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Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference. Volume 1: Research Papers

Fullname:Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference: Research Papers -- Volume 1
Note:Embracing New Territories of Participation
Editors:Kim Halskov; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Yanki Lee; Jesper Simonsen; Keld Bødker
Location:Roskilde, Denmark
Dates:2012-Aug-12 to 2012-Aug-16
Volume:1
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0846-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: PDC12
Papers:14
Pages:138
Links:Conference Website
Summary:PDC 2012 is an excellent opportunity to enter engaging conversations and debates about the status and future of the field of Participatory Design. This issue of the proceedings provides an excellent starting point for debate as it points to a number of trends, challenges and dilemmas for the field.
    With firm roots in the original Participatory Design focus on involving people in the introduction of technology into their workplace this year's PDC conference invites us to explore traditional fields of participatory design as well as emerging areas, field, and arenas, like for instance urban life and communities.
    Skilled workers are still participating in design processes aiming at developing tools for quality of working life, but designing for everyday life poses new challenges for the way participation is practiced and understood. Today we are designing engaging experiences not only through participation but also for participation.
    A total of 67 papers were submitted in the research paper category for PDC 2012. Through an intense double blind review process, 14 were selected for publication and presentation. This year's conference maintains the political perspective and revisit core PD research themes like empowerment but also addresses the boundaries between use and designing hereby challenging our conventional understanding of users as participants in the design process.

Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference. Volume 2: Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases

Fullname:Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference: Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases -- Volume 2
Note:Embracing New Territories of Participation
Editors:Jesper Simonsen; Kim Halskov
Location:Roskilde, Denmark
Dates:2012-Aug-12 to 2012-Aug-16
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1296-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: PDC12
Papers:40
Pages:152
Links:Conference Website
Summary:Participatory Design is a vibrant area of research, a fact documented by the exciting programme for this 12th Participatory Design Conference - PDC 2012 - in Roskilde, Denmark. This 'Exploratory Papers' section allows the reader to gain a sense of the energy within this community through reports from both the coalface of engaged action research and the centre of reflective practice. The papers are short, but rich in ideas and insight.
  1. PDC 2012-08-12 Volume 1
    1. Civic participation
    2. Empowerment
    3. Community facilitation
    4. Users' roles
    5. New perspectives
  2. PDC 2012-08-12 Volume 2
    1. Exploratory papers: health I
    2. Exploratory papers: urban environments
    3. Exploratory papers: values and politics
    4. Exploratory papers: continuing design
    5. Exploratory papers: health II
    6. Exploratory papers: out of Scandinavia
    7. Exploratory papers: collaboration
    8. Exploratory papers: PD and community
    9. Industry cases: challenging contexts
    10. Industry cases: reflexivity in industrial practice
    11. Workshops

PDC 2012-08-12 Volume 1

Civic participation

Social media, design and civic engagement by youth: a cultural view BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  Henry Mainsah; Andrew Morrison
This argumentative essay at the intersection of media studies, Cultural Studies, and literacy research, frames of PD in the emerging territory of social media and civic engagement. We refer to core principles of PD and to recent reflections on social technologies and participation in design. These are linked to research on designing for participative cultural expression via social media. PD is particularly suited to young people's involvement in the context of design and civic engagement. We argue that a cultural view that highlights issues of power, identity, agency, and culture offers useful avenues for negotiating the interests and perspectives of different stakeholders in civic initiatives. There is a need for design to connect to existing participatory and cultures of youth. We offer illustrations of these and a number of considerations for possible future use.
Designing for all and no one -- practitioners understandings of citizen driven development of public e-services BIBAFull-Text 11-19
  Katarina L. Gidlund
The notion of citizen driven development of public e-services has been vivid for a number of years in eGovernment research, practice and policies. There are however, less conceptual analyses resting on a critical stance analyzing how this notion is translated in practical settings, leaving a gap in between for practitioners to solve. This paper presents explorative work made in a Swedish authority by using conceptual disentanglement (as in identifying extensions of the concept, noting regularities and reveal relevant features) as a methodology. The results show that besides difficulties in creating systematic work processes, what surfaces is the complex task of estimation. Estimating who should be participating (when designing for almost all citizens), how many citizens are needed as a base for a design decisions, who decides what should be an objective for a design initiation and on what grounds and legitimacy?
   The picture evolving is that of an overreliance and an uncritical acceptance of the notion of citizen driven development of public e-services on a policy level, that fails both the practitioners and the citizens; highlighting the need for critical analysis in order to deconstruct the taken for grantedness of the notion of user involvement and deal with the ignorance regarding the details and performance in this specific setting.
Probing, mocking and prototyping: participatory approaches to identity infrastructuring BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Andrew Clement; Brenda McPhail; Karen Louise Smith; Joseph Ferenbok
Since the 1980s, PD has been expanding its scope in terms of scale of information systems as well as diversity of participants, settings and design techniques. A current frontier of PD is infrastructuring, the development of large scale systems that serve a wide range of needs of varied 'publics' in an ideally taken-for-granted manner.
   This paper takes a participatory approach to one prominent area of contemporary infrastructure development, that of jurisdictional identity schemes. Such developments pose significant privacy and security risks. However, for the most part ID scheme expansion is being conducted without the active participation of those most directly affected. We address this concern through a series of action research 'interventions' into the development of proposed North American ID schemes.
   We sought to turn what is often treated as a dry, technical topic into an open, accessible and even fun collective enterprise. Drawing on 'classic' PD precepts, such as iteration, realistic use scenarios, ethnographically informed fieldwork, situated reflection, and mock-ups and prototypes, we experimented publically with various artifacts that range from a mock RFID scheme to an Android smartphone digital ID wallet app.
   Based on this experience, we reflect on lessons for the PD community in terms of how it might approach the growing need for participatory infrastructuring.

