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TEI Tables of Contents: 07080910111213141516

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction
Editors:Roel Vertegaal; Stephen N. Spencer; Ylva Fernaeus; Audrey Girouard; Sergi Jordà
Location:Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Dates:2012-Feb-19 to 2012-Feb-22
Standard No:ISBN: 1-4503-1174-1, 978-1-4503-1174-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: TEI12
Links:Conference Home Page | Conference Series Home Page
Summary:We are proud to present the proceedings of TEI 2012 --- the sixth international conference on tangible, embedded, and embodied interaction design. Research in this area stretches across the full spectrum of fields involved in the design of interactive systems, from software, electronics, and mechanics, to form, aesthetics, and social impact. The papers in these proceedings thereby cover a broad scope of topics including technical, philosophical, and experiential aspects, as well as thoughtful accounts of the concrete crafts involved in making tangible, embedded and embodied interactive systems.
    The intimate size of this single-track conference provides a unique forum for exchanging ideas and presenting innovative work through talks, interactive exhibits, demonstrations, hands-on studios, posters, art installations and performances. The first TEI conference was hosted by Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2007); subsequent annual TEI conferences were at the B-IT Center in Bonn, Germany (2008), Microsoft Research in Cambridge, UK (2009), the MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, MA USA (2010), and the Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal (2011). Held at the Human Media Lab at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, this year's conference again showcases the very latest research in this subfield of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI).
    The call for papers attracted 135 submissions from 30 countries spanning Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. Three program chairs worked with 40 associate program chairs to manage the review process. Each paper received at least three expert reviews, in addition to a meta-review by a member of the program committee. The program chairs then selected the top papers for presentation at the conference, while determining their presentation format. TEI has had a tradition of allowing research to be presented either as a short or a long talk, as a demo, a poster, or as a combination of those, independently of submission length. This format allowed us to maintain the community's longstanding commitment to improve the visibility of the work presented at the conference. This year, we gave all authors the opportunity to present their work as a talk, as well as showcase their work in an interactive demonstration where appropriate, providing an equal chance of being seen, explained, and discussed amongst participants during the conference.
    As a result of this process, 42 submissions were selected for presentation at the conference: 22 eight-page papers, 16 four-page papers, and 4 two-page papers (an acceptance rate of 31%). From these contributions, the program of the conference includes 4 short, five minutes talks, 13 short, five minutes talks + demonstration, 11 long, fifteen minutes talks and 8 long, ten minutes talks + demonstration.
    These proceedings contain all the accepted papers that resulted from the TEI 2012 review process. These papers are organized in eight thematic sessions. Fold unfold showcases research addressing this year's conference theme in a variety of new paper- and folding-based interaction techniques. Rock that Body covers different ways of approaching the human body with technology. Touchy Feely collects papers related to haptic and tactile interfaces. Intangibles focuses on more theoretical and philosophical perspectives. Come Out and Play covers aspects of interactive and tangible play. Can't Touch This explores touchless interaction techniques, such as gesture-based systems, or even invisible interactions, via radio. School's Out includes papers relating to education and training. Finally, One Step Beyond showcases a broad variety of interaction techniques that are new to TEI and to the interaction design community at large.
    In addition to research papers, the conference hosts several other forms of presentations. The Graduate Student Consortium accepted twelve graduate students to discuss their research amongst each other and with a panel of experienced TEI researchers, in an informal and interactive setting (30% acceptance rate). TEI 2012 also includes the Art Explorations, a juried track of thirteen innovative tangible interactive art and performance pieces (23% acceptance rate); Work-in-Progress papers, a juried selection of ongoing late breaking results presented as posters (53% acceptance rate); and Studios, hands-on events that offer novel practical experiences to conference attendees with diverse skills and backgrounds. Finally, the Design Challenge features a student competition of designs demonstrated at the conference.
    The submissions in each category this year were specially interesting, diverse, and of high quality. From the titles of the papers, art pieces, and studios, one notices immediately the diversity of interests that engage the TEI community, ranging from toolkits to tabletops, gestures to games and from programming to paper. What brings it all together is a commitment to the synthesis of technology, physicality, design, and ultimately, people.
  1. TEI 2012 Volume 9
    1. Opening keynote
    2. Closing keynote
    3. Musical keynotes
    4. Fold unfold
    5. Rock that body
    6. Touchy feely
    7. Intangibles
    8. Come out and play
    9. Can't touch this
    10. School's out
    11. One step beyond
    12. Art explorations
    13. Studios
    14. Graduate student consortium

TEI 2012 Volume 9

Opening keynote

The functional aesthetic of folding BIBAFull-Text 17-18
  Matthew Gardiner
Folds are everywhere throughout nature, in our DNA, in leaves, in insect wings, in the mountain forming forces of tektonic plates. We see folds in art as ancient as origami, and in design as packaging, lighting designs and surface aesthetics. Contemporary architects and designers have embraced the organic form of the fold, leveraging the complexity of computational and algorithmic design alongside the affordability of automated and programmable engineering processes and the efficiency of transforming flat sheets into three dimensions using only cuts and bends. In the fields of tangible interactions, we see artists, designers and researchers experimenting and developing new aesthetics, functions, and forms of interactions. They are inspired by the simple but elegant beauty of folded geometry, and interaction possibilities latent within the hinged surfaces of folds. Combined with new materials and technologies, this research area opens up the possibility to free the screen and sensor interfaces from the tyranny of the Euclidean plane of monitors, tablets and flat devices.
   Artworks such as Oribotics have been focused on flexible, foldable, shape programmed interfaces with mathematically defined geometries through an evolving series of robotic sculptures. The term oribot, literally meaning ori=fold, bot=robot, was originally inspired by the idea to bring an animation out of the flatness of the screen and into reality; to make programmable folded sculpture combined with motion graphics. This keynote addresses specific knowhow and the broader topics within the practice-based-research of Oribotics. Such as: producing kinetic folded membranes with longevity, resistance to corruption and low actuation force; applied techno-origami; biomimetics for design solutions; analysis of interaction metaphors; and horizon edge technologies, materials and ideas for future developments. The future will unfold.
The functional aesthetic of folding, self-similar interactions BIBAFull-Text 19-22
  Matthew Gardiner; Ray Gardiner
We discuss a field of research concerned with the discovery and realisation of folded patterns with kinetic properties, and the design of organic experience metaphors. Since the coining of the term Oribotics in 2003, a literal conjunction of the Japanese word ORU -- to fold -- and bot -- a contraction of robot -- this practice-based-research has delivered six successive artworks that iteratively deal with the subject of a flower that folds closed, unfolds to open. This paper will discuss the primary aesthetic function of folding and unfolding, the importance of materials, and the process of critically addressing and refining the tangible interaction over successive years and generations of Oribots. We will conclude with the advances made in the 2010 generation.

