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Proceedings of the 2012 Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference

Fullname:Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference
Note:Integration, Interaction, Innovation, Immersion, Inclusion
Editors:Vivienne Farrell; Graham Farrell; Caslon Chua; Weidong Huang; Raj Vasa; Clinton Woodward
Location:Melbourne, Australia
Dates:2012-Nov-26 to 2012-Nov-30
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1438-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: OZCHI12
Papers:102
Pages:682
Links:Conference Home Page | Conference Website
A desktop virtual reality application for chemical and process engineering education BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Elin Abdul Rahim; Andreas Duenser; Mark Billinghurst; Alfred Herritsch; Keith Unsworth; Alan Mckinnon; Peter Gostomski
A desktop Virtual Reality (VR) application of a skim milk powder process has been developed. The goal was to use this application as a learning resource to expose students to processing plant environments, which are becoming increasingly difficult to visit due to availability and safety reasons. The VR application comprises 360° panorama images of the milk powder process plant, process flow diagrams (PFD), piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID), 3D drawings and additional materials such as supplemental text, videos and animations. This paper describes the VR application as well as an evaluation of the application. The results of this study show that the application was easy to use and the users were satisfied with it. The design recommendations for the development of similar VR learning applications are also discussed in this paper.
Investigating a multi-faceted view of user experience BIBAFull-Text 9-18
  Ons Al-Shamaileh; Alistair Sutcliffe
This paper reports the influence of website design and brand on users' experience; it also explores the effect of users' cultures and values (health awareness) on their judgement of health websites. Eighty-six respondents from Jordan and the UK viewed three health-related websites with different designs and brand names. Content, usability, aesthetics, pleasurable interaction, service quality, and overall judgement were assessed through questionnaires; interviews were conducted to support the questionnaire results. Results demonstrated that a familiar website brand, comprehensive content and interactive features had the strongest effect on users' judgement; respondents were more positive to a website with a familiar brand, comprehensive content and interactive features, while there were minor effects of health awareness and culture on users' overall preferences.
A novel 3D interactive visualization for medical data analysis BIBAFull-Text 19-25
  Patricio Alzamora; Quang Vinh Nguyen; Simeon Simoff; Daniel Catchpoole
This paper describes a new three-dimensional interactive visualization supporting large scale medical data analysis. We provide a simple and effective view so that the biomedical information can be easily perceived. Our visualization also embeds a novel mechanism to prevent disorientation by maintaining the orientation of objects and labels during the navigation. From the overview of patient population, users can select one, multiple patients or a group of patients to analyse further. We demonstrate our approach with the medical scientists working on a case study of childhood cancer patients, examplifying how they could use the tool to confirm existing hypotheses and to discover new scientific insights.
FireFlies: supporting primary school teachers through open-ended interaction design BIBAFull-Text 26-29
  Saskia Bakker; Elise van den Hoven; Berry Eggen
Primary school teachers usually perform several tasks simultaneously. Many secondary tasks, such as giving turns or encouraging children to work silently, could be supported by interactive systems, which may lighten the teacher's busy everyday routine. Such systems however, should afford being interacted with while performing another primary task. We call this type of design peripheral interaction design. In this paper we present FireFlies, an open-ended peripheral interaction design developed for primary schools. Preliminary results of a six week deployment of FireFlies in four classrooms, reveal that teachers used FireFlies to perform secondary tasks and saw it as a valuable addition to the classroom. Though different interactions with FireFlies required different levels of effort, teachers could successfully interact with FireFlies during or in between other tasks.
A multi-touch interface for enhancing collaborative UML diagramming BIBAFull-Text 30-33
  Mohammed Basheri; Liz Burd; Nilufar Baghaei
Multi-touch interfaces facilitate collaborative learning and, thus, represent a promising educational technology. Their ability to synchronously accommodate multiple users is an advantage in co-located collaborative design tasks. This paper explores the multi-touch interface's potential in collaborative Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagramming by comparing it to a PC-based tool. The results of the study demonstrate that the use of the multi-touch table enables an increase in the equity of participation, enhanced collaboration amongst team members, and the facilitation of parallel-participative design.
Igwana: a text-free search interface BIBAFull-Text 34-37
  Shourov Bhattacharya; Luke Feldman
Keyword-driven search has become an important way for people to find content on the World Wide Web. However, it is estimated that more than 700 million adults (Warrilow, 2009) lack sufficient literacy in either English or another major language to use existing search interfaces. As a result, these users are to a large extent 'locked out' from the Web. We seek to address this challenge through the development of a user interface ('igwana') to navigate effectively through large sets of content by using pictograms in place of text. This paper describes some of our preliminary research and ideas and a proposed design for the igwana system.
The design of an online community for welfare recipients BIBAFull-Text 38-41
  Sanat Kumar Bista; Nathalie Colineau; Surya Nepal; Cécile Paris
We present the design of an online community targeting people currently in receipt of welfare payments to help them find a job and become financially self-sufficient. We developed and deployed this online community in partnership with the Australian Government's Department of Human Services. In this paper, we report on the process of designing this community, its main components and unique features, and the initial data we have collected.
On domain-specific decision support systems for e-sports strategy games BIBAFull-Text 42-51
  James Bonner; Clinton J. Woodward
Extensive domain-specific Decision Support Systems (DSS) have been developed for use by commentators and team managers in professional sports. Particularly developed DSS are available in basketball, baseball, and motorsports. E-sports is a burgeoning new field of professional sports, wherein a video game is played as a sport. This paper will develop a set of criteria to measure the capabilities and limitations of DSS in professional sport based on academic descriptions of DSS and the existing applications of DSS to traditional professional sports leagues. These criteria will be applied to the video game StarCraft 2: Wings of Liberty, as a popular e-sports title that is representative of the DSS characteristics of e-sports games. Based upon the developed metrics, this paper will propose additions and modifications to the DSS available in StarCraft 2: Wings of Liberty, and the e-sports field at large.
Training software development practitioners in usability testing: an assessment acceptance and prioritization BIBAFull-Text 52-60
  Anders Bruun; Jan Stage
Previous studies show that some software development practitioners without a usability background experience difficulties in understanding users and accepting that usability problems exist in their software. Also they do not prioritize fixing the problems identified by specialists. This barrier is denoted "developer mindset" and this paper empirically explores whether the barrier can be overcome by training software development practitioners to conduct usability testing. Findings show that the practitioners obtained considerable abilities in identifying usability problems as they managed to uncover 80.5% of these after 30 hours of training, which shows a high level of acceptance. Findings also reveal that the practitioners prioritized fixing 61% of the problems and we found that they successfully removed 64% in a new interface design. We conclude that this approach may pose a viable solution to overcome the barrier of developer mindset.
"Everything goes into or out of the iPad": the iPad, information scraps and personal information management BIBAFull-Text 61-67
  Paris Buttfield-Addison; Christopher Lueg; Leonie Ellis; Jon Manning
Personal information management (PIM) is of considerable interest to the information science community. Traditionally the domain of paper, desktop computers and laptops, we have seen the widespread introduction of tablet computers in PIM. In this paper we discuss the findings of the first stage of a multi year study into the emergent role of tablets in PIM with a particular focus on information and knowledge workers. We discuss a set of observations on how the use of tablet computers affects PIM and how it fits into the process of collecting and managing information. In particular, heavy tablet users appear to be supplanting paper with tablets for the purposes of micronote taking. A major finding detailed in the paper is an unexpected increase in the use of paper by heavy tablet users.
Avatars, characters, players and users: multiple identities at/in play BIBAFull-Text 68-71
  Marcus Carter; Martin Gibbs; Michael Arnold
Avatars are ubiquitous in virtual worlds (VWs). As such, they have become central to how we understand the way they are experienced. Common conceptualisations of the user avatar relationship invoke an identity binary which has influenced discussions of presence and game enjoyment. This paper presents findings from EVE Online which suggest there are more than two identities involved in playing games in VWs. As such, we argue for a more nuanced approach to notions of identity in VWs and discuss how this approach understands the impact of VW design on the way identity is constructed by players.
"Friendly, don't shoot!": how communication design can enable novel social interactions BIBAFull-Text 72-75
  Marcus Carter; Greg Wadley; Martin Gibbs
The ability to communicate by voice in multiplayer networked virtual worlds has become almost ubiquitous over the past decade. Yet the possibilities for creating interesting social dynamics and game play experiences through the design and configuration of voice channels remains largely unexplored. In this paper we discuss the first person shooter game DayZ, which utilizes a relatively unique voice communication system. We examine the design of DayZ's voice channel and present examples of its use in order to understand how its configuration influences social interaction and game play. We claim that two features of this system -- proximity and all-to-all -- enable novel and enjoyable game play experiences and user interactions.
A user interface guide for web search systems BIBAFull-Text 76-84
  Caslon Chua
The amount of information available on the internet has grown unabated over the years. With internet users using web search systems as a starting point into the internet, understanding the tasks involved in a web search is important to designing appropriate interfaces. This paper investigates existing studies on search interfaces. It identifies important task interactions and reports key points that need to be considered in interface design. In defining a design guide for web search interfaces, it argues the need to address specific key points in order to promote a positive user search experience with the potential to achieve better search results.
A buddy matching program to help build an online support network BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Nathalie Colineau
Starting a new online community can be difficult, so to help community members to get to know each other and develop a support network, we are proposing a buddy matching program, which recommends community members to each other. The recommendations are based on three social matching algorithms and include community constraints to ensure all members get recommended to someone while at the same time ensuring members are not solicited too many times.
Peg hunting: foraging with macro- and micro-navigation BIBAFull-Text 89-92
  Matthew J. D'Orazio; Christopher Lueg
Many tools, techniques and devices have been developed to support people traversing their environment. In this paper we report findings from a series of realistic outdoor experiments conducted to understand the comparative, task-specific strengths and limitations of a GPS-enabled navigation map and egocentric navigation systems. These tasks included both macro- and micro-navigation aspects. Our findings suggest that while GPS-enabled navigation maps are preferred for moving over larger distances (macro-navigation), their inability to support micro navigation resulted in a notable decrease in the ability of users to locate their desired points of interest. In contrast to this the egocentric navigation system performs well in micro-navigation but relatively weaker in macro-navigation. We conclude that a better system would allow users to switch between map-based and egocentric views in order to use a GPS system for the macro-navigation, and an egocentric system for micro-navigation.