Empowerment

Impediments to user gains: experiences from a critical participatory design project BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Claus Bossen; Christian Dindler; Ole Sejer Iversen
Actual studies of user gains from involvement in design processes are few, although a concern for user gains is a core characteristic of participatory design (PD). We explore the question of user gains through a retrospective evaluation of a critical PD project. We conducted ten qualitative interviews with participants in a project aimed at developing technology to foster engaging museum experiences and rethinking cultural heritage communication. Despite the use of established PD techniques by experienced PD practitioners, a significant number of frustrations relating to the PD process were prominent in the study. Based on these findings, we provide an analysis of impediments to user gains in PD projects in terms of unresolved differences between aims, absence of a clear set-up for collaboration, and different conceptions of technology.
Disentangling power and decision-making in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Tone Bratteteig; Ina Wagner
This paper uses the example of a participatory design project in support of urban planning to analyse the complexity of design decisions. A set of design decisions is described and discussed, showing who made decisions on what. We discuss big decisions and small decisions, decisions internal to the project and related to the outside world, and decisions that might be called non-decisions. A conceptual framework on power is applied for understanding decision-making, power and conflict in Participatory Design projects. We discuss the concept of power, making distinctions between sources of power (among them expert knowledge, resource allocation, values, and interpretations); as well as between various mechanisms guiding decision-making: power, influence, trust and seeking understanding.
Words are not enough: empowering people with aphasia in the design process BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Julia Galliers; Stephanie Wilson; Abi Roper; Naomi Cocks; Jane Marshall; Sam Muscroft; Tim Pring
This paper explores the issue of empowering participants in design when they do not have the language skills integral to many design methods. We describe the challenges, solutions reached and lessons learned whilst employing a participatory design (PD) approach in the development of a prototype computer therapy tool for people with aphasia, a communication disorder.
   Our approach was workshop based. During a series of participatory workshop sessions, five people with aphasia, employed as consultants, took part in game-playing activities followed by hands-on interaction with a series of iterative prototypes. The challenges we faced arose primarily from the consultants' difficulties with the production and comprehension of language, both textual and verbal, and with the retention of information. The strategies and techniques we devised to cope with these challenges evolved over the course of the workshop sessions. We discuss these and how to involve and empower users with cognitive impairments, in the context of a broadening scope of PD practices.

Community facilitation

The human touch: participatory practice and the role of facilitation in designing with communities BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Ann Light; Yoko Akama
Traditional PD research offers a range of methods for participant engagement. Yet little is shared of the microdynamics of participation at its most intense, when the designer as facilitator is challenged by a range of social contingencies. Engaging people in change can be a messy process, especially when emotions run high. This paper explores two situations where communities were asked to collaborate on disaster mitigation plans and looks at how facilitation took place to engage with these concerns. It considers the relationship between method and its enactment, between the participatory practitioner and participant group, and between intention and outcome. In doing so, it questions the prevalent research culture that anonymises facilitation and its agency. Instead, we offer a more synthesised reading of practice, by focusing on aspects that compound the designers' task, such as the dynamics of the group and emotions manifested by participants. We argue that we need to orientate towards understanding the designers' participatory practice, rather than reporting participatory methods alone. The act of engaging others involves an embodied knowing, with moment-by-moment shifts in position, focus and delivery. Acknowledging this involves a rethink of our frameworks for reflecting and reporting on design.
Lessons for participatory designers of social media: long-term user involvement strategies in industry BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Mikael Johnson; Sampsa Hyysalo
Social media changes the conditions for user participation in service development. Active user communities, fast paced iterative development, considerable development after market launch, developer access to users' digital trails, peer production, and low cost feature distribution are well known facets that bring substantial changes. In this paper we distil lessons for participatory designers from an in-depth case study of an over decade-long service development in industry, Habbo Hotel by Sulake Corporation. We argue that the range of core issues that shape user participation in social media can be captured by three interrelated issues: 1) shifts in developer -- user social distance, 2) cumulated user knowledge beyond one project, and 3) user-generated content and user-owned services. We then consider what insight these provide for a design initiative we are involved in: the Finnish national public service broadcasting company's teacher resource.
Enhancing cross-cultural participation through creative visual exploration BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Kasper Rodil; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Kasper L. Jensen
Designers, like artists, fuse learned skills with intuition formed over their past experiences to unfold their creativity. Continuous interactions between the designers, their creations, and their informing and receiving environment lead to alignment and harmonisation. However, we observe that displaced designers in an unfamiliar context can no longer blindly rely on their insights only to create acceptable artefacts. In this paper we depict the journey of a young western designer, who accepted the challenge to co-design a 3D graphics visualisation of a small village in Southern Africa. We have observed that the 3D graphics visualisation has significantly increased participation and facilitated co-creation of meaning at the interface of different cultures rather than just being an end product. Not only do we he have to learn to 'see' what the village elders see but also experience a paradigm shift in design and evaluation methods. Based on personal interrelations and immanent differing principles the interactions among the participants are renegotiated continuously during the design process.

