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Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Persuasive Technology

Fullname:PERSUASIVE 2015: 10th International Conference on Persuasive Technology
Editors:Thomas MacTavish; Santosh Basapur
Location:Chicago, Illinois
Dates:2015-Jun-03 to 2015-Jun-05
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9072
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20306-5 hcibib: Persuasive15; ISBN: 978-3-319-20305-8 (print), 978-3-319-20306-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. Understanding Individuals
  2. Empowering Individuals
  3. Understanding Communities
  4. Empowering Communities

Understanding Individuals

Involvement as a Working Mechanism for Persuasive Technology BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Saskia M. Kelders
Internet interventions have been shown to be effective for treatment of mental health complaints. Although non-adherence poses a problem, persuasive technology might be a solution. However, there is limited insight in how and why technology may lead to more adherence and effectiveness. This study explores the role of involvement in a Behavior Change Support System (BCSS) for treatment of depression. Involvement is seen as an important factor in the success of treatment, but has received little research attention. This study expands on an earlier study and uses self-reported data to explore differences between versions of the BCSS on involvement. The results show that involvement and adherence are related, but involvement outperforms adherence as predictor for effectiveness. This underlines the importance of involvement: it may be a working mechanism of persuasive technology and may be used as an early measure to assess whether the intervention is likely to reach its goals.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Behavior change support system; Health; Adherence; Involvement
Understanding Persuasion and Motivation in Interactive Stroke Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 15-26
  Michelle Pickrell; Bert Bongers; Elise van den Hoven
For the research reported in this paper ethnographic research methodologies were used to explore patient motivation, feedback and the use of interactive technologies in the ward. We have conducted in-depth interviews with physiotherapists, who work closely with stroke patients to help them regain movement and function. From this research, a set of design guidelines have been developed which can be applied in the design of interactive rehabilitation equipment.
Keywords: Rehabilitation; Stroke; Healthcare; Feedback; Design research
Formalizing Customization in Persuasive Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 27-38
  M. C. Kaptein
Many authors have noted that customization increases the effectiveness of persuasive technologies. Also, many empirical demonstrations of successful customization efforts exist in the persuasive technology literature. However, a clear formal framework to describe and evaluate customization is lacking. This leads to the worrisome conclusion that statements like: "customization is beneficial" are often ill-defined given the empirical demonstration at hand. In this paper we forward a formalization of customization to prevent such problems. We derive a number of assumptions regarding the data-generating model that need to be met for customization to be fruitful, and we provide several examples of customization criteria. This paper serves as a discussion piece for the persuasive technology conference to evaluate the use and value of (mathematical) formalizations of customization.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Customization; Personalization
Understanding How Message Receivers Communication Goals are Applied in Online Persuasion BIBAKFull-Text 39-50
  E. Vance Wilson
Prior research demonstrated that message receivers' primary and secondary communication goals are important predictors of their evaluation of online persuasive messages. The present study was undertaken to illuminate the process by which these communication goals are applied in response to received messages. The findings demonstrate that communication goals are applied immediately upon viewing even a simple message directory listing containing subject, sender, and date information. Once activated, communication goals significantly predict intention to comply with a message request, although predictiveness increases substantially when the complete message is read. Further analysis suggests that message receivers' communication goals can offer rich explanations of the cognitive processes that are used to evaluate online persuasive messages.
Keywords: Influence; Compliance; Computer-mediated communication (CMC); Email; Goals-planning-action model