Closing keynote

Programming materiality BIBAFull-Text 23-24
  Joanna Berzowska
XS Labs, founded in 2002, is a design research studio that develops innovative work in the area of electronic textiles and reactive garments. Our work is informed by the technologies and techniques of craft-based practices -- weaving, stitching, embroidery, knitting, beading, or quilting -- and by the exciting possibilities afforded by modern materials with various electro-mechanical properties. This involves the development of enabling technologies, methods, and materials in the form of soft electronic circuits and composite fibers. At the same time, our projects often critique the traditional task-based and utilitarian definitions of functionality in HCI. "We consider the soft, playful, and magical aspects of these materials, so as to better adapt to the contours of the human body and the complexities of human needs and desires. Our approach often engages subtle elements of the absurd, the perverse, and the transgressive. We construct narratives that involve dark humor and romanticism as a way to drive design innovation. These integrative approaches allow us to construct composite textiles with complex functionality and sophisticated behaviors." [2]
   Our research agenda was originally motivated by a concern with the lack of softness in HCI applications and the desire to explore and exploit a wider range of material properties in the development of physical interfaces. We wanted to develop physical interfaces that could conform to the human body and explore the boundaries of "beyond the wrist" interaction. This is predicated on a deeper understanding of the materiality and the physicality of our computing technologies. "We are particularly concerned with the exploration of interactive forms that emphasize the natural expressive qualities of transitive materials. We focus on the aesthetics of interaction, which compels us to interrogate and to re-contextualize the materials themselves. The interaction narratives function as entry points to question some of the fundamental assumptions we make about the technologies and the materials that drive our designs." [2]
   Accelerating progress in all branches of science research has been redefining our fundamental design materials. [1] Materials such as conductive fibers, reactive inks, photoelectrics, and shape-memory alloys are already shaping new physical forms and new experiences that are redefining our relationship with materiality and with technology [4]. Our design philosophy at XS Labs focuses on the exploration and development of these transitive materials and technologies as a fundamental component of our design research practice.
   In the last three years, we have been working with Prof. Maksim Skorobogatyi to develop a new generation of composite fibers that are able to harness power directly from the human body, store that energy, or use changes in energy to change their own visual properties. The core technical innovation involves shifting this functionality entirely within the fiber itself. The goal of this project, entitled "Karma Chameleon," is to develop a prototype for an all-fiber based textile that can harness, sense, and display energy. Conceptually, this constitutes a radical deviation from the dominant model of a textile substrate with integrated mechano-electronics to a fully integrated composite substrate, wherein the fibers themselves (a) harness human-generated energy, (b) store the energy directly inside the fibers, and (c) use that energy to control a fiber-based actuator (such as fiber illumination and color).
   The design implications of such new fibers are twofold. First of all, when a material integrates computational behavior, how do we "program" such a material? We do so by determining the length, the shape, and the placement of the material in a composite system (in this case, the textile). We program a functional fiber by cutting it to a specific length and positioning it in the cloth so as to deliver the desired functionality. Changing its shape or orientation will change its behavior, not only in how it behaves visually, but also in how it behaves computationally. The second, more profound, implication is that the language of aesthetics and design (parameters such as shape, color, or visual composition) becomes conflated with the language of programming.
   Designers have historically been "programming materiality" in a metaphoric way, controlling physical and aesthetic parameters so as to give rise to emergent forms and interactions. Designers today, in addition, can program their materials and their objects in a computational way, which traditionally involves a non-material and non-intuitive set of processes. When working with a capacitive fiber, cutting a cloth not only changes its shape and the way it drapes on the body, it also changes the capacitance of the component. When working with photonic bandgap fibers, which have the ability to change color when illuminated with ambient or transmitted white light [3], cutting the length of the fiber will change the color of the light that is transmitted at its end. When working with shape-memory fibers integrated into felt, the exact shape of the felt will determine the subtle qualitative aspects of the movement: how gently will it slow down before coming to a full stop.
   In addition, "programming materiality" is not only concerned with harnessing the material properties of a fiber (or other physical object) but it is intrinsically a performative act, which involves instructions and described behaviors. Just like in a stage production, there are scripts, scenarios, stage directions, lighting and sound... Designers need to consider the programmatic behavior of each material when making aesthetic decisions. The two can never again exist independently from one another. One of our great opportunities at TEI, the conference for tangible, embedded and embodied interaction, is to define a new language for talking about materiality, interactivity, and physical interaction design. This new language should integrate performative concepts so as to provide roadmaps for the training of future designers who will unquestionably be working with materials that not only drive behavior through their physical properties but also through their computational nature.

Musical keynotes

LSP BIBAFull-Text 25-26
  Edwin van der Heide
LSP is a research trajectory exploring the relationship between sound and three dimensional image by means of laser projection, resulting in live performances and immersive installations. In 1815 Nathaniel Bowditch described a way to produce visual patterns by using a sine wave for the horizontal movement of a point and another sine wave for the vertical movement of that point. The shape of the resulting patterns depends on the frequency and phase relationships of the two sine waves and are known as Lissajous figures, or Bowditch curves.
   LSP interprets Bowditch's work as starting point to develop real-time relationships between sound and image. The sine waves used to create the visual shapes can, while being within our auditory frequency range, at the same time be interpreted as audio signals and therefor define a direct relationship between sound and image. This means that frequency ratios between sounds, de-tuning and phase shifts have a direct visual counterpart and vice versa.
   Although theoretically all sounds can be seen as sums of multiple sine waves, music in general is often too complex to result in interesting visual patterns. The research of LSP focuses therefor on creating, structuring and composing signals that have both a structural musical quality and a structural time-based visual quality. Different models for the relationship between sound and image are used throughout the performance.
   When audio is combined with video projection the spatial perception of sound is often being reduced because the two-dimensional nature of the image interferes with the three-dimensional nature of sound. By using lasers in combination with a medium (i.e. fog) to visualize the light in space, it becomes possible to create a three-dimensional changing environment that surrounds the audience. The environment challenges the audience to change their perspective continuously since there are multiple ways of looking at it.
Hydraulikos: ice, water, and steam as user-interfaces BIBAFull-Text 27-28
  Steve Mann; Ryan Janzen
In 2001 the term "Natural User Interface" (NUI) was coined to denote the use of wearable computing or of physical matter (solids, liquids, and gases) as direct user interfaces for metaphor-free computing ["Intelligent Image Processing", S. Mann, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001]. An example of NUI is the idioscope, a highly expressive musical instrument based on continuous ("undigital") scratch input ["Natural Interfaces for Musical Expression...", S. Mann, in Proc. NIME 2007, Jun6-10, New York, NY, USA.].
   Human beings are "cyborgs" in the sense that we usually experience nature indirectly, through technologies like shoes, clothing, or smartphones. In fact we're often forbidden from interacting directly with the world around us, e.g. simply removing our shoes to feel the earth beneath our feet is likely to have us stopped by police or security guards.
   Natural User-Interfaces challenge this layer of indirection, and use direct physical contact with multisensory primordial input devices such as solids, liquids, and gases.
   H2O (dihydrogen monoxide) is the only chemical substance that we commonly and directly experience in all three of these states-of-matter. Thus H2O is a natural choice for a natural user-interface.
   H2O is not the same thing as water: it is more general than water in the sense that it can also exist as ice or steam. We explore ice and steam as primordial natural user interfaces.
   Our ultimate goal is the creation of a centre for Cyborg-Environment Interaction (CEI) as a research trajectory exploring the relationship between nature and technology. Presently, we will celebrate the solid and gaseous states of H2O through ice mallets and steam pipes, in a performance entitled "Sublime Sublimation".
Hydraulikos: nature and technology and the centre for cyborg-environment interaction (CEI) BIBAFull-Text 29-32
  Steve Mann
Technology has put us out of touch with nature. A goal of the CCEI (the Centre for Nature and Technology) is to invent, research, study, and teach technologies that facilitate connection with our natural world. One project of CCEI is Hydraulikos, the Water Labs, for people to touch and be touched by the most primordial of all media = water. Hydraulikos aims to be a place where science, quantum physics, and fluid mechanics come together with nature, the environment, the arts, culture and society, health, wellness, and innovation, as therapy for the mind and body... where music meets math, and the compartmentalized silos of academia are washed away with lateral thinking in a setting where the boundary between work and play can also dissolve.
   Past projects include "Hands Across the Water" and "Hands Across the Harbour" using WOIP (Water Over Internet Protocol) to connect people through water as an Internet-connected medium that's at once both broad and deep.
   Ontario's Great Lakes hold 80% of North America's freshwater; it has often been said that Ontario is water capital of the world. Thus we need an Ontario-based entity like Hydraulikos that celebrates water at all ontological levels.

Fold unfold

FoldMe: interacting with double-sided foldable displays BIBAFull-Text 33-40
  Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Roman Lissermann; Wolfgang Kleine; Jürgen Steimle
In this paper, we present a novel device concept that features double-sided displays which can be folded using predefined hinges. The device concept enables users to dynamically alter both size and shape of the display and also to access the backside using fold gestures. We explore the design of such devices by investigating different types and forms of folding. Furthermore, we propose a set of interaction principles and techniques. Following a user-centered design process, we evaluate our device concept in two sessions with low-fidelity and high-fidelity prototypes.
Easigami: virtual creation by physical folding BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Yingdan Huang; Michael Eisenberg
With the advent of affordable three-dimensional printing and fabrication devices, the design of 3D objects has become an increasingly central activity in creative computational work. A recurring issue in this sort of design, however, is overcoming the "two-dimensional bottleneck" of the standard computer screen and associated conventional input devices: that is, it is difficult to create and visualize tangible objects using such hardware combination and (generally complex) modeling software. As a consequence, there is a growing need for a variety of innovative 3D input tools and techniques that allow users to create, customize, and visualize spatial objects and information "by hand". This paper describes a working example of such a tool: a tangible 3D sketching tool called Easigami, which permits users to assemble a wide variety of polyhedral objects by connecting and folding polygonal pieces. The physical arrangement of Easigami pieces is read into a computer and displayed interactively, in real time. Thus Easigami, by its design, blends the natural physical ability of folding paper-like materials with the power of computational representation. This paper describes the design of Easigami, presents a scenario of its use, and outlines ongoing and planned future work of the system.
ChronoTape: tangible timelines for family history BIBAFull-Text 49-56
  Peter Bennett; Mike Fraser; Madeline Balaam
An explosion in the availability of online records has led to surging interest in genealogy. In this paper we explore the present state of genealogical practice, with a particular focus on how the process of research is recorded and later accessed by other researchers. We then present our response, ChronoTape, a novel tangible interface for supporting family history research. The ChronoTape is an example of a temporal tangible interface, an interface designed to enable the tangible representation and control of time. We use the ChronoTape to interrogate the value relationships between physical and digital materials, personal and professional practices, and the ways that records are produced, maintained and ultimately inherited. In contrast to designs that support existing genealogical practice, ChronoTape captures and embeds traces of the researcher within the document of their own research, in three ways: (i) it ensures physical traces of digital research; (ii) it generates personal material around the use of impersonal genealogical data; (iii) it allows for graceful degradation of both its physical and digital components in order to deliberately accommodate the passage of information into the future.
Shadowgram: a case study for social fabrication through interactive fabrication in public spaces BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Hideaki Ogawa; Martina Mara; Christopher Lindinger; Matthew Gardiner; Roland Haring; David Stolarsky; Emiko Ogawa; Horst Hörtner
This paper describes a case study of Shadowgram as an application of interactive fabrication in public spaces to realize a creative communication environment based on an interactive installation, which generates sticker cutouts of the silhouettes of participants. In this paper, we propose an approach called Social Fabrication that stimulates communication in society. Finally, we assess the potential of our creative catalyst by installing Shadowgram in public events and through observation and analysis we examine the behavior of participants.
Paper mechanisms for sonic interaction BIBAFull-Text 61-68
  Stefano Delle Monache; Davide Rocchesso; Jie Qi; Leah Buechley; Amalia De Götzen; Dario Cestaro
Introducing continuous sonic interaction in augmented pop-up books enhances the expressive and performative qualities of movables, making the whole narrative experience more engaging and personal. The SaMPL Spring School on Sounding Popables explored the specific topic of paper-driven sonic narratives. Working groups produced several sketches of sonic interactions with movables. The most significant sketches of sounding popables are presented and analyzed.