Users' roles

Personas, people and participation: challenges from the trenches of local government BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Susanne Bødker; Ellen Christiansen; Tom Nyvang; Pär-Ola Zander
In the early days of digital technology development, design was done 'for', 'with' or 'by' the users based on the assumption that users were real people. Today 'users' have become a component in mass-market production and are seen as 'customers', rather than people. Still designers need to address use, and personas have been introduced for this purpose. The paper uses research on user participation and research-based personas from the eGov+ project to discuss whether personas help designers engage with users. In this project, design was carried out in the domain of municipal services through involvement of clerks, management and citizens from three different municipalities. Through four cases we discuss if applying personas in participatory design settings is productive to designers' understanding of users' use situations. Does deployment of personas bring designers closer to the actual use situation? In which ways do personas help design for, with or by the users? Do personas support participatory design?
Imagine real avatars and flying shepherds: involvement and engagement in innovative ICT BIBAFull-Text 101-108
  Steve Walker; Simon Bell; Adrian Jackson; Daniel Heery
This paper takes as its starting point Kyng's (2010) challenges for future participatory design practices in the context of a technology landscape which has changed enormously since the emergence of both 'Scandinavian' PD and the participatory politics of 1960s US radicalism. We describe the Infinite Bandwidth, Zero Latency (IBZL)) project, from its use of the 'Imagine' workshop method to envisage potential technological futures, through to its involvement of stakeholder representatives and potential users in assessing one such vision of potential technological 'futures', the 'real avatar". IBZL was originally conceived as an intervention in policy debates in the UK about the significance and potential of 'next generation' or 'superfast' broadband networks, and as a way of mobilizing wider audiences to consider the possibility of innovative applications of them. By their very nature, the significance of these networks transcends particular workplaces. This case study describes responses to several of the challenges for PD practice raised by Kyng, including the roles of companies, intellectual property, funding, the involvement of social actors as users, the engagement of users in multiple roles.
A small matter of design: an analysis of end users as designers BIBAFull-Text 109-118
  Anne Marie Kanstrup
The paper presents an analysis of end user design in a PD project exploring user-driven innovation as a perspective and method for PD. End user designs are analysed in relation to existing perspectives on innovative design. End users work as designers are analysed in relation to existing perspectives on what it means to be a reflective designer. A series of examples present end users as competent designers and additionally emphasize the understanding of end user design as more than design of innovative products and functionality -- end user design is characterised as inquiry and negotiations of disparate logics and results in expressions that call for engaging in communication. It is concluded that the fundamental goal of PD as "giving voice" to end users has not changed or become less important despite new media platforms and business appreciations of user-drive. Rather, it is important for PD to elaborate how to hear and understand end user voices by supporting user negotiations and inquiries and engaging in partly unconscious communication of expressions beyond functionality.

New perspectives

Early experiences with participation in persuasive technology design BIBAFull-Text 119-128
  Janet Davis
Persuasive technology, designed to change behaviors and attitudes, stands on uneasy moral ground. A key concern is the appropriateness of the means of persuasion and the intent to persuade. Engaging with those who will use the persuasive technology can ensure that it aligns with their own desires for change. This paper presents an early case study applying participatory design methods to persuasive technology in the context of a college EcoHouse. After presenting the methods and results, I synthesize lessons learned for the intersection of participatory design and persuasive technology design: begin with participants who want change, attend to power relations, promote reflection, start with simple behaviors, use examples to educate and inspire, explore designs in parallel, and be open to not designing technology. Finally, I identify challenges for future work: designing an effective design process, negotiating tensions between effectiveness and reflectiveness, and evaluating the impact of participation.
Hackademia: building functional rather than accredited engineers BIBAFull-Text 129-138
  Beth Kolko; Alexis Hope; Brook Sattler; Kate MacCorkle; Behzod Sirjani
Hackademia is a semi-formal learning group that introduces largely non-technical students to basic technical skills by presenting them with open-ended challenges in a peer-based, collaborative environment. This project has two main goals: the near-end goal has been to use a collaborative design model to develop a working, scalable model for teaching engineering literacies in higher education, and the long-term goal is to create participatory opportunities for end-users to develop innovative technologies. This paper describes progress towards the short-term goal, and lessons learned from two years of work to develop a semi-structured educational experience influenced by participant desires. Hackademia leverages a participant-observer research model and participatory research methods such as autoethnographies, experience blogging, and semi-structured focus groups.

PDC 2012-08-12 Volume 2

Exploratory papers: health I

Designing Daybuilder: an experimental app to support people with depression BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Philip Kaare Løventoft; Lasse Benn Nørregaard; Erik Frøkjær
Daybuilder is an experimental smartphone app intended to support people with depression. It was designed in collaboration with six participants who had all received antidepressant medication within the last two years. The Daybuilder prototype was field tested with the same six participants for three to four weeks. All participants were interested in using an application like Daybuilder, immediately or in the future if they were to suffer from depression again. The study has shown it possible to design a smartphone app that people with depression find interesting and potentially supportive in their daily lives and in their clinical treatment. In this project we chose to work directly with the depressive people, without involving clinicians, in an effort to get as close as possible to the participants' needs and concerns. This approach caused certain difficulties in recruitment, required adaptation of design activities, and consideration of certain ethical issues. The seriousness and prevalence of depression in society make it urgent as a next step to do a comprehensive study to clarify possible clinical effects of using smartphone apps for this special user group.
Participants' interpretations of PD workshop results BIBAFull-Text 5-8
  Julia A. Garde; Mascha C. van der Voort
While the majority of participatory design (PD) research deals with the development of tools and the analysis of occurrences during workshops, we believe more research into the meaning and value of PD study results is needed to make PD more attractive to design practice.
   In this paper we present how forty participants of an ongoing one-year healthcare project interpret the outcomes of participatory design sessions with varying topics differently and what can be learned from that.
   We find that different workshop topics and different roles in the project lead to significant differences in how workshop outcomes are interpreted by individual participants, project managers, and researchers. These results illustrate the value of an inventory of the interpretations of individual participants of workshops results so that we are able to dynamically adjust successive sessions to match these perspectives and hence improve the success of the whole PD study.
Challenges of participatory design for social innovation a case study in aging society BIBAFull-Text 9-12
  A. Obata; K. Ohori; N. Kobayashi; H. Hochreuter; F. Kensing
The purpose of the paper is to further our understanding of conditions for participatory design (PD). We base our reflections on an ongoing project to develop new ICT concepts for social innovation to mitigate consequences of the aging society as faced by a Japanese city. MUST was chosen since it is a PD method that has been successfully applied in commercial contexts in the US and in Scandinavia. However, we found that social innovation is a complex new territory for PD, both as to project management issues and in terms of conditions for applying tools and techniques for participatory analysis and design. Especially, we found that identifying and adequately engaging stakeholders to be problematic. The diverse set of user groups, potential customers, and IT-developers could not all be defined at the start. This calls for a different type of iteration than the MUST method suggests. Further, the method presumes the involved stakeholders to be able to spend more time in the project than the stakeholders in this project could commit to.

