Wellbeing among Middle-Aged Adults BIBAKFull-Text 289-299
  Shu-Chun Lee; Yu-Hsiu Hung; Fong-Gong Wu
Faced with life stress and peer competition, middle-aged adults increasingly are lacking happiness and well-being. The address this problem, this research studied current mobile applications for wellbeing and perceptions of Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) among middle-aged adults. In this study, questionnaires were administered with 100 middle-aged adults (aged 35-55) to understand their status quo of SWB, including the element of positive/negative affect, life satisfaction, as well as flourishing (i.e., overall life wellbeing). In the questionnaire, events that influenced the positive/negative affect were also investigated. Results of the study showed that the ratings for all SWB elements were at the average level and that they were positively correlated. Results also indicated that current wellbeing mobile applications did not have much effect on enhancing SWB. Results revealed that family relationships and job and life achievements were the key drivers for positive and negative affect. The outcome of the study made design recommendations for mobile applications for improving the SWB of middle-aged adults.
Keywords: Subjective wellbeing; middle-aged adults; mobile application
A Virtual Trainer by Natural User Interface for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 300-309
  Alessandro Leone; Andrea Caroppo; Pietro Siciliano
The aim of this work is the design and the development of an ICT platform integrating advanced Natural User Interface technologies for multi-domain Cognitive Rehabilitation without the direct physician involvement to the rehabilitation session. The platform is made up of a set-top-box connected to a TV monitor, a Microsoft Kinect RGB-D sensor and a (optional) WWS Smartex e-shirt for clinical signs monitoring.
   Customized algorithms for calibration, people segmentation, body skeletonization and hands tracking through the RGB-D sensor have been implemented in order to infer knowledge about the reaction of the end-user to the Graphical User Interface designed for specific cognitive domains. For proper interaction, gestures of Alzheimer Disease's patients are acquired by Microsoft Kinect in the nominal functioning range, allowing 100% hands detection rate, useful for an error free human-machine interaction.
Keywords: Natural User Interface; Active Vision System; Cognitive Rehabilitation
Encouraging Brain Injury Rehabilitation through Ludic Engagement BIBAKFull-Text 310-320
  Rachel McCrindle; Stephen Simmons; Richard Case; Malcolm Sperrin; Andy Smith; Carol Lock
Whilst in hospital immediately following a stroke or other acquired brain injury, patients receive, and engage in, a structured, concentrated and supervised programme of rehabilitation. However, once they leave hospital patients frequently fail to engage in the rehabilitation exercises provided for them. This paper describes how the Microsoft Kinect sensor has been used with computer games to engage patients with their rehabilitation following stroke and other brain trauma injuries. Initially off-the-shelf games were used, the ludic nature of the games, masking the treatment element of the exercises. However, whilst this approach was a great success in terms of patient engagement it was found that off-the-shelf games were frequently too fast or too complex for some patients to play and set-up due to the extent of their brain traumas. To address these issues, a system, PURR (Prescription Software for Use in Recovery and Rehabilitation), has been developed that uses the same ludic principles to engage patients whilst allowing games to be tailored to a patients condition, requirements and interests.
Keywords: Ludic engagement; Kinect; brain trauma; stroke; recovery and rehabilitation; case study; personalization; usability
A Design-led Research Approach to Contextual Evaluation of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Telehealth Devices BIBAKFull-Text 321-332
  Anna Mieczakowski; James King; Ben Fehnert
Well-designed medical devices that embrace the socio-psychological needs of patients lead to increased customer acceptance, sustained use, improved safety and cost-effectiveness for both the professional and lay users. This paper proposes a new iterative design-led research approach for collecting and evaluating socio-psychological contextual user experience of patients and care providers in the telehealth development process. This approach, which has been applied to a multi-country development of a medical device, is based around the usage of a telehealth prototype from early stages of the design process. This allows for 'mini' elements of all design stages to be addressed in each individual stage to ensure the capture of contextual data from users about usage patterns, feelings and impact on the patient-clinician care relationship.
Keywords: Medical Devices; User Experience; Design-led Research Process; Contextual Inquiry; Socio-psychological Contextual Factors; Telehealth
Memory Box: A Personalised Multimedia Device for Individuals with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 333-341
  Kanvar Nayer; Arthur de Bono; Selby Coxon; Eva van der Ploeg; Daniel O'Connor
A significant percentage of those aged 65 and over live with a group of disorders known collectively as dementia, an irreversible and progressive decline in cognitive function beyond that expected from normal ageing. In 2013, 44 million people worldwide were affected, and this figure is projected to reach 135 million by the year 2050. However, due to busy schedules, caregivers are unable to provide everyone in their charge with as much personal attention as they would like. This reduction in stimulation and social contact can result in monotony and concomitant boredom, loneliness, agitation and even aggression. This paper provides information on the progress and process of research conducted between 2011 and early 2014, directed at developing 'Memory Box'; a personalised multimedia device, which can be used independently by individuals with dementia, to access their favourite music, videos, photographs and pre-recorded messages from family members.
Keywords: Dementia; Multimedia; Touch-screen; Interface
Haptic AR Dental Simulator Using Z-buffer for Object Deformation BIBAKFull-Text 342-348
  Katsuhiko Onishi; Kiminori Mizushino; Hiroshi Noborio; Masanao Koeda
Dental surgical simulator could be one of the efficient tools to learning and practicing dental surgical skills. To these simulators, the visual and tactile feedback is desirable to be processed in real time. And, in the dental operation, the hand position during operations is one of the skills to learn and practice. Therefore, we develop the dental surgical simulator which use virtual tooth surface model for processing real time rendering. And we develop a display system which allow users to training dental operation by a right hand position.. The tooth model is deformed by cutting and drilling operation using haptic device. And the display is set close to user's hand position and shows combined image with virtual tooth model as a surgical target and a real tooth model as other parts of the patient dental model. The system uses a collision detection and deformation method by using Z-buffer for virtual objects. This method enables users to view the complex shape of virtual tooth model by the surgical operation tasks and practicing dental surgical tasks. We developed prototype system and confirmed about the capability of our system.