Rock that body

On-body interaction: armed and dangerous BIBAFull-Text 69-76
  Chris Harrison; Shilpa Ramamurthy; Scott E. Hudson
Recent technological advances in input sensing, as well as ultra-small projectors, have opened up new opportunities for interaction -- the use of the body itself as both an input and output platform. Such on-body interfaces offer new interactive possibilities, and the promise of access to computation, communication and information literally in the palm of our hands. The unique context of on-body interaction allows us to take advantage of extra dimensions of input our bodies naturally afford us. In this paper, we consider how the arms and hands can be used to enhance on-body interactions, which is typically finger input centric. To explore this opportunity, we developed Armura, a novel interactive on-body system, supporting both input and graphical output. Using this platform as a vehicle for exploration, we proto-typed many applications and interactions. This helped to confirm chief use modalities, identify fruitful interaction approaches, and in general, better understand how interfaces operate on the body. We highlight the most compelling techniques we uncovered. Further, this paper is the first to consider and prototype how conventional interaction issues, such as cursor control and clutching, apply to the on-body domain. Finally, we bring to light several new and unique interaction techniques.
Don't forget about the sweat: effortful embodied interaction in support of learning BIBAFull-Text 77-84
  Leilah Lyons; Brian Slattery; Priscilla Jimenez; Brenda Lopez; Tom Moher
This paper describes a frequently-overlooked aspect of embodied interaction design: physical effort. Although exertion is the direct goal of many embodied activities (e.g., exergames), and is used indirectly to discourage certain user interactions (as with affordances), exertion has not been used to support direct expressive interaction with an embodied system. Situating exertion in both psychological and physiological literature, this paper suggests guidelines for employing exertion as more than just an incidental component of proprioception in embodied interaction designs. Specifically, the linkages between exertion, affect, and recall are reviewed and analyzed for their potential to support embodied learning activities, and literature concerning human perceptions of effort is reviewed to help designers understand how to incorporate effort more directly and intentionally in embodied interaction designs. Also presented is an illustration of how these guidelines affected the design of an educational embodied interaction experience for an informal learning setting.
Limber: DIY wearables for reducing risk of office injury BIBAFull-Text 85-86
  Ken Leung; Derek Reilly; Kate Hartman; Suzanne Stein; Emma Westecott
"Limber" refers to an interconnected system of wearable, sensor-enabled components and game-like desktop software, designed to reduce repetitive stress injury among knowledge workers. Regular bodily movement/exercise and maintenance of good posture is rewarded with within a game experience during the course of a workday. We present two design and evaluation iterations that illustrate the utility of the system and identify key design challenges.
Social yoga mats: designing for exercising/socializing synergy BIBAFull-Text 87-90
  Arun Nagargoje; Karl Maybach; Tomas Sokoler
Recent works that aim to design for enhancing the physical fitness and/or social lives of senior citizens take limited advantage of the synergistic relationship between exercising and socializing, which is prominently observed during group exercise. In this paper we introduce our design of Social Yoga Mats, which aim to extend this synergy from weekly yoga classes into the home.
   We approach our design from an embodied interaction perspective and conduct our exploration through a series of sketching-driven co-design sessions with senior yoga students and instructors. We contribute by presenting our design insights in the form of an early articulation of the design space for digital technologies that capitalize on exercising/socializing synergy.
Integrating physiotherapy with everyday life: exploring the space of possibilities through ReHandles BIBAFull-Text 91-98
  Naveen L. Bagalkot; Tomas Sokoler; Riyaj Shaikh
Recently there have been concerns to investigate the general issues of design within the field of designing pervasive rehabilitation technology. In this paper we take these concerns as points-of-departure to explore the possible roles that digital technology can be designed to take, for supporting the integration of physiotherapy with the everyday life of the rehabilitees. Informed by the perspective of embodied interaction we engaged in four design explorations that were driven by a process of sketching-in-hardware. We take advantage of the rich social, material and physical everyday practices of the rehabilitees in these situations to design four interactive sketches. We reflect on the sketches and the explorations and synthesize our experiences in the form of an emerging space of possibilities. We position these possibilities as particular directions that future endeavors can take in order to design rehabilitation technology that supports an integration of physiotherapy with the everyday life.
DressUp: a 3D interface for clothing design with a physical mannequin BIBAFull-Text 99-102
  Amy Wibowo; Daisuke Sakamoto; Jun Mitani; Takeo Igarashi
This paper introduces DressUp, a computerized system for designing dresses with 3D input using the form of the human body as a guide. It consists of a body-sized physical mannequin, a screen, and tangible prop tools for drawing in 3D on and around the mannequin. As the user draws, he/she modifies or creates pieces of digital cloth, which are displayed on a model of the mannequin on the screen. We explore the capacity of our 3D input tools to create a variety of dresses. We also describe observations gained from users designing actual physical garments with the system.

Touchy feely

PinchPad: performance of touch-based gestures while grasping devices BIBAFull-Text 103-110
  Katrin Wolf; Christian Müller-Tomfelde; Kelvin Cheng; Ina Wechsung
This paper focuses on combining front and back device interaction on grasped devices, using touch-based gestures. We designed generic interactions for discrete, continuous, and combined gesture commands that are executed without hand-eye control because the performing fingers are hidden behind a grasped device. We designed the interactions in such a way that the thumb can always be used as a proprioceptive reference for guiding finger movements, applying embodied knowledge about body structure. In a user study, we tested these touch-based interactions for their performance and users' task-load perception. We combined two iPads together back-to-back to form a double-sided touch screen device: the PinchPad. We discuss the main errors that led to a decrease in accuracy, identify stable features that reduce the error rate, and discuss the role of 'body schema' in designing gesture-based interactions where the user cannot see their hands properly.
Tangible sketching of interactive haptic materials BIBAFull-Text 111-114
  Jonas Forsslund; Ioanna Ioannou
The activity of sketching can be highly beneficial when applied to the design of haptic material interaction. To illustrate this approach we created a design tool with a tangible hardware interface to facilitate the act of haptic material sketching and used this tool to design an anatomy exploration application. We found this approach particularly efficient in designing non-visual properties of haptic materials. The design tool enabled instant tactile perception of changes in material properties combined with the ability to make on-the-fly adjustments, thus creating a sense of pliability.
The HapticTouch toolkit: enabling exploration of haptic interactions BIBAFull-Text 115-122
  David Ledo; Miguel A. Nacenta; Nicolai Marquardt; Sebastian Boring; Saul Greenberg
In the real world, touch based interaction relies on haptic feedback (e.g., grasping objects, feeling textures). Unfortunately, such feedback is absent in current tabletop systems. The previously developed Haptic Tabletop Puck (HTP) aims at supporting experimentation with and development of inexpensive tabletop haptic interfaces in a do-it-yourself fashion. The problem is that programming the HTP (and haptics in general) is difficult. To address this problem, we contribute the Haptictouch toolkit, which enables developers to rapidly prototype haptic tabletop applications. Our toolkit is structured in three layers that enable programmers to: (1) directly control the device, (2) create customized combinable haptic behaviors (e.g., softness, oscillation), and (3) use visuals (e.g., shapes, images, buttons) to quickly make use of these behaviors. In our preliminary exploration we found that programmers could use our toolkit to create haptic tabletop applications in a short amount of time.
Object shape and touch sensing on interactive tables with optical fiber sensors BIBAFull-Text 123-126
  Kentaro Go; Katsutoshi Nonaka; Koji Mitsuke; Masayuki Morisawa
In this paper, we present an approach for sensing object shapes and touching of interactive tables based on diffuse illumination (DI) and frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) and other infrared-based tracking approaches. Our approach uses tangible objects with series connection of optical fibers as bend and touch sensors. The approach enables detection of object deformations and touched points on the object with no modification of the original tabletop-based tracking system. We present the basic concept and an initial evaluation of the approach.
Mobile Lorm Glove: introducing a communication device for deaf-blind people BIBAFull-Text 127-130
  Ulrike Gollner; Tom Bieling; Gesche Joost
Marginalized communities like deaf-blind people are excluded from several forms of communication. This paper introduces a novel system of interaction to support deaf-blind people's communication and therefore enhance their independence. We introduce the Mobile Lorm Glove: a mobile communication and translation device for the deaf-blind. The glove translates the hand-touch alphabet Lorm, a common form of communication used by people with both hearing and sight impairment, into text and vice versa. We will present a hardware prototype, created in a participatory design process, which enables the deaf-blind user to compose messages via fabric pressure sensors placed on the palm of the glove to be transmitted as an SMS to the receiver's handheld. Initiated by small vibrating motors located on the back of the glove, tactile feedback patterns allow the wearer to perceive incoming messages. We discuss related work, prototype design and interaction design and application scenarios. We conclude with an outlook into further research.
VizTouch: automatically generated tactile visualizations of coordinate spaces BIBAFull-Text 131-138
  Craig Brown; Amy Hurst
Visual mathematical concepts have long been challenging to access for people with limited or no vision. Given that functions and data plots are typically presented visually; there are few affordable and accessible solutions for individuals with limited or no vision to interpret data in this format. We have developed software that leverages new affordable 3D printing technology to rapidly and automatically generate tactile visualizations. In this paper, we describe development of the VizTouch software through a user-centered design process. We worked with six individuals with low or limited vision to understand the usefulness of 3D printed custom tactile visualizations, and their design. We describe how VizTouch can be used to make data visualizations in education, business, and entertainment accessible.
Spatial gestures using a tactile-proprioceptive display BIBAFull-Text 139-142
  Eelke Folmer; Tony Morelli
Proprioception -- the human ability to sense the orientation of limbs without vision or hearing -- is one of the main drivers of motor operations and plays a significant role in input modalities such as touch and gestures. As an output modality proprioception has remained largely unexplored -- though it can convey information to a user using their own body. Spatial interaction requires users to visually acquire the location of an object, which can then be manipulated using a touch or gesture. This is challenging if you are unable to see or in mobile contexts where the use of a display may be undesirable. This paper evaluates a tactile-proprioceptive display for eye and ear free 2D target acquisition and spatial interaction.