Exploratory papers: urban environments

Putting the informal on the map: tools for participatory waste management BIBAFull-Text 13-16
  Dietmar Offenhuber; David Lee
Informal urban infrastructures are a challenging environment for participatory design, both from an organizational and technical perspective. In this paper we reflect on a recent research project involving participatory sensing and design of participatory technologies for informal recycling cooperatives. We collaborated with COOPAMARE, a cooperative in central São Paulo, Brazil, on two goals: to map their spatial organization of waste collection, and to develop software tools for coordinating with clients and planning operations. We discuss how GPS tracking, web-based mapping, and mobile applications allow cooperatives to collect, manage, and interpret spatial data themselves, and to redesign their own system collaboratively with others. We argue for applying participatory design in international development projects, which often neglect design aspects, and discuss the social, economic and technical contexts that impact design.
Every breath you take: use of sensitizing methods in the design of air quality services BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  Riikka Hänninen; Jan Blom
Mobile phones and wireless sensor networks are used to sense contextual attributes, pertaining not only to the user but also to the environment. Data driven services are used to feed back the information to users. Participatory Design (PD) has been shown to be an appropriate method to facilitate participant understanding of services based on sensor data. The present paper builds on this assumption by setting forth a two-staged PD method, wherein the participants are sensitised to the area of interest prior to commencing the design task. The method was applied on the design of urban air quality services. Sensitization was considered as important due to the abstract nature of air quality variation. The paper describes the study, evaluates the benefits and challenges of the method, while also making conclusions about its applicability to the design of contextual, data driven services, in general.
Out of Scandinavia to Asia: adaptability of participatory design in culturally distant society BIBAFull-Text 21-24
  Mika Yasuoka; Ryo Sakurai
Participatory design (PD) has historically started and traditionally been conducted in Scandinavian contexts, where participation is an integral part of the social value. In this paper, we report our experiences conducting PD approaches in Japan, where social value systems and understandings of participation differ from Scandinavia. The project shows how Japanese utilize PD to solve an extraordinary, disastrous tsunami situation. We exemplify how negative parameters for participation vanish and new social value is created locally and temporary when certain conditions are fulfilled. We argue that culturally distant societies can reasonably adapt PD and use the most of its essence by providing a localized micro-mechanism for consolidating the conditions.
Remote participatory prototyping enabled by emerging social technologies BIBAFull-Text 25-28
  Dean M. G. Hargreaves; Toni Robertson
Remote participatory prototyping is characterised by extended periods of engagement, working directly with participants in the context of real-world problem settings, and by the use of social technologies. This paper reports a prototyping activity that aimed to design web-based software, over a three-month period, to support people's 'everyday' travel planning. Participants were supported in creating software prototypes in the context of their real-world travel activities. The aim was to gain insight into the phenomena of unstructured, ad-hoc, planning as it occurs in the context of everyday life, as opposed to the deliberative, structured planning processes that are common in organisational contexts. This research examined the process of remote prototyping as a design method, enabled by social technologies. Remote participatory prototyping was used to support three concurrent activities: the design of a new software artefact; the use of the prototype as a means to gain insight into a social phenomena; and a cyclical process of reflective discussion that constituted a mutual learning activity between researchers and research participants.

Exploratory papers: values and politics

Mapping design practices: on risk, hybridity and participation BIBAFull-Text 29-32
  Liesbeth Huybrechts; Katrien Dreessen; Selina Schepers
In this paper we reflect on MAP-it: a participatory mapping method and toolkit, containing a map, sticker sheets, a scenario, etc. It enables designers to moderate participatory design processes through workshops in which people from different backgrounds collaboratively reflect on and set up new projects. In several test mappings during our research, we observed that participants in participatory contexts were often too eager to please the group. Furthermore, especially 'makers' -- being designers, engineers, etc. -- had difficulties with releasing control over the participatory process, thus allowing the process to evolve in unexpected ways. This led us to conclude that MAP-it should encourage participants to take risks in the participatory process. Our research identified three types of risk-taking in participatory design processes, which we integrated in MAP-it. First, MAP-it allows people to express their differences in opinions. Therefore it is deliberately created as a hybrid form, borrowing elements from various disciplines, methods and media. Second, it permits making friction between participants explicit by using 'risk-stickers' and game rules. Finally, its open characteristics force the designer and participants to give up a part of their control over the design process.
Co-constructing stories: a participatory design technique to elicit in-depth user feedback and suggestions about design concepts BIBAFull-Text 33-36
  Derya Ozcelik Buskermolen; Jacques Terken
In this paper we introduce a participatory design technique for early, formative concept evaluations to elicit in-depth user feedback and suggestions, revealing attitudes and motivations of users. The technique is motivated by the link between memories, experiences and dreams, and is based on the assumption that users can make better judgments about novel design concepts if they link them to their past experiences. The technique involves user sessions consisting of two main phases, one focusing on recollecting past experiences in related contexts, and one focusing on envisioning future experiences that can be enabled by the use of the concept. In both phases, designer-user dialogue is established through storytelling. Storytelling is used by the designer to set the stage and to present the concept and by the user to communicate his past and anticipated future experiences. The technique results in joint stories about novel concepts. In this paper we explain the technique in detail. We discuss its theoretical background and relation to other user research methods. We share the insights that we gathered through first pilots. The paper concludes with a discussion about the use of this technique in the design process and future research.
Ideation and ability: when actions speak louder than words BIBAFull-Text 37-40
  Henrik Svarrer Larsen; Per-Olof Hedvall
We present an approach and examples of design artefacts from on-going work on how children with profound disabilities can participate in formative design processes. It involves the pedagogical use of digitally interactive multisensory environments. Rather than mimic participatory design from more symmetrical contexts, we address potentials in the situation at hand as well as the key issues of voice by proxy and thinking in deficits.
   Our design artefacts draw on the rich heritage of tangible design experiments cherishing the generative qualities embodied in human actions. The inspiring actions of the children take centre stage in cross disciplinary design efforts by means of a) long term involvement, where b) designerly understandings of qualities emerge through 'questioning' by series of truly interactive yet deliberately basic tangible design artefacts, c) staging extensive video coverage of the children's action as the pivotal point of ideation, and d) an open mind-set thinking in potentials and working by wonderings rather than fixed judgments.

