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OCS Tables of Contents: 919395

Conference on Organizational Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems
Editors:Simon Kaplan
Location:Milpitas, California
Dates:1993-Nov-01 to 1993-Nov-04
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-627-1; ACM Order Number 611930; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: OCS93
Papers:37
Pages:298
  1. Tutorials
  2. Keynote Address
  3. Panel
  4. Group Ranking
  5. Facilitating Group Communication
  6. Underlying Technologies
  7. Case Studies
  8. Act-Based Collaboration Tools
  9. Business Process Reengineering
  10. Posters
  11. Supporting Software Development Organizations
  12. Actor-Based Organizational Modeling
  13. Groupware Architectures

Tutorials

Object-Oriented Analysis of Organizational Activities BIBA --
  Yair Wand; Carson C. Woo
Our experience of teaching object-oriented analysis suggests difficulties in applying the approach, in particular, in identifying the objects necessary to model an organizational system. Examination of the literature as well as teaching experience indicate that what is missing is a set of well-formulated rules on how to apply the approach. We developed a set of rules for this purpose. These rules are based on certain fundamental principles. We have tested these rules in classes on systems analysis at both the undergraduate and graduate levels and by applying them to many test cases. The rules were found very useful in modelling organizational activities and in resolving ambiguities identified in the modelling process. The resulting models were easy to understand and verify against the case facts.
   The purpose of this tutorial is to present and practice the aforementioned set of rules for object-oriented modelling in systems analysis. It is important to point out that the rules are independent of any specific object-oriented analysis approach or technique.
Computer-Supported Meeting Environments BIBA --
  Marilyn Mantei; Lisa Neal
This tutorial will help participants develop a general understanding of existing research and development in computer supported meeting environments (CSME). Participants will gain an understanding of the differences between various CSME's and be introduced to the software technologies and physical architectures that support each environment.
   The tutorial will survey existing computer supported meeting environments, with an emphasis on the types of meetings each supports and their underlying communications and distributed systems architecture solutions. User interface design problems will be covered in-depth along with the psychological issues associated with building software for groups. The tutorial will present what is known about how groups interact, make decisions, brainstorm, perform work, cooperate and negotiate while using a CSME. It will conclude with a discussion of the major hurdles in understanding how to design for groups and in building robust software systems.
Supporting Cooperative Processes with Workflow Management Technology BIBA --
  Thomas Schael
Process management is the way to approach the transformation of traditionally bureaucratic organizations into market-oriented companies. The tutorial is aimed at identifying the benefit of a change from a functional to a business process organization and defining methodological and design implications for the transformation of an organization. New software products with enhanced office information systems functionalities are developed which fall under the new domain of workflow management technologies. The new technology addresses the different aspect of cooperative work in their temporal distribution in the process. However, workflow management technology is still an unfamiliar term for many system developers and users. Growth is currently hindered by a lack of knowledge about the concepts and benefits of workflow management technology.
   The tutorial is addressed to CSCW practitioners, managers (e.g., MIS, Human Resources, Organization), information systems people, organizational analysts, system designers, etc. of business or public organizations. The tutorial provides theoretical methods and practical experiences carried out by the instructor, a consistent guideline to understanding the key issues and how to approach concrete projects for process analysis and design, as well as for workflow technology implementation.

