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ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 17

Editors:Shumin Zhai
Standard No:ISSN 1073-0516
Links:Table of Contents
  1. TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 1
  2. TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 2
  3. TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 3
  4. TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 4

TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 1

Editorial: Data mining for understanding user needs BIBFull-Text 1
  Sherry Y. Chen; Robert D. Macredie; Xiaohui Liu; Alistair Sutcliffe
Brief encounters: Sensing, modeling and visualizing urban mobility and copresence networks BIBAFull-Text 2
  Vassilis Kostakos; Eamonn O'Neill; Alan Penn; George Roussos; Dikaios Papadongonas
Moving human-computer interaction off the desktop and into our cities requires new approaches to understanding people and technologies in the built environment. We approach the city as a system, with human, physical and digital components and behaviours. In creating effective and usable urban pervasive computing systems, we need to take into account the patterns of movement and encounter amongst people, locations, and mobile and fixed devices in the city. Advances in mobile and wireless communications have enabled us to detect and record the presence and movement of devices through cities. This article makes a number of methodological and empirical contributions. We present a toolkit of algorithms and visualization techniques that we have developed to model and make sense of spatial and temporal patterns of mobility, presence, and encounter. Applying this toolkit, we provide an analysis of urban Bluetooth data based on a longitudinal dataset containing millions of records associated with more than 70000 unique devices in the city of Bath, UK. Through a novel application of established complex network analysis techniques, we demonstrate a significant finding on the relationship between temporal factors and network structure. Finally, we suggest how our understanding and exploitation of these data may begin to inform the design and use of urban pervasive systems.
Mining problem-solving strategies from HCI data BIBAFull-Text 3
  Xiaoli Fern; Chaitanya Komireddy; Valentina Grigoreanu; Margaret Burnett
Can we learn about users' problem-solving strategies by observing their actions? This article introduces a data mining system that extracts complex behavioral patterns from logged user actions to discover users' high-level strategies. Our application domain is an HCI study aimed at revealing users' strategies in an end-user debugging task and understanding how the strategies relate to gender and to success. We cast this problem as a sequential pattern discovery problem, where user strategies are manifested as sequential behavior patterns. Problematically, we found that the patterns discovered by standard data mining algorithms were difficult to interpret and provided limited information about high-level strategies. To help interpret the patterns as strategies, we examined multiple ways of clustering the patterns into meaningful groups. This collectively led to interesting findings about users' behavior in terms of both gender differences and debugging success. These common behavioral patterns were novel HCI findings about differences in males' and females' behavior with software, and were verified by a parallel study with an independent data set on strategies. As a research endeavor into the interpretability issues faced by data mining techniques, our work also highlights important research directions for making data mining more accessible to non-data-mining experts.
Potential for personalization BIBAFull-Text 4
  Jaime Teevan; Susan T. Dumais; Eric Horvitz
Current Web search tools do a good job of retrieving documents that satisfy the most common intentions associated with a query, but do not do a very good job of discerning different individuals' unique search goals. We explore the variation in what different people consider relevant to the same query by mining three data sources: (1) explicit relevance judgments, (2) clicks on search results (a behavior-based implicit measure of relevance), and (3) the similarity of desktop content to search results (a content-based implicit measure of relevance). We find that people's explicit judgments for the same queries differ greatly. As a result, there is a large gap between how well search engines could perform if they were to tailor results to the individual, and how well they currently perform by returning results designed to satisfy everyone. We call this gap the potential for personalization. The two implicit indicators we studied provide complementary value for approximating this variation in result relevance among people. We discuss several uses of our findings, including a personalized search system that takes advantage of the implicit measures by ranking personally relevant results more highly and improving click-through rates.
Experiments on the preference-based organization interface in recommender systems BIBAFull-Text 5
  Li Chen; Pearl Pu
As e-commerce has evolved into its second generation, where the available products are becoming more complex and their abundance is almost unlimited, the task of locating a desired choice has become too difficult for the average user. Therefore, more effort has been made in recent years to develop recommender systems that recommend products or services to users so as to assist in their decision-making process. In this article, we describe crucial experimental results about a novel recommender technology, called the preference-based organization (Pref-ORG), which generates critique suggestions in addition to recommendations according to users' preferences. The critique is a form of feedback ("I would like something cheaper than this one") that users can provide to the currently displayed product, with which the system may better predict what the user truly wants. We compare the preference-based organization technique with related approaches, including the ones that also produce critique candidates, but without the consideration of user preferences. A simulation setup is first presented, that identified Pref-ORG's significantly higher algorithm accuracy in predicting critiques and choices that users should intend to make, followed by a real-user evaluation which practically verified its significant impact on saving users' decision effort.

TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 2

Personalization via friendsourcing BIBAFull-Text 6
  Michael S. Bernstein; Desney Tan; Greg Smith; Mary Czerwinski; Eric Horvitz
When information is known only to friends in a social network, traditional crowdsourcing mechanisms struggle to motivate a large enough user population and to ensure accuracy of the collected information. We thus introduce friendsourcing, a form of crowdsourcing aimed at collecting accurate information available only to a small, socially-connected group of individuals. Our approach to friendsourcing is to design socially enjoyable interactions that produce the desired information as a side effect.
   We focus our analysis around Collabio, a novel social tagging game that we developed to encourage friends to tag one another within an online social network. Collabio encourages friends, family, and colleagues to generate useful information about each other. We describe the design space of incentives in social tagging games and evaluate our choices by a combination of usage log analysis and survey data. Data acquired via Collabio is typically accurate and augments tags that could have been found on Facebook or the Web. To complete the arc from data collection to application, we produce a trio of prototype applications to demonstrate how Collabio tags could be utilized: an aggregate tag cloud visualization, a personalized RSS feed, and a question and answer system. The social data powering these applications enables them to address needs previously difficult to support, such as question answering for topics comprehensible only to a few of a user's friends.
Effects of facial similarity on user responses to embodied agents BIBAFull-Text 7
  Henriette C. Van Vugt; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Johan F. Hoorn; Elly A. Konijn
We investigated the effects of facial similarity between users and embodied agents under different experimental conditions. Sixty-four undergraduates interacted with two different embodied agents: in one case the agent was designed to look somewhat similar to the user, and in the other case the agent was designed to look dissimilar. We varied between subjects how helpful the agent was for a given task. Results showed that the facial similarity manipulation sometimes affected participants' responses, even though they did not consciously detect the similarity. Specifically, when the agent was helpful, facial similarity increased participants' ratings of involvement. However, when exposed to unhelpful agents, male participants had negative responses to the similar-looking agent compared to the dissimilar one. These results suggest that using facially similar embodied agents has a potential large downside if that embodied agent is perceived to be unhelpful.
Complex interaction BIBAFull-Text 8
  Lars-Erik Janlert; Erik Stolterman
An almost explosive growth of complexity puts pressure on people in their everyday doings. Digital artifacts and systems are at the core of this development. How should we handle complexity aspects when designing new interactive devices and systems? In this article we begin an analysis of interaction complexity. We portray different views of complexity; we explore not only negative aspects of complexity, but also positive, making a case for the existence of benign complexity. We argue that complex interaction is not necessarily bad, but designers need a deeper understanding of interaction complexity and need to treat it in a more intentional and thoughtful way. We examine interaction complexity as it relates to different loci of complexity: internal, external, and mediated complexity. Our purpose with these analytical exercises is to pave the way for design that is informed by a more focused and precise understanding of interaction complexity.
Foundations for designing and evaluating user interfaces based on the crossing paradigm BIBAFull-Text 9
  Georg Apitz; François Guimbretière; Shumin Zhai
Traditional graphical user interfaces have been designed with the desktop mouse in mind, a device well characterized by Fitts' law. Yet in recent years, hand-held devices and tablet personal computers using a pen (or fingers) as the primary mean of interaction have become more and more popular. These new interaction modalities have pushed the traditional focus on pointing to its limit. In this paper we explore whether a different paradigm -- goal crossing-based on pen strokes -- may substitute or complement pointing as another fundamental interaction method. First we describe a study in which we establish that goal crossing is dependent on an index of difficulty analogous to Fitts' law, and that in some settings, goal crossing completion time is shorter or comparable to pointing performance under the same index of difficulty. We then demonstrate the expressiveness of the crossing-based interaction paradigm by implementing CrossY, an application which only uses crossing for selecting commands. CrossY demonstrates that crossing-based interactions can be more expressive than the standard point and click approach. We also show how crossing-based interactions encourage the fluid composition of commands. Finally after observing that users' performance could be influenced by the general direction of travel, we report on the results of a study characterizing this effect. These latter results led us to propose a general guideline for dialog box interaction. Together, these results provide the foundation for the design of effective crossing-based interactions.

TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 3

On human remains: Values and practice in the home archiving of cherished objects BIBAFull-Text 10
  David S. Kirk; Abigail Sellen
Creating digital archives of personal and family artifacts is an area of growing interest, but which seemingly is often not supported by a thorough understanding of current home archiving practice. In this article we seek to excavate the home archive, exploring those things that people choose to keep rather than simply accumulate. Based on extensive field research in family homes we present an investigation of the kinds of sentimental objects, both physical and digital, to be found in homes, and through in-depth interviews with family members we explore the values behind archiving practices, explaining why and how sentimental artefacts are kept. In doing this we wish to highlight the polysemous nature of things and to argue that archiving practice in the home is not solely concerned with the invocation of memory. In support of this we show how sentimental artifacts are also used to connect with others, to define the self and the family, to fulfill obligations and, quite conversely to efforts of remembering, to safely forget. Such values are fundamental to family life where archiving takes place and consequently we explore how home archiving is achieved as a familial practice in the negotiated spaces of the home. From this grounded understanding of existing practices and values, in context, we derive requirements and implications for the design of future forms of domestic archiving technology.
SAK: Scanning ambiguous keyboard for efficient one-key text entry BIBAFull-Text 11
  I. Scott Mackenzie; Torsten Felzer
The design and evaluation of a scanning ambiguous keyboard (SAK) is presented. SAK combines the most demanding requirement of a scanning keyboard -- input using one key or switch -- with the most appealing feature of an ambiguous keyboard -- one key press per letter. The optimal design requires just 1.713 scan steps per character for English text entry. In a provisional evaluation, 12 able-bodied participants each entered 5 blocks of text with the scanning interval decreasing from 1100 ms initially to 700 ms at the end. The average text entry rate in the 5th block was 5.11 wpm with 99% accuracy. One participant performed an additional five blocks of trials and reached an average speed of 9.28 wpm on the 10th block. Afterwards, the usefulness of the approach for persons with severe physical disabilities was shown in a case study with a software implementation of the idea explicitly adapted for that target community.
Semantic imitation in social tagging BIBAFull-Text 12
  Wai-Tat Fu; Thomas Kannampallil; Ruogu Kang; Jibo He
We present a semantic imitation model of social tagging and exploratory search based on theories of cognitive science. The model assumes that social tags evoke a spontaneous tag-based topic inference process that primes the semantic interpretation of resource contents during exploratory search, and the semantic priming of existing tags in turn influences future tag choices. The model predicts that (1) users who can see tags created by others tend to create tags that are semantically similar to these existing tags, demonstrating the social influence of tag choices; and (2) users who have similar information goals tend to create tags that are semantically similar, but this effect is mediated by the semantic representation and interpretation of social tags. Results from the experiment comparing tagging behavior between a social group (where participants can see tags created by others) and a nominal group (where participants cannot see tags created by others) confirmed these predictions. The current results highlight the critical role of human semantic representations and interpretation processes in the analysis of large-scale social information systems. The model implies that analysis at both the individual and social levels are important for understanding the active, dynamic processes between human knowledge structures and external folksonomies. Implications on how social tagging systems can facilitate exploratory search, interactive information retrievals, knowledge exchange, and other higher-level cognitive and learning activities are discussed.
A model of novice and expert navigation performance in constrained-input interfaces BIBAFull-Text 13
  Andy Cockburn; Carl Gutwin
Many interactive systems require users to navigate through large sets of data and commands using constrained input devices -- such as scroll rings, rocker switches, or specialized keypads -- that provide less power and flexibility than traditional input devices like mice or touch screens. While performance with more traditional devices has been extensively studied in human-computer interaction, there has been relatively little investigation of human performance with constrained input. As a result, there is little understanding of what factors govern performance in these situations, and how interfaces should be designed to optimize interface actions such as navigation and selection. Since constrained input is now common in a wide variety of interactive systems (such as mobile phones, audio players, in-car navigation systems, and kiosk displays), it is important for designers to understand what factors affect performance. To aid in this understanding, we present the Constrained Input Navigation (CIN) model, a predictive model that allows accurate determination of human navigation and selection performance in constrained-input scenarios. CIN identifies three factors that underlie user efficiency: the performance of the interface type for single-level item selection (where interface type depends on the input and output devices, the interactive behavior, and the data organization), the hierarchical structure of the information space, and the user's experience with the items to be selected. We show through experiments that, after empirical calibration, the model's predictions fit empirical data well, and discuss why and how each of the factors affects performance. Models like CIN can provide valuable theoretical and practical benefits to designers of constrained-input systems, allowing them to explore and compare a much wider variety of alternate interface designs without the need for extensive user studies.