Exploring tabletops as an effective tool to foster creativity traits BIBAFull-Text 143-150
  Alejandro Catala; Javier Jaen; Betsy van Dijk; Sergi Jordà
Creativity is a relevant characteristic for people's development as it facilitates the generation of new ideas and innovation processes. Although technology has played an important role on creativity stimulation, it still needs to be explored for a better understanding and support in the context of information and communication technologies. In this paper a basic creativity assessment model is presented and an empirical study has been conducted whose aim is to get insight into whether an interactive surface as base technology for collaborative creative tasks is promising in terms of both collaboration and creativity traits. In the study two tabletop-based platforms (a digitally-augmented, and a physical-only without computer mediation) were involved to solve a problem consisting of creating Rube-Goldberg machines. From these experiments, we have observed that in terms of creativity traits, interactive surfaces seem promising as groups working in the digital platform showed significantly more performance in fluency of thinking, were more motivated, and novelty was found near to significance. Also some issues related to collaboration and interaction were analyzed. In particular, the co-operation, the retrial fine adjustment, and the dominance showed that the properties of an interactive surface tabletop suits better for facilitating the sharing of objects and participation in conditions of co-operation by co-located participants.
DESU 100: about the temptation to destroy a robot BIBAFull-Text 151-152
  Julia Ringler; Holger Reckter
Whilst previous research examined the behaviour of humans instructed to destroy robots, this paper is concerned with the question "Are humans tempted to destroy robots?" For this purpose, an interactive installation was created, consisting of the robot DESU 100 and a button on a pedestal. The visitors of this installation were faced with the opportunity to push the button, and herewith forcing the robot to hit itself. Despite feeling sympathy for DESU 100, most of the visitors yielded to the temptation and pressed the button at least once, experiencing satisfaction.
Articulating creative practice: teleological and stochastic strategies in a case study of an artist and an engineering team developing similar technologies BIBAFull-Text 153-160
  Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Juan D. Rogers; Jay David Bolter
We describe teleological and stochastic patterns in creative strategy using a case from our comparative, multiple-case study of the work practices of artists and engineers separately developing similar technologies.
Bridging the gap: attribute and spatial metaphors for tangible interface design BIBAFull-Text 161-168
  Anna Macaranas; Alissa N. Antle; Bernhard E. Riecke
If tangible user interfaces (TUIs) are going to move out of research labs and into mainstream use they need to support tasks in abstract as well as spatial domains. Designers need guidelines for TUIs in these domains. Conceptual Metaphor Theory can be used to design the relations between physical objects and abstract representations. In this paper, we use physical attributes and spatial properties of objects as source domains for conceptual metaphors. We present an empirical study where twenty participants matched physical representations of image schemas to metaphorically paired adjectives. Based on our findings, we suggest twenty pairings that are easily identified, suggest groups of image schemas that can serve as source domains for a variety of metaphors, and provide guidelines for structuring physical-abstract mappings in abstract domains. These guidelines can help designers apply metaphor theory to design problems in abstract domains, resulting in effective interaction.
An integrated multi-modal actuated tangible user interface for distributed collaborative planning BIBAFull-Text 169-174
  Eckard Riedenklau; Thomas Hermann; Helge Ritter
In this paper we showcase an integrative approach for our actuated Tangible Active Objects (TAOs), that demonstrates distributed collaboration support to become a versatile and comprehensive dynamic user interface with multi-modal feedback. We incorporated physical actuation, visual projection in 2D and 3D, and vibro-tactile feedback. We demonstrate this approach in a furniture placing scenario where the users can interactively change the furniture model represented by each TAO using a dial-based tangible actuated menu. We demonstrate virtual constraints between our TAOs to automatically maintain spatial relations.
Beyond affordance: tangibles' hybrid nature BIBAFull-Text 175-182
  Eva Hornecker
A prevalent assumption behind interface approaches that employ physical means of interaction is that this leverages users' prior knowledge from the real world. This paper scrutinizes the assumption that this knowledge can be seamlessly transferred to computer-augmented situations. TEI needs design strategies that acknowledge the hybrid nature of our systems. A change of focus is advocated: from support of intuitive use to the design of seamful mappings and the support of reflection and learning to enable appropriation and a better understanding of the systems we use.

Come out and play

Splash controllers: game controllers involving the uncareful manipulation of water BIBAFull-Text 183-186
  Luc Geurts; Vero Vanden Abeele
In this paper we extend the field of organic user interfaces and introduce the Splash Controller. The main concept of a Splash Controller is that a user interacts with computing technology by manipulation of water in some kind of receptacle. To this end we highlight the possibilities of Splash Controllers, specifically as game controllers. Next, we specify a simple and robust technology for the detection of water. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a Splash Controller, we additionally present the design and development of one specific Splash Controller prototype.
Toward game orchestration: tangible manipulation of in-game experiences BIBAFull-Text 187-188
  T. C. Nicholas Graham; Quentin Bellay; Irina Schumann; Amir Sepasi
We define game orchestration as the activity of creating experiences for game players at run-time. This paper presents a design space for game orchestration techniques, and describes two novel game orchestration systems.
Inflated roly-poly BIBAFull-Text 189-192
  Hyosun Kwon; Seok-Hyung Bae; Hwan Kim; Woohun Lee
We present an air-contained display medium that can be directly deformed and spatially moved by various physical interaction techniques for interactive games. We first investigated familiar objects in our everyday lives that allow users to easily anticipate the idea of exertion interaction. We then introduce a novel concept of interactive medium, dubbed Inflated Roly-Poly, which consists of an inflated body with a roly-poly structure. This device receives physical input, provides passive haptic feedback and allows spatial interaction. We discuss a number of interaction techniques with game applications on Inflated Roly-Poly that presents an engaging experience through full-body interaction. Finally, we conducted an experience workshop with four participants. The workshop proved that an inflated screen coupled with a roly-poly structure exceeds the capabilities of the rigid touch screens in terms of engagement in physical interaction.
T.F.O.: tangible flying objects BIBAFull-Text 193-196
  Rinat Mustafin; Jan Wehner; Wolfgang Sattler; Kristian Gohlke
We present the prototype of an augmented game that uses an enhanced Frisbee-Disc as an interaction device to explore the capability of flying tangible user interfaces for increasing the attractiveness of physical games. While playing with the disc, a dynamic audio stream is generated, which serves as an additional semantic layer that can be leveraged to develop novel game concepts for simple catch-and-throw games. Initial observations of users interacting with our prototype indicate that minor auditory augmentations to seemingly old-fashioned physical exertion games can have a potential to enhance the playing experience and support a more persistent engagement in physical activity.
Improvised interfaces for real-time musical applications BIBAFull-Text 197-200
  Jonathan Aceituno; Julien Castet; Myriam Desainte-Catherine; Martin Hachet
Computers offer a wealth of promises for real-time musical control. One of them is to enable musicians to change the structure of their instruments in the same time they are playing them, allowing them to adapt their tools to their wills and needs. Few interaction styles provide enough freedom to achieve this. Improvised interfaces are tangible interfaces made out of found objects and tailored by their users. We propose to take advantage of these improvised interfaces to turn the surrounding physical environment into a dynamic musical instrument with tremendous possibilities. Methods dealing with design issues are presented and an implementation of this novel approach is described.
Birds on paper: an alternative interface to compose music by utilizing sketch drawing and mobile device BIBAFull-Text 201-204
  Chen-Wei Chiang; Shu-Chuan Chiu; Anak Agung Gede Dharma; Kiyoshi Tomimatsu
In this paper we describes a new concept of utilizing a mobile device or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) for musical composition. We design a new interface that combines the ease of use of a pencil and the portability and customizability of mobile device. Our proposed kit involves the affordances provided by paper computing in order to provide user experiences to novice users. By effectively using the principle of electrical conductivity and signal processing, we have developed a functional prototype ("Birds on Paper") that enables users to compose their own music. Our proposed kit consists of 4 main elements, i.e.: pencil, birds-shaped sensor, hub connector, and mobile device or PDA. Pencil can be applied on a piece of paper as the main medium to visualize the musical composition. Touching the graphite surface of the drawing will trigger an audio feedback in the form of musical notes. Musical notes will be generated based on the thickness and the length of the pencil drawings, thus enables users to intuitively compose the music according to their preference. In addition to the description of the kit, we also discuss the concept behind the design and possible user scenarios.