Exploratory papers: continuing design

Simple conversational practices in the case of free and open source software infrastructure BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Giacomo Poderi
The aim of this paper is to provide insights on how the infrastructure of a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) project is used by the participants while they bring forward their own contributions. Specific case used for this paper is a mature development project of a video game. Several discussions were collected from the development board of the project's Internet forum and analysed through the inductive and iterative process of the Grounded Theory methodology. The paper identifies the emerging conversational practices of positioning, linking the scattered, setting a positive atmosphere, constructing citizenship and it discusses them in relation to the distributed nature of the project.
Empowering users to become designers: using meta-design environments to enable and motivate sustainable energy decisions BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  Holger Dick; Hal Eden; Gerhard Fischer; Jason Zietz
Unsustainable energy consumption is a systemic problem facing societies. While technological innovations are necessary to address this problem, they are not sufficient; they need to be integrated with social and behavioral changes in order to be most effective. Our approach is based on understanding and using participatory design as a paradigm for software design as well as the foundation for socio-technical environments that enable and support a cultural shift from passive consumers of energy to active decisions makers.
   Our research is grounded in two theoretical frameworks, meta-design and cultures of participation. We are developing EMPIRE, a socio-technical environment supporting rich ecologies of participation that enable people to become active designers of their energy consumption. EMPIRE engages people to participate in the design of their own energy environment and supports individuals and communities in understanding and making more sustainable choices regarding energy.
Infrastructuring for opening production, from participatory design to participatory making? BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Anna Seravalli
Fabriken is a makerspace, a public workshop equipped with tools and machines that can be used to make (almost) anything: from fixing a flat tire to build a robot, from backing to meet new people. This space has been set up with the aim of opening production, to investigate what happens when means of production are made public and when people make things together by sharing facilities and skills.
   From a participatory design perspective the making of Fabriken can be understood as process of design-for-design and infrastructuring. The paper discusses how Fabriken came to be and how, in looking for a strategy to design-for-design and infrastructuring, there has been a shift from a design-before-use to a design-in-use approach, where the tactics of events, small-scale interventions and long-term engagement have been used to foster a process of participatory making of the space.
Participatory maintenance-in-use: users' role in keeping systems alive BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Mario Marcolin; Vincenzo D'Andrea; David Hakken
Based on a case study of the implementation of an Italian Regional Welfare Information System, this paper introduces the concept of maintenance-in-use as a complement to that of design-in-use. Our observation of the co-ordination of diverse professionals in and out of multiple workplaces and acknowledgement of the importance that this has for keeping systems alive suggest a need to expand the analysis of post-implementation participation. The concept of 'maintenance-in-use' supports shifting attention from the issue of infrastructure enhancement to the social aspects of Information Systems at work, making it a central part of research to achieve Socially Robust and Enduring Computing.

Exploratory papers: health II

User participation in implementation BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Benedicte Fleron; Rasmus Rasmussen; Jesper Simonsen; Morten Hertzum
Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need for new competences. Our results also emphasize the importance of access to fellow colleagues with relevant experience in implementing systems.
Towards an "empowered" user role in the design of large-scale electronic patient records BIBAFull-Text 65-68
  Line Silsand; Bente Christensen; Gunnar Ellingsen
We report from a large-scale Electronic Patient Record (EPR) project in Northern Norway where the goal is to design a new type of configurable EPRs that allow users in hospitals to tailor the software to their specific needs. This ability appears to challenge the traditional user role as what we usually understand as ordinary users increasingly undertake a designer role, hence dissolving the boundaries between users and designers. Still, the configurability of the software is not straightforward as it is not obvious who is going to decide how the final design should look like, how much tailoring should be possible and in which situations.
Real-use evaluation of effects: emergency departments aiming for 'Warm Hands' BIBAFull-Text 69-72
  Jesper Simonsen; Morten Hertzum
Embracing real use in an iterative approach calls for systematic formative evaluation. Effects-driven IT Development has been suggested as a way of supporting a Participatory Design (PD) process involving implementations that expose mature prototypes to real work practices. This is followed by evaluations of how specified and desired effects are obtained. We present results from a project where high-level political goals ('More Warm Hands'; i.e., clinicians spending more time at the patient bedside) are aligned with the local clinical organization and practice. We demonstrate how to combine quantitative and qualitative methods to address various levels of 'use' from overall politics to actual practice. The project concerns the introduction and use of an electronic whiteboard system to support clinical overview and logistics at emergency departments (EDs). The nurses succeed in getting 'warmer hands' while the physicians have good reasons for not pursuing this aim after all. The study contributes to a growing bulk of literature on how to include PD in the later stages of iterative development.