Dynamic previews for building digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 93-96
  Chris Deaker; Doris Jung; Steve Jones
This paper presents an investigation of alternative methods of digital library creation and configuration. Dynamic collection previews were utilized in order to assist collection administrators when creating and managing collections. Greenstone was used as a test-bed for investigating the potential benefits of this approach. A prototype was developed to explore the effects of dynamic previews when applied to one component of Greenstone collection configuration. A preliminary study indicated that users preferred dynamic previews to Greenstone's traditional approach to collection configuration. Moreover, this paper identifies a number of potential avenues for improvement elsewhere within Greenstone and other DL management software.
Typing over autocomplete: cognitive load in website use by older adults BIBAFull-Text 97-106
  Wendy Doubé; Jeanie Beh
This paper describes an exploration into factors influencing the interaction of cognitive processing with visual and motor skills during website use by older adults. Twenty-eight older adults and 18 younger adults completed an on-line air-ticketing search task. Quantitative and qualitative data was captured from multiple sources, and analysed from the perspective of cognitive load. Compared with the younger control group, older adults took significantly longer and made significantly more errors in reporting the results of the task. Although the mean duration of gaze down at the keyboard and notes was similar for both age groups, the mean duration of screen gaze was significantly longer for older than for younger participants. Older adults also logged a significantly higher number of gazes from keyboard to screen. Their longer task times were associated with actions that increase cognitive load by decreasing spatial and temporal contiguity of information. Unlike their younger counterparts, they did not glance rapidly between screen and keyboard, but focussed their gaze on the keyboard, checking their typing only when they had completed a form field. Accordingly, they typed into autocomplete combo boxes, ignoring preset options, with the unexpected consequence of more expensive fares and a smaller range of results. When participant background information was analysed, task time was correlated with less Internet experience as well as with age. Supported by observation and self-report which did not signal pronounced vision or motor problems, these results suggest that task times could be reduced through automation of repeatable user interface actions with practice, especially with training in screen glancing rather than gazing. Although the number of search reporting errors was correlated with age group and not experience, greater proficiency with the interface could possibly free cognitive resources for improved problem-solving.
Creating interactive physics education books with augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 107-114
  Andreas Dünser; Lawrence Walker; Heather Horner; Daniel Bentall
Augmented Books show three-dimensional animated educational content and provide a means for students to interact with this content in an engaging learning experience. In this paper we present a framework for creating educational Augmented Reality (AR) books that overlay virtual content over real book pages. The framework features support for certain types of user interaction, model and texture animations, and an enhanced marker design suitable for educational books. Three books teaching electromagnetism concepts were created with this framework. To evaluate the effectiveness in helping students learn, we conducted a small pilot study with ten secondary school students, studying electromagnetism concepts using the three books. Half of the group used the books with the diagrams augmented, while the other half used the books without augmentation. Participants completed a pre-test, a test after the learning session and a retention test administered 1 month later. Results suggest that AR has potential to be effective in teaching complex 3D concepts.
What are the characteristics of highly disseminated public health-related tweets? BIBAFull-Text 115-118
  Dan Dumbrell; Robert Steele
Unlike traditional mass media, peer interaction between individuals is of critical importance in the dissemination mechanisms for social media. There is emerging interest in the possible novel application of social media in disseminating public health information or messages. In this paper, we analyze tweet and re-tweet behaviour in the context of Australian public health-related micro-blog posts to provide preliminary insights into the characteristics of widely disseminated tweets (including characteristics of re-tweeting accounts). In this way we also consider the nature and role of human computer-mediated interactions in affecting the level of dissemination of Twitter-based public health messages.
Colour coding the fridge to reduce food waste BIBAFull-Text 119-122
  Geremy Farr-Wharton; Marcus Foth; Jaz Hee-Jeong Choi
This paper introduces the first iteration of a study aimed at grouping similar food types together in a refrigerator to increase the awareness of available foods for consumers in a domestic environment. The goals of the project are twofold: i) Raise the awareness of available foods for all members of a household; ii) Reduce the amount of expired food waste in the household. The project implemented a paper-based colour scheme in refrigerators in households, assigning colours to particular food types (e.g. green to fruit and vegetables, red to meat, etc.). The findings show that the colour coding raised participants' awareness of available food items in the fridge, particularly for those participants who were not directly involved in the shopping and initial storage of each food item. The findings also indicate that such awareness led to a reduction in expiration of food and thus general food waste in the household. These preliminary findings suggest that raising awareness of food availability through categorisation and efficient communication of this information may lead to a reduction in food waste in domestic environments.
Application of domain specific heuristics to an innovative computer based assessment strategy BIBAFull-Text 123-129
  Graham Farrell; Vivienne Farrell
Students undertaking summative and formative assessment are very much aware of the imperative of the outcome and often find themselves in a stressful situation with a high level of required concentration. Usability testing of assessment tool interfaces is hindered by the ability to sufficiently replicate the exam environment or to disrupt, watch or monitor a student while they are undertaking an exam or rely on their memories to reproduce their concerns at a later stage. This research demonstrates how a set of heuristics is adapted and redefined to enable an iterative approach to the improvement of a computer aided online assessment tool. The revised set of heuristics offers a tool for future developers to assist in the development of online assessment interfaces.
A low-cost 3 projector display system for pain reduction and improved patient recovery times BIBAFull-Text 130-133
  Eric Fassbender; Paulo de Souza
Medical procedures are often associated with discomfort, pain and anxiety. Previous studies have shown that one way to reduce pain during treatment is to watch nature scenes and listen to nature sounds or escape into immersive virtual environments. This not only benefits the patients' well-being but also effectively reduces costs for governments, health care providers and patients themselves. Previous studies show that high levels of immersion into virtual environments significantly reduce pain that is experienced during medical procedures. However, large-scale immersive display systems are inherently expensive and pixel resolution and field of view in smaller and more affordable Head-Mounted Displays has increased only very slowly over the past 40 years. In this paper we consider a Low-Cost 3 Projector Display System as an alternative display method for restorative virtual environments until high quality, highly immersive Head-Mounted Displays have been developed and are available at a reasonable price.
A framework for service recipient inclusion in community IT projects BIBAFull-Text 134-137
  Chris Felstead; Rosemary Stockdale
Not-for-profit organizations put considerable effort into community-based Information Technology (IT) projects to bridge the gap between the 'haves and the 'have-nots' of the digital divide. However, the outcomes of these IT projects are often seen as problematic with service recipients failing to gain the intended benefits. It is proposed that this is often because the recipients fail to be engaged as a result of being ascribed with belonging to a community without the perceived power or ability to participate. It is also proposed that this is an area for further study with a bias towards using Participatory Design Techniques in conjunction with the model suggested in this paper. The researchers believe that this could provide an area of investigation for an Action Research project.
A gamified mobile application for engaging new students at university orientation BIBAFull-Text 138-141
  Zachary Fitz-Walter; Dian Tjondronegoro; Peta Wyeth
The term gamification describes the addition of game elements to non-game contexts as a means to motivate and engage users. This study investigates the design, delivery and pilot evaluation of a gamified, smartphone application built to introduce new students to the campus, services and people at university during their first few weeks. This paper describes changes to the application made after an initial field study was undertaken and provides an evaluation of the impact of the redesign. Survey responses were collected from thirteen students and usage data was captured from 105 students. Results indicate three levels of user engagement and suggest that there is value in adding game elements to the experience in this way. A number of issues are identified and discussed based on game challenges, input, and facilitating game elements in an event setting such as university orientation.
Mystery at the library: encouraging library exploration using a pervasive mobile game BIBAFull-Text 142-145
  Zachary Fitz-Walter; Dian Tjondronegoro; Desmond Koh; Michael Zrobok
This paper presents Secret SLQ, a pervasive mobile game that aims to encourage eight to fourteen year olds to engage with the State Library of Queensland. The game sets out to encourage people to visit and explore the library, as well as educate a generation of young people and parents who may visit the library but have no idea of the treasures that it holds. The research explores how smartphone technology can be used to deliver an engaging and educational experience. The game aims to provide a fun and interactive way to guide participants through a multi-leveled library building, to search for unique QR codes to unlock clues, answer quiz questions and progress further up a leaderboard. This paper outlines the design and initial deployment of the game, reporting on results from a usability study and discussing initial observations made by librarians. Findings indicate that the mobile platform is suitable for delivering such experiences but consideration is needed when embedding games in such large environments so as not to confuse players as they play.
Self-determination theory as applied to the design of a software learning system using whole-body controls BIBAFull-Text 146-149
  Matthew Ford; Peta Wyeth; Daniel Johnson
Whole-body computer control interfaces present new opportunities to engage children with games for learning. Stomp is a suite of educational games that use such a technology, allowing young children to use their whole body to interact with a digital environment projected on the floor. To maximise the effectiveness of this technology, tenets of self-determination theory (SDT) are applied to the design of Stomp experiences. By meeting user needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness our aim is to increase children's engagement with the Stomp learning platform. Analysis of Stomp's design suggests that these tenets are met. Observations from a case study of Stomp being used by young children show that they were highly engaged and motivated by Stomp. This analysis demonstrates that continued application of SDT to Stomp will further enhance user engagement. It also is suggested that SDT, when applied more widely to other whole-body multi-user interfaces, could instil similar positive effects.
