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PDC Tables of Contents: 020406081012-112-214-114-2

Proceedings of the 13th Participatory Design Conference. Volume 1: Research Papers

Fullname:Proceedings of the 13th Participatory Design Conference: Research Papers
Editors:Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Vincenzo D'Andrea; Ole Sejer Iversen
Location:Windhoek, Namibia
Dates:2014-Oct-06 to 2014-Oct-10
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2256-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: PDC14-1
Links:Conference Website
  1. PDC 2014-10-06 Volume 1
    1. Complex interrelations in participatory design
    2. Sustaining relations in participatory design
    3. Stakeholder issues in participatory design
    4. Challenging context of participation
    5. Beyond/after design

PDC 2014-10-06 Volume 1

Complex interrelations in participatory design

Emerging spaces in community-based participatory design: reflections from two case studies BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Amalia G. Sabiescu; Salomão David; Izak van Zyl; Lorenzo Cantoni
This paper engages with issues of universality and locality in the context of community-based participatory design (PD), and focuses on the challenges and opportunities associated with incorporating local views and forms of participation in the design process. The notion of 'designing for participation' is advanced as a quintessential perspective for approaches in which design practices are re-configured from a community-centric standpoint. Building on insights from PD and community development studies, as well as on empirical evidence from two community design studies, we argue that designing for participation appears to be located in a space between the designer's and local views of participation, which are at times both ambiguous and conflicting. To overcome these tensions, we argue for the importance of engaging critically and reflectively with PD in community contexts, and in this process capitalising on disciplinary dialogues that can expand the viewpoint from which PD projects are negotiated and evaluated.
Infrastructuring participatory development in information technology BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Antonella De Angeli; Silvia Bordin; María Menéndez Blanco
In this paper we present our experience in building a socio-technical infrastructure for supporting social innovation in Information Technology. We start by describing a case study on the design and use of a smartphone application for the canteen services of a local university; based on this, we propose what we call the hourglass approach to support participatory design and development in Information Technology. The hourglass is defined by the intersection of two co-evolving dimensions of infrastructuring: the social and the technical ones. Different subsets of the community, characterized by the increasing involvement of self-selected volunteers, position themselves along the two axes and have different roles in the design and use of the generated artefact. We conclude by discussing how this approach can help addressing some of the current challenges (i.e. scale, milieu and responsibilities) of social innovation in Information Technology.
Participatory realisation?: PD in a complex, large-scale, and commercial context BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Preben Holst Mogensen; Susanne Wollsen
The main contribution of this paper is its attempt at formulating principles and insights pertaining to Participatory Design in realisation, and doing so within a large-scale, complex, and commercial context. It explores the concepts of Communities of Practice, Legitimate Peripheral Learning, and Boundary Objects both to unfold the activities in the project and to be used forward-looking as means to foster constructive workshops in settings with very heterogeneous groups. Furthermore, it emphasises the mutual learning taking place among and between the various practices, and provides concrete examples of ways to handle that the project is part of a larger and continuously changing context.
(Un)structured sources of inspiration: comparing the effects of game-like cards and design cards on creativity in co-design process BIBAFull-Text 31-39
  Joanna Kwiatkowska; Agnieszka Szóstek; David Lamas
The article investigates two different ways of stimulating idea generation in the co-design process. In a quasi-experimental manner we compared effectiveness of structured and unstructured sources of inspiration. Based on the obtained data, we report on two idea-generation techniques: structured and unstructured, for stimulating group creativity. The article ends with a discussion regarding applicability of design cards and game-like cards in the ideation process.

Sustaining relations in participatory design

Relational expertise in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Christian Dindler; Ole Sejer Iversen
This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments.
Design with the feet: walking methods and participatory design BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Anne Marie Kanstrup; Pernille Bertelsen; Jacob Østergaard Madsen
This paper presents an analysis of walking methods and their relation to participatory design (PD). The paper includes a study of walking methods found in the literature and an empirical study of transect walks in a PD project. From this analysis, we identify central attributes of, and challenges to, PD walks. Walking with people in the context of design is a natural activity for the participatory designer, who acknowledges the importance of immersion and relationships in design. However, the various intentions of walking approaches indicate an under-acknowledged awareness of walking methods. With this study, we take a step towards a methodological framework for "design with the feet" in PD.
Re-visiting design-after-design: reflecting implementation mediators connectedness in distributed participatory design activities BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Nima Herman Shidende; Christina Mörtberg
This paper aims at an extended understanding of the design facilitators' role, here implementation mediators, in participatory design practices. In reflecting connectedness between use and design in a distributed open source software design practice, a particular focus is devoted to the implementation mediator's interaction between local users, global software developers, and local designers who are geographically distributed, possess different technological skills, and different work experiences. The implementation mediators' insights are useful in the design of large information systems that involve distributed actors. A maternal and child health setting in Tanzania was the case in this study. An ethnographic study involving interactions with global developers and participative activities in local health practices were conducted. In addition, mediators connected local and global designers to configure a computer system for a particular context; configured participation, involving health workers in designing practices. We present the role of the implementation mediators and its related participatory activities by using the notion of design-after-design. We also highlight the challenges which could face implementation mediators in distributed participatory design activities.