Keywords: Collision detection; dental surgical simulator; augmented reality; GPU
A Dialogue System for Ensuring Safe Rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 349-358
  Alexandros Papangelis; Georgios Galatas; Konstantinos Tsiakas; Alexandros Lioulemes; Dimitrios Zikos; Fillia Makedon
Dialogue Systems (DS) are intelligent user interfaces, able to provide intuitive and natural interaction with their users, through a variety of modalities. We present, here, a DS whose purpose is to ensure that patients are consistently and correctly performing rehabilitative exercises, in a tele-rehabilitation scenario. More specifically, our DS operates in collaboration with a remote rehabilitation system, where users suffering from injuries, degenerative disorders and others, perform exercises at home under the (remote) supervision of a therapist. The DS interacts with the users and makes sure that they perform their prescribed exercises correctly and according to the specified, by the therapist, protocol. To this end, various sensors are utilized, such as Microsoft's Kinect, the Wi-Patch and others.
Engagement in Game-Based Rehabilitation for Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome BIBAKFull-Text 359-367
  Eva Petersson Brooks; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This paper reports on two linked studies exploring the general potentials, with foci on constraints and facilitators, of engagement in rehabilitation during motion-controlled video gameplay (MCVG). 17 female participants diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) took part in the studies, wherein three different MCVGs were used, which were conducted by session leaders having different profiles. This investigation demonstrates the potentials of how MCVGs can act as an effective healthcare intervention for women with FMS with regards to offering activity structured around their interest, goals and choices. These aspects were found to be empowering as well as encouraging the participants to take on an active role in the activity. The analysis identified four main themes relative to the perception of constraints and facilitators to engagement in FMS gameplay-based rehabilitation: goal setting, facilitator approach, personalized gameplay and feedback and achievement. These are further elaborated and discussed in the paper. Conclusions are that deeper understanding of engagement within the FMS community, in particular related to rehabilitation using MCVGs, can be useful to enhance rehabilitation processes and better dress rehabilitation providers to better facilitate engagement and enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions.
Keywords: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS); Rehabilitation; Habilitation; Motion-controlled video gameplay (MCVG)
Tapology: A Game-Based Platform to Facilitate E-Health and E-Inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 368-377
  Kenneth C. Scott-Brown; Julie Harris; Anita Simmers; Mhairi Thurston; Malath Abbas; Tom de Majo; Ian Reynolds; Gareth Robinson; Iain Mitchell; Dan Gilmour; Santiago Martinez; John Isaacs
We have developed a tablet computer game app for low vision users that can be used to introduce a platform for gaming, internet and visual rehabilitation to older users who have not had prior experience with information communication technology (ICT). Our target user group is people diagnosed with Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). The primary goal of the app is to present a fun and engaging means for participants to engage with Information Communication Technology (ICT). A long-term goal of the project is to build a platform to gather data on current and on-going visual function by creating a suite of games that could generate sufficient regular visual engagement to enable perceptual learning in the preserved peripheral retina that is spared in AMD. The inclusive design process took into consideration the perceptual and cognitive constraints of the user group in. The 'Tapology©' app was formally launched at a large computer games festival where we gathered data from a range of users to inform the development of the gameplay. The initial results and feedback inform the ultimate goal of creating a suite of applications that have a wide social and geographic reach to promote and inform e-inclusion and e-health.
Keywords: E-Health; E-Inclusion; Games; co-design; accessible design; Mobile HCI
User Experience Considerations for Patient-Centered Handoffs in Surgical Oncology BIBAKFull-Text 378-386
  Nancy Staggers; Marge Benham-Hutchins; Laura Heermann Langford
Handoffs, the transfer of care responsibility from one provider to another, commonly occur in intra-disciplinary silos that exclude patients. Little is known about patient preferences about handoff participation in surgical oncology and key information needs including user experience (UX) considerations. This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted at a cancer center in the western United States using a purposeful sampling technique to select 20 surgical oncology in-patients. The team used methodological pluralism for data collection: naturalistic observations, interviews, field notes, and artifact capture. Data analysis included systematic steps and content analysis consistent with accepted qualitative research methods. The analysis resulted in 356 codes synthesized into 15 categories and 3 themes: Depends Upon How Sick I Am, I Want To Know Everything, and My Life Is In Their Hands. Fifteen participants expressed varying levels of interest in participating in handoffs, and 18 of the 20 wanted to know "everything" about themselves. Initial categories of patients' information needs were developed. An opportunity exists to expand health informatics tools to inpatients and their families and design them from patients' perspectives. UX considerations are outlined to expand informatics tools for collaborative decision making to inpatient activities and include person-centered applications, electronic white boards to consider user diversity and tasks as well as context-sensitive information design.
Keywords: Handoffs; user experience; qualitative research
A Pilot Study in Using a Smart Voice Messaging System to Create a Reflection-in-Caregiving Workshop BIBAKFull-Text 387-394
  Taro Sugihara; Yuji Hirabayashi; Kentaro Torii; Tetsuro Chino; Naoshi Uchihira
This paper describes a pilot study in terms of reflection-in-caregiving with an assistive technology employing smart messaging by Bluetooth for location identification and annotation for tweets. We conducted 3 sorts of investigations (i.e. questionnaire of role stress, semi-structured interview and reflection workshop) to explore potential for inducing caregiver's behavior change by the assistive technology. Thereafter, we concluded that the assistive technology shows the potential of reflection and behavior change.