Can't touch this

Immaterial materials: designing with radio BIBAFull-Text 205-212
  Jordi Solsona Belenguer; Marcus Lundén; Jarmo Laaksolhati; Petra Sundström
Designing with digital materials is sometimes challenging due to material properties that are for all practical purposes invisible. Here we present our work on exploring one such material, radio, and how we have worked with making radio a more tangible and accessible design material for multidisciplinary design teams to work with. Starting from an account of a previous project of ours, the LEGA project, we describe a design situation involving radio that exemplifies some of the challenges that working with radio can involve. We thereafter describe how we have used the Inspirational Bits approach to further investigate the peculiarities of radio as an immaterial design material and what possibilities it holds for interactive systems design.
The design of tools for sketching sensor-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 213-216
  Martin Brynskov; Rasmus Lunding; Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard
In this paper we briefly motivate, present, and give an initial evaluation of DUL Radio, a small wireless toolkit for sketching sensor-based interaction. In the motivation, we state the purpose of this specific platform, which aims to balance ease-of-use (learning, setup, initialization), size, speed, flexibility and cost, aimed at wearable and ultra-mobile prototyping where fast reaction is needed (e.g. in controlling sound), and we mention general issues facing this category of embodied interaction design tools. We briefly present the platform, both regarding hardware and software. In the evaluation, we present our experiences with the platform both in design projects and in teaching. We conclude that DUL Radio was the preferred platform for sketching sensor-based interaction compared to other solutions, and that it does seem to be a relatively easy-to-use tool, but that there are many ways to improve it. Target users include designers, students, artists etc. with minimal programming and hardware skills, but this paper addresses the issues with designing the tools, which includes some technical considerations.
dSensingNI: a framework for advanced tangible interaction using a depth camera BIBAFull-Text 217-224
  Florian Klompmaker; Karsten Nebe; Alex Fast
This work presents an approach to overcome the disadvantages of existing interaction frameworks and technologies for touch detection and object interaction. The robust and easy to use framework dSensingNI (Depth Sensing Natural Interaction) is described, which supports multitouch and tangible interaction with arbitrary objects. It uses images from a depth-sensing camera and provides tracking of users fingers of palm of hands and combines this with object interaction, such as grasping, grouping and stacking, which can be used for advanced interaction techniques.
A nested APi structure to simplify cross-device communication BIBAFull-Text 225-232
  Andy Wu; Sam Mendenhall; Jayraj Jog; Loring Scotty Hoag; Ali Mazalek
In this paper we present Responsive Objects, Surfaces, and Spaces (ROSS) API, a tangible toolkit that allows designers and developers to easily build applications for heterogeneous network devices. We describe the unique nested structure of the ROSS framework that enables cross-platform and device development and demonstrate its capabilities using several prototype applications.
GISpL: gestures made easy BIBAFull-Text 233-240
  Florian Echtler; Andreas Butz
We present GISpL, the Gestural Interface Specification Language. GISpL is a formal language which allows both researchers and developers to unambiguously describe the behavior of a wide range of gestural interfaces using a simple JSON-based syntax. GISpL supports a multitude of input modalities, including multi-touch, digital pens, multiple regular mice, tangible interfaces or mid-air gestures.
   GISpL introduces a novel view on gestural interfaces from a software-engineering perspective. By using GISpL, developers can avoid tedious tasks such as reimplementing the same gesture recognition algorithms over and over again. Researchers benefit from the ability to quickly reconfigure prototypes of gestural UIs on-the-fly, possibly even in the middle of an expert review.
   In this paper, we present a brief overview of GISpL as well as some usage examples of our reference implementation. We demonstrate its capabilities by the example of a multichannel audio mixer application being used with several different input modalities. Moreover, we present exemplary GISpL descriptions of other gestural interfaces and conclude by discussing its potential applications and future development.
Prototyping interaction with everyday artifacts: training and recognizing 3D objects via Kinects BIBAFull-Text 241-244
  Kexi Liu; Dimosthenis Kaleas; Roger Ruuspakka
In this paper we explore and prototype the interaction with everyday passive objects. We present an approach for 3D object training and recognition, leveraging Kinect sensors: the Dominant Orientation Templates (DOT) method allows real-time object training and multiple Kinects speed up the training process by learning the object from multiple viewpoints simultaneously with the object background removed. A proof-of-concept usage scenario, 3D real-time Lego building instruction, has been developed based on this approach: the system learns the individual Lego pieces and Lego building steps in advance; the users thus construct the Lego model with 3D visual hints attached to present Lego pieces.

School's out

Exploring peripheral interaction design for primary school teachers BIBAFull-Text 245-252
  Saskia Bakker; Elise van den Hoven; Berry Eggen; Kees Overbeeke
This paper explores the concept of peripheral interactions; interactions with technology that take place in the background or periphery of the attention. We present two designs for a classroom setting. CawClock makes selected time frames audible in order to provide teachers with awareness of time. NoteLet is designed to support the teacher in observing children's behavior, by enabling him or her to take pictures of the classroom through straightforward interactions on a bracelet. A qualitative, two-week exploration of both systems in a classroom revealed that the soundscapes of CawClock indeed shifted to the periphery of the attention and supported the teacher's time awareness. The actions with NoteLet did not shift to the periphery. However, the tangible aspects of NoteLet seemed to facilitate the interaction to be quick and simple, which may indicate that it could shift to the periphery with more practice. Tangible interaction therefore seems a promising interaction style for this purpose.
MagneTracks: a tangible constructionist toolkit for Newtonian physics BIBAFull-Text 253-256
  Andrea Miller; Claire Rosenbaum; Paulo Blikstein
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) have received a huge push in education during the past few years. However, current methods to teach STEM concepts often lack the ability to allow students creative and open-ended expression. While some toys on the market try to address these issues, they often fail to fulfill learning affordances to their full potential. Our system, MagneTracks, is a multi-component educational toolkit that permits users to engage in creative, exploratory, and open-ended learning of Newtonian physics. MagneTracks consists of dynamic, tangible, magnetic tracks that attach to a vertical whiteboard, a computer-based tracking program integrated into the Netlogo platform, and curriculum challenge activity cards. MagneTracks is specifically focused on teaching physics concepts but can be used to educate in other STEM fields. Initial user observation has shown positive learning outcomes and high engagement.
Process pad: a low-cost multi-touch platform to facilitate multimodal documentation of complex learning BIBAFull-Text 257-262
  Shima Salehi; Jain Kim; Colin Meltzer; Paulo Blikstein
This paper introduces Process Pad, an interactive, low-cost multi-touch tabletop platform designed to capture students' thought process and facilitate their explanations. Process Pad is designed to help students improve their thinking skills and meta-cognition in various subjects. The system is intended to dynamically externalize how a student arrives at the final answer. Process Pad enables the documentation of students' think-aloud narratives that would otherwise be tacit. Our focus is on identifying and understanding key themes in creating opportunities for students to externalize and represent their thought process using multimodal data. From our user observations, we gleaned four design perspectives as essential criteria based upon which we form our design decisions: flexibility, tangibility, collaboration and affordability. Our initial results show that for many users explaining their reasoning or problem-solving procedure is a challenging activity in itself, and for learners to be able to deepen their understanding by narrating or re-enacting a process there would be many intervening steps. To address these challenges we designed scaffolding activities, which made use of the system's affordances to improve students' explanation skills.
BodyExplorerAR: enhancing a mannequin medical simulator with sensing and projective augmented reality for exploring dynamic anatomy and physiology BIBAFull-Text 263-270
  Joseph T. Samosky; Douglas A. Nelson; Bo Wang; Russell Bregman; Andrew Hosmer; Brandon Mikulis; Robert Weaver
BodyExplorerAR is a system designed to enhance a learner's ability to explore anatomy, physiology and clinical interventions though naturalistic interaction with an augmented reality enhanced full-body mannequin simulator. We are developing a platform that integrates projective AR and multi-modal sensor inputs. A user can use an IR pen to open, resize and move viewports providing windows into the body that can display dynamic anatomy. The user can point to an organ and display additional information such as graphs of physiological parameters or heart sounds. Custom sensing systems provide natural interactions with common medical devices such as syringes, breathing tubes and catheters. A user can open a window displaying the beating heart in situ, display an electrocardiogram (ECG), then inject drugs and see and hear changes in heart rate. Our goal is an engaging experience that empowers a learner to create customized, media-rich explorations revealing the internal consequences of external actions.
SWITCH: case study of an edutainment kit for experience design in everyday life BIBAFull-Text 271-274
  Matthew Gardiner; Hideaki Ogawa; Christopher Lindinger; Roland Haring; Emiko Ogawa; My Trinh Gardiner; Martina Mara; Horst Hörtner
We introduce a method to stimulate and catalyse the creativity of students and the general public in the field of experience design. The research is centered on a product design called SWITCH: a simple creative prototyping platform for everyday use which can be likened to picture frame containing a picture with two states, an on and an off state. The states are switched by one of three types of adjustable sensors (light, human, sound) and mechanism. The pictures can be easily customized with analogue art materials like pens and brushes. Our core motivation was to design a product that would bypass the inherent complexities of technology as much as possible, and directly engage the student in creating their own experience design concept with SWITCH. In this paper we introduce our motivation, methods, design and workshop strategies, and evaluations from workshops with the general public.