Stakeholder issues in participatory design

Stakeholder participation in the development of an electronic medical record system in Malawi BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Marlen Stacey Chawani; Jens Kaasbøll; Sisse Finken
In this paper we are concerned with stakeholders' participation in the development of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system for health facilities in Malawi, Africa. We draw on insights gained during the process of an Action Research project, which involved different stakeholders. We examine the different roles and forms of participation of these stakeholders. Through this, we illustrate how participation changes over time and co-evolves with the progress of the project. Our analysis also reveals that, in rural low-resource settings, expected end-users of EMR systems do not always have the health domain knowledge or expertise to effectively participate in such design projects. Therefore, participation of managers and other health domain experts is essential in order to supplement users' limited specialized knowledge of the domain.
From technology to activity development: the challenge of using students as participants in a PD project BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Tonja Molin-Juustila; Kari Kuutti; Johanna Nuojua; Leena Soudunsaari; Antti Juustila; Helka-Liisa Hentilä
The interest of evaluating new information technologies in real-life conditions "in the wild" has recently been increasing. For this new direction, researchers and technology developers need to find the real-life context in which to intervene and the users willing to test the prototype technologies in their everyday practices. Additional complications follow from the ecology of several applications used together. In this paper, experiences from a complex real-life experiment with a set of three research prototypes are analyzed. Based on the results, master-level students are competent users when evaluating individual prototypes but less suitable for integrating separate prototypes into meaningful ecology and envisioning a transition from a traditional way of working to a new one. For this task, users are needed who have a vision of the new and who recognize the problems and tensions between the old and the nascent new.
Ethics in health promoting PD: designing digital peer support with children cured from cancer BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Susanne Lindberg; Michel Thomsen; Maria Åkesson
Innovative design targets new user groups and application areas. One example is health promoting digital services. In such design contexts it is essential to take social and ethical challenges into consideration. In this paper we report from an on-going design research project aimed at designing digital peer support (DPS) for children cured from cancer. Peer support can meet the children's imperative need for social support. However, the design context is sensitive and gives rise to ethical challenges and considerations. We illustrate how participatory design (PD) activities can be designed to handle, ethical challenges when designing for and with children. We present lessons learned, including using familiar activities, using personas and including healthy children when possible. Further, we reflect on the need to proactively design an ethical perspective into the entire design process, introducing the concept Ethics in Design.
Taking design games seriously: re-connecting situated power relations of people and materials BIBAFull-Text 101-110
  Mette Agger Eriksen; Eva Brandt; Tuuli Mattelmäki; Kirsikka Vaajakallio
Using design games at Participatory Design (PD) events is well acknowledged as a fruitful way of staging participation. As PD researchers, we have many such experiences, and we have argued that design games connect participants and promote equalizing power relations. However, in this paper, we will (self) critically re-connect and reflect on how people (humans) and materials (non-humans) continually participate and intertwine in various power relations in design game situations. The analysis is of detailed situated actions with one of our recent games, UrbanTransition. Core concepts mainly from Bruno Latour's work on Actor-Network-Theory are applied. The aim is to take design games seriously by e.g. exploring how assemblages of humans and non-humans are intertwined in tacitly-but-tactically staging participation, and opening up for or hindering negotiations and decision-making, thus starting to relate research on various PD techniques and power issues more directly.