Keywords: People with dementia; caregiving; reflection workshop; case study; massaging system with voice tweeting
Toward a Companion Agent for the Elderly -- The Methods to Estimate At-Home and Outside-Home Daily Life Activities of the Elderly Who Live Alone BIBAFull-Text 395-402
  Yuma Takeda; Hung-Hsuan Huang; Kyoji Kawagoe
With advances in medical technology, people's life have been extended, and there are more and more older adults isolated. If they do not maintain social life with others, they may feel loneliness and anxiety. For their mental health, it is reported effective to keep their social relationship with others, for example, the conversation with their caregivers or other elderly people. Active listening is a communication technique that the volunteer listener listens to the speaker (the elderly) carefully and attentively by confirming or asking for more details about what they heard. This helps to make the elderly feel cared and to relieve their anxiety and loneliness. This paper presents our in-progress project aiming to develop a framework of a virtual companion agent who is always with the user and can engage active listening to maintain a long-term relationship with elderly users. In order to achieve the agent's companionship with the user for a longer period, we believe that it is essential to make the agent to understand the user as best as it can. This kind of user-fitted conversation is not addressed in previous companion agent work. The proposed approach is the acquisition of the "memory" of the user's daily life in two situations, at-home and outside-home. In the former one, multiple Microsoft Kinect depth sensors were adopted. The depth information is integrated to detect the user's position and posture and then to estimate the user's daily activity. In the outside-home configuration, the prototype application is an Android smartphone application that recognizes the user's moving status with the information from the on-board three-axis accelerometer as well as the location of the user from GPS information. These data are then used to estimate the user's outside-home activity. All estimated daily activities are recorded in an activity history database. Both the at-home and outside-home activity estimation methods have been developed and have been evaluated in a laboratory environment with student subjects at a moderate accuracy. The interface of the companion agent is being designed with the results from human-human and human-agent (driven by the data from the human listener condition) subject experiments. After the technologies are more matured, we would like to conduct real-world experiment with elderly subjects in near future.
Age and Age-Related Differences in Internet Usage of Cancer Patients BIBAKFull-Text 403-414
  Julia C. M. van Weert; Sifra Bolle; Linda D. Muusses
This study investigates age and age-related differences in Internet usage of 952 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Older patients (> 65 years) reported significantly less Internet usage to find treatment-related information than younger ones (< 65 years). Still, 40.1% of the older patients used the internet regularly or often, as compared to 52.3% of the younger patients. About one quarter (26.4%) of the older patients and 14.6% of the younger patients didn't use the Internet at all during their chemotherapy treatment. In the younger age group, men, patients with a palliative treatment goal, a more monitoring coping style, more information preferences and higher fulfilled information and communication needs reported more Internet usage than their counterparts. In the older age group, only a monitoring coping style, being male and a higher education level predicted Internet usage. The results of this study provide guidance to improve Internet usage of older patients.
Keywords: Aging; Internet; Information Seeking; Cancer; Chemotherapy
Digital Technology to Supercharge Patient-Provider Relationships BIBAKFull-Text 415-424
  Kathryn Joleen VanOsdol
Recent initiatives promoting the efficiency and effectiveness of the U.S. health care system are grounded in strengthening the relationship between the primary care provider and the patient. Examples of these include Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH), Medicare Shared Savings Accountable Care Organizations (MSSP ACOs), and Meaningful Use (MU). These incentivized programs re-energize the link between providers and consumers and recognize the use of Health Information Technology (HIT) as key to the success of the models. The objective of this paper is to explore innovative digital processes that supercharge patient-provider relationships by: Health Information Integration; interactive patient surveys, Remote Monitoring Systems (RMS), and the Patient Health Record (PHR); and Data Prioritization through the consolidation and stratification of health information.
Keywords: Accountable Care Organization; Digital; Efficiency; Engagement; Meaningful Use; Medical Home; Patient Centered; Primary Care; Technology

Accessible Smart and Assistive Environments

Probabilistic Intentionality Prediction for Target Selection Based on Partial Cursor Tracks BIBAKFull-Text 427-438
  Bashar I. Ahmad; Patrick M. Langdon; Pete Bunch; Simon J. Godsill
Pointing tasks, for example to select an object in an interface, constitute a significant part of human-computer interactions. This motivated several studies into techniques that facilitate the pointing task and improve its accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a number of intentionality prediction algorithms to determine the intended target a priori from partial cursor tracks. They yield notable reductions in the pointing time, aid effective selection assistance routines and enhance the overall pointing accuracy. A number of benchmark prediction models are also restated within a statistical framework and their probabilistic interpretation is utilised to calculate their corresponding outcomes. The relative performance of all considered predictors is assessed for point-click task data sets pertaining to both able-bodied and impaired users. Bayesian adaptive filtering is deployed to smooth highly perturbed mouse cursor tracks that are typically produced by motor impaired users undertaking a pointing task.
Keywords: cursor movement; target assistance; intentionality prediction; Bayesian inference
Addressing the Users' Diversity in Ubiquitous Environments through a Low Cost Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 439-450
  Tatiana Silva de Alencar; Luciano Rodrigues Machado; Luciano de Oliveira Neris; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris
A ubiquitous environment allows the system to infer the users' needs and preferences, making adaptations to the interface. However, the best way to make such adaptations is still under debate by researchers. This paper proposes an architecture that supports the adaptation of user interfaces in ubiquitous environments according to the users' profiles. The proposed architecture is shown simple and low cost, has low implementation complexity and high extension capability. The user profile data are stored on the user's mobile device for privacy. As the profile is defined by the user, it is expected that the interface adaptation occurs more accurately. A prototype is presented as a proof of concept.
Keywords: Ubiquitous Environment; User Profile; Ubiquitous Accessibility; Context-Aware; Adaptive Interface; Raspberry PI
A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Usability of Context-Based Wi-Fi Access Mechanisms BIBAKFull-Text 451-462
  Matthias Budde; Till Riedel; Marcel Köpke; Matthias Berning; Michael Beigl
This paper presents a comparative study of six different tag and context based authentication schemes for open Wi-Fi access. All of the implemented methods require only a smartphone and an HTML5 capable web-browser, making them interchangeable and easy to incorporate into existing infrastructure. We recruited 22 participants for the study and used two standardized questionnaires as well as additional metrics to assess whether further investment in a systematic usability analysis seems prudent. The evaluation shows that suitable alternatives for Wi-Fi authentication exist and points out their limitations and opportunities.
Keywords: Universal Access; Practical Security; Usability; User Experience; User Study; Interfaces; Device Association; Authentication; Wi-Fi; Smart Environments; Context
The FOOD Project: Interacting with Distributed Intelligence in the Kitchen Environment BIBAKFull-Text 463-474
  Laura Burzagli; Lorenzo Di Fonzo; Pier Luigi Emiliani; Laura Boffi; Jakob Bak; Caroline Arvidsson; Dominic Kristaly; Leonardo Arteconi; Guido Matrella; Ilaria De Munari; Paolo Ciampolini
Kitchen activities involve complex and articulate interactions with heterogeneous technologies and devices. In this paper, outcomes of the FOOD AAL-JP project are presented, related to the development of a kitchen environment implementing ambient-assisted-living features, aimed at increasing safety, autonomy, engagement and reward in dealing with food-related activities.