Keynote Address

Marvelous Support for Semi-Structured Group Activities BIBA --
  Gail Kaiser
Processes (or workflows) for even the same basic tasks can vary substantially across institutions and projects, and may change in response to a variety of technological, sociological and political stimuli. Processes are of major concern in many organizational activities, where goals are achieved by breaking down participant tasks into steps, with prerequisites imposed on the initiation of particular steps and consequences implied by the completion of particular steps. Examples include group decision support, desktop publishing, software engineering, CAD/CAM, and numerous other collaborative work areas.
   A process-centered environment (PCE) provides computer-aided support for a range of project-specific processes across such application domains. The general goals of research in PCEs are to devise useful paradigms for representing processes, to develop ways in which environments may assist groups of users in collaborating to carry out processes, and to discover mechanisms that permit processes to evolve compatibly while in progress.
   The Programming Systems Laboratory at Columbia University has led this community, with research on: rule-based process definition languages; process execution software that supports process enforcement, consistency maintenance, and automation; facilities for integrating commercial off-the-shelf tools into new processes; semantics-based transactions for concurrency control and recovery in cooperative applications; and process evolution for long-lived processes.
   This work culminated in the Marvel 3.1 environment, released in March 1993. Marvel 3.1 and earlier releases 3.0 and 3.0.1 have been licensed to a total of 35 external sites, including industrial sponsors and government laboratories in North America as well as universities on four continents. Marvel 3.1 consists of over 150,000 lines of C code, and runs on Sun, DEC and IBM Unix workstations with X11 Windows.

Panel

Workflow Technology: Successes, Perils and Promises BIB --
  Clarence (Skip) Ellis; Raul Medina-Mora; Sunil Sarin; Thomas Schael; Baldev Singh

Group Ranking

Comparing Rankings of Heterogeneous Agents BIBAKPDF 1-12
  Norbert Kuhn
A central problem in the study of autonomous cooperating systems is that of how to establish mechanisms for controlling the interactions between different parts (which are called agents) of the system. For heterogeneous agents this aims at, modeling the basics for their decisions.
   The mechanisms we discuss in this paper are based on the assumption that the agents can estimate the effects of being attached to a certain set of goals. In the simplest case this is expressed by a single value e.g., the cost that will arise for the accomplishment of these goals. But in general this estimation may be arbitrarily complicated. In addition, we assume that the agents have a function available to rank their goals according to the estimated values and they pursue the goals they rank best. Then, these values can be used to resolve various kinds of conflicts in this kind of systems. For example in the task allocation phase the case of multiple applications for the allocation of a goal can be decided by allocating the goal to the agent with the "best estimation". Another way of using these values is for establishing collaborative actions between a pair (or a set) of agents: If one agent wants to get support in the accomplishment of a particular goal he will try to persuade another agent to modify his ranking of the goal in such a way that they both will rank best this "common" goal. Thus, the use of ranking functions provides a general framework for considering cooperative aspects within the study of multi-agent systems.
   An essential question in this context is how the rankings of different agents can be compared. Therefore, we develop in this paper a formalization of the concept of ranking functions and discuss mechanisms that establish the comparability of different rankings.
Keywords: Multi-agent systems, Cooperative problem solving, Task decomposition and task allocation
Multi-User Interfaces for Group Ranking: User-Centered Analysis BIBAKPDF 13-20
  Wai-Lan Luk; V. Srinivasan Rao
The user-centered approach was adopted to design multi-user interfaces for group ranking. Six groups of 4 members, four groups of 3 members, and one group of 6 members were videotaped while performing a ranking task. The videotapes were analyzed resulting in recommendations for the design of multi-user human-computer interfaces for group ranking of items. The usefulness of the findings and the usefulness of the method are discussed.
Keywords: Multi-user interface, Computer supported cooperative work, User interface design, Human computer interaction