Please take out your phones: on the spot solicitation of student feedback in class BIBAFull-Text 150-153
  Marcus Foth; Zachary Fitz-Walter; Jimmy Ti; Rebekah Russell-Bennett; Kerri-Ann Kuhn
The use of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets in classrooms has been met with mixed sentiments. Some instructors and teachers see them as a distraction and regularly ban their usage. Others who see their potential to enhance learning have started to explore ways to integrate them into their teaching in an attempt to improve student engagement. In this paper we report on a pilot study that forms part of a university-wide project reconceptualising its approach to the student evaluation of learning and teaching. In a progressive decision to embrace mobile technology, the university decided to trial a smart phone app designed for students to check-in to class and leave feedback on the spot. Our preliminary findings from trialling the app indicate that the application establishes a more immediate feedback loop between students and teachers. However, the app's impact depends on how feedback is shared with students and how the teaching team responds.
Impact of viral propagation on user interface design BIBAFull-Text 154-157
  Antonio Giardina; Rajesh Vasa; Felix Ter Chian Tan
In recent times application developers are endeavouring to achieve viral growth of the application user base ecosystems. Viral Meme Propagation is the underlying phenomenon, which enables these applications to reach multiple users in a short period of time. In this paper we will analyse the basic properties that are required by an application and its user interface to achieve such growth. We propose a model that describes the lifecycle of a meme. Furthermore we support this model with a framework, which identifies user interface elements and application features that are the foundation to the meme propagation and classify these based on the stage of the lifecycle they belong to. The goal of this framework is to assist software developers in selecting these elements early on in the application design lifecycle, in order to improve the user experience.
Designing locative and social media technologies for community collaboration and social benefit: PetSearch BIBAFull-Text 158-161
  Kathryn Gough; Jillian Hamilton
The convergence of locative and social media with collaborative interfaces and data visualisation has expanded the potential of online information provision. Offering new ways for communities to share contextually specific information, it presents the opportunity to expand social media's current focus on micro self-publishing with applications that support communities to actively address areas of local need. This paper details the design and development of a prototype application that illustrates this potential. Entitled PetSearch, it was designed in collaboration with the Animal Welfare League of Queensland to support communities to map and locate lost, found and injured pets, and to build community engagement in animal welfare issues. We argue that, while established approaches to social and locative media provide a useful foundation for designing applications to harness social capital, they must be re-envisaged if they are to effectively facilitate community collaboration. We conclude by arguing that the principles of user engagement and co-operation employed in this project can be extrapolated to other online approaches that aim to facilitate co-operative problem solving for social benefit.
Agile life: addressing knowledge and social motivations for active aging BIBAFull-Text 162-165
  Jasmin Grosinger; Frank Vetere; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Despite the inter-relationship between physical, cognitive and social factors for older people, the frequency of physical activity typically decreases with age. In this paper, we focus on two specific issues related to physical activity and older people -- overcoming the knowledge barrier and promoting social motivation. We develop a tablet-based prototype called Agile Life that provides 'Physical Activity Information Chunks' (PAICs) and also promotes awareness of friends' activities and opportunities to join in. The results of a user study, including a think-aloud walkthrough and an adapted technology probe, suggest that the social engagement with friends is a strong motivator but that the content of information chunks need to be carefully tailored to the participant. We provide suggestions for further developing an activity application for this age group.
Mobile Q&A for enhancing online discussion BIBAFull-Text 166-169
  Hao Guo; Dian Tjondronegoro; Paul Roe
In this study, we explore the design and evaluation of a mobile online discussion system for motivating students to share their learning experiences. The system supports interaction with peers and academic staff anytime and anywhere using mobile devices. The application introduces a set of features that enables customisation for different purposes. This paper describes the application and explains the motivation for developing the application. We describe the methods and results of a case study that explores usage of the application among a small group of localised participants. Finally, we discuss the implications of this work and outline future areas of research and development.
Through two different lenses: a tool for new perspectives into context BIBAFull-Text 170-179
  Florian Güldenpfennig; Wolfgang Reitberger; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
With the advent of ubicomp, designers of interactive systems face a growing need for research methods that enable them to understand aspects of context. Existing methods have already employed visual media as a means to analyse context. Utilizing the capabilities of modern smartphones, we present 'BehindTheCamera' (BTC) that goes beyond traditional photography by adding another perspective through the simultaneous use of front and back cameras. A thematic analysis of the results of a field study involving 30 people working in pairs revealed six categories of BTC use: Conventional Use, Sense of Location, Facial Tagging, Social Interaction, User Perspective, Technical Perspective. We argue these contribute understandings of context in three ways: humoticons showing the emotional valence of situations; perspective axes through the two cameras connecting distinct aspects of the context; and narrative arcs about potential interactions.
Capturing rich media through media objects on smartphones BIBAFull-Text 180-183
  Florian Güldenpfennig; Wolfgang Reitberger; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
New mobile phones with built-in sensors provide the opportunity to easily capture vast amounts of multimedia data. In this paper we present a file format to explore new ways of relating digital content: the media object (mob). Mob was designed as a tool for serving three concerns: first, to provide the user with an object structure that allows them to capture and associate multimedia and contextual data (photo, video, text, locations and so forth) especially on mobile phones; second, to put them in a creative frame of mind when recording media; third, to learn more about peoples' common practices as well as desires around digital photography and digital support for memory. We report on an exploratory user study featuring 7 participants over 2-5 weeks and conclude with a set of future requirements.
Exploration to design a cursor for indirect pen interfaces BIBAFull-Text 184-193
  Jaehyun Han; Geehyuk Lee
Indirect pen interfaces with a horizontal control space and a vertical display space are common in designers' work environments. They have advantages compared to direct pen interfaces in respect of fatigue and occlusion problems. An intrinsic problem of indirect pen interfaces, however, is that users have to work with limited visual feedback about the pen and the hand. In order to understand and cope with the limited visual feedback problem, we undertook a three-phase user study. First, we conducted an observation study to examine the symptoms of the limited visual feedback problem. Second, we tested different types of cursors to cope with the limited visual feedback problem. Third, we performed a controlled user study to analyse the effects of different cursor designs and their quality factors. We summarize the main findings from our user study that may contribute to the usability of indirect pen interfaces.
Design of software to support families with food-allergic and food-intolerant children BIBAFull-Text 194-203
  Karen Henricksen; Stephen Viller
Childhood food allergies and intolerances are increasing in prevalence and can impact heavily on the health-related quality of life of children, in addition to placing a significant burden on parents and other caregivers. This paper reports on a multi-part research study in which we examined current use and future opportunities for software to support families dealing with childhood food allergies and intolerances. In the first part of our study, we conducted an online parent questionnaire and interviews with clinicians, in order to understand the challenges faced by families with food-allergic and food-intolerant children, as well as the current levels of technology use by these families. Based on the outcomes, we focused our subsequent attention on the design of food diary software to support the care of children with non-IgE adverse food reactions, which are extremely challenging to diagnose and monitor. We conducted a week-long food diary study and follow-up design workshop, in order to evaluate food diary compliance and to elicit design inspiration for a new food diary application.
ForceDrag: using pressure as a touch input modifier BIBAFull-Text 204-207
  Seongkook Heo; Geehyuk Lee
It is common to use modifier keys in a PC environment in order to change drag modes, but mobile devices with a touch screen do not provide this option. Thus, we present ForceDrag to address this issue, which is a touch drag operation where pressure is used as a modifier key to change touch drag modes. We also introduce the concept of force lock and we compare three selection techniques for performing a force lock in a user study. We also describe a prototype implementation and discuss early user feedback on ForceDrag.
A 3D UI for service multitasking in a 3D city map BIBAFull-Text 208-211
  Seamus Hickey; Minna Pakanen; Leena Arhippainen
The adoption of 3D map based services by users will be more likely if they can provide additional value and utility, while maintaining visual appeal and usability. We present a 3D user interface which objectifies real-time data, provides a set of operations for that data and uses simple object manipulation. In user tests focusing on the usefulness of this approach, our system scored highly for interesting, useful, easy, fast and natural. In our user interface, users liked the 'drag to service' option, but 'drag to map' was not considered to be easy or a natural means of behaving.
Developing serious games for children with cerebral palsy: case study and pilot trial BIBAFull-Text 212-221
  Martin Henschke; David Hobbs; Brett Wilkinson
Serious computer games developed for motor rehabilitation produce a more engaging and enjoyable method to participate in physical therapy, but lack of variation and a secondary focus on fun limit long-term appeal. Traditionally, the focus of serious games in a health context is on the rehabilitation of motor function, neglecting the often-absent or impaired sensory function of the patient. This paper discusses a series of approaches used to develop appropriate serious games for children with cerebral palsy targeted at the impaired sensory system, taking into consideration longevity of play experience, requirements from therapists or researchers, and the interface requirements of the participants themselves. Two of the games that were developed are provided as examples, including data and feedback from one child with cerebral palsy who evaluated the games for entertainment, engagement and replay value.
Adaptive probabilistic fission for multimodal systems BIBAFull-Text 222-231
  Frank Honold; Felix Schüssel; Michael Weber
Human beings continuously adapt their way of communication to their surroundings and their communication partner. Although context-aware ubiquitous systems gather a lot of information to maximize their functionality, they predominantly use static ways to communicate. In order to fulfill the user's communication needs and demands, the sensor's diverse and sometimes uncertain information must also be used to dynamically adapt the user interface. In this article we present ProFi, a system for Probabilistic Fission, designed to reason on adaptive and multimodal output based on uncertain or ambiguous data. In addition, we present a system architecture as well as a new meta model for multimodal interactive systems. Based on this meta model we describe ProFi's process of multimodal fission along with our current implementation.
Being immersed: avatar similarity and self-awareness BIBAFull-Text 232-240
  Rosalie Hooi; Hichang Cho
Online games and virtual worlds provide hours of entertainment for users and billions in revenue for game companies. It is therefore significant to investigate the factors that affect immersion so that virtual environments can be tailored to provide an immersive experience. This study explored mechanisms underlying the relationship between avatar similarity and immersion. Specifically, we examined the effects of avatar appearance similarity, homophily and private self-awareness on immersion. Data from 196 users of Second Life were collected through a web-based survey. The results revealed an important role of self-awareness in mediating the effect of avatar similarity on immersion. More specifically, appearance similarity was found to affect homophily, which heightened self-awareness. Self-awareness, in turn, influenced immersion. Implications for research and practical applications are discussed.