Empowering Individuals

What Makes You Bike? Exploring Persuasive Strategies to Encourage Low-Energy Mobility BIBAKFull-Text 53-64
  Matthias Wunsch; Agnis Stibe; Alexandra Millonig; Stefan Seer; Chengzhen Dai; Katja Schechtner; Ryan C. C. Chin
This paper explores three persuasive strategies and their capacity to encourage biking as a low-energy mode of transportation. The strategies were designed based on: (I) triggering messages that harness social influence to facilitate more frequent biking, (II) a virtual bike tutorial to increase biker's self-efficacy for urban biking, and (III) an arranged bike ride to help less experienced bikers overcome initial barriers towards biking. The potential of these strategies was examined based on self-reported trip data from 44 participants over a period of four weeks, questionnaires, and qualitative interviews. Strategy I showed a significant increase of 13.5 percentage points in share of biking during the intervention, strategy II indicated an increase of perceived self-efficacy for non-routine bikers, and strategy III provided participants with a positive experience of urban biking. The explored strategies contribute to further research on the design and implementation of persuasive technologies in the field of mobility.
Keywords: Low-energy mobility; Persuasion; Biking; Cycling; Behavior change; Transportation; Sustainability; Socially influencing systems
Preliminary Evaluation of Virtual Cycling System Using Google Street View BIBAKFull-Text 65-70
  Shota Hirose; Yasuhiko Kitamura
Overweight and obesity due to lack of physical activities incur a serious social problem. Recently, a large number of people have interest in physical exercise to keep themselves well, but it is not easy to continue to do it. Persuasive technology can provide solutions to encourage them to continue physical activities. Exercise bikes are one of indoor exercise tools, but the users easily get tired of the bikes because they just only pedal at the same spot. Several virtual cycling systems have been developed, which encourage exercise by showing scenery videos or virtual reality CG movies in accordance with the pedaling speed, but the choices of the cycling routes are limited. We are developing a new virtual cycling system with Google Street View to provide almost unlimited route choices to the users. It reproduces scenery along a cycling route by showing Street View images one after another in accordance with the pedaling speed. This paper shows how our system promotes physical exercise as a preliminary evaluation.
Keywords: Virtual cycling; Promoting physical activities; Google street view
Bet4EcoDrive: BIBAKFull-Text 71-82
  Caroline Atzl; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Stefan Vikoler; Manfred Tscheligi
We present Bet4EcoDrive, an in-car app, which intends to persuade drivers to change their driving behavior towards an economical driving style. This is achieved by suggesting the driver to bet that (s)he can reach a predefined goal. In our study scenario, the driver can bet to stay within a certain RPM range to avoid driving at high revs and, thus, to reduce fuel consumption. We have implemented Bet4EcoDrive as an Android-based smartphone app, which can be connected to the vehicle via ODB-II over Bluetooth, in order to read car data (e.g., RPM). It provides feedback of the actual state while driving through different visualizations. An exploratory in-situ study with five participants proves the feasibility of our approach. The results show that participants were persuaded to reduce average RPM values while driving by the desire to win the bet.
Keywords: Economic driving; OBD-II; Betting app
Persuasive Technology Based on Bodily Comfort Experiences: The Effect of Color Temperature of Room Lighting on User Motivation to Change Room Temperature BIBAKFull-Text 83-94
  Shengnan Lu; Jaap Ham; Cees Midden
In this paper we propose a new perspective on persuasive technology: Comfort-Experience-Based Persuasive Technology. We argue that comfort experiences have a dominant influence on people's (energy consumption) behavior. In the current research, we argue that room lighting can influence heating-related comfort experiences (by emitting a 'warm' versus 'cold' lighting color temperature). Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of lighting color temperature on participants' perceptions of room lighting temperature and their estimations of room temperature, their experiences of the comfort related to room lighting temperature and related to room temperature, and also their motivation to change room temperature settings and participants' temperature-setting behavior. Results indicated that lighting color temperature can influence a user's perception of the temperature in the room, and can also motivate the user to change room temperature. This research revealed that using persuasive strategies that targets user comfort experiences could help users decrease their energy consumption.