TOCHI 2010 Volume 17 Issue 4

Indexicality: Understanding mobile human-computer interaction in context BIBAFull-Text 14
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Jeni Paay
A lot of research has been done within the area of mobile computing and context-awareness over the last 15 years, and the idea of systems adapting to their context has produced promising results for overcoming some of the challenges of user interaction with mobile devices within various specialized domains. However, today it is still the case that only a limited body of theoretically grounded knowledge exists that can explain the relationship between users, mobile system user interfaces, and their context. Lack of such knowledge limits our ability to elevate learning from the mobile systems we develop and study from a concrete to an abstract level. Consequently, the research field is impeded in its ability to leap forward and is limited to incremental steps from one design to the next. Addressing the problem of this void, this article contributes to the body of knowledge about mobile interaction design by promoting a theoretical approach for describing and understanding the relationship between user interface representations and user context. Specifically, we promote the concept of indexicality derived from semiotics as an analytical concept that can be used to describe and understand a design. We illustrate the value of the indexicality concept through an analysis of empirical data from evaluations of three prototype systems in use. Based on our analytical and empirical work we promote the view that users interpret information in a mobile computer user interface through creation of meaningful indexical signs based on the ensemble of context and system.
Oasis: A framework for linking notification delivery to the perceptual structure of goal-directed tasks BIBAFull-Text 15
  Shamsi T. Iqbal; Brian P. Bailey
A notification represents the proactive delivery of information to a user and reduces the need to visually scan or repeatedly check an external information source. At the same time, notifications often interrupt user tasks at inopportune moments, decreasing productivity and increasing frustration. Controlled studies have shown that linking notification delivery to the perceptual structure of a user's tasks can reduce these interruption costs. However, in these studies, the scheduling was always performed manually, and it was not clear whether it would be possible for a system to mimic similar techniques. This article contributes the design and implementation of a novel system called Oasis that aligns notification scheduling with the perceptual structure of user tasks. We describe the architecture of the system, how it detects task structure on the fly without explicit knowledge of the task itself, and how it layers flexible notification scheduling policies on top of this detection mechanism. The system also includes an offline tool for creating customized statistical models for detecting task structure. The value of our system is that it intelligently schedules notifications, enabling the reductions in interruption costs shown within prior controlled studies to now be realized by users in everyday desktop computing tasks. It also provides a test bed for experimenting with how notification management policies and other system functionalities can be linked to task structure.
Time warp sports for internet television BIBAFull-Text 16
  Dan R. Olsen; Brett Partridge; Stephen Lynn
Internet-based video delivery offers new opportunities for interactive television. The creation and usability of interactive television is very different from desktop or web-based interaction. The concepts of frameworks and genres provides an approach to learnable interaction in an entertainment rather than task-oriented activity. The concept of a framework defines the tools required for both producing and viewing a particular style of interactive video experience. An interactive framework for televised sports is presented. This framework implements a sports television experience that support play-by-play navigation as well as viewer's interactive choice of camera angles. Tools for creating and viewing interactive sports are developed in parallel. In-home and in-lab experiments give indications of how sports fans will use interactive television in the future. The experiments demonstrate that fans will use the interaction rather than passively watching, can easily learn the interactive features and strongly prefer the new features over tradition rewind/fast-forward. The data indicates that many users will use the interactive controls to enrich and prolong their viewing rather than simply skipping as rapidly as possible through a game. However, there is also indication that some viewers will simply skip rapidly. There are also indications that the skip vs. review interaction depends on the interest level of current game play.
Interaction design for mobile product recommendation agents: Supporting users' decisions in retail stores BIBAFull-Text 17
  Young Eun Lee; Izak Benbasat
Mobile product recommendation agents (RAs) are software systems that operate on mobile handheld devices, using wireless Internet to support users' decisions en route, such as consumers' product choices in retail stores. As the demand for ubiquitous access to the web grows, potential benefits of mobile RAs have been recognized, albeit with little supporting empirical evidence. We investigate whether and how mobile RAs enhance users' decisions in retail stores by reducing the effort to make purchase decisions while augmenting the accuracy of the decisions. In addition, to identify potential design principles for mobile RAs, we compare and evaluate two interaction styles of mobile RAs: alternative-driven (RA-AL) versus attribute-driven (RA-AT) interactions. The results of a laboratory experiment conducted in a simulated store indicate that mobile RAs reduced users' perceived effort and increased accuracy of their decisions. Furthermore, RA-AL users made more accurate decisions than RA-AT users due to the RA-AL's interaction style, which was compatible with the way in which users processed information and made decisions in the store. These empirical results support the notion that mobile RAs should be designed to fit the user's task undertaken in the particular context.
Parallel prototyping leads to better design results, more divergence, and increased self-efficacy BIBAFull-Text 18
  Steven P. Dow; Alana Glassco; Jonathan Kass; Melissa Schwarz; Daniel L. Schwartz; Scott R. Klemmer
Iteration can help people improve ideas. It can also give rise to fixation, continuously refining one option without considering others. Does creating and receiving feedback on multiple prototypes in parallel, as opposed to serially, affect learning, self-efficacy, and design exploration? An experiment manipulated whether independent novice designers created graphic Web advertisements in parallel or in series. Serial participants received descriptive critique directly after each prototype. Parallel participants created multiple prototypes before receiving feedback. As measured by click-through data and expert ratings, ads created in the Parallel condition significantly outperformed those from the Serial condition. Moreover, independent raters found Parallel prototypes to be more diverse. Parallel participants also reported a larger increase in task-specific self-confidence. This article outlines a theoretical foundation for why parallel prototyping produces better design results and discusses the implications for design education.