A preliminary analysis of mobile app user reviews BIBAFull-Text 241-244
  Rajesh Vasa; Leonard Hoon; Kon Mouzakis; Akihiro Noguchi
The advent of online software distribution channels like Apple Inc.'s App Store and Google Inc.'s Google Play has offered developers a single, low cost, and powerful distribution mechanism. These online stores help users discover apps as well as leave a review. Ratings and reviews add value to both the developer and potential new users by providing a crowd-sourced indicator of app quality. Hence, for developers it is important to get positive reviews and high ratings to ensure that an app has a viable future. But, what exactly do users say on these app stores? And more importantly, what is the experience that compels a user to leave either a positive or a negative rating? Our analysis of 8.7 million reviews from 17,330 apps shows that users tend to leave short, yet informative reviews, and the rating as well as the category influences the length of a review. In this preliminary study, we found that users will leave longer messages when they rate an app poorly, and the depth of feedback in certain categories is significantly higher than for other.
A preliminary analysis of vocabulary in mobile app user reviews BIBAFull-Text 245-248
  Leonard Hoon; Rajesh Vasa; Jean-Guy Schneider; Kon Mouzakis
Online software distribution channels such as Apple Inc.'s App Store and Google Inc.'s Google Play provide a platform for third-party app distribution. These online stores feature a public review system, allowing users to express opinions regarding purchased apps. These reviews can influence product-purchasing decisions via polarised sentiment (1 to 5 stars) and user expressed opinion. For developers, reviews are a user-facing crowd-sourced indicator of app quality. Hence, high ratings and positive reviews affect the viability of an app's commercial feasibility. However, it is less clear what information is contained within these reviews, and more importantly, if an analysis of these reviews can inform developers of design priorities as opposed to just influencing purchasing decisions. We analysed 8.7 million reviews from 17,330 apps on the App Store and found that the most frequently used words in user reviews lean toward expressions of sentiment despite employment of only approximately 37% of the words within the English language dictionary. Furthermore, the range of words used to express negative opinions is significantly higher than when positive sentiments are expressed.
A scenario- and observation-based requirement analysis for delivery of remote mining services BIBAFull-Text 249-252
  Weidong Huang; Craig James; Leila Alem; Eleonora Widzyk-Capehart; Kerstin Haustein
Market pressure to access wider markets, whilst reducing costs of delivering support to distant clients, is driving the demand for systems that support remote delivery of customer service. Although systems have been developed to meet such demand, the delivery of remote mining engineering services posts unique challenges that require specific attention. In this paper, we report a study conducted as part of a collaborative project between CSIRO and a company specialising in the provision of mining engineering services, to understand user requirements for delivering mining engineering services remotely. In this study, we employ an approach that applies user-experience design methods, combined with scenario-based software design techniques in requirements elicitation and analysis. We review related work, describe the procedure and techniques of the approach, present our design recommendations and discuss future work.
ARENO: ambient reminder notes BIBAFull-Text 253-262
  Adriana Ispas; Sarah Schöni; Moira C. Norrie
We present ARENO, a system that captures reminders hand-written on paper and displays them as ambient information to aid reminding as well as integrating them into desktop tools that manage notes and todo lists. The system is extensible, supporting alternative views of the notes according to user preferences and allowing different views to run in parallel to support different styles of interaction. At the same time, alternative paper interfaces could be used to provide different ways of capturing notes from paper as well as entering them digitally. We report on a study where the system was configured to offer an ambient display alongside two more traditional reminder tools that showed that ambient displays are particularly well suited to notes without specific deadlines.
Dolls as props representing users in design: physical qualities and their application BIBAFull-Text 263-272
  Christina Jakobsen
Doll based design constitutes an emerging design approach where users and use is represented via props in the form of dolls and doll play in design sessions.
   This paper contributes to the development of Doll based design by presenting five central physical qualities of dolls which support the representation of users via dolls in design sessions: manageability, appropriation, human appearance, placeholder and accessories. The aspects have emerged through a grounded theory approach where two workshops have been analysed with respect to how the physicality of dolls supported the representation of users through Doll based design: one workshop utilised ludo pieces to represent users and the other used paper silhouettes of human bodies. Based on the identified physical qualities of dolls, the paper offers practitioners' a guide of how to take the physicality of dolls into consideration during the planning and conduct of Doll based design, in order to support the representation of users via dolls in design sessions.
Time does not heal usability issues!: results from a longitudinal evaluation of a health it deployment performed at three Swedish hospital units BIBAFull-Text 273-280
  Rebecka Janols
This paper presents a longitudinal evaluation of user adoption during a Patient Administrative System (PAS) deployment. The research was performed at three units within a Swedish university hospital. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to gather data before, during and up to two years after the deployment. The results show that all users experienced usability problems. After two years of usage the system was still not considered to be as supportive as the old system. The users that were required to use the system felt unsure and stressed about whether all information was consulted or not. The users that were less dependent on the system solved the problems by not doing the tasks; instead they let the clerks continue to do the PAS tasks as they did before the deployment. The results indicate that time will not heal usability problems; instead they need to be addressed in other ways.
Prototype of learning tool with augmented reality and natural hand interaction using depth sensing camera BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Kyungho Jeong; Jinwook Shim; Tackdon Han
Interests in education are growing all over the world and many methods to raise their learning effects have been suggested in the past few years. Especially, when augmented reality is used in the learning process, a learner can manipulate objects in one's perspective in addition to obtaining knowledge that cannot be experienced in the real world or traditional learning environment. In this case, the learner can directly control objects by using one's creativity or keeping up one's learning pace in accordance with the user's abilities, thus aiding one's learning process rather than merely providing fragmentary knowledge. This paper deals with a prototype application of augmented reality which is intended to improve the learning effect by letting users directly interact with augmented content during the learning process.
WYSWYE: shoulder surfing defense for recognition based graphical passwords BIBAFull-Text 285-294
  Rohit Ashok Khot; Ponnurangam Kumaraguru; Kannan Srinathan
Recognition based graphical passwords are inherently vulnerable to shoulder surfing attacks because of their visual mode of interaction. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two novel shoulder-surfing defense techniques for recognition based graphical passwords. These techniques are based on WYSWYE (Where You See is What You Enter) strategy, where the user identifies a pattern of password images within a presented grid of images and replicates it onto another grid. We conducted controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the usability and security of the proposed techniques. Both the schemes had high login success rates with no failures in authentication. More than seventy percent of participants successfully logged on to the system in their first attempt in both the schemes. The participants were satisfied with the schemes and were willing to use it in public places. In addition, both the schemes were significantly secure against shoulder surfing than normal unprotected recognition based graphical passwords. The login efficiency improved with practice in one of the proposed scheme. We believe, WYSWYE strategy has considerable potential and can easily be extended to other types of authentication systems such as text passwords and PINS.
Interaction techniques for unreachable objects on the touchscreen BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Sunjun Kim; Jihyun Yu; Geehyuk Lee
Large-screen mobile devices have recently been introduced. While they can display more information on the screen, they have raised the issue of thumb reachability during one-handed use. To solve this problem, we designed four factorial combinations of two triggering techniques (Edge and Large touch) and two selection techniques (Sliding screen and Extendible cursor). A prototype realizing the four interaction techniques was implemented, and a user study was conducted to examine the benefits and problems faced while using these techniques in both portrait and landscape orientations. User study exhibited a significant advantage of Edge triggering with Extendible cursor technique. Also, we collected meaningful comments from the user interview.
Human-computer interaction: the impact of users' cognitive styles on query reformulation behaviour during web searching BIBAFull-Text 299-307
  Khamsum Kinley; Dian Tjondronegoro; Helen Partridge; Sylvia Edwards
This paper discusses users' query reformulation behaviour while searching information on the Web. Query reformulations have emerged as an important component of Web search behaviour and human-computer interaction (HCI) because a user's success of information retrieval (IR) depends on how he or she formulates queries. There are various factors, such as cognitive styles, that influence users' query reformulation behaviour. Understanding how users with different cognitive styles formulate their queries while performing Web searches can help HCI researchers and information systems (IS) developers to provide assistance to the users. This paper aims to examine the effects of users' cognitive styles on their query reformation behaviour. To achieve the goal of the study, a user study was conducted in which a total of 3613 search terms and 872 search queries were submitted by 50 users who engaged in 150 scenario-based search tasks. Riding's (1991) Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA) test was used to assess users' cognitive style as wholist or analytic, and verbaliser or imager. The study findings show that users' query reformulation behaviour is affected by their cognitive styles. The results reveal that analytic users tended to prefer Add queries while all other users preferred New queries. A significant difference was found among wholists and analytics in the manner they performed Remove query reformulations. Future HCI researchers and IS developers can utilize the study results to develop interactive and personalised search model, and to provide context-based query suggestions for users.
Emerging work practice with a telehealth stethoscope BIBAFull-Text 308-317
  Ben Kraal; Vesna Popovic; Shayne Beaver
We investigated the collaboration of ten doctor-nurse pairs with a prototype digital telehealth stethoscope. Doctors could see and hear the patient but could not touch them or the stethoscope. The nurse in each pair controlled the stethoscope. For ethical reasons, an experimenter stood in for a patient. Each of the ten interactions was video recorded and analysed to understand the interaction and collaboration between the doctor and nurse. The video recordings were coded and transformed into maps of interaction that were analysed for patterns of activity. The analysis showed that as doctors and nurses became more experienced at using the telehealth stethoscope their collaboration was more effective. The main measure of effectiveness was the number of corrections in stethoscope placement required by the doctor. In early collaborations, the doctors gave many corrections. After several trials, each doctor and nurse had reduced corrections and all pairs reduced their corrections. The significance of this research is the identification of the qualities of effective collaboration in the use of the telehealth stethoscope and telehealth systems more generally.