Keywords: Ambient persuasive technology; Sustainability; Comfort experiences; Lighting; Color temperature
BrightDark: A Smartphone App Utilizing e-fotonovela and Text Messages to Increase Energy Conservation Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 95-106
  Olayan Alharbi; Samir Chatterjee
Global energy consumption is rapidly increasing, while natural energy resources are shrinking. Household energy consumption accounts for 22% of total energy consumption in U.S. Almost half of household energy consumption is electricity use. In the U.S., households spent on average $1,419 annually for electricity and it is accountable for over 70% of household CO2 emissions. Households are looking to reduce their electricity consumption. In this paper, we present a novel persuasive approach, by using e-fotonovela (art-based research) and text messages to provide household with a customized motivation and awareness solution to reduce their electricity consumption based on either cost or environmental concern. Findings provide significant results for the efficacy of the customized e-fotonovela and text messages in motivating and raising households' awareness toward electricity conservation.
Keywords: Electricity conservation; Fotonovela; Text messages; Mobile apps; Persuasive technology
Designing and Analyzing Swing Compass: A Lively Interactive System Provoking Imagination and Affect for Persuasion BIBAKFull-Text 107-120
  Kenny K. N. Chow; D. Fox Harrell; Wong Ka Yan
Grounded in cognitive semantics in cognitive science, the psychology of emotion, and phenomenological approaches to interaction design, this paper first suggests a cognitive and interpretive approach to the imaginative and affective user experiences of "lively" interactive artifacts, which are reminiscent of everyday life experience. It then introduces Swing Compass, an interactive computing system that turns a tablet computer into a compass-like reflective device with artificial intelligence based on an analogy and moderation engine. With configurable analogy and moderation rules and changeable multimedia contents, the device can be instantiated differently, such as "daily activities advisors" or "app-launching guides", to help people from addiction or decidophobia in various contexts. User experience tests on the device have generated qualitative data showing how it provokes imagination and emotion via conceptual blends and emotional appraisals during different moments. This demonstrates the application of the proposed framework for interpreting users' meaning-making processes and informing possible orientations of the reflective design in hope of behavior change.
Keywords: Embodied cognition; Reflective design; Sensorimotor experience; Conceptual blending
Does Trigger Location Matter? The Influence of Localization and Motivation on the Persuasiveness of Mobile Purchase Recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 121-132
  Frank Basten; Jaap Ham; Cees Midden; Luciano Gamberini; Anna Spagnolli
Thanks to the ubiquity of wireless network, location has become an easily available resource to exploit when sending purchase recommendations. We rely on Fogg's Behavior model (FBM; Fogg, 2009) and on previous research to study whether the appearance of such recommendations when the user spatially approaches a target item improves the recommendation persuasiveness. We created a virtual supermarket, where products images are displayed on posters and customers can scan products' QR codes with a tablet to buy them. The persuasiveness of triggers co-located or not with the target product was examined, in conditions of high vs. poor motivation to purchase that product. Confirming our hypotheses, triggers co-located with the target product lead to higher sales of that product. Furthermore, participants who received a co-located trigger that also contained a motivating message purchased more items than participants in other conditions. Therefore, setting triggers to appear at a specific location proximal to the target item can change behavior, especially for motivated subjects.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Fogg behavior model; Triggers; Motivation; Location-based; Virtual supermarket