Exploratory papers: out of Scandinavia

Cultural hybridity in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 73-76
  Samantha Merritt; Erik Stolterman
In this paper we examine challenges identified with participatory design research in the developing world and develop the postcolonial notion of cultural hybridity as a sensitizing concept. While participatory design intentionally addresses power relationships, its methodology does not to the same degree cover cultural power relationships, which extend beyond structural power and voice. The notion of cultural hybridity challenges the static cultural binary opposition between the self and the other, Western and non-Western, or the designer and the user -- offering a more nuanced approach to understanding the malleable nature of culture. Drawing from our analysis of published literature in the participatory design community, we explore the complex relationship of participatory design to international development projects and introduce postcolonial cultural hybridity via postcolonial theory and its application within technology design thus far. Then, we examine how participatory approaches and cultural hybridity may interact in practice and conclude with a set of sensitizing insights and topics for further discussion in the participatory design community.
New roles of designers in democratic innovation: a case study in the ingenuity of ageing BIBAFull-Text 77-80
  Yanki Lee; Denny K. L. Ho
This paper discusses a study of a group of retired academics that are actively ageing on their university campus in China. We worked with this group of ingenious older people and conducted a series of Creative Dialogues and Design Festivals to see how designers accomplish infrastructuring and mobilization in design participatory innovation for an ageing population. Inspired by the idea of the design process as Things and the concept of community-of-practice, we analysed how they design their lives. We found important new roles for designers in the critique of design ideology and the identification of utopian elements from the participants.
Design for well-being in China: lessons learned from exploratory workshops BIBAFull-Text 81-84
  Pei-Chun Chen; Xiaochun Wang
Co-design methods such as game-like design workshops have been developed in Western countries for years. Through game-like tasks, participants are able to participate equally in collaborative design. When Asian participants are involved, the social hierarchy tends to have a stronger influence on the group's communication. The co-design method needs to be adjusted to suit the cultural context. In the field of participatory design, the transformation process from users' needs to design inspiration is ambiguous and needs more explicit discussion. This paper describes our reflections on and lessons learned from a case study called "Active aging: designing for well-being in China" conducted in Beijing in 2011. Senior citizens aged 65 to 80 from the local community were involved in the participatory design process as potential end-users. In a series of three generative workshops, we incrementally adjusted the design tools and techniques in order to retrieve users' insights and transmit the knowledge to the ideation phase. Three forms of artifacts, verbal stories, design debriefing and design cards, were explored and experimented with in our study. Through our action research, we also reflect on the limitations and challenges of conducting participatory design with seniors in China.
Endearing (re) encounters: participatory design in a Latin-American popular context BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  David de los Reyes; Andrea Botero
This paper addresses the invitation to embrace new territories by proposing a set of conceptual and methodological strategies to expand the PD toolkit when working within 'popular cultures'. On the basis of PD research interventions in rural and urban popular contexts in Colombia, we reflect on experiences of designing in these territories, so far not very explored by the PD community. Set within a deeply unequal and hybrid society, PD efforts find in Colombian popular culture an opportunity for encounter and connection turning the design project into an ad hoc community able to trigger change.

Exploratory papers: collaboration

Social media as a platform for participatory design BIBAFull-Text 89-92
  Lill Francis Miranda Reyes; Sisse Finken
In this paper we explore social media as a new arena for participation. The explorations are informed by an ethnographic oriented PD project that follows a PD method and its process of translation within a digital setting. This process is exemplified through outcomes from a Future Workshop that unfolds on Facebook with a group of participants who feed in to a new design of a digital photo-archive on mobile phones. With an explicit focus on translation and use of this PD method the paper presents experiences and challenges encountered during the process in this emerging PD environment. Within this, the paper looks at facilitation of distributed users, heterogeneity of users, and fluidity of participation. In subjecting the experiences and challenges to related works the paper sheds light upon matters that can serve as resources for future translations of PD methods.
Artistic participatory practices as a vehicle for togetherness BIBAFull-Text 93-96
  Rosanne van Klaveren
In all its functions and possibilities art has the option to be more embedded in societies, in dealing with social and political issues, than ever before. For example, community art became a common art practice during the previous decennia: artists temporarily work within communities to create art together with participating citizens. Also in design and design research we see a growing use of participatory practices in which the knowledge, experience and creativity of community members are valued beyond inspiration. But how can artists deal with the notion of togetherness when they are outsiders to the communities they work with? How can they overcome the us-and-them dichotomy that is still a common handicap in community art and in other forms of artistic participatory practice? This exploratory paper discusses some conditions that can help in the creation of a temporarily 'we' during participatory practices. Anthropological approaches and design methods are brought together with self-discovered insights of the artist-writer, picked up during many years of participatory practice and her artistic PhD research involving Arctic indigenous communities.
A framework for understanding outcomes of mutual learning situations in IT projects BIBAFull-Text 97-100
  Magnus Hansen
How do we analyse and understand design decisions derived from mutual learning (ML) situations and how may practitioners take advantage of these in IT projects? In the following we present a framework of design decisions inferred from ML situations that occurred between end-users and stakeholders in two participatory design workshops. The participants of the workshops were tasked with redesigning the graphical user interface (GUI) of an electronic ambulance record (EAR). Users participated primarily in the first workshop while stakeholders as well as users participated in the second. We identify the concepts of actionable and volatile ML situations that may result in solidification of a decision of either the design of the artefact or the development process. These concepts are applied post-hoc to four exemplary ML situations that occurred during the workshops: a) a ML situation where design issues of ease of use were solved by users; b) a situation where usability issues beyond the users' grasp were identified in the first workshop and solved by stakeholders and users together during the second workshop; c) and d) situations where usability issues were solved by the users in the first workshop but not discussed with stakeholders despite the fact that the users had proclaimed that the redesign could have consequences for the stakeholders in the long run. By applying the framework to the ML situations as we define situation "a" and "b" as actionable and situation "c" and "d" as volatile.