One step beyond

Situated modeling: a shape-stamping interface with tangible primitives BIBAFull-Text 275-282
  Manfred Lau; Masaki Hirose; Akira Ohgawara; Jun Mitani; Takeo Igarashi
Existing 3D sketching methods typically allow the user to draw in empty space which is imprecise and lacks tactile feedback. We introduce a shape-stamping interface where users can model with tangible 3D primitive shapes. Each of these shapes represents a copy or a fragment of the construction material. Instead of modeling in empty space, these shapes allow us to use the real-world environment and other existing objects as a tangible guide during 3D modeling. We call this approach Situated Modeling: users can create new real-sized 3D objects directly in 3D space while using the nearby existing objects as the ultimate reference. We also describe a two-handed shape-stamping technique for stamping with tactile feedback. We show a variety of doit-yourself furniture and household products designed with our system, and perform a user study to compare our method with a related AR-based modeling system.
StaTube: facilitating state management in instant messaging systems BIBAFull-Text 283-290
  Doris Hausen; Sebastian Boring; Clara Lueling; Simone Rodestock; Andreas Butz
Instant messaging systems, such as Skype, offer text, audio and video channels for one-on-one and group conversations, both for personal and professional communication. They are commonly used at a distance, i.e., across countries and continents. To avoid disrupting other tasks, they display personal states to signal others when to contact someone and when not. This mechanism, however, heavily relies on users setting their own state correctly. In an online survey with 46 participants we found that neglecting state updates leads to unwanted messages, either because the state is incorrect or others disrespect it because they assume it to be wrong anyway. We address this situation with the StaTube, a tangible object offering (1) peripheral interaction for setting one's own state and (2) peripheral awareness of selected others' state. In an in-situ evaluation we found first indicators that (1) peripheral interaction fosters more frequent state updates and more accurate state information, and (2) that our participants felt more aware of their contacts' states due to the physical ambient representation.
The whole world under your feet: field trial of embodied browsing of geotagged content BIBAFull-Text 291-298
  Erika Reponen; Tiina Koponen; Jaakko Keränen; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Location-based services are increasingly popular, and the Earth has become covered with geotagged data. To assess a novel approach to access this information, we conducted a field trial of a mobile mixed reality application called MAA, which operates on a mobile phone. MAA displays a view through the Earth and geospatial content in the direction to which the user is pointing the device. In this paper, we report the results of the two-week long field trial of MAA. We found that the embodied usage of MAA is experienced as engaging and surprising, but may also be cumbersome in some usage situations. Virtual viewing of locations around the planet was considered pleasant. MAA was often shown to friends, and was used for watching visual materials and searching for information about cities. MAA was found to be a promising platform for many kinds of location-based content, especially for real-time events and local information.
Blob manipulation BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  Akira Wakita; Akito Nakano
This paper introduces Blob Manipulation, the interaction technique with fluidic soft matter. Most of the soft matters are substances between liquid and solid and possess viscoelasticity. We focus on this materiality and propose a novel interaction technique. A stirring rod is used as the input tool. When the system detects a user input such as touching, rubbing or tapping, the corresponding transformation will be executed. Six basic operations were designed to transform fluidic soft matter geometrically and topologically. Rheological user interface associated with metamorphose is expected to pioneer new possibilities for design, education and entertainment.
Vertibles: using vacuum self-adhesion to create a tangible user interface for arbitrary interactive surfaces BIBAFull-Text 303-306
  Fabian Hennecke; Raphael Wimmer; Eduard Vodicka; Andreas Butz
We present Vertibles, a set of Tangible User Interface (TUI) objects employing a vacuum-based adhesion effect. This effect allows attaching them to arbitrarily inclined surfaces, bringing the benefit of TUIs to vertical interactive surfaces. In contrast to other vertically attachable TUIs, Vertibles stick to a wide range of surface materials and work with optical as well as electric object tracking techniques for interactive surfaces. We present an overview of approaches for sticking objects onto vertical surfaces, describe the technical principle and properties of our solution, and document implementation details of a number of Vertibles prototypes.
With a flick of the wrist: stretch sensors as lightweight input for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 307-308
  Paul Strohmeier; Roel Vertegaal; Audrey Girouard
With WristFlicker, we detect wrist movement through sets of stretch sensors embedded in clothing. Our system supports wrist rotation (pronation/supination), and both wrist tilts (flexion/extension and ulnar/radial deviation). Each wrist movement is measured by two opposing stretch sensors, mimicking the counteracting movement of muscles. We discuss interaction techniques that allow a user to control a music player through this lightweight input.
Sketch-a-TUI: low cost prototyping of tangible interactions using cardboard and conductive ink BIBAFull-Text 309-312
  Alexander Wiethoff; Hanna Schneider; Michael Rohs; Andreas Butz; Saul Greenberg
Graspable tangibles are now being explored on the current generation of capacitive touch surfaces, such as the iPad and the Android tablet. Because the size and form factor is relatively new, early and low fidelity prototyping of these TUIs is crucial in getting the right design. The problem is that it is difficult for the average interaction designer to develop such physical prototypes. They require a substantial amount time and effort to physically model the tangibles, and expertise in electronics to instrument them. Thus prototyping is sometimes handed off to specialists, or is limited to only a few design iterations and alternative designs. Our solution contributes a low fidelity prototyping approach that is time and cost effective, and that requires no electronics knowledge. First, we supply non-specialists with cardboard forms to create tangibles. Second, we have them draw lines on it via conductive ink, which makes their objects recognizable by the capacitive touch screen. They can then apply routine programming to recognize these tangibles and thus iterate over various designs.