Facilitating Group Communication

A Tour Through Tapestry BIBAKPDF 21-30
  Douglas B. Terry
The Information Tapestry is an experimental system that employs both collaborative filtering and content-based filtering, as well as automatic appraising and highlighting, to tailor the delivery and presentation of information to each user's personal interests. This permits users to cope with large volumes of incoming documents, including electronic mail, news wire stories and NetNews articles. This paper presents the facilities available to Tapestry users by way of a scenario depicting a day in the life of an active user.
Keywords: Information filtering, Personalized information delivery, Collaborative filtering, Appraisers, Highlighting, Electronic mail
Making Contact: Getting the Group Communicating with Groupware BIBAKPDF 31-41
  Andy Cockburn; Saul Greenberg
While groupware is readily available, people on wide area networks -- such as the Internet -- have considerable trouble contacting each other and setting up groupware connections. To pinpoint why this occurs, this paper identifies human factors critical to getting a group communicating through groupware. It addresses how people find suitable partners, and how people choose appropriate communication mediums. These factors are discussed in detail, and form a design foundation for systems that promote social presence and that integrate communication.
   Existing systems are critically reviewed and shown to be inadequate for general use over a wide area net, for they either do not meet some basic design criteria, or they require a very high technological entry level that is beyond the reach of most computer users. As an alternative, the paper presents the design considerations behind TELEFREEK, a flexible, extensible, and customizable platform for collaboration. Drawing on resources freely available to the Internet community, TELEFREEK assists people making contact with others, and integrates access to common communication facilities.
Keywords: Contact facilitation, Casual interaction, Coordination, Computer supported cooperative work, Groupware
Information and Context: Lessons from the Study of Two Shared Information Systems BIBAKPDF 42-51
  Paul Dourish; Victoria Bellotti; Wendy Mackay; Chao-Ying Ma
With the increasing ease and power of computer networking technologies, many organisations are taking information which was previously managed and distributed on paper and making it available electronically. Such shared information systems are the basis of much organisational collaboration, and electronic distribution holds great promise. However, a primary focus of such systems is on the ease of information retrieval. We believe that an equally important component is the problem of information interpretation, and that this interpretation is guided by a context which many electronic systems do not fully acknowledge.
   We report on a study of two systems, one paper-based and one electronic, managing similar information within the same organisation. We describe the ways in which information retrieved from these systems is interpreted subjectively by individuals, and point to some of the factors contributing to this interpretation. These factors, together making up the context of the information, are of critical importance in the design of successful electronic shared information systems.
Keywords: Collaborative systems, Cooperative work, Information systems, Information context, Coadaptive systems

Underlying Technologies

Supporting Collaboration with Loose Relationship BIBAKPDF 52-58
  Shin-ya Sato; Tatsuro Murakami
The potential of loose-style support of collaboration is discussed. This kind of support does not directly control the way of doing jobs, but indirectly supports collaboration by helping workers to recognize the current situation of the project, to make decisions, to avoid mistakes, and so on. An example of a collaboration supporting system for large-scale software development is presented that adopts both loose-style and tight-style. In our implementation of the loose-style, the system extracts information during the tightly controlled collaboration processes and distributes it. This enables developers to share information flow.
Keywords: Tight relationship, Loose relationship, Management object, Management unit, Information flow
A PilotCard-Based Shared Hypermedia System Supporting Shared and Private Databases BIBAKPDF 59-68
  Satoshi Ichimura; Takeshi Kamita; Yutaka Matushita
We developed a PilotCard-based shared hypermedia system supporting a shared database and a number of private databases. By integrating a layered architectural object-oriented database with PilotCard mechanisms, we realized a shared hypermedia system in which individual users can maintain private data in their own private workstation and use the shared data in a remote workstation. Furthermore, we extend the concept of a version-derivation hierarchy to cope with the requirements of multi-user environments. In the system, the versions of an object can be physically dispersed over both personal layers and the common layer; the system combines the versions stored in the personal layer with different versions in the common layer. Moreover, a user can attach PilotCards to any data as annotations and create associative hypertext-links between related data. Since PilotCards attached to shared data are invisible to any other user, the user can add his/her personal view to the shared data layer without disturbing other members.
Keywords: Groupware, Hypermedia, Object-oriented database
Development of Multiple Media Documents BIBAKPDF 69-77
  S. J. Morris; A. C. W. Finkelstein
Development of documents in multiple media involves activities in three different fields, the technical, the discoursive and the procedural. The major development problems of artifact complexity, cognitive processes, design basis and working context are located where these fields overlap. Pending the emergence of a unified approach to design, any method must allow for development at the three levels of discourse structure, media disposition and composition, and presentation. Related work concerned with generalized discourse structures, structured documents, production methods for existing multiple media artifacts, and hypertext design offer some partial forms of assistance at different levels. Desirable characteristics of a multimedia design method will include three phases of production, a variety of possible actions with media elements, an underlying discoursive structure, and explicit comparates for review.
Keywords: Multimedia document, Design method, Discourse