Exploratory papers: PD and community

Social innovation within prison service BIBAFull-Text 101-104
  Marie Kirstejn Aakjær; Eva Brandt
This paper report on a project in a maximum-security prison in Denmark, where a group of officers and inmates engaged in a participatory design project aimed at improving the quality of everyday life. A series of participatory design workshops had two overall objectives: 1) to increase levels of trust and confidence in the prison, and 2) to learn how to engage inmates better in their everyday life inside prison, e.g. through engaging them in collective matters. The process of co-inquiry and co-creation provided a new social infrastructure, which allowed inmates and prison officers to access new roles and social positions.
From 'troublemakers' to problem solvers: designing with youths in a disadvantaged neighbourhood BIBAFull-Text 105-108
  Martin Severin Frandsen; Lene Pfeiffer Petersen
This paper presents the experiences and reflexions of a design practitioner working in the field of community development. The case illustrates how participatory design processes can contribute to social change. The paper tells a story of design process where youths from a local school in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the suburbs of Copenhagen, designed and constructed colourful and imaginative dustbins to handle problems with local littering. The project was successful in creating an increased local awareness of waste management and reducing the amount of litter. However, the more important but less tangible result of the design process was the change it produced in the social relations in the neighbourhood. By giving them the opportunity to work as designers, the process contributed to a shift in the image of the youths from one of 'troublemakers' to a positive image of collaborative problem solvers.
What we talk about when we talk about co-creative tangibles BIBAFull-Text 109-112
  Jo Herstad; Harald Holone
We investigate ways in which emergent digital technologies embedded into "soft things" offer new possibilities for communication, collaboration and co-creation between people with and without disabilities. Specifically, we look at ways in which tangible, net based, multi-modal artifacts can be used for creating and sharing music and visuals. In this paper, we describe the notion of co-creative tangibles, and the ways in which different stakeholders talk about these "smart things". The three participating groups are children and their families, care givers and teachers, and researchers from different disciplines. We will specifically investigate Universal Design in the area of Tangible Interaction, and ways of talking about the "things" we develop, use and interact with.
Outlining a participatory approach for using building renovation momentum for wider effects BIBAFull-Text 113-116
  Tero Heikkinen; Katja Soini; Sari Dhima
This exploratory paper presents a freshly initiated research project for developing a model for approach for suburban renovation projects in Finland. The main focus is on the construction in suburbs that were built in the 1960s and 1970s and are now facing re-evaluation due to ensuing repairs and new energy use criteria. The chosen neighborhoods are also facing reputation issues and social problems.
   The plan is to exploit the momentum of the inevitable technical improvement projects to also benefit long-term improvement of the social and aesthetic quality of the environment as a whole. This means also discussing ways to redefine the scope of renovation with the service providers. Here a participatory design research approach could prove useful in finding effective means of communication between inhabitants, the local parties acting within the neighborhoods and the renovation service providers.
   The present research is based in part on past work revolving around plumbing renovation cases, where successes were achieved in activating various partners connected to the renovation projects. The intent is to extend and refine the practices developed in the past project. The project plan and proposed mode of approach will be presented in detail.

Industry cases: challenging contexts

Correlation with aspiration for change: a case study for restoration after natural disaster BIBAFull-Text 117-120
  Mika Yasuoka; Ryo Sakurai
In this paper, we present a participatory design (PD) case for public good, The Reborn Japan Project. The Reborn Japan Project was initiated after a historically devastating earthquake and tsunami disaster occurred in early spring 2011 in Japan. The case reports on the uniquely organized structure of the project, scope of stakeholders, and targets for design. Through participatory investigation and discussion among a wide range of stakeholders, the project aims at creating practical as well as visionary ideas for economic and social restoration after the disaster, in which higher uncertainty and more complex challenges are of more essential significance than with a conventional design task. With this case, we report lessons of the use of PD for public good. Our case indicates that there is a strong correlation between applicability of PD and a strong aspiration for change for such highly public nature projects.
Using participatory design methods to engage the uninterested BIBAFull-Text 121-124
  Mariesa Nicholas; Penny Hagen; Kitty Rahilly; Nathalie Swainston
Engaging young people on issues relating to mental health can be challenging. Although young people have their own health and wellbeing goals, their perception of these issues can be radically different to those of mental health professionals.
   The Inspire Foundation is a not-for-profit organisation committed to working in partnership with young people to understand their needs and perspectives on mental health and wellbeing, and to designing and delivering relevant services with those young people. This case study documents how participatory design techniques and principles were used to engage young people who have not used mental health services in designing services that would be relevant to them. Specifically, we will share the methods we used in a series of co-design workshops to engage young people in the redesign of the online service ReachOut.com, and the role participatory design principles, such as play, co-operative and mutual learning and design-by-doing had in making these workshops a success.
Lessons learnt from the participatory design of a mobile care data application in a resource-restricted context BIBAFull-Text 125-128
  Retha De la Harpe
This case describes the participatory process of developing a mobile solution for care givers in a resource-restricted context. The experiences of the designers and developers during this process are shared. mHealth solutions are not yet widely adopted for care giving services and the lessons learnt could be valuable to others designing similar solutions. The literacy level of the care givers as end-users was an important consideration for selecting the right methods to involve them in the design of the solution. It was a challenge to design the solution for the kind of mobile phones used by the care givers in these poorer communities since these phones have limited functionality. The design of the mobile solution as well as the process to involve the end-users were therefore influenced by the constraints of the context of use.