Keywords: ambient assisted living; smart kitchen; user-centered design
Services and Applications in an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Environment BIBAKFull-Text 475-482
  Laura Burzagli; Lorenzo Di Fonzo; Pier Luigi Emiliani
As part of the AAL programme, the FOOD project is developing a smart kitchen and is setting up local and remote ICT applications to support feeding in a secure and comfortable environment. The implementation of an application to help people with diabetes in choosing a correct diet is used as an example of the emerging complexity of ICT applications in an Ambient Intelligence environment. Suggestions for possible future approaches to the development of Ambient Intelligence environments and complex applications are offered.
Keywords: AAL; e-Inclusion; services
Energy@home: Energy Monitoring in Everyday Life BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Stefano Corgnati; Elena Guercio; Simona D'Oca
Goal of the research is to assess evaluations of the innovative smart monitoring system Energy@home for domestic electricity consumption. Aim of the Energy@home system is to provide householders with a persuasive tool that allows to manage energy consumption more efficiently. A combination of persuasive communication strategies such as graphical real-time and historical feedbacks to encourage competitiveness against "similar" households are provided to users through domestic user-friendly interfaces and combined with personalized energy saving prompts sent via newsletters. The Energy@home system was tested on 52 users selected all over Italy. From the qualitative standpoint, the system was evaluated easy to use and useful from 95% of trial users. The average system evaluation on a 1-to-10 scale was 7.8. From the quantitative standpoint, the Energy@home system motivated domestic consumer to save more than 9% in the electricity bill and emerged as an effective tool in reducing stand-by consumption on average above 15%.
Keywords: Energy; User Experience; Persuasive Stimuli; User Interface; Changing behavior
Integrating Computer Vision Object Recognition with Location Based Services for the Blind BIBAKFull-Text 493-500
  Hugo Fernandes; Paulo Costa; Hugo Paredes; Vítor Filipe; João Barroso
The task of moving from one place to another is a difficult challenge that involves obstacle avoidance, staying on street walks, finding doors, knowing the current location and keeping on track through the desired path. Nowadays, navigation systems are widely used to find the correct path, or the quickest, between two places. While assistive technology has contributed to the improvement of the quality of life of people with disabilities, people with visual impairment still face enormous limitations in terms of their mobility. In recent years, several approaches have been made to create systems that allow seamless tracking and navigation both in indoor and outdoor environments. However there is still an enormous lack of availability of information that can be used to assist the navigation of users with visual impairments as well as a lack of sufficient precision in terms of the estimation of the user's location. Blavigator is a navigation system designed to help users with visual impairments. In a known location, the use of object recognition algorithms can provide contextual feedback to the user and even serve as a validator to the positioning module and geographic information system of a navigation system for the visually impaired. This paper proposes a method where the use of computer vision algorithms validate the outputs of the positioning system of the Blavigator prototype.
Keywords: location-based; services; blind; navigation; computer vision; object recognition
Home Control via Mobile Devices: State of the Art and HCI Challenges under the Perspective of Diversity BIBAKFull-Text 501-512
  Sarah Gomes Sakamoto; Leonardo Cunha de Miranda; Heiko Hornung
With technological advancements in recent decades, home environments incorporate several electronic appliances in order to facilitate activities and improve users' quality of life. The increasing complexity of household appliances makes their management a nontrivial task. Mobile devices emerge as excellent platforms to enable control over such a range of appliances, providing convenience, flexibility and several interaction possibilities. However, home control via mobile devices also present some challenges, among others regarding the diversity of users. This paper presents the state of the art in home control via mobile devices. Based on an analysis of these solutions, we identify and discuss Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) challenges under the perspective of diversity. In addition, we propose a set of guidelines in order to minimize or overcome these challenges. This work may support design process of new solutions and future research focusing on domestic environment.
Keywords: diversity; domotics; smart home; home automation; mobile application
Novel Consumer-to-Product Interactions with Context-Aware Embedded Platforms BIBAKFull-Text 513-524
  Sönke Knoch; Matthieu Deru; Simon Bergweiler; Jens Haupert
In this work we suggest a new device to instrument everyday objects in the end-user life cycle phase that makes everyday life easier for the elderly. The instrumentation of products, such as food, transforms them into smarter and more intelligent products. The equipped product notifies the user when food is spoiled and -- interconnected with other smart products -- advises against side effects that occur when food is consumed while a certain medication is ingested. We describe the considerations that were made towards a first prototype from a technical perspective. An interaction model was developed, a requirements analysis performed and several design and development considerations made. An architecture shows the information flow between sensors, actuators, and the Internet of Things. In the end, the prototype of a product sleeve is presented that is easy to handle and intuitive to operate. A feedback study is planned in the near future.
Keywords: Internet of Things; smart/intelligent products; prototyping
Activity Recognition in Assistive Environments: The STHENOS Approach BIBAKFull-Text 525-536
  Ilias Maglogiannis; Kostas Delibasis; Dimitrios Kosmopoulos; Theodosios Goudas; Charalampos Doukas
The paper presents the research conducted within the framework of the STHENOS project (www.sthenos.gr), which aims at the development of methodologies and systems for assistive environments. The proposed systems and applications are capable of recognizing the human activities and assist disabled or elder persons in performing every day activities and detect abnormal situations such as a fall or long periods of inactivity. The paper includes the technical details of the proposed activity recognition methodology using fisheye video cameras and wearable sensors. Initial results have proven the feasibility of the adopted approaches and the efficiency of the implemented system.