Challenging context of participation

Examining participation BIBAFull-Text 111-120
  Victoria Gerrard; Ricardo Sosa
Participatory Design (PD) seeks to promote and regulate the negotiation of social change. Although many methods claim to be participatory, empirical evidence to support them is lacking. Few comprehensive criteria exist to describe and evaluate participation as experienced by stakeholders. There is a need for rigorous research tools to study, validate and improve PD practice. This paper presents the development and initial testing of PartE (Participation Evaluation), an interdisciplinary and intercommunity approach to studying and supporting participation in PD. Semi-structured interviews based on the framework showed it to be useful in: a) revealing differences in how stakeholders view participation and design, b) developing a personal frame of participation c) exploration of the future of participatory practices; and d) suggesting actions to resolve specific challenges or contradictions in participation at a broader level. The paper discusses the need to move away from considering PD as a practice claimed by designers towards a more open dialogue between all stakeholders to collective redefine "Participation and Design" for social change.
How much participation is enough?: a comparison of six participatory design projects in terms of outcomes BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Jon Whittle
This paper considers the relationship between depth of participation (i.e., the effort and resources invested in participation) versus (tangible) outcomes. The discussion is based on experiences from six participatory research projects of different sizes and durations all taking place within a two year period and all aiming to develop new digital technologies to address an identified social need. The paper asks the fundamental question: how much participation is enough? That is, it challenges the notion that more participation is necessarily better, and, by using the experience of these six projects, it asks whether a more light touch or 'lean' participatory process can still achieve good outcomes, but at reduced cost. The paper concludes that participatory design researchers could consider 'agile' principles from the software development field as one way to streamline participatory processes.
The influence of local powers on participatory design processes in marginalized conflict areas BIBAFull-Text 131-139
  Chiara Del Gaudio; Alfredo Jefferson de Oliveira; Carlo Franzato
This paper explores the influence of local forces on Participatory Design processes aiming at promoting access and inclusion, carried out in marginalized conflict areas. Social contexts are the synthesis of the forces exerted by local actors which become more and more influent on contextual dynamics in situations of local instability and struggles. We present and analyse a Participatory Design project developed in a Rio de Janeiro slum, within an NGO. Through a conceptual framework on power and on its exercise, we explain how project partners, participants, and local institutions and groups have influenced the project, to the point of preventing its implementation. The intention is to show how the context may condition the design project, to point out the difficulties in acting in conflict areas and to present factors that will help designers in dealing with them.

Beyond/after design

Infrastructuring in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Helena Karasti
This paper reviews literature and reflects on infrastructuring in Participatory Design (PD) with a conceptual interest. It starts with the notion of information infrastructure introduced to the PD community in the mid-1990s by Star and collaborators. It traces how the notion has been adapted, appended, and negotiated within a number of PD approaches known as "infrastructuring." Based on this review, the paper discusses a number of themes arising from these approaches that relate to salient information infrastructure characteristics and speak to the specificity of infrastructuring in PD. This paper takes stock of what has happened in conceptual terms with regard to information infrastructure and infrastructuring in the field of PD to inform continuing work.
Structuring future social relations: the politics of care in participatory practice BIBAFull-Text 151-160
  Ann Light; Yoko Akama
This paper explores the political shifts that take place in participatory design (PD) when the focus is upon co-designing ongoing future societal relations, beyond the immediacy of designing objects or services during project-time. Reflecting on connectedness, it looks at the politics of participation through the lens of people's interdependence, using feminist concepts of 'care' to explore the ethical commitments of designing. In particular, it speaks to Greenbaum's claim, 20 years ago, that 'we have the obligation to provide people with the opportunity to influence their own lives' (1993:47). We explore the questions this raises now, as we design in an increasingly distributed and heterogeneous socio-technical context, to give a contemporary take on long-term commitments to political and ethical outcomes in participatory design. Three contrasting case studies are interrogated to discuss how structuring of social relations was enabled, offering insights into what the politics of care might mean.
The problem of de-sign as conjuring: empowerment-in-use and the politics of seams BIBAFull-Text 161-170
  Cristiano Storni
In this paper, I articulate a critique of design as conjuring (design as de-sign) and I argue that it is incompatible with the idea of user empowerment. In particular, I discuss the idea of empowerment-in-use and I highlight the role of design seams and scars in supporting it through appropriation and design-after-design. To support this argument, I draw on some recent contributions in Participatory Design (PD), Human Computer Interaction (HCI), New Media Studies, and Science and Technology Studies (STS), and I discuss three illustrative case studies from the area of digital Do-it-Yourself (DIY). I argue that restoring the sign in de-sign through design seams and scars can be a way to explore different forms and perhaps deeper levels of critical engagement and participation supporting empowerment.