Case Studies

Critical Success Factors in the Implementation of Information Centre in Hong Kong's Banking Industry BIBAKPDF 78-89
  Willie Yip; Chi Wing To; Louis C. K. Ma
Information Centers (ICs) are an important strategic component in the overall End-user Computing strategies of many banks in Hong Kong. This paper presents the research findings on the differences and similarities in perceptions of IC managers and IC users towards a list of Critical Success Factors (CSFs). Data was collected through a mail questionnaire survey conducted in late 1992. Nineteen banks participated in this research and sixteen matched pairs of data were used in the final analysis. Seven hypothesis were tested statistically on the perceptions of current level of importance, current level of satisfaction, and future level of importance by IC managers and IC users towards 28 CSFs. The results suggest that there is disagreement among IC managers and IC users as to the importance of different CSFs. Also, there is no direct relationship between importance and satisfaction perceived by IC managers and IC users towards different CSFs. The findings and recommendations in this study should provide some valuable inputs for managers in the planning and implementation of ICs.
Keywords: Information system management, End user computing, Information center
Towards Integrated Support of Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication in Cooperative Work: An Empirical Study of Real Group Communication BIBAKPDF 90-97
  Yasuhisa Sakamoto; Eiji Kuwana
This paper analyzes the role of the two communication modes in cooperative work: synchronous and asynchronous. While it is natural and indispensable that both modes be used together, most existing groupware handles only one or the other, which reduces the effectiveness of cooperation. This hypothesis is confirmed by defining an argument model that uses the concept of cooperative effects and using it to analyze a decision-making discussion consisting of both synchronous face-to-face meetings and asynchronous electronic mail meetings. Several discussion characteristics using both modes are identified and the need for and the requirements for an integrated support system are clarified.
Keywords: Communication modes, Argument model, Cooperative effects, Electronic mail
Information Artisans: Patterns of Result Sharing by Information Searchers BIBAKPDF 98-107
  Vicki L. O'Day; Robin Jeffries
We studied the uses of information search results by regular clients of professional intermediaries. We found that all of the participants in our study acted as intermediaries themselves, sharing information they had received from library searches with others in their work settings. There were four basic models of sharing: updating team members, consulting, broadcasting, and putting information into a shared archive. In many sharing scenarios, the library clients acted as information artisans, creating new artifacts by transforming and enhancing their search results before passing them on. When possible, the library clients delivered their new information artifacts in collaborative settings, to ensure that recipients understood and could apply the results and to allow opportunities for follow-up search requests. These observations suggest that new functionality is needed for information search systems, to support the analysis, manipulation, and packaging of search results, and collaborative information delivery with intertwined communication and information components.
Keywords: Information search, Information use, Information artifacts, Intermediaries, Collaborative work

Act-Based Collaboration Tools

Supporting Dynamic Interdependencies among Collaborative Activities BIBAKPDF 108-118
  Douglas P. Bogia; William J. Tolone; Simon M. Kaplan; Eric de la Tribouille
Real-life work requirements seldom result in tasks being truly independent. Instead, webs of interdependencies evolve among tasks in a fashion which is sometimes predictable, but often completely ad hoc. In this paper we are concerned with both uncovering a family of basic concepts and mechanisms that can be used to support the mixture of anticipated and ad hoc dependencies that can arise among tasks and describing the reification of these concepts through our Obligation System implemented within the prototype collaboration support environment ConversationBuilder.
Keywords: Toolkits, CSCW environments, Active/flexible support
Design and Implementation of CB Lite BIBAKPDF 119-129
  Dan Kogan
The CB Lite project presents a case study in the design to integrate flexible fund active support for cooperative work activities into an existing environment. The system's underlying philosophy and architecture are based on the ConversationBuilder work pioneered at the University of Illinois. Our goals for this project were to understand the fundamental architectural issues of this technology in order to integrate it with the operating environment of the PC platform. Specifically, we sought to define a formal model of the system's Architecture, to define a high level language for specifying cooperative process models and to build a prototype embodying the model to interpret the language.
Keywords: Case study, System architecture, Conversation-based cooperation