Keywords: Assistive Environments; Pervasive Healthcare; Activity Recognition; Fisheye video; Wearable sensors
Evaluation of the Human Factor in the Scheduling of Smart Appliances in Smart Grids BIBAKFull-Text 537-548
  Jânio Monteiro; Pedro J. S. Cardoso; Rita Serra; Licínia Fernandes
Recently there has been an increase of interest in implementing a new set of home appliances, known as Smart Appliances that integrate Information Technologies, the Internet of Things and the ability of communicating with other devices. While Smart Appliances are characterized as an important milestone on the path to the Smart Grid, by being able to automatically schedule their loads according to a tariff or reflecting the power that is generated using renewable sources, there is not a clear understanding on the impact that the behavior of such devices will have in the comfort levels of users, when they shift their working periods to earlier, or later than, a preset time. Given these considerations, in this work we analyse the results of an assessment survey carried out to a group of Home Appliance users regarding their habits when dealing with these machines and the subjective impact in quality caused by either finishing its programs before or after the time limit set by the user. The results of this work are expected to be used as input for the evaluation of load scheduling algorithms running in energy management systems.
Keywords: Smart Grids; Home Grids; Human Factor; Comfort Level; Smart Appliances; Mean Opinion Score
Technical Progress in Housing Environment and Its Influence on Performing Household Chores BIBAKFull-Text 549-557
  Przemyslaw Nowakowski
Technological conveniences became permanent elements of people's lives. Various appliances help out with daily chores and shape the standards of our lives. They are accessible thanks to well-developed and efficient manufacturing. The basic role of those diverse technological products is to reduce both physical and mental effort involved in people's work and, consequently improve the comfort of life. Using those numerous appliances requires, among others, special knowledge and training, which may cause various stressful situations.
   The presentation focuses on the following problems: comparison of the technological advancements in former and contemporary households, the role of the appliances in performing household chores, changes in the routine activities (disappearance of some chores and appearance of new ones), the influence of a higher standard of living on labour and time input, elimination of various appliances as a result of changes in commodity market, reduction in the ability of using modern appliances (especially among the elderly and the disabled) and the consequences of using new technologies and information technology in households.
Keywords: household; technological progress; ergonomics; household chores
Shadow Cooking: Situated Guidance for a Fluid Cooking Experience BIBAKFull-Text 558-566
  Ayaka Sato; Keita Watanabe; Jun Rekimoto
Cooking is one of the most popular activities at home; however, preparing a new dish by reading a recipe is not a trivial task. People might lose their current position in the recipe, misunderstand the required amount of ingredients, and generally become confused by the step that should be followed next. Shadow Cooking guides users with situated, step-by-step information projected on a kitchen counter. It consists of a depth camera and a projector, which are installed above the kitchen counter. Shadow Cooking instructs the user on the steps to follow by projecting information directly onto the utensils and ingredients. The system also integrates a digital kitchen scale with the recipe such that the user is automatically prompted with the required weight based on the ingredient currently being measured. In addition, we have connected the system with remote locations in order to enable a user to communicate with other cooks easily.
Keywords: Accessibility of Smart Environments; cooking; AR; kitchen; measuring
Smart Houses in Cloud4all: From Simulation to Reality BIBAFull-Text 567-574
  Boyan Sheytanov; Christophe Strobbe; Silvia de los Rios
The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII), which is being developed by the Cloud4all project and several other R&D projects, is a framework to ensure that everyone who faces accessibility barriers due to disability, ageing, etc. can use computers, mobile devices, the Internet and all the information and services available through these media. One of the goals of the Cloud4all project is to investigate this "auto-personalisation from preference sets" (APfP) in a domestic environment. To this end, the project is developing an online simulation of a smart house containing several devices with adaptive user interfaces such as a multimedia system and a washing machine with a display. For demonstration purposes, the simulation allows visitors to select the preference sets of seven personas with a variety of disabilities, i.e. visual, auditory, cognitive and motor impairments.
   The Smart House Living Lab is a real accessible house equipped with the usual services of a conventional house where different ICT technologies (sensors and actuators) are distributed extensively in the living lab technical areas such as ceilings and walls, remaining invisible to users. It is managed by the Life Supporting Technologies Group of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid; and it is also a member of the European Network of Living Labs [4].
   This paper shows the Smart Houses online simulation developed within Cloud4all and its integration with the Smart House Living Lab at UPM.
Building a Recognition Process of Cooking Actions for Smart Kitchen System BIBAKFull-Text 575-586
  Fong-Gong Wu; Tsung-Han Tsai
Smart kitchen should be focusing its development on the actual interaction with users and the environmental objects rather than emphasizing on complicated instructions and feedback. Unfortunately, the current techniques can only be designed to identify motions and basic actions. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and research user motions and actions involved in the process of cooking, including ingredient preparation, and to discover multiple action identification characteristics for the user and cooking utensils. By using the video analysis, ultimately, the project will use these characteristics to establish a reliable cooking-action database. Our study can distinguish between similar actions. The model is primarily used to identify, understand and differentiate the extent of the intellectuality of user motions. This model may be used in the future in the application to cooking support systems or other smart kitchen developments.
Keywords: Smart Kitchen; Human Behavior Taxonomies; Motion analysis; Video analysis; Decision Tree Learning
Understanding Requirements for Textile Input Devices Individually Tailored Interfaces within Home Environments BIBAKFull-Text 587-598
  Martina Ziefle; Philipp Brauner; Felix Heidrich; Christian Möllering; Kriz Lee; Claudia Armbrüster
In the last few years, many countries showed an increased public awareness regarding the consequences of the demographic change, which presents considerable challenges on future health care systems in the next decades. As a framework of the research presented here, we introduce a currently running interdisciplinary research project in which novel textile input devices are to be developed, iteratively designed, and evaluated. In order to learn about the individual requirements for using smart textiles in a home context, we carried out a exploratory questionnaire study in which 72 participants (aged 20-76) evaluated perceived benefits and barriers of smart textiles in the home context. Results show a first insight into user experience and the general willingness to adopt smart textile input devices. Also, the perceived suitability of functions to be controlled by those novel input devices as well as the reported appropriateness of different rooms and general device styles into which smart input devices could be integrated were collected. Results show, overall, a high willingness of participants to use smart textiles as input devices.