AR Record&Replay: situated compositing of video content in mobile augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 318-326
  Tobias Langlotz; Mathäus Zingerle; Raphael Grasset; Hannes Kaufmann; Gerhard Reitmayr
In this paper we present a novel approach to record and replay video content composited in-situ with a live view of the real environment. Our real-time technique works on mobile phones, and uses a panorama-based tracker to create visually seamless and spatially registered overlay of video content. We apply a temporal foreground-background segmentation of video footage and show how the segmented information can be precisely registered in real-time in the camera view of a mobile phone. We describe the user interface and the video post effects implemented in our prototype as well as our approach with a skateboard training application. Our technique can also be used with online video material and supports the creation of augmented situated documentaries.
Using mobile technology and augmented reality to increase data reliability for environmental assessment BIBAFull-Text 327-330
  Chin Loong Law; Paul Roe; Jinglan Zhang
Climate change and land use pressures are making environmental monitoring increasingly important. As environmental health is degrading at an alarming rate, ecologists have tried to tackle the problem by monitoring the composition and condition of environment. However, traditional monitoring methods using experts are manual and expensive; to address this issue government organisations designed a simpler and faster surrogate-based assessment technique for consultants, landholders and ordinary citizens. However, it remains complex, subjective and error prone. This makes collected data difficult to interpret and compare. In this paper we describe a work-in-progress mobile application designed to address these shortcomings through the use of augmented reality and multimedia smartphone technology.
A TV remote pointing device using LED directivity BIBAFull-Text 331-338
  Geehyuk Lee; Jaehyun Han; Seunghwan Lee
As TV contents and its user interfaces become rich and complex, the demand for a more efficient pointing device is increasing. As a lightweight solution for this purpose, we present a remote pointing device using LED directivity. The main technical issues that we had to solve include the irregularity of LED directivity, sensitivity to ambient infrared noise, and cursor instability due to hand tremor. The results of a user test show that the final design is comparable with a gyro-mouse and a Wii Remote in terms of pointing throughputs and error rates despite its relatively simple and low-cost structure.
Interacting with mobile devices via VoiceOver: usability and accessibility issues BIBAFull-Text 339-348
  Barbara Leporini; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi
In this paper we analyze the interaction of blind users with Apple touchscreen devices iPad, iPhone and iPod touch, accessible to the visually-impaired thanks to their pre-installed VoiceOver screen reader or magnifier. Specifically, we focus on the gestures offered by VoiceOver to simplify interaction for blind users. A usability inspection of the devices' user interfaces has been performed and integrated with user feedback collected via an online survey taken by 55 totally blind users. Results confirm that VoiceOver makes the Apple devices basically accessible to blind users, but there are still some issues related to usability. Users normally believe that accessibility integrated with VoiceOver is an important innovation, but some operations, such as the writing of long text, take too long or are not comfortable. Results suggest that a multimodal approach on mobile touchscreen devices does not offer a simple and satisfactory interaction paradigm for all and it deserves further investigation. Three possible solutions for improving user interface interaction and offering a simpler and more comfortable experience for blind individuals were proposed to the survey participants, gathering their positive feedback.
Rectangle orientation in area judgment task for treemap design BIBAFull-Text 349-352
  Jie Liang; Jie Hua; Mao Lin Huang; Quang Vinh Nguyen; Simeon Simoff
Prior works on treemaps have mainly focused on developing the new layouts. The existing treemaps generated from various algorithms require careful examination on design parameter. However, current research does not provide usability studies of treemap guidelines on effectiveness of design parameters. Hence, selecting the most effective parameter for certain type of task is primarily based on intuition preference of visualization designer. For example, in the existing research, there is insufficient guidance on orientation for treemap design yet. Therefore, the impact of orientation remains unclear in visual analysis tasks performance. The contribution of this paper is to assess the effect of orientation in visual data analysis process so that we will further investigate treemap design guidance.
Integrating momentary and long-term UX: a theoretical approach BIBAFull-Text 353-356
  Satu Luojus
User experience (UX) research has received increasing importance in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The CHI community has recently recognized a need for a complementary conceptual-theoretical discussion about UX (Obrist et al., 2011). This paper introduces conceptual development work of the notion of UX that aims at understanding the holistic nature of the phenomenon by connecting the temporal and long-term UX to each other. Activity theory by Leontjev, combined with Dewey's concept of an aesthetic experience, provided the theoretical framework for defining the concept of expanded UX (eUX). The concept of eUX is an analytical tool for design of interactive high-tech products. The concept of eUX can be utilized to reach a deeper understanding of UX in the HCI research and practice. This article concentrates on the theoretical exploration of the concept of user experience, excluding empirical studies of phenomenon.
Multi-cursor multi-user mobile interaction with a large shared display BIBAFull-Text 357-360
  Peter Lyle; Christopher Lueg; Timothy Nugent
When using a mobile device to control a cursor on a large shared display, the interaction must be carefully planned to match the environment and purpose of the systems use. We describe a 'democratic jukebox' system that revealed five recommendations that should be considered when designing this type of interaction relating to providing feedback to the user; how to represent users in a multi-cursor based system; where people tend to look and their expectation of how to move their cursor; the orientation of screens and the social context; and, the use of simulated users to give the real users a sense that they are engaging with a greater audience.
Evaluation of preschool children's fantasy play in the tabletop environment BIBAFull-Text 361-370
  Evi Indriasari Mansor
This paper presents the experience and findings of a user study investigating preschool children's fantasy play. Ten same-sex dyads of children (aged 3 and 4) were observed playing with the physical farm toys and the virtual farm set implementation on a Mitsubishi DT multi-touch interactive tabletop. Both qualitative and quantitative data were performed for data collection. Findings showed that high evidence of fantasy play bouts performed by the participants during the physical and the virtual Session 2. This paper also reports the similarities and differences between physical and virtual play environments.
LifeView: a lifelog visualization tool for supporting sentimental recall and sharing BIBAFull-Text 371-380
  Akhil Mathur; Anirban Majumder; Samik Datta; Sreedal Menon; Shipra Malhotra; Ankur Dahiya
The majority of past HCI research on Lifelogging has focused on using specialized capture devices such as the Microsoft SenseCam for recording our life experiences visually. However, we also record many of our daily life events in a textual form on popular platforms like Facebook or using our smartphones. Such primarily textual lifelogs can also potentially help us in reliving our past memories and sharing them with friends. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of LifeView, a tool for visualizing such primarily textual lifelogs for the purposes of Sentimental Recall and Sharing. We propose to depict life events using cartoons, and claim that it will result in a better recall experience. We also propose that linking the various life interactions based on appropriate context will be useful when people browse their lifelogs. Two within-subject user experiments are presented to validate our design -- results show that a) users prefer cartoon abstractions over the actual lifelog data, and b) contextual linking of life events is useful for goal-oriented navigation and sharing.
Judging a book by its cover: interface elements that affect reader selection of ebooks BIBAFull-Text 381-390
  Dana McKay; George Buchanan; Nicholas Vanderschantz; Claire Timpany; Sally Jo Cunningham; Annika Hinze
Digital library research has demonstrated the impact of content presentation on both search and reading behaviours. In this paper, we scrutinise the influence of ebook presentation on user behaviour, focussing on document thumbnails and the first page view. We demonstrate that flaws in presentation increase the volume of short time-span reading, and reduce the likelihood of long-span reading when compared to other documents. This reflects other patterns of information seeking behaviour that demonstrate increased short-term reading when information content is uncertain, and suggests an ineffective use of reader time on less useful content.
Testing the integration of smartphone-enabled ethnography with design BIBAFull-Text 391-394
  Gavin Melles; Eva-Maria Jakobs
Design fields have long considered ethnography to be a source of insight for integration of user requirements and system constraints. Recent technology developments in smart phones have now made it possible to gather ethnographic data in the field to contribute to different stages of the design process. The combination of smart-phone ethnography and design practice raises new questions about the nature and quality of this hybrid approach. To examine this question, this paper reports on an evaluation of teaching practical workshops to staff and students at RWTH Aachen HCI Center during a funded research exchange by one of the authors. Participants were introduced to the (Stanford) design thinking approach and then smart-phone ethnography with a view to exploring the relationship between both approaches. Follow up surveys examined what potential and challenges these developments offer are explored through evaluative comments by participants.
Design considerations for after death: comparing the affordances of three online platforms BIBAFull-Text 395-404
  Joji Mori; Martin Gibbs; Michael Arnold; Bjorn Nansen; Tamara Kohn
As more of our personal interactions are enacted online, designers of websites and social networks must respond through appropriate design. Interest within the HCI community surrounding death exists with a growing number of projects focused on innovative technologies and design considerations for online spaces particularly for the bereaved. Limited however, are empirical studies across different website architectures over a longer period of time rather than directly after death. In this study we look at the affordances of three online platforms and analyse the comments made on them in response to the murder of American teenager Anna Svidersky in 2006. The platforms include Anna's MySpace page, a memorial video on YouTube and an online condolence book. We show how the affordances of online environments affect participation by not only friends and family, but also strangers. Based on our study we outline nine design considerations that address issues relating to death and memorialisation online.
The haptic chair as a speech training aid for the deaf BIBAFull-Text 405-410
  Suranga Nanayakkara; Lonce Wyse; Elizabeth A. Taylor
The 'Haptic Chair' (Nanayakkara et al., 2009, 2010) delivers vibrotactile stimulation to several parts of the body including the palmar surface of the hand (palm and fingers), and has been shown to have a significant positive effect on the enjoyment of music even by the profoundly deaf. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of using the Haptic Chair during speech therapy for the deaf. Based on evidence we present from a 12-week pilot user study, a follow-up 24-week study with 20 profoundly deaf users was conducted to validate our initial observations. The improvements in word clarity we observed over the duration of these studies indicate that the Haptic Chair has the potential to make a significant contribution to speech therapy for the deaf.