Understanding Communities

Adaptive Reminders for Safe Work BIBAKFull-Text 135-140
  Matthias Hartwig; Philipp Scholl; Vanessa Budde; Armin Windel
In working context, new information and communication systems like head-mounted displays are often established to increase productivity. However, new technology can also potentially assist users to increase their health and well-being by encouraging safe behaviour, as they offer rich potential for persuasive elements and are highly adaptive to the respective situation. A setup is presented that evaluates the persuasive effect of a head mounted display-based assistance system on safe behaviour during a task in a laboratory simulation. In a randomised experimental design, the results show that the persuasive assistance system led to a significant and substantial reduction of safety violations compared to a traditionally designed warning sign. The findings suggest to design reminders not only according to ergonomic aspects, but also to consider persuasive effects on behavior. Furthermore, the results highlight the opportunities of mobile devices for assisting healthy behaviour in working environments.
Keywords: Head mounted display; Occupational safety; Laboratory safety; Assistance system; Persuasive technology; Anthropomorphic agent
For Your Safety BIBAKFull-Text 141-146
  Thomas J. L. Van Rompay; Peter W. De Vries; Manon T. Damink
Based on the assumption that monitoring technology in environmental settings impacts people's state of mind and subsequent perceptions, the current study examines the influence of security camera's on safety perceptions and citizen wellbeing. Participants watched a video of city streets that featured (versus not featured) security cameras. In the camera condition, their safety ratings were significantly higher than in the camera-less (control) condition. In addition, the camera condition caused more positive ("safe") interpretations of an ambiguous situation than the control condition. Finally, results suggest that attributed intent underlying camera usage is a key construct to reckon with when considering camera placement. In discussing these findings, the conditions under which camera surveillance contributes to citizen wellbeing are elaborated on.
Keywords: Security cameras; Safety perceptions; Environmental design; Perceived intent
Gender, Age, and Responsiveness to Cialdini's Persuasion Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 147-159
  Rita Orji; Regan L. Mandryk; Julita Vassileva
Research has shown that there are differences in how males and females respond to persuasive attempts. This paper examines the persuasiveness of the six persuasive strategies -- Reciprocity, Scarcity, Authority, Commitment and Consistency, Consensus and Liking developed by Cialdini with respect to age and gender. The results of the large-scale study (N = 1108) show that males and females differ significantly in their responsiveness to the strategies. Overall, females are more responsive to most of the strategies than males and some strategies are more suitable for persuading one gender than the other. The results of our study also reveal some differences between younger adults and adults with respect to the persuasiveness of the strategies. Finally, the results show that irrespective of gender and age, there are significant differences between the strategies regarding their perceived persuasiveness overall, shedding light on the comparative effectiveness of the strategies.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Behavior change; Gender; Age; Persuasive strategies; Persuasiveness; Individual differences; Susceptibility
Using Individual and Collaborative Challenges in Behavior Change Support Systems: Findings from a Two-Month Field Trial of a Trip Planner Application BIBAFull-Text 160-171
  Johann Schrammel; Sebastian Prost; Elke Mattheiss; Efthimios Bothos; Manfred Tscheligi
Besides other popular strategies, such as feedback and (social) comparisons, challenges have been proposed and used to influence people's behavior towards a targeted goal. However, only very limited data on the effectiveness of such approaches and how to best design them is available yet. In this work we report the findings of a two months field study analyzing the effectiveness and perception of challenges in the context of influencing personal mobility. Individual and collaborative approaches towards challenges were studied, and specific focus was laid on what aspect makes users willing to participate in these challenges. Our findings suggest that both individual and collaborative challenges have the potential to sustain the interest of users in using behavior change support systems, that collaborative and individual challenges seem to not attract different types of users, that individual challenges in general are preferred, and that challenges are only a useful means for a subset of users. Also, ICT-competence seems to be an important aspect of being willing to participate in electronically organized challenges.
Towards a Framework for Socially Influencing Systems: Meta-analysis of Four PLS-SEM Based Studies BIBAKFull-Text 172-183
  Agnis Stibe
People continuously experience various types of engagement through social media, mobile interaction, location-based applications, and other technologically advanced environments. Often, integral parts of such socio-technical contexts often are information systems designed to change behaviors and attitudes of their users by leveraging powers of social influence, further defined as socially influencing systems (SIS). Drawing upon socio-psychological theories, this paper initially reviews and presents a typology of relevant social influence aspects. Following that, it analyzes four partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) based empirical studies to examine the interconnectedness of their social influence aspects. As a result, the analysis provides grounds for seminal steps towards the development and advancement of a framework for designing and evaluating socially influencing systems. The main findings can also deepen understanding of how to effectively harness social influence for enhanced user engagement in socio-technical environments and guide persuasive engineering of future socially influencing systems.
Keywords: Socially influencing systems; Framework; Persuasive technology
Acttention -- Influencing Communities of Practice with Persuasive Learning Designs BIBAKFull-Text 184-195
  Sandra Burri Gram-Hansen; Thomas Ryberg
Based on the preliminary results of implementing and testing a persuasive learning initiative in the Danish Military, this paper discusses and develops the notion of persuasive learning designs. It is suggested that the acquirement of new knowledge is fundamental to persuasion, and that persuasive learning designs distinguish themselves by leading to sustainable change to the learner's attitude and/or behaviour. A practical example of persuasive learning designs is provided in terms of the interactive location-based learning game Acttention, which has been developed and tested on behalf of the Danish Military and aims to motivate a sustainable environmental attitude and behaviour amongst army employees. The learning design was first implemented, tested and evaluated at the army base on Bornholm in November 2014.The study was conducted in accordance with the Design Based Research approach and the evaluation include both qualitative and quantitative results, based on observations, questionnaires, photo and video documentation and in situ interviews. The results presented in this paper indicate that it may be beneficial to consider different levels of learning when arguing towards a claim of persuasive design within this more established field of research and development. Rather than focus on improving learning technologies or motivating the interest in a subject, persuasive designs may be more efficient when used to influence the communities of practice in educational institutions.
Keywords: Learning; Kairos; Persuasive design; Learning games; Situation-based learning; Communities of practice; e-Learning; Persuasive learning Designs; Design based research; Energy and environmental behaviour; Sustainability
Ethical Challenges in Emerging Applications of Persuasive Technology BIBAKFull-Text 196-201
  Jelte Timmer; Linda Kool; Rinie van Est
Persuasive technologies are gaining ground. As they enter into society they are being applied in more situations, and integrated with other technologies in increasingly smart environments. We argue that this development creates new challenges in designing ethically responsible persuasive technologies. Applications in social contexts like work environments raise the questions whether persuasion serves the interests of the user or the employer, and whether users can still voluntarily choose to use the technology. Informing the user and obtaining consent become complicated when persuasive systems are integrated in smart environments. To ensure that the autonomy of the user is respected, we argue that the user and provider should agree on the goal of persuasion, and users should be informed about persuasion in smart environments.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Ethics; Autonomy; Smart environments