Art explorations

La machine à Turlute (the Turlute Machine) BIBAFull-Text 313-314
  Mouna Andraos; Melissa Mongiat
The Machine à Turlute (Turlute Machine) is a mobile musical unit that enables the general public to learn a traditional folk singing style and collectively compose unique musical pieces.
The Garden of Time: a tangible interactive video installation BIBAFull-Text 315-316
  Jorge C. S. Cardoso; Carlos Sena Caires
In this paper we present the interactive video installation titled "The Garden of Time": a tangible interface designed specifically to emphasize the conceptual nature of the project and to provide a different and entertaining filmic experience to its users.
Tessella: interactive origami light BIBAFull-Text 317-318
  Billy Cheng; Maxine Kim; Henry Lin; Sarah Fung; Zac Bush; Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo
We present an interactive origami light that transforms its shape in the user's hands and creates light patterns depending on the shape. Tessella, explores key themes of current Organic User Interface research. First, input and output are integrated in one object. Second, the form implies its function. Thirdly, it allows the user to discover its affordances and uses. Our work merges the physicality of tessellation with a tangible light experience, incorporating traditional craft and more recent soft-circuit techniques. The goal of this project is to create a playful, poetic interface that evokes users' creativity through interaction.
Tweetris: play with me BIBAFull-Text 319-320
  Dustin Freeman; Fanny Chevalier; Emma Westecott; Kyle Duffield; Kate Hartman; Derek Reilly
We present Tweetris, a full-body interactive Tetris game with extended audience participation. Snapshots of players making correct tetrominos are tweeted, and this feed is used by a mobile and web-based Tetris game, which can be played from anywhere in real-time.
TK 730 BIBAFull-Text 321-322
  Meg Grant; Anja Hertenberger; Leonie Urff; Ricardo O'Nascimento
In this paper, we describe the concept and process behind our work, TK 730, a typewriter that translates text into a knitted textile. TK 730 is a hybrid machine that explores the ideas of translation, encryption, language and symbols, combing materials and objects that are at once familiar and strange.
Hangul Gangul: interactive toy for Hangul learning BIBAFull-Text 323-324
  Azusa Kadomura; Koji Tsukada; Tetsuaki Baba; Kumiko Kushiyama
We propose an interactive toy, "Hangul Gangul", which helps users learn Hangul characters using a tangible interface. Using our system, users can enjoy learning Hangul characters by combining physical blocks representing vowel and consonant characters. Our system aims to encourage collaborative learning between children and adults.
Lovely Rita BIBAFull-Text 325-326
  Lee Min Hye; Romy Achituv
"Lovely Rita" is a dress constructed solely out of variations on a single modular unit: a zipper and the embedded light array it controls. The zipper module is both the fundamental structural unit of the garment as well as a versatile interactive design element, which provides the wearer with the flexibility to dynamically shape the look and feel of the dress. http://vimeo.com/32941240
SolarBurst BIBAFull-Text 327-328
  Julie Legault
Using the wearer's natural interaction with the environment, the SolarBurst necklace imbues the wearer with a sense of power, of 'superhuman', with each random burst of light. Using a 3-dimensional configuration, the necklace is made up of solar cells in pyramidal structures, reminiscent of power crystals, each solar cell a valued for its materiality, pushing the boundaries of function and aesthetics.
The Hum: interacting with an actuated ambient organism BIBAFull-Text 329-330
  Andrea Nesbitt; Matthew Rabinovitch; Audrey Girouard; Roel Vertegaal
The Hum is an immersive art installation filled with hundreds of suspended furred catkins surrounding a cocoon. As visitors enter the space, catkins twitch, shiver and hum. In The Hum, we explore the idea of computers that communicate ephemerally through alterations of room and space.
The memory of a tree: an interactive storytelling installation BIBAFull-Text 331-332
  Hyunjoo Oh; António Gomes
Interactive art has emerged as a distinctive genre in media art that relies on digital contents to express the artist's message. Situated within this field, this work presents an approach to multimedia storytelling that allows audience members to control separate but overlapping parts of the story chapters. We believe that the system engages its audience with a high level of immersion due to its combination of digital computation and tangibility; the tangible system supports a stronger connection to the storytelling than traditional screen-based systems, helping to bridge the gap between the physical world and cyberspace within the field of multimedia storytelling 1]. Consequently, it offers significant potential to share storytelling among a group based its immersive environment and support for embodied interaction paradigms.
A Flock of Birds: bringing paper to life BIBAFull-Text 333-334
  Paul Strohmeier; Kaja Vembe Swensen; Cameron Lapp; Audrey Girouard; Roel Vertegaal
In this paper we describe A Flock of Birds, an interactive, robotic origami art installation. The art installation explores folding paper as a fusion of input, output and computation while simultaneously providing its audience with a fun and exciting experience.
Giffi: a gift for future inventors BIBAFull-Text 335-336
  Kuan-Ju Wu; Mark D. Gross; Mark Baskinger
Giffi is a computationally enhanced construction kit that enables children to build kinetic forms through purposeful play and discovery.
Drawing Tool BIBAFull-Text 337-338
  Shahar Zaks
Drawing Tool is a conceptual art piece intended to provoke discussion on the subject of authorship and originality through the means of an interactive experience, by taking the familiar experience of photography and translating it to the quintessentially creative domain of drawing. The goal is to create a cognitive dissonance that would encourage reflection on the experience.
   At the same time, Drawing Tool has a practical use as a tool for assisted drawing. In a similar way to how one would use a camera to take a photo of an existing scene, Drawing Tool may be used for creative tracing of a predetermined pattern. While the machine controls the larger scale composition, the user is free to exercise their full creative freedom over the details of the drawing.


Fabricating electronics with rapid prototyping tools BIBAFull-Text 339-342
  John Sarik; Chao (Timmy) Li; Ioannis Kymissis
This studio will combine familiar rapid prototyping tools with unfamiliar materials to demonstrate how to fabricate electronic devices. Participants will design and fabricate a laser cut capacitive touch pad and a printed organic light emitting diode (OLED) display that can be combined to create a unique custom game.
Vice interfaces BIBAFull-Text 343-346
  Eric Kabisch; Amanda Williams
While interaction designers often aim to support virtues such as health, creativity and thrift, their design efforts are also implicated in technologies that support greed, lust, and vanity. "Vice" interfaces serve as a way to interrogate critically some of the moral values that lie beneath our design efforts, while also providing an opportunity to create some wickedly fun prototypes.
Design fictions BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  Joshua Tanenbaum; Karen Tanenbaum; Ron Wakkary
This studio provides participants with an opportunity to engage in a hands-on exploration of the use of "design fictions" as a strategy for producing physical artifacts. The idea of design fictions blurs the boundaries between traditional design practices and narrative explorations of potential futures. If the goal of design is to devise courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones, then the goal of design fiction is to use speculations, metaphors, and explorations of desired futurities to explicate and inform material design practices. Participants will have a chance to discuss these ideas, as well as to design and build their own "diegetic prototypes" out of materials sourced from local antique shops, thrift stores, and other nearby sources of inspiration. Through this hands-on exploration of the constraints and affordances of fictional scenarios and scavenged materials, we hope to collectively explore a compelling new design space for tangibles.
Designing haptics BIBAFull-Text 351-354
  Camille Moussette; Stoffel Kuenen; Ali Israr
This studio proposes to tangibly explore the world of haptics to develop a greater understanding and sensitivity to this emerging field. The first part of the studio focuses on general knowledge about haptics, haptic and multimodal perception in humans, and key advances in actuator and sensor technologies to develop haptic interfaces. Numerous demos and testing platforms will be available to relate discussions with real haptic sensations. The second part of the studio aims to explore the various challenges and difficulties in designing haptic interfaces by directly building and sketching in hardware haptic interfaces. Participants will be invited to build their own haptic interfaces from various actuators, sensors and other building blocks. The studio aims to bridge the fields of haptics and design, and investigate various prototyping tools and approaches that can best support haptic design activities.
RePlay: a workshop exploring creativity in action BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Layda Gongora
RePlay is a process that focuses on the design process of tangible interfaces for example mobiles or other pervasive technologies for which concerns such as physicality, context, service, form, spatial requirements, and technical requirements play an important role. Similar to body storming RePlay explores movement as a tool, yet rather than having participatory design aims, the focus is will be upon improvisational creativity and how this type of thinking is useful for designers.
Touch and feel soft hardware BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Ylva Fernaeus; Anna Vallgårda; Mili John Tharakan; Anders Lundström
With soft hardware we refer to electronic components, coatings, and shells built from materials that make them elastic, flexible, floppy and malleable. By introducing new material properties into electronic and computational contexts we expect to open new paths for designing interactive things. Building electronics with textile and other soft materials may easily degrade elements such as speed, power, and storage capacities; however, these constraints can be acceptable if not down right desirable in these new contexts. We see how sensors, actuators, computers and even battery cells made of soft materials enables us to embed them into soft shapes that in turn afford certain forms of interaction. With the term soft hardware, we also highlight the interplay between computational and physical materials in interaction designs.
Sketching sensor-based performances with DUL radio BIBAFull-Text 363-365
  Martin Brynskov; Rasmus B. Lunding
In this studio, audio designers/musicians, choreographers, social interaction designers as well as other creatives will get a chance to try out DUL Radio, an easy-to-use sensor-based interaction toolkit. Depending on the participants interests and skills, we will create one or more small performances to be shown by the end of the day. The program includes a short introduction to the platform. If you have stuff of your own (laptop, sensors, actuators, software), bring it along to play with.
Makey Makey: improvising tangible and nature-based user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 367-370
  David Shaw
Makey Makey is a new platform for improvising tangible user interfaces. It enables people to make nature-based interfaces, it is compatible with all software, and it does not require the user to program or to assemble electronics. It is designed for a wide range of audiences, supporting ideation for experts and access for beginners. In the studio, participants will rapidly create several different user interfaces incorporating a wide variety of found objects, both physical and digital. There will also be opportunities to test out the newly created interfaces with each other, and reflect on the design of UI prototyping toolkits.
Electronics as material: littleBits BIBAFull-Text 371-374
  Ayah Bdeir; Paul Rothman
Electronics are everywhere. We produce, consume and throw out more electronic gadgets than ever before. Yet, creativity with electronics starts when they can be thought of as sketching materials like paper, screws, and cardboard.
   This Studio will allow participants to create prototypes of interactive gadgets using a diverse library of materials: littleBits (an open-source kit of pre-assembled electronics that snap together with tiny magnets), combined with traditional design materials (foam, fabric, paper, cardboard, etc).
   The Studio structure is in several phases. The participants start by conceptualizing an interactive object or small-scale installation, break down the interaction, and build it using familiar and unfamiliar materials. Participants will then present their creation and discuss the process of expanding their materials library to include light, sound, sensing, motion and logic. Finally, the participants will come up with ideas for new littleBits modules to suggest or contribute to the open source kit and community.
Designing and building inexpensive flexible circuits BIBAFull-Text 375-377
  Aneesh P. Tarun; Peng Wang
Interest in flexible and non-planar devices has put a spotlight on flexible circuits, a technology that has been around for more than forty years. This Studio will introduce the prototyping of flexible electronic circuits at a low cost. The participants will be participating in brainstorming an interesting electronic project, designing circuit layout for it, etching and building functional flexible circuits.
Glassblowing: forming a computational glass material BIBAFull-Text 379-380
  David Holman
Glassblowing is an artistry that shapes, forms, and manipulates molten glass. Using fire and air, glass is repeatedly melted and inflated until an aesthetic surface geometry is satisfied. Studio participants will learn and experience this art first hand. Beginning with a small glass object, they will then follow suit by making a larger and more complex shape. Finally, led by Arduino and a DIY approach, these glass objects will be imbued with pixels and sensing, ultimately forming a computational glass material.
SparkFun Electronics ProtoSnap and repurposed electronics BIBAFull-Text 381-382
  Lindsay Levkoff; Peter Dokter
SparkFun Electronics will host a workshop based on the popular ProtoSnap development board (Arduino-compatible). The workshop will begin with an introduction to ProtoSnap & Arduino including code examples to get everyone comfortable and then we will have some fun creating sketches in Processing. Once everyone has successfully written some code we will split into small groups and explore avenues of usage with a focus on repurposing or recycling items and technologies. Participants are encouraged to bring interesting and unusual treasures that are begging to be hacked. Our team will facilitate a fun, hands-on hacking session.
Introduction to origami folding, design, and analysis BIBAFull-Text 383-384
  Jason Ku; Jie Qi
The mathematics of folding origami is relevant in the design of solar sails and airbags, to heart stents and proteins. This workshop is designed to be a crash course introduction to folding, designing, and analyzing representational origami. First, a brief overview of the history of origami will be presented, including its transition from a static, ceremonial tradition to a dynamic, artistic engineering science. Second, the tree theory method of representational origami design with respect to uniaxial bases will be introduced. Lastly, participants will be encouraged to design and explore folding mechanisms that can interface with flexible circuit materials and components.