Keywords: Smart textiles; technology acceptance; user diversity

Assistive Robots

Development of a Robot-Based Environment for Training Children with Autism BIBAKFull-Text 601-612
  Emilia I. Barakova; Min-Gyu Kim; Tino Lourens
This study is done as a part of design-research processes that aims to co-create technology supported robot centered therapy environment for autistic children. We attempt to evaluate to which extent the therapists who perform behavioral training of children with autism can be supported by robot technology in the process of therapy content creation and training. First, we feature a robot-centered environment that is technically designed to decrease the complexity of programming dynamic, synchronous and parallel interactive robot behavior to a level compatible with content creation. Afterwards, we apply the Cognitive Dimensions Framework (CDF) approach for evaluation of the usability of this environment that is employed to control a robot interacting with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A pilot test with therapists of two clinics followed by a test with adolescents with autism was performed. Participants in the pilot test performed tasks according to the different types of user activity in the CDF, and answered a questionnaire corresponding with the different dimensions. The results show negative attitude towards one particular dimension, but also high scores in other dimensions. As an additional validation of the usability of the environment, 9 adolescents with ASD could also create robot scenarios. We interpret these results as follows. In general, the therapists and autistic adolescents could program relatively simple behavioral scenarios with robots. However, we need to further explore whether assembling and executing of more complex robot scenarios such as programming of dynamic real-life behaviors and task scheduling is possible by end-users.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; cognitive dimensions framework; co-creation of contents; robot assisted autism therapy
Data Acquisition towards Defining a Multimodal Interaction Model for Human -- Assistive Robot Communication BIBAKFull-Text 613-624
  Evita-Stavroula Fotinea; Eleni Efthimiou; Athanasia-Lida Dimou; Theo Goulas; Panayotis Karioris; Angelika Peer; Petros Maragos; Costas Tzafestas; Iasonas Kokkinos; Klaus Hauer; Katja Mombaur; Ioannis Koumpouros; Bartlomiej Stanzyk
We report on the procedures followed in order to acquire a multimodal sensory corpus that will become the primary source of data retrieval, data analysis and testing of mobility assistive robot prototypes in the European project MOBOT. Analysis of the same corpus with respect to all sensorial data will lead to the definition of the multimodal interaction model; gesture and audio data analysis is foreseen to be integrated into the platform in order to facilitate the communication channel between end users and the assistive robot prototypes expected to be the project's outcomes. In order to allow estimation of the whole range of sensorial data acquired, we will refer to the data acquisition scenarios followed in order to obtain the required multisensory data and to the initial post-processing outcomes currently available.
Keywords: assistive robot; natural HRI; multimodal communication model; multisensory data acquisition
Combining Finite State Machine and Decision-Making Tools for Adaptable Robot Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 625-635
  Michalis Foukarakis; Asterios Leonidis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Modeling robot behavior is a common task in robot software development. However, its difficulty grows exponentially along with system complexity. To facilitate the development of a modular, rather than monolithic, behavior system, proper software tools need to be introduced. This paper proposes combination of a well-known finite state machine and a custom decision-making tool for implementing adaptive robot behaviors. The notion of automatic behavior adaptation reflects the capability of the robot to adapt during runtime based on the individual end-user, as well as the particular context of use, therefore delivering the most appropriate interaction experience. While each tool on its own can be used towards that aim, a unified approach that combines them simplifies the task at hand and distinguishes the roles of designers and programmers. To demonstrate the methods' applicability, a concrete example of their combined use is presented.
Keywords: State Machine; Adaptation; Behavior; Decision-Making
Cooperative Semi-autonomous Robotic Network for Search and Rescue Operations BIBAKFull-Text 636-647
  Garth Herman; Aleksander Milshteyn; Airs Lin; Manuel Garcia; Charles Liu; Darrell Guillaume; Khosrow Rad; Helen Boussalis
The results presented in this paper prove the viability of developing a robotic network for search and rescue operations. With the capability of peer-to-peer communication, such robots form an ad-hoc network called Cooperative Mobile Network (CMN). All robots in the CMN are semi-autonomous in that each operates in three modes: 1) fully controlled by a human commander; 2) controlled by a human commander for critical operations only; and 3) fully relying on its own intelligence to make decisions for cooperative operations. Due to the constraints of weight and processing power, diverse CMN operations utilize multiple robots with complementing functionalities. This work was performed at the Structures Propulsion And Control Engineering (SPACE) NASA sponsored University Research Center (URC) of excellence at the California State University, Los Angeles.
Keywords: robotic networking; search and rescue; environment-sensing; terrain-exploration; hybrid-routing algorithms; virtual-reality
Practical Use of a Remote Movable Avatar Robot with an Immersive Interface for Seniors BIBAKFull-Text 648-659
  Masahiko Izumi; Tomoya Kikuno; Yutaka Tokuda; Atsushi Hiyama; Takahiro Miura; Michitaka Hirose
Societal aging is an inevitable social problem in many developed countries. In order to manage this issue, it is necessary to drastically change the welfare security and labor system of relevant societies. We have proposed "mosaic-type work" in which a single "virtual worker" is synthesized based on individual workers and seniors through seamless information sharing. In this paper, we specifically focus on the spatial part of the mosaic, namely, the "spatial mosaic," for enabling seniors to work without the burden of movement. Towards the actualization of this concept, we aimed to develop senior-friendly mobile avatar robots that can fit into seniors' daily lives. First, we analyzed problems of seniors' telecommunication with telepresence robots, and two elemental interfaces, the "physically operable interface" and the "acoustic zooming interface." The former is a senior-friendly interface that the seniors can manipulate with their motion, and the latter enables the user to listen to sounds in a specified area that the user can adjust. In order to discuss integrated interface designs, we conducted two exploratory experiments to evaluate the performance of these systems.
Keywords: Mosaic-type work; seniors; information communication technologies (ICT); avatar; interface
Meeting Requirements of Older Users? Robot Prototype Trials in a Home-like Environment BIBAKFull-Text 660-671
  Tobias Körtner; Alexandra Schmid; Daliah Batko-Klein; Christoph Gisinger
A prototype of an assistive robot for older people was tested in three different countries in life-like lab settings. A sample of potential older users with different grades and types of age-related impairments completed a sequence of tasks with the robot. Subsequently, usability issues, user acceptance, and their willingness to pay for such a robot (affordability) were assessed to find out if the robot caters to the needs of the impairment groups. Main results of the data analyses were: ease of use was deemed satisfactory by the majority of participants. Task speed was considered to be rather slow. Additionally, it could be shown that participants were skeptical of buying a robot for their own use, but would be willing to rent one. A significant difference in classifying the robot prototype as helpful for the home was found in participants with mobility impairments compared to participants without mobility impairments.