Empowering Communities

Influencing Retirement Saving Behavior with Expert Advice and Social Comparison as Persuasive Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 205-216
  Junius Gunaratne; Oded Nov
Numerous online communities and e-commerce sites provide users with crowd-based recommendations to influence decision making about products. Similarly, automated recommender systems often use social advice or curated knowledge provided by experts to give customers personalized product recommendations. Little, however, is known about the relative strengths of these approaches in repeated-decision scenarios. We used social comparison and an expert recommendation to examine the relative effectiveness of these methods of persuasion for users making repeated retirement saving decisions. We exposed 314 performance-incentivized experiment participants to a retirement saving simulator where they made 34 yearly asset allocation decisions in one of three user interface conditions. The gap between participants' retirement goal and actual savings was smallest in the expert advice condition and significantly better than the social comparison condition. Both conditions were significantly better than the control condition. In non-control conditions, users adjusted their behavior and achieved their saving goal more effectively.
Keywords: Retirement saving; Social comparison; Behavior change; Persuasive technology; Financial literacy
A System Development Life Cycle for Persuasive Design for Sustainability BIBAKFull-Text 217-228
  Moyen M. Mustaquim; Tobias Nyström
The impact of a system development lifecycle (SDLC) often determines the success of a project from analysis to evolution. Although SDLC can be universally used design projects, a focused SDLC for a specific complex design issue could be valuable for understanding diverse user needs. The importance of sustainability elevation using a persuasive system is not new. Previous research presented frameworks and design principles for persuasive system design for sustainability, while an SDLC of sustainable system development also exists. However, at present no SDLC for persuasive design aiming for sustainability is evident, which was proposed in this paper. An existing sustainable SDLC established earlier by the authors was taken as the reference framework. A cognitive model with established persuasive design principles was then analyzed and mapped within the context of the reference framework to come up with the resulting life cycle. Finally, extensive discussions and future work possibilities were given.
Keywords: Sustainability; SDLC; Persuasive System Design; Cognitive model; Persuasive system design for Sustainability; Life cycle for persuasive system design
Conforming to an Artificial Majority: Persuasive Effects of a Group of Artificial Agents BIBAKFull-Text 229-240
  Cees Midden; Jaap Ham; Joey Baten
In this paper we propose a new perspective on persuasive technology: Persuasive effects of a group of artificial agents. We argue that while effects of single social agents have been corroborated, understanding of persuasion by multiple agents in a group setting is very limited. In the current research, we argue that conformity effects could occur not only with human majorities, but also with artificial majorities consisting of smart agents or computers. Two studies were conducted to investigate the conformity effect of group pressure on participants' comparative judgments of lengths of lines, based on the classic Asch paradigm. Group pressure by human majorities was compared with pressure by majorities of boxed PC's and of artificial virtual agents. Results indicated that normative pressure is limited to human majorities, while informational pressure can also be exerted by artificial majorities. This research revealed that applying majorities of artificial agents opens up a new domain of persuasive technology.
Keywords: Conformity; Artificial agent; artificial majority; persuasive technology; Persuasive agents; Groups of artificial agents
A Systems Self-referential Persuasion: Understanding the Role of Persuasive User Experiences in Committing Social Web Users BIBAKFull-Text 241-252
  Michael Oduor; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
This paper discusses how social web platforms try to influence user interactions. We explain this influence from the perspective of persuasion context analysis and provision of persuasive user experiences. Additionally, the paper introduces and expounds on the concept of self-referential persuasion and illustrates its application through discussion and analysis of preliminary results of a survey (N=57) on the use of the social web. The persuasive systems design (PSD) model is utilized to analyze the social influence aspects through analysis of the persuasion context and the subsequent persuasive user experiences.
Keywords: Social web; platform; Social influence; Persuasive systems design; Self-referential persuasion; Persuasive user experience; Humanized web
Advancing Typology of Computer-Supported Influence: Moderation Effects in Socially Influencing Systems BIBAKFull-Text 253-264
  Agnis Stibe
Persuasive technologies are commonly engineered to change behavior and attitudes of users through persuasion and social influence without using coercion and deception. While earlier research has been extensively focused on exploring the concept of persuasion, the present theory-refining study aims to explain the role of social influence and its distinctive characteristics in the field of persuasive technology. Based on a list of notable differences, this study outlines how both persuasion and social influence can be best supported through computing systems and introduces a notion of computer-moderated influence, thus extending the influence typology. The novel type of influence tends to be more salient for socially influencing systems, which informs designers to be mindful when engineering such technologies. The study provides sharper conceptual representation of key terms in persuasive engineering, drafts a structured approach for better understanding of the influence typology, and presents how computers can be moderators of social influence.
Keywords: Influence typology; Computer-moderated; Persuasive technology; Computer-mediated; Computer-human; Socially influencing systems