Business Process Reengineering

Visual Support for Reengineering Work Processes BIBAKPDF 130-141
  Keith D. Swenson
A model for collaborative work process and a graphical language to support this model is presented. The model allows for informal flow of communications and flexible access to information along with a formal flow of responsibility. Work is decomposed into a network of task assignments (actually requests for those tasks), which may be recursively decomposed to finer Trained tasks. The model includes consideration for authority and responsibility. Process flow can be dynamically modified. Policies (templates for a process) may be tailored to provide versions of a process customized for different individuals. The visual language is designed to ease the creation of policies and modification of ongoing processes, as well as to display the status of an active process.
Keywords: Visual language, Collaboration, Work flow, Process modeling, Business process reengineering
Workflow Management Systems for Financial Services BIBAKPDF 142-153
  Thomas Schael; Buni Zeller
This paper describes the application of workflow management systems in an Italian bank. Under a changing competitive and financial situation, the bank had to react by redesigning its market-oriented business processes. Customer related credit processes have been analyzed using a method based on a client/supplier model. The credit management process was the target for a workflow-based reporting system. The system copes with events in the daily appearance of overdrafts on current accounts which have to be managed by the agency director and the branch's staff. The reporting system developed is part of a global change from the centralized into a distributed credit management information system based on a client/server architecture. The functional architecture for workflow management technology defines how to integrate the different functional modules (message handling, data management and document management), and in particular, mainframe EDP with end user computing.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Groupware, Workgroup computing, Workflow management technology, Office automation, Office procedure, Business process automation, Process reengineering, Customer satisfaction
Reengineering a Business Process with an Innovative Workflow Management System: A Case Study BIBAKPDF 154-165
  A. Agostini; G. De Michelis; M. A. Grasso; S. Patriarca
In this paper we report on the application to a real bank procedure of both a new approach to the analysis of work processes, allowing the evaluation of its transaction costs, and a prototype of a Workflow Management System, allowing an effective handling of procedure breakdowns without forcing the designers to take care of them.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Groupware, Office routine, Workflow management system, Transaction cost, Work process, Conversation, Communication system