Keywords: social robotics; human-robot interaction; assistive technology; user requirements; older users; prototype trials
Embodiment in Emotional Learning, Decision Making and Behaviour: The 'What' and the 'How' of Action BIBAKFull-Text 672-679
  Robert Lowe
Connectionist and bio-inspired approaches to the study of emotional learning and decision making often emphasize, or imply, an executive role for the brain whilst paying only lip service to the role of the non-neural body. In this short paper I will discuss approaches to modelling emotions that have attempted to take into account, in one form or another, the role of the body in emotional learning and decision making. More specifically, I will argue that the 'how' of behavioural responding and not just the 'what' must be factored into any learning algorithm that purports to be emotional. Furthermore, I will refer to research that has utilized abstract artificial environments designed to explore the relevance of how behaviours are carried out with a view to scaling performance to more complex, including human-based, environments.
Keywords: Emotions; Neural Networks; Homeostatic grounding; Abstract environments
Towards a Multi-modal User Interface for an Affordable Assistive Robot BIBAKFull-Text 680-691
  Peter Mayer; Paul Panek
This paper describes the multimodal user interface (UI) of an affordable assistive robot for older persons developed within the FP7 HOBBIT project. Similar approaches are briefly outlined and discussed to identify similarities and differences with regard to the UI domain. The paper describes how the developed UI enhances user interaction based on the use of available information and simple principles for a broad range of use. Some results from the user trials with first prototype in 3 countries and 49 users are outlined. Several UI related improvements are currently under development. The UI approach so far seems promising and the consortium is working towards improvements for the upcoming final HOBBIT prototype and the trials in users' homes.
Keywords: HRI; HCI; AAL; Assistive Robots
Advances in Intelligent Mobility Assistance Robot Integrating Multimodal Sensory Processing BIBAFull-Text 692-703
  Xanthi S. Papageorgiou; Costas S. Tzafestas; Petros Maragos; Georgios Pavlakos; Georgia Chalvatzaki; George Moustris; Iasonas Kokkinos; Angelika Peer; Bartlomiej Stanczyk; Evita-Stavroula Fotinea; Eleni Efthimiou
Mobility disabilities are prevalent in our ageing society and impede activities important for the independent living of elderly people and their quality of life. The goal of this work is to support human mobility and thus enforce fitness and vitality by developing intelligent robotic platforms designed to provide user-centred and natural support for ambulating in indoor environments. We envision the design of cognitive mobile robotic systems that can monitor and understand specific forms of human activity, in order to deduce what the human needs are, in terms of mobility. The goal is to provide user and context adaptive active support and ambulation assistance to elderly users, and generally to individuals with specific forms of moderate to mild walking impairment.
   To achieve such targets, a reliable multimodal action recognition system needs to be developed, that can monitor, analyse and predict the user actions with a high level of accuracy and detail. Different modalities need to be combined into an integrated action recognition system. This paper reports current advances regarding the development and implementation of the first walking assistance robot prototype, which consists of a sensorized and actuated rollator platform. The main thrust of our approach is based on the enhancement of computer vision techniques with modalities that are broadly used in robotics, such as range images and haptic data, as well as on the integration of machine learning and pattern recognition approaches regarding specific verbal and non-verbal (gestural) commands in the envisaged (physical and non-physical) human-robot interaction context.
Design of a Low-Cost Social Robot: Towards Personalized Human-Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 704-713
  Christian G. Puehn; Tao Liu; Yixin Feng; Kenneth Hornfeck; Kiju Lee
This paper presents a low-cost social robot, called Philos, and human-robot interaction (HRI) design. The system is accompanied with a user interface that allows customization of interactive functions and real-time monitoring. The robot features eight degrees of freedom that can generate various gestures and facial expressions. HRI is realized by two elements, internal characteristics of the robot and external vision/touch inputs provided by the users. Internal characteristics determine the predefined personality of Philos among the five: Friendly, Hyperactive, Shy, Cold, or Sensitive, and set the behavioral control parameters accordingly. Vision-based interaction includes face tracking, face recognition, and motion tracking. Embedded touch sensors detect physical touch-based interaction. Behavioral parameters are updated in real time based on the user inputs, and therefore Philos can engage each user in personalized interaction via uniquely defined behavioral responses. The cost of Philos is estimated to be relatively low compared to other commercially available robots promising a broad range of potential applications for domestic and professional use.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; Social Robot; Face Tracking; Face Recognition; Behavioral Control

Mobility, Navigation and Safety

Mobile Navigation through a Science Museum for Users Who Are Blind BIBAKFull-Text 717-728
  Marcia de Borba Campos; Jaime Sánchez; Anderson Cardoso Martins; Régis Schneider Santana; Matías Espinoza
This paper presents the design and implementation of mAbES, a mobile, audio-based environment simulator to assist the development of orientation and mobility skills in people who are blind. The modeling scenario of mAbES was a science and technology museum in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The application was designed for use by people who are blind without the supervision of a facilitator or aid. The mAbES software allows for testing the creation of mental maps when people who are blind navigate through the museum.
Keywords: People who are blind; Mental map; Orientation and mobility; Navigation; Mobile application
Evaluating Tactile-Acoustic Devices for Enhanced Driver Awareness and Safety: An Exploration of Tactile Perception and Response Time to Emergency Vehicle Sirens BIBAKFull-Text 729-740
  Maria Karam
A feasibility study was conducted to determine if real-time emergency vehicle sirens can be detected when presented to a driver using a tactile display device. Public usability methods were employed to evaluate the tactile-perceptibility of siren sounds when a driver's hearing ability is impaired, due to temporary deafness that is induced when listening to loud music, road noise, or by active noise cancelling systems installed in automobiles. The study evaluates siren detection rates and response times of drivers who are artificially deafened by loud music using tactile-only stimuli as an alert system. Results of the study suggest that the use of an ambient tactile display can provide persistent access to siren sounds for drivers who are deafened in both low and high stress conditions. Details of the experiments are presented, along with a discussion on next steps, which includes recommendations for integrating the tactile displays into driving simulators as an alternative form to haptic displays that can improve driver awareness of and response to emergency vehicle signals.