Exploring place and direction: mobile augmented reality in the Astrid Lindgren landscape BIBAFull-Text 411-419
  Susanna Nilsson; Mattias Arvola; Anders Szczepanski; Magnus Bång
This paper describes the design process and user evaluation of an outdoor educational mobile augmented reality application. The main goal was to enhance and augment the experience of a visit to a culturally significant place, the childhood home of the children's book author Astrid Lindgren. Visiting sites of historical significance is not limited to the cultural experience itself, but can be seen as an opportunity for learning and exploring a place as it is now and as it has been in past times. By investigating the two design dimensions place and time, our application was conceived as a treasure hunt, where users activate content by moving between places and pointing the mobile device in different directions or at different markers. The application was field tested with mixed groups of children and adults. The evaluation indicates that the prototype did encourage both learning and exploring, which also was the design objective.
Using galvanic skin response for cognitive load measurement in arithmetic and reading tasks BIBAFull-Text 420-423
  Nargess Nourbakhsh; Yang Wang; Fang Chen; Rafael A. Calvo
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) has recently attracted researchers' attention as a prospective physiological indicator of cognitive load and emotions. However, it has commonly been investigated through single or few measures and in one experimental scenario. In this research, aiming to perform a comprehensive study, we have assessed GSR data captured from two different experiments, one including text reading tasks and the other using arithmetic tasks, each imposing multiple cognitive load levels. We have examined temporal and spectral features of GSR against different task difficulty levels. ANOVA test was applied for the statistical evaluation. Obtained results show the strong significance of the explored features, especially the spectral ones, in cognitive workload measurement in the two studied experiments.
As I am not you: accommodating user diversity through adaptive rehabilitation training for multiple sclerosis patients BIBAFull-Text 424-432
  Johanna Renny Octavia; Karin Coninx; Peter Feys
People who suffer from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are unique individuals with their own characteristics and rehabilitation training needs. The great variation of MS symptoms and severity of the disease elevates a need to accommodate the diversity among its patients and support adaptive personalized training to meet every patient's rehabilitation needs. Our research has focused on integrating adaptivity in rehabilitation training for MS patients. We introduced the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels as a type of adaptation that can be provided in MS rehabilitation training exercises. A user study has been carried out to investigate the outcome of this adaptation. An adaptive personalized training has been provided to MS patients according to their own individual training progress, which was appreciated by the patients and the therapist. The automatic adjustment of difficulty levels is considered to provide more variety in the training and minimize the therapist's involvement in setting up the training.
Closing the human-AI team-mate gap: how changes to displayed information impact player behavior towards computer teammates BIBAFull-Text 433-439
  Christopher Ong; Kevin McGee; Teong Leong Chuah
Research has shown that people respond differently to human and artificial agents, so can these differences be reduced by representational changes? Although research has examined how the use of different representations in computer-mediated environments can either change participants' behavior towards or perceptions of others, there does not seem to be work to see whether behavior towards (or the first-person experience of) an artificial team-mate game can be influenced by differences in the information presented to players. In a 2x2 experiment, 73 participants played two variations of a cooperative game that involved the possibility of team-mate sacrifice -- with either a computer team-mate or human team-mate. In one variation, different scoring information was visible to players, in the other there was no such information. Participant performance/behavior was logged -- and participants were asked to report on the emotional difficulty of the sacrifice situations. Results show that there were differences in how often participants protected their AI team-mates under the different conditions. However, the different conditions did not seem to impact the amount of emotional difficulty players felt in deciding whether to sacrifice their artificial team-mate, suggesting that while behavior was moderated, first-person experience was not.
Good team-mates do more than help the team win: design factors that impact player concern about team-mate experience BIBAFull-Text 440-448
  Christopher Ong; Kevin McGee
When playing computer games with team-mates, players obviously place a lot of emphasis on achieving the team's goal and performing well. However, an additional issue is that team-members also care (to varying degrees) about how their team-mates feel about their involvement in the team's activities. What are factors that impact player decisions in team-mate games? The related work falls broadly into attempts to identify behaviors that contribute to better or optimal team performance -- and work that has studied emotional, cultural, and social factors that may cause players to make non-optimal choices or behaviors. This paper reports on work to identify some of the choices that team-mates make out of concern for the experience of their team-mate -- and to identify game features that correlate with these. Specifically, the paper analyzes six team-mate games in terms of team-mate concerns that appeared in the course of empirical studies involving the games. The paper identifies several team-mate concerns that players have, several game factors that correlate with these concerns, and shows how this explains differences in the presence of these concerns for different kinds of team-mate games.
Simulated influence of user interaction with mobile devices amongst pedestrians BIBAFull-Text 449-458
  Shannon S. Pace; Leonard Hoon; Clinton J. Woodward
Mobile device usage has reached a level of pervasiveness previously unheard of. The "pocketability" of such devices enables pedestrians to use them whilst moving, causing attention to be divided between the device and locomotion. We attempt to expose the implications of divided attention via a pedestrian simulation that accounts for mobile device use. Of particular interest is the awareness of users in the pedestrian environment, as this may affect the traffic scenario. Our simulation shows that even a small number of users interacting with a mobile device can destabilise pedestrian flow. The proportion of attention loss correlates to the degree of disruption. This has implications for the design of pedestrian-focused applications, as our results suggest pervasive mobile use is changing the nature of pedestrian crowd behaviour.
A provisional framework for supporting academics in accessible and inclusive e-materials development BIBAFull-Text 459-468
  George Papadopoulos; Elaine Pearson; Steve Green
Widening participation initiatives have increased the diversity of learners and resulted in increasing numbers of students with a wide range of disabilities in Higher Education. The aim of this work is to provide a truly accessible and inclusive learning environment to students with disabilities by suggesting a provisional framework for support. The framework incorporates specially designed training tools that can boost academics' accessibility understanding and awareness, and support them in the creation of accessible and inclusive e-resources. The result will improve the student learning experience and increase the potential for an inclusive learner-centred educational environment.
Search and explore: more than one way to find what you want BIBAFull-Text 469-478
  J. Pearce; S. Chang; G. Kennedy; R. B. W. Ely; M. Ainley
Exploring information, as opposed to searching for it, is an activity not well supported in online environments. We present a novel, playful system that supports exploration and we describe an experiment in which we compare participants' use of the system with that of a similar system designed to support searching (a database). Our system lets the user manipulate quite imprecise terms and encourages a broad exploration of the information before selecting a result. The differences between the participant's use of these two systems is analysed and discussed. One outcome is that participants indicated a significantly greater satisfaction with the result they selected from the exploratory system than they did with the search system. Other examples of the use of such an exploratory system are also presented.
Designing for the eye: design parameters for dwell in gaze interaction BIBAFull-Text 479-488
  Abdul Moiz Penkar; Christof Lutteroth; Gerald Weber
Eye gaze tracking provides a natural and fast method of interacting with computers. Many click alternatives have been proposed so far, each with their own merits and drawbacks. We focus on the most natural selection method, i.e. the dwell, with which a user can select an on-screen object by just gazing at it for a pre-defined dwell time.
   We have looked at three design parameters of the dwell click alternative, namely dwell time, button size and placement of content. Two experiments, with similar user interfaces, were designed and conducted with 21 and 15 participants, respectively. Different combinations of dwell times and button sizes were tested in each experiment for each participant. One experiment had content placed on the buttons to be gazed at, while the other had content placed above the buttons.
   One important finding is that moving the content outside the clickable areas avoids accidental clicking, i.e. the Midas Touch problem. In such a design, a combination of big buttons and short dwell times are most suited for maximizing accuracy and ease of use, due to a phenomenon identified as the 'gaze-hold' problem.
Things you don't want to know about yourself: ambivalence about tracking and sharing personal information for behaviour change BIBAFull-Text 489-492
  Bernd Ploderer; Wally Smith; Steve Howard; Jon Pearce; Ron Borland
Technologies that facilitate the collection and sharing of personal information can feed people's desire for enhanced self-knowledge and help them to change their behaviour, yet for various reasons people can also be reluctant to use such technologies. This paper explores this tension through an interview study in the context of smoking cessation. Our findings show that smokers and recent ex-smokers were ambivalent about their behaviour change as well as about collecting personal information through technology and sharing it with other users. We close with a summary of three challenges emerging from such ambivalence and directions to address them.
Engaging the sense of touch in interactive architecture BIBAFull-Text 493-496
  Ingrid Maria Pohl; Lian Loke
Touch-based interactions with computing technologies have become commonplace in the last few years, from mobile phones to tabletop surfaces. The sense of touch however is not limited to the hand; the entire skin surface of the body is available for tactile interaction. In architecture, researchers are now investigating the potential of interactive surfaces for future architectonic elements, such as walls, floors and ceilings. Apart from the traditional focus on the visual and spatial design considerations of such elements, tactile interaction with interactive surfaces is of growing interest. We present an interactive folded surface as a prototype of future interactive architectural surfaces. We explain how physiological understandings of touch and tactile interaction informed the design choices of the prototype. Our work contributes to understandings of how the material properties and interactive behaviours of these new surfaces will afford new kinds of human experience centred on the sense of touch.
First steps in the FabLab: experiences engaging children BIBAFull-Text 497-500
  Irene Posch; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Fabrication Laboratories (FabLabs) all over the world aim to provide widespread access to computer controlled machines for personal fabrication. However while they are enjoying increasing popularity worldwide, there is little understanding of children's interactions with technologies in FabLabs and how to support them. In this paper, we reflect on our experiences running five out-of-school workshops in the Vienna FabLab over the period of half a year with 50 children aged 10 to 14 years old. We introduce the workshop activities and trace how children's assumptions developed throughout the workshop towards the technologies. The insight gained from this work is a valuable first step for future developments engaging children with digital fabrication technologies.
Sign my world: lessons learned from prototyping sessions with young deaf children BIBAFull-Text 501-504
  Leigh Ellen Potter; Jessica Korte; Sue Nielsen
Sign My World is an application that aims to help pre-literate deaf and hearing-impaired children to learn Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Development is in its early stages and faces challenges in terms of interaction with the children that the application aims to help. This paper presents a set of experiences from early prototyping sessions conducted with a small group of deaf and hearing-impaired children. These experiences indicate the ability and emerging desire of the children to act as active participants within the development process, the visual nature of these children, and the existence of issues in relation to communication between the application developer and the children.