Posters

An Interface for Navigating Clustered Document Sets Returned by Queries BIBAKPDF 166-171
  Robert B. Allen; Pascal Obry; Michael Littman
An interface has been implemented for exploring the structure of document sets returned in response to a query. The interface allows a user to find subsets of documents that are especially relevant to the query through interaction with an interactive dendrogram which displays a hierarchical clustering of the documents. Dynamic lists of document titles are interlocked with the dendrogram to provide detail of the clusters being viewed by the user. For efficiency, the interface has been implemented in several parallel and distributed computation environments and has been applied to retrieval of encyclopedia articles and news stories.
Keywords: Clustering, Information retrieval, Interfaces
MOCCA: An Environment for CSCW Applications BIBAKPDF 172-177
  Steve Benford; John Mariani; Leandro Navarro; Wolfgang Prinz; Tom Rodden
Our belief is that in the future Computer Supported Cooperative Work will by necessity involve a heterogeneous collection of applications, paradigms and models and that no single system will meet all the requirements of all groups. We propose a CSCW Environment which facilitates inter-working between many different CSCW applications. We describe the key requirements of such an environment, followed by a set of models which offer different perspectives on the environment and which collectively define its functionality. We then discuss how these models might be used to specify the components of an open distributed architecture for implementing the model.
Keywords: CSCW environments, CSCW architecture, Integration, Information-, Organization-, Workspaces-, Rooms-model
Supporting the Dynamics of Knowledge Sharing within Organizations BIBAKPDF 178-183
  Monica Divitini; Giuseppe Omodei Sale; Alberto Pozzoli; Carla Simone
The paper proposes an architecture to memorize the knowledge generated and used by the members of an organization in their cooperative work. The main focus is on the identification of mechanisms to enhance organization members capability to reconstruct the dynamic evolution of the knowledge generated through computer supported human to human communication within the organization. These mechanisms are triggered by communicative events in a user transparent way. The notion of degree of consciousness of knowledge sharing is proposed as a basic means to allow members to look for the most appropriate context of each communicative event. This context is where the reconstruction becomes sensible in relation to the user needs.
Keywords: CSCW, User models, Knowledge sharing, Commitments
Data Object Creation and Display Techniques for the Huge Database of Subscriber Cable Networks BIBAKPDF 184-189
  Yasuyuki Kato; Yasuo Kataoka; Yoshihiro Nakamura; Yutaka Mitsunaga
Subscriber cable network management systems have huge-scale relational databases. It is difficult to realize a user-friendly data display for these systems due to their non-object data structure. Two techniques are proposed in order to overcome this problem which create dynamic data objects and provide multi-category views. The creation of dynamic data objects is successfully developed by using a special class which manages an array containing data elements of an arbitrary type. The multi-category view system is developed by realizing a multi-category view server which provides several view objects for client applications by object transportation. A complete prototype system based on these techniques is constructed and evaluated. It is confirmed experimentally that a total time of one second is required from the start of data reference to the completion of data object display on a map.
Keywords: Object-oriented, Database, Data-object, Subscriber cable network, Object creation, Storage-list object, Display, View-object server, Dynamic loading
OMNI: A Model for Focused Collaborative Work Through Issue Management BIBAKPDF 190-195
  Beth Lange; James B. Treleaven; Anatole Gershman
The bulk of the research done on collaborative work has been on improving the effectiveness of meetings. Little work has been done on providing support for knowledge-intensive, physically dispersed, asynchronous group tasks. These tasks have the essential characteristics of requiring collaboration among a team of participants, consisting of complex issue structures, requiring a significant amount of shared information, and necessitating negotiation in order to reach consensus. OMNI is a domain independent, general model of collaborative issue management designed to support such tasks. This collaboration model has four key elements which must be supported -- group processes, dynamics of group interactions, communications, and group memory. The central feature of the model is an issue management system capable of supporting complex, domain independent issue structures. OMNI has been implemented in the initial domain of venture capital investment decision-making.
Keywords: Collaboration, Issue management, Negotiation, Consensus, Group memory, Visualization, Group support systems
Goal-Based Process Analysis: A Method for Systematic Process Redesign BIBAKPDF 196-201
  Jintae Lee
A method is proposed for systematically analyzing and redesigning processes. The method, Goal-based Process Analysis (GPA), helps its user to systematically identify missing objectives, ensure implementation of all the objectives, identify non-functional parts of a process, and explore alternative processes for achieving a given set of objectives. As such, GPA addresses a critical component in process reengineering, that of identifying which part of a given process needs to be improved and what alternatives could be used instead.
Keywords: Process redesign, Process analysis, Goal analysis, Work flow design, Organizational design
Enactment Theory as a Paradigm for Enabling Flexible Workflows BIBAKPDF 202-209
  Dirk E. Mahling
This paper proposes collective enactment theory as an alternative to speech acts or situated actions as the basis for workflow systems. Enactment theory goes beyond the conventional scope of theories of action by acknowledging affordances in the environment, needs of individuals and organizations, decision and preparation, motivation, planning and scheduling, execution, evaluation