Keywords: Tactile acoustic devices; primary and secondary attention; cognitive processing; hearing loss; driving simulation; emergency vehicle response; automotive safety
TActile Glasses (TAG) for Obstacle Avoidance BIBAKFull-Text 741-749
  Georgios Korres; Ahmad El Issawi; Mohamad Eid
In this paper, we present a wearable tactile device called TAG (TActile Glasses) to help visually impaired individuals navigate through complex environments. The TAG device provides vibrotactile feedback whenever an obstacle is detected in front of the user. The prototype is composed of -- in addition to the eyeglasses -- an infrared proximity sensor, an ATMEGA128 microprocessor, a rechargeable battery, and a vibrotactile actuator attached to the right temple tip of the glasses. The TAG system is designed to be highly portable, fashionable yet cost effective, and intuitive to use. Experimental study showed that the TAG system can help visually impaired individuals to navigate unfamiliar lab environment using vibrotactile feedback, and without any previous training. Participants reported that the system is intuitive to use, quick to learn, and helpful.
Keywords: Haptic user interface; Interaction Design; Tangible user interfaces; user support systems
Driving Assistance with Conversation Robot for Elderly Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 750-761
  Yoshinori Nakagawa; Kaechang Park; Hirotada Ueda; Hiroshi Ono
On the one hand, mobility of elderly people is critical for their quality of lives and welfare. On the other hand, older drivers have higher crash rates per vehicle-mile of travel. In order to achieve the two conflicting goals, driving safety and mobility of the elderly, the present paper aims to discuss the possibility that intelligent artifacts can play a role of reducing crash risk of elderly drivers. A research design for obtaining empirical evidence on the effectiveness of robot presence in vehicles is also discussed.
Keywords: Driving; Crash risk; Passenger presence; Conversation robot
Developing Iconographic Driven Applications for Nonverbal Communication: A Roadside Assistance App for the Deaf BIBAKFull-Text 762-771
  Hugo Paredes; Benjamim Fonseca; João Barroso
Touchscreens allow interaction with icons and buttons for executing applications or selecting information. This can be used for non-verbal communication, enabling the deaf to communicate without the need for sign language translation and with a richer context than just using text. This paper explores the development process of iconographic driven applications for nonverbal communication following a user centered design approach. MyCarMobile, a mobile application intended to facilitate the communication of the deaf with roadside assistance services, is introduced as a case study. The application follows the iconographic driven interaction model allowing users to describe an occurrence, through the interaction with icons and buttons in a touchscreen device. Based on the implementation of the case study application and previous work a set of guidelines for implementing iconographic driven applications is proposed.
Keywords: deaf; mobile application; roadside assistance; iconographic interface; nonverbal communication
Barriers Survey: A Tool to Support Data Collection for Inclusive Mobility BIBAKFull-Text 772-779
  Federico Prandi; Michele Andreolli; Matteo Eccher; Umberto di Staso; Raffaele De Amicis
In this paper we describe the potential for using the Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), and large crowd-sourced survey, in disable people mobility computing applications The challenge is to make these two concepts talking together exploiting the technologies in order to increase the public participation, and to move towards sustainable development. Our goal is to investigate how participative and people-centric data collection can be used to create a low-cost, open platform to survey, annotate and localise pedestrian mobility features and architectural barriers as it is perceived by the citizen themselves. The core of the project consists into the development and deployment of a mobile application and a web platform, which allow the users to collect and manage the information surveyed.
Keywords: Volunteered Geographic Information; Mobile Application; Pedestrian mobility; Smart cities
Place Meaning and the Visually Impaired: The Impact of Sound Parameters on Place Attachment and Identity BIBAKFull-Text 780-790
  Charalampos Rizopoulos; Angeliki Gazi; Yannis Christidis
This paper outlines some theoretical considerations regarding the concept of place meaning as applied to populations of visually impaired users of mobile location-based applications. The concept of place meaning and its constituent elements, place attachment and place identity, are explored in detail and a research design on place meaning for visually impaired smartphone users is outlined as a first step toward the systematic investigation of the differences in the creation of place attachment and place identity between sighted and visually impaired individuals as a result of auditory stimuli emerging from the urban soundscape.
Keywords: Place meaning; affect; soundscape; location-aware applications
A Pedestrian Support System by Presenting Implicit/Explicit Human Information BIBAFull-Text 791-802
  Tsutomu Terada
In crowded places like busy shopping complexes, there are many accidents such as bumping between walkers. One of the reasons for troubles is that it is difficult for each person to recognize the behaviors of other people perfectly. Here, cars implicitly communicate with others by presenting their contexts using their equipment such as signals or the horn, or drive obeying the traffic rules indicated by road signs or road painting. In this paper, we introduce a walking support system using the traffic rules and the information presentation mechanism in cars. The proposed system solves the problems by presenting the user's context against surrounding people and presenting surrounding information to the system user. Using these two information presentation methods, the proposed system realizes safe and smooth walking. The evaluation results with our prototype system confirmed that our method visually and intuitively presented the user context.
Virtual Walking Stick: Mobile Application to Assist Visually Impaired People to Walking Safely BIBAKFull-Text 803-813
  Thomas Akira Ueda; Luciano Vieira de Araújo
People affected by temporary visual limitations or early permanent limitations have the challenge of adapting the way to perform their daily tasks. In particular, the activity of walking without support of others not only requires extensive adaptation but also can expose individuals to the risk. For instance, if an object is not identified during the walk, serious accidents may happen. Therefore, assist blind people to walk independently and safely is an important challenge for computational area. With the popularity of smartphones, cameras and new sensors are available at affordable prices and can be used to develop software to help visually impaired people to walk more independently and safely. This paper presents the development of a mobile application to help visually impaired people to walk independently, using the smartphone's camera to alert them about obstacles on the way.
Keywords: impaired vision; walking stick; indoor navigation; safe walk