Gaze tracking and non-touch gesture based interaction method for mobile 3D virtual spaces BIBAFull-Text 505-512
  Matti Pouke; Antti Karhu; Seamus Hickey; Leena Arhippainen
This paper introduces a continuous gaze tracking and non-touch gesture recognition based interaction method for 3D virtual spaces on tablet devices. The user can turn his/her viewpoint, select objects with gaze and grab and manipulate objects with non-touch hand gestures. The interaction method does not require the use of a mouse or a keyboard. We created a test scenario with an object manipulation task and measured the completion times of a combined gaze tracking and non-touch gesture interaction method, with a touch screen only input method. Short interviews were conducted with 13 test subjects and data was gathered through questionnaires. The touch screen method was generally faster than or as fast as the combined gaze and non-touch gesture method. The users thought, however, that gaze tracking was more interesting and showed potential. The gaze tracking would however require more stability to be suitable for use with mobile devices.
Imagine that: creating a 'third space' for young people with high functioning autism through the use of technology in a social setting BIBAFull-Text 513-516
  Alberto Rizzo; Stefan Schutt; Dale Linegar
In this paper we describe the knowledge building process involved in creating The Lab, a technology-enabled 'learning community' of young people with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) and High-Functioning Autism (HFA), and their parents. We use Vygotsky's (1978) cultural-historical approach to analyse social engagement through material, individual, and social interactions and the emergence of a 'third space' (Gutierrez, 1999 & 2008) as a particular kind of 'zone of proximal development' in developing an effective learning environment. We speculate on the centrality of the sensory and perceptual differences of AS and HFA people as contributing to a better understanding of the role of embodied imagination and creativity as essential aspects of their 'difference' and their distinct patterns of social and cultural relations.
Knowing our users: scoping interviews in design research with ageing participants BIBAFull-Text 517-520
  Toni Robertson; Jeannette Durick; Margot Brereton; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard; Bjorn Nansen
This paper reports the findings from a series of scoping interviews designed to evaluate, ground and refine the initial understandings, assumptions and concepts of a research team in a larger project about the role of social and tangible technologies in maintaining good habits into old age. Participants' understandings of some basic terms used in the research are presented along with a discussion of their current use of new and established information and communications technologies and the existing barriers to ongoing uptake of emerging technologies. The findings suggest that we question common assumptions about both ageing and technology usage by ageing people, demonstrating the contribution such early scoping interviews can make within design research projects.
An interactive and adaptive building layer: strategies for allowing people to become advanced building-users BIBAFull-Text 521-529
  Yasu Santo
This paper reports outcomes of a pilot study to develop a conceptual framework to allow people to retrofit a building-layer to gain better control of their own built-environments. The study was initiated by the realisation that discussions surrounding the improvement of building performances tend to be about top-down technological solutions rather than to help and encourage bottom-up involvement of building-users. While users are the ultimate beneficiaries and their feedback is always appreciated, their direct involvements in managing buildings would often be regarded as obstruction or distraction. This is largely because casual interventions by uninformed building-users tend to disrupt the system. Some earlier researches showed however that direct and active participation of users could improve the building performance if appropriate training and/or systems were introduced. We also speculate this in long run would also make the built environment more sustainable. With this in mind, we looked for opportunities to retrofit our own office with an interactive layer to study how we could introduce ad-hoc systems for building-users. The aim of this paper is to describe our vision and initial attempts followed by discussion.
Content sharing on public screens: experiences through iterating social and spatial contexts BIBAFull-Text 530-539
  Jan Seeburger; Marcus Foth
This paper describes the design and study of public urban screen applications aiming to facilitate urban dwellers to control content shown on public urban screens. Two types of content sharing are presented: aggregating existing social media content about particular locations for sharing, and sharing online videos with collocated people at a public urban screen. The paper describes an exploratory study, an observational study, as well as an interpretational study in regards to application usage and user experience. Sharing content on public urban screens can pique the curiosity of users towards collocated people and the application itself resulting in raised awareness of collocated people.
Emergent participant interaction BIBAFull-Text 540-549
  Jennifer Seevinck; Ernest A. Edmonds; Linda Candy
Emergence has the potential to effect complex, creative or open-ended interactions and novel game-play. We report on research into an emergent interactive system. This investigates emergent user behaviors and experience through the creation and evaluation of an interactive system. The system is +-NOW, an augmented reality, tangible, interactive art system. The paper briefly describes the qualities of emergence and +-NOW before focusing on its evaluation. This was a qualitative study with 30 participants conducted in context. Data analysis followed Grounded Theory Methods. Coding schemes, induced from data and external literature are presented. Findings show that emergence occurred in over half of the participants. The nature of these emergent behaviors is discussed along with examples from the data. Other findings indicate that participants found interaction with the work satisfactory. Design strategies for facilitating satisfactory experience despite the often unpredictable character of emergence, are briefly reviewed and potential application areas for emergence are discussed.
Evaluation of a social web-based telehealth system BIBAFull-Text 550-553
  Jaspaljeet Singh Dhillon; Burkhard C. Wünsche; Christof Lutteroth
Increasing healthcare costs and demographic changes necessitate healthcare interventions that foster independent care. Existing telehealth systems are focused on treating diseases instead of preventing them, suffer from high initial costs, lack extensibility, and do not address the social and psychological needs of patients. We developed Healthcare4Life, an online telehealth system for seniors. In this paper, we report the results of a 6-week user study involving 43 seniors (aged 60 and above). Results indicate that seniors are ready to take charge of their health via a web-based telehealth system, provided there are suitable health applications for them to use. The social networking features require a sufficiently large user base to be useful. The results also suggest that web-based telehealth solutions can positively change the attitude of seniors towards managing their own healthcare.
HODI: a technique for visually capturing and preserving design rationale BIBAFull-Text 554-557
  Özge Subasi; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Design idea generation techniques motivate users, but it is hard to reflect back to co-design partners the motivating relationship between background information and different design decisions. This paper presents a four-layer technique (HODI) for associating background data with design iterations. An exploratory user study shows how participants used the information in different layouts to both generate and iterate on design ideas, and its effect on the trajectories of ideas. This paper contributes to knowledge on design processes for the purpose of presenting background data and its relation to idea creation as part of a co-design process.
Studying user experiences of autostereoscopic 3D menu on touch screen mobile device BIBAFull-Text 558-561
  Meiju Sunnari; Leena Arhippainen; Minna Pakanen; Seamus Hickey
In this paper we present findings from a user experience evaluation of a first generation autostereoscopic 3D menu on a mobile phone. The aim of this paper was to discover users' preferences for S3D menus on a mobile touch screen device, with the intent that the results can be used for future designs. In the evaluation we used methods such as interviews, observations and adjective card selections. The positive adjective selections made by users related to user experience qualities such as visually pleasant, entertaining, fun, innovative and empowering. The negative adjective selections made by users related to usability aspects such as uncontrollable, unclear and time-consuming. Also, users did not see the benefit of using an autostereoscopic 3D for the user interface under evaluation. According to them, S3D could bring value by empowering new ways of interacting with touch screen mobile devices.
Do tablets really support discussion?: comparison between paper, tablet, and laptop PC used as discussion tools BIBAFull-Text 562-571
  Kentaro Takano; Hirohito Shibata; Kengo Omura; Junko Ichino; Tomonori Hashiyama; Shun'ichi Tano
Touch-based tablet devices are starting to be used frequently in meetings and places of discussion. However, are tablets really ideal as discussion tools? Or do they actually obstruct communication? To answer these questions, this paper quantitatively compares discussion processes involving paper, an iPad2, and a laptop PC. We performed an experiment where 12 groups of two participants each (24 participants in total) worked collaboratively by referring to documents and using paper, an iPad2, or a laptop PC as presentation media. We observed verbal and non-verbal interaction between participants. First, we investigated the total amount of speech between two participants and found they spoke more when using paper than when using the electronic media. Next, we observed that participants used more demonstrative pronouns when using paper than when using the iPad2 but used more demonstrative pronouns when using the iPad2 than when using the laptop PC. Also, they made more eye contact when using paper than when using the other media. These results suggest that tablets may not currently be the best media to use when ideas should be actively exchanged, sensitivity is required toward other participants in the discussion, or work progress needs to be shared.
How the other sees us: perceptions and control in videoconferencing BIBAFull-Text 572-578
  Cameron Teoh; Holger Regenbrecht; David O'Hare
The way we are perceived and we are presenting ourselves in videoconferencing situations is influenced by many factors. Earlier work showed that there are strong effects of participant gender, partner gender, and body language availability on feelings of self-transmission efficacy in videoconferencing. Because participants rated their efficacy at domination and impression management differently when body language was restricted and unrestricted, it was reasoned that users may desire to control body language availability. This study shows that gender of the participants, task, and initial body language availability (determined by the field of view) affect perceptions of trust, social presence, dominance/persuasion, impression management, and user-defined body language availability. We present results of an experimental study with 122 participants and discuss the findings in the context of implications for the design and use of videoconferencing systems.
Service design determinants for user value design: online store case study BIBAFull-Text 579-588
  Sampo Teräs; Mari Mäkelä
Understanding user value creation is an important part of service design; however, creating value for users is rarely an easy task. Going beyond likes and dislikes into the motivations behind the use requires specific approaches and methods. The present paper, based on an online food store case study, shows how value creation can be predicted and what kind of determinants affect service design. We used a questionnaire, rapid prototypes, and a co-design workshop to retrieve user data and to develop the concepts. The goal of the study was to form design drivers for a functional prototype that would be evaluated in a real world context. The main determinants affecting the service design in our case were Design base, Concept/Product, Domain/Context, Users, Company, and Resources. Our findings suggest that the user value elements can be grasped using cost-efficient methods.