Industry cases: reflexivity in industrial practice

Participatory design and human factors within the Norwegian oil and gas industry BIBAFull-Text 129-132
  Adam Balfour; Aga Skorupka; Dominka Turzynska
This paper presents industry experience of using the participatory design approach in the Norwegian oil and gas industry.
   An overview of unique requirements regulating end-user participation will be given along with some specific examples. The overview includes national regulations, (e.g. HSE Framework regulations), international standards (e.g. ISO 11064) and industry standards such as Norsok S002. The benefits of end user participation will be noted.
   We outline some of the challenges that we have faced ensuring end-user participation in the offshore oil and gas industry and provide practical examples. The presentation will conclude with specific proposals on how to improve end-user participation in the industry.
Cross-organizational collaborative approach to user experience framework development to enrich product development practices BIBAFull-Text 133-136
  Delia Grenville
Like many corporations, the evolution of high-tech, social media trends, and continued thrust towards increased personalization in computing has impacted both our product development philosophy and our organization's culture. Consumers and employees alike expect products that better represent our experiences as people. In the last year, my team has focused on three vectors -- connection, intention, and transformation -- in the development of a corporate user-experience (UX) framework for our products. The naming of the vectors corresponds to the UX practices that we have identified to develop better product experiences. The vectors also acknowledge the cultural activation that is essential to creating a self-sustaining experience-driven product development community within our corporation. Both participatory design and a collaborative approach are allowing the community to thrive and position us to support common goals for our corporate-level user experience design agenda. This paper focuses on the co-design of the user experience practices to be adopted by the organization.
How can I help you today?: the knowledge work of call center agents BIBAFull-Text 137-140
  Peggy Szymanski; Luke Plurkowski; Patricia Swenton-Wall; Jennifer Englert
This paper reflects on an industry case study conducted in two outsourced call centers to explore the human side of their turnover problem. At the project's onset, management did not consider it necessary to get input from their agents as they already had a thorough knowledge of their organization's operations based on financial analyses and employee surveys. However when we brought back examples from the field showing agent work as complex, dynamic, stressful knowledge work, management began to see the value of soliciting input from their front-line employees. What started as a turnover investigation resulted in an organizational learning initiative to capture and propagate the "human" side of call center work. In the end, we shadowed agents through their shift to create "A day in the life of a call agent" video documentary so that organization-wide all could appreciate the complexity of call agent work.

Workshops

Participatory design for users with impairments affecting cognitive functions and communication skills BIBAFull-Text 141-142
  Karin Slegers; Pieter Duysburgh; Helma van Rijn; Niels Hendriks
Involving people with impairments in the design process is very challenging, especially when impairments affect cognitive functions or communication. People with such impairments may have substantial problems with thought processes and communication, including understanding abstractions, sequencing thoughts and actions, understanding symbols, and interpreting social cues. Many participatory design techniques are based on these processes and are therefore not usable, or need to be adjusted for people with impairments. This workshop aims to exchange experiences with participatory design techniques that were designed for, or adapted to people with impairments. Since many of these techniques are highly focused on specific target groups, a further aim is to extract general principles and to generate guidelines for involving users with impairments in the design process.
Working with human values in design BIBAFull-Text 143-144
  Ole Sejer Iversen; Tuck W. Leong; Peter Wright; Judith Gregory; Geoff Bowker
A survey of the literature confirms that engaging with human values when designing technology is an important undertaking. However, despite these efforts, there is still considerable divergence and a lack of agreement in how we conceptualize and approach values during technology design. This workshop seeks to bring expertise from different perspectives on design to explore theoretical, methodological, and relational issues when working with values in design. The aim is to better conceptualize, understand and establish ways we can work more systematically and productively with human values in future designs.
Exploring ANT in PD: reflections and implications for theory and practice BIBAFull-Text 145-146
  Cristiano Storni; Per Linde; Thomas Binder; Dagny Stuedahl
This workshop aims to explore, map and discuss the contribution of Actor Network Theory to Participatory design 's theory and practice. The links between the two are multiple and offers multiple occasions to appreciate the relevance of ANT in PD. The workshop seeks contributions especially in three areas: ANT as a descriptive tool for PD, ANT as conceptual framework for PD theory and practice, and ANT and PD education.
Participatory design of business models BIBAFull-Text 147-148
  Jacob Buur
The recent focus on user-driven innovation and open innovation signals a shift of concerns beyond the new product or service it self. The very model of how to make business is at play in most innovation projects today, in particular with the advent of Internet commerce. There are already examples of participatory design methods being applied to open up the process of business modeling to a wider circle of actors than those marketing managers that typically devise new business schemes. Traditional manufacturing companies with conventional product sales are challenged to consider alternative business models. Public organizations are under increasing pressure to consider themselves a business, with all that this entails in terms of new terminology.
   To allow people without formal business education to take part in business model discussions means moving beyond text and spreadsheets. Designers can play a crucial role here. But participatory design of business models could sound like a contradiction in terms: Do the designers side with the exploiting rather than the exploited?
   This workshop invites participants to bring experience from projects where business issues were part of the participatory negotiation, and to hone their position on the larger question of the role of PD in innovation.
Participation: basic concepts and research challenges BIBAFull-Text 149-150
  Susanne Bødker; Kim Halskov
Nearly four decades ago, Participatory Design emerged as an area of research with a strong focus on the political dimension, emphasizing people's democratic rights to influence their own working conditions. During recent years the context of use for information technology has spreads from the workplace to our homes, urban settings, rural areas, art, culture and almost all aspect of everyday life.
   The goal of this workshop is to shed light on the basic concept of 'participation' in relation to other core concepts (such as democracy, emancipation and power) in order to address the challenges in the new domains. At a more general level, the goal of the workshop is to identify some of urgent research question the PD community is facing today and in the near future.
Workshop: exploring participatory prototyping of services BIBAFull-Text 151-152
  Johan Blomkvist; Stefan Holmlid; Fredrik Sandberg; Bo Westerlund
This full day workshop intends to explore approaches, methods and techniques that can be used in participatory prototyping of services. The participants will contribute with their experiences of different ways of working with participatory prototyping. During the workshop the participants will share, explore and give feedback on the method or case that they present. By engaging in other methods there will also be a learning activity. Another aim of the workshop is to initiate research and development of knowledge within the emerging field of participatory prototyping of services and product service systems. One particular interest regards the relation between details and "the whole". The emphasis of the workshop is to have creative learning experiences.