Graduate student consortium

Body-centric interaction with mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 385-386
  Xiang 'Anthony' Chen
Most current mobile technologies require on-screen operations for interacting with devices' visual contents. However, as a trade-off for mobility, screens usually provide limited space for interactions. To address this problem, I explore Body-Centric Interaction (BCI) -- a design theme that extends a mobile device's interaction space from screen space to body space. My research methodology follows several steps. First, I use a generative bottom-up method -- sketches and proof of concept implementations -- to frame the breadth of the design space. Second, I populate the space with related work, which also unifies what has been done. Third -- which is work in progress -- I explore the depth of promising BCI methods, with the goal of developing, refining and testing particular mobile interaction techniques.
Peripheral interaction: facilitating interaction with secondary tasks BIBAFull-Text 387-388
  Doris Hausen
Working with digital devices, we often do not focus on one task but switch back and forth between several tasks. Usually some of these tasks are only small secondary tasks. But in contrast to the analog world, where we can carry out such tasks in the periphery of our attention (e.g., drinking a cup of tea while being engaged in a conversation), digital devices normally force us to switch windows, context and thereby the center of our attention independent from the magnitude of the task. To improve multitasking with small tasks (e.g., setting the IM state) I am taking a closer look at peripheral interaction, interaction that can be carried out in the periphery of our attention. Thereby I want to minimize disruption by secondary tasks, to carry out both types of tasks, primary and peripheral, more efficiently. To achieve that goal I developed a preliminary classification and selected several aspects to investigate in more detail.
What I grasp is what I control: interacting through grasp releases BIBAFull-Text 389-390
  Katrin Wolf
The idea of capitalizing on the hand's degrees of freedom while grasping for gesture-based control motivates my research. The question is: to what extent can users interact with grasped objects through tiny finger gestures that are performed whilst grasping? This extended abstract is a position paper on developing a paradigm for interacting with everyday objects. I focus on designing ergonomic microinteractions and interfaces regarding human motor abilities, interaction preferences, and the understanding of the users themselves within their environment. The basis of the investigated interaction designs is a taxonomy for microgestures that is developed in an expert study. In proof-of-concept user studies with interactive prototypes, I evaluate microgesture-based interactions and generalize them to a post WIMP paradigm for interacting with grasped objects. The paradigm contains design implications for occluded gestures relying on embodied knowledge about grasping objects.
Jing Hua: interacting with virtual flowers in a physical garden BIBAFull-Text 391-392
  Jifei Ou
This paper presents a novel interactive installation "Jing Hua", which augments physical garden with virtual flowers. Visitors influence the growth of virtual flowers by manipulating a tangible interface: a white oversized bowl, on which the flowers are projected. The installation sought to explore how the physical environment and digital projection can be naturally merged to evoke subjects' mixed experience of aesthetics.
Social contraptions as breaching environments BIBAFull-Text 393-394
  Robb Mitchell
A major challenge for developers of tangible, embedded and embodied interfaces is the understanding of dynamic social contexts. To address this challenge, the concept of "social contraptions" is proposed. Social contraptions are interactive installations and performative interventions employed as designerly explorations of social relations.
Designing tangible interaction for embodied facilitation BIBAFull-Text 395-396
  Augusto Esteves
Designing and evaluating tangible interaction is a challenging ad-hoc process. This paper argues that if the field of tangible interaction is to continue to develop, it will need to adopt design methodologies and guidelines that reflect its unique features and constraints. This paper considered theories of embodied cognition as source for guidelines that might be better matched to the development of tangible interaction. It also presents a toolkit to record and present users' interactions with tangible applications, affording systematic comparisons between tangible designs, tangible systems, and between tangible interaction and other interaction paradigms.
Fostering exploratory learning in students with intellectual disabilities: how can tangibles help? BIBAFull-Text 397-398
  Taciana Pontual Falcão
Students with intellectual disabilities tend to be reliant on other people's opinions and attitudes, and fear taking initiatives. Thus, they are reluctant to independently undertake activities of exploratory learning -- a pedagogical approach recommended by constructivist theories. This research aims to investigate how different aspects of tangibles, like physicality, multisensory and dynamic feedback, can better support more independent exploration for students with intellectual disabilities.
SnapToTrace: a new e-textile interface and component kit for learning computation BIBAFull-Text 399-400
  Liza Stark
Modular toolkits and electronic textiles have emerged as highly effective resources to engage new audiences in computational learning. This paper will briefly review past relevant research in these domains, paying close attention to different taxonomies that consider the role of personal fabrication. Based on this analysis and user research, I will then introduce an interface prototype that is pedagogically concerned with user scalability and multiple points of entry. A specific focus is placed on the role materials play in achieving these pedagogical goals. I will close with plans for future iterations of the circuit mat and possible directions for development.
Algo.Rhythm: computational thinking through tangible music device BIBAFull-Text 401-402
  Huaishu Peng
I present the design of Algo.Rhythm, a tangible computational drum kit with programmable behaviors. By arranging and physically connecting a number of drum-bots, each of them records beat patterns from outside world or its precursor, replays the patterns in selectable ways, and passes the rhythm to its neighbors along the drum-bot's surface in 3D space. The construction of drum-bots and the delivery of the beat patterns provide users a unique opportunity to learn a set of computational concepts like sequential execution, iteration, or forking through composing music.
Exploring the expressiveness of shape-changing surfaces BIBAFull-Text 403-404
  Alice Bodanzky
This paper describes the development of an actuated shape-changing surface as a way to explore the emergent expressive qualities of computational composites. Preliminary tests demonstrate the surface's potential to move in space following variations on its texture and topology patterns. Findings from this research are expected to shed light on how to design kinetic interfaces.
Embedded soft material displays BIBAFull-Text 405-406
  Eszter Ozsvald
This paper investigates methods of fabricating organic displays based on hybrid material composition. Our primary research focuses on controlling heat activated inks (thermochromic) combined with invisible, embedded electronics. We demonstrate our process through SymbiosisO, a collection of textile interfaces. This wired fabric material behaves as an organic display with a discernable matrix of sub-components, each reacting to definable impulses. The activation of thermochromic inks requires higher power than typical prototyping boards can provide. To address this we are developing a specialized controller platform that supports the necessary power handling, furthermore, by simplifying and reducing the system form factor we demonstrate that such systems can be integrated more easily and within a wider range of static and mobile applications. Our controller continues to be developed toward an end user accessible platform under the name Heatit°C.