Interacting with info-graphics in a print-based environment BIBAFull-Text 589-598
  Claire Timpany; Nicholas Vanderschantz; Ben Hallahan
Technology and our experiences with it are constantly evolving, therefore our views of how media can enhance our experiences with the information it presents to us must also evolve. Designers are able to learn from these "new" digital experiences in order to reinterpret and apply new methods and theories to traditional print based information technologies for the benefit of the user. This research endeavours to develop an enhanced method of presenting and navigating statistical information in a printed medium through the use of interactive methods. The fields of print, hypertext and information visualisation inform the development, with a view to create cognitive awareness in readers, as well as their ability to build information relationships. In both hypertext environments and information visualisations the clarity of context and structure play key roles in the successful presentation of the relationships between aspects of information. Through the process of a Design-Analyse-Refine methodology, a range of designs for unifying these forms of media were explored and analysed. This produced a single design solution where the strengths of print are being interwoven with those of hypertext and data visualisation.
An analysis of courtroom evidence presentation technology requirements and current solutions BIBAFull-Text 599-606
  Robert T. Tipping; Vivienne Farrell; Clinton J. Woodward; Graham Farrell
With the ever-increasing volumes of evidence being used in today's courts, evidence presentation is an area that may be best modernised in Australian courtrooms through the use of Information Technology to greatly increase efficiency and effectiveness. In this paper we have identified some of the key usability requirements for evidence presentation applications to run on tablet technology. This study analyses three current evidence presentation applications for the iPad for their individual usability qualities, and against the requirements established. The study identified deficiencies in the three applications tested, particularly in the area of document annotation. As a result we propose a number of design principles that will ideally improve the usability of evidence presentation applications for iPads and other tablet technologies. This study will be extended to include different tablet operating systems, and focus on the changes in the design principles that are dependent on available tablet work area size.
Design space and opportunities for physical movement participation in everyday life BIBAFull-Text 607-615
  Helena Tobiasson; Anders Hedman; Yngve Sundblad
This paper is motivated by our work in the European Culture project "Faust -- or dis-inventing the A-bomb". The project explored how to raise consciousness about distressing technology development through dialogue with old and young people. When reviewing our work it struck us that we had overlooked that some of the prototypes designed by the young participants called for embodied participation. We had naively expected to see sheer technology innovations of the future. Here we reflect on sensitivities for the bodily/physical will to interact.
   We also discuss everyday life situations that could allow for natural physical engagement as a health benefit. Physical aspects are typically of little consideration in design projects, apart from projects that has body-movement as specific focus. We seek ways to adequately include a critical perspective in future design and to consider physical aspects more broadly in ICT projects for a human sustainable future. In many cases, the young participants showed us their concern for sustainability and well-being of both the environment and themselves and demonstrated through their prototypes a willingness to contribute through physical interaction.
Optimising visual and textual in search user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 616-619
  Kenneth Treharne; David M. W. Powers; Richard Leibbrandt
Improvements to the user interface of our search tools will play a prominent role toward improving search outcomes in the future. Three such improvements are proposed and evaluated in an exploratory investigation. This is a work in progress and at present, the reported results are preliminary. Nevertheless, significant findings indicate that the way the interface is configured can result in searchers adopting different interaction strategies. The main goals of this research have been to optimise visual and textual information presented on search user interfaces.
Using magnetic forces to convey state information: an exploration of a haptic technology BIBAFull-Text 620-623
  Jessica Tsimeris; Tom Gedeon; Michael Broughton
Using magnetic forces to provide haptic information is an area that remains largely unexplored and provides exciting opportunities for interaction that may not otherwise be possible. We present several example applications that illustrate how this technology is well suited to remote site collaboration techniques, conveying state information and simulating flows and turbulence. Furthermore, we present the results of our preliminary user study which has indicated that magnetic forces can convey two states of information to the user with 100% accuracy, and can convey three states with 89% accuracy.
Children's reading of text on interactive whiteboards BIBAFull-Text 624-632
  Nicholas Vanderschantz; Claire Timpany; Ana Hill
The development and adoption of technology for the classroom is changing the way education is delivered and perceived by students. The availability of Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) technology in New Zealand classrooms is increasing. With this change in technology comes a change in the way educational resource material is presented to students. Significantly, there is a paucity of scholarly research regarding the presentation of typographic information that is efficient and effective for children's' reading and learning on screen. This research assisted in gaining an overview of the types of material and resources being used on IWB in New Zealand classrooms and the quality, readability and legibility of the typographic content of this material. This paper seeks to propose cursory considerations for typographic presentation on IWB as discovered through both interviews with students and the observations of the researcher. This experiment seeks to identify whether typographic factors are being used effectively when displaying text for children's reading on IWB's and to investigate children's preferences and issues with typographic elements.
Approaches to cross-cultural design: two case studies with UX web-surveys BIBAFull-Text 633-642
  Tanja Walsh; Piia Nurkka
Cross-cultural design has become an area in HCI that needs more research in order to be able to respond to the demands of globalization and emerging markets. Agile ways of gathering local user data are needed to help designers to create better products and services and minimize the risk of failing in the target market areas. The aim of this paper is to introduce approaches related to cross-cultural design focusing on the advantages and challenges of web-surveys in international UX evaluation. Web-surveys allow quickly reaching remotely a vast amount of users in different corners of the world. We looked at two case studies where web-surveys were used to collect UX data about online services in different countries. We found that UX web-surveys were fast to implement and very suitable for a cross-cultural user sample that has access to Internet. We argue that UX web-surveys have potential to gather user data even from larger areas than now, as ubiquitous technology products and services are getting accessible for wider user groups.
Actively engaging older adults in the development and evaluation of tablet technology BIBAFull-Text 643-652
  Jenny Waycott; Sonja Pedell; Frank Vetere; Elizabeth Ozanne; Lars Kulik; Alan Gruner; John Downs
In this paper we describe a multi-faceted approach for engaging older adults in the design and evaluation of a tablet application. Our approach consisted of five key elements: 1) involving care providers in the research, 2) conducting social events, 3) supporting use of the technology through scaffolding, 4) providing multiple channels of communication between participants and researchers, and 5) progressively revealing the technology functions. We explored this approach with seven participants (aged 71-92) who used a prototype iPad application to engage in peer-to-peer communication. We found that each of the five elements contributed to successfully engaging older people in the development and evaluation process. This paper provides insights into suitable approaches for designing technologies with older users, illustrating the importance of creating a supportive environment and employing strategies that help to build participants' confidence, both in using the technology and in participating in the design and evaluation process.
Designing mobile information systems to support WIL experiences BIBAFull-Text 653-656
  Matthew John Willis; Christopher Ewart Dann; Christian Martyn Jones; Beverly Jo Lowe; Elizabeth Toohey
This paper presents the development and preliminary research results of a mobile information system designed to support the mentoring and assessment of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) activities in Tertiary Education settings. The system has been trialled with workplace mentors and pre-service teachers participating in University Education Practicals. This paper presents the system design, the preliminary results of the trials and outlines the future direction for this research to support WIL experiences in other disciplines.
Emotishare: supporting emotion communication through ubiquitous technologies BIBAFull-Text 657-660
  Matthew John Willis; Christian Martyn Jones
This research hypothesises that existing social networking systems do not adequately support emotion communication between members of a social group. To investigate this, a system (called Emotishare) was built to facilitate this type of communication and track the emotion sharing behaviours of participants when using the system.
   Emotishare is a web and mobile platform that allows its users to track, share and respond to the emotional states of their friends. The system has been trialled with both large and small groups to explore the possibility for support of emotion communication using this type of service. It was found that small groups were most effective for supporting the sharing of emotional state and that mobile devices were best suited to support the sharing of personal information such as emotional state.
Understanding the effectiveness of visual cues to support categorical notification BIBAFull-Text 661-664
  Moonyati Yatid; Masahiro Takatsuka
In order to support better design and understanding of categorical notification systems, we have investigated user's ability to recognize different visual cues that represent specific meanings. User's ability to remember the different meanings represented by the visual cues as well as discriminating those cues from each other determine their ability to better manage categorical notifications. We explored two types of each spatial, colour and shape cues to eliminate the differences of those cues. Findings suggest superior results by spatial cues while better selection of colour/shape cues is influenced by linguistic associations of the cues. Visual cues' ability to represent categories indicates the control of interruptive notifications as well as potential replacement of textual representations.
A hybrid recognition and recall based approach in graphical passwords BIBAFull-Text 665-673
  Toomaj Zangooei; Masood Mansoori; Ian Welch
Graphical password authentication was developed based on the premise that humans are better at recognizing visual data than text-based information. Most recognition-based graphical password algorithms (e.g. Passface) possess adequate usability features but are prone to password guessing and shoulder surfing attacks. The recall-based algorithms on the other hand contain fewer number of usability features but provide a set of strong security features for authentication. The proposed algorithm developed in this research integrates the usability attributes of the Passface recognition based and security features of a recognition-based (i.e. WIW (Man et al. 2003)) and Passpoint recall-based algorithms to overcome the drawbacks of existing designs. The security of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by carrying out shoulder-surfing and password guessing attacks. Usability features such as simplicity to learn, memorize and remember the password were evaluated by measuring the number of forgotten, mistyped passwords and login time for each individual user. A questionnaire was also designed and distributed to test subjects to gather feedback on several usability aspects of the proposed algorithm. The results of the security test and survey illustrate that the proposed algorithm has strong security measures against shoulder surfing and password guessing.
Comparing the usability of grid-bag and constraint-based layouts BIBAFull-Text 674-682
  Clemens Zeidler; Johannes Müller; Christof Lutteroth; Gerald Weber
While the usability of GUI design methods has been studied in general, the usability of layout specification methods is largely unexplored.
   In this paper we provide an empirical comparison of two popular GUI layout models, grid-bag layout and constraint-based layout. While the grid-bag layout is a powerful layout model, the constraint-based layout is able to generate even more general and flexible layout configurations. We performed a controlled experiment with postgraduate students of Computer Science and Software Engineering, measuring efficiency, accuracy and preference for typical layout specification and editing tasks.
   The results show significant differences between both layout models: the initial specification of GUIs is faster with a grid-bag layout whereas editing of existing complex layouts is faster and more accurate with a constraint-based layout. The study shows that constraint-based layout, although it may seem more complicated at first glance, can compete with and in some cases even outperform more conventional techniques in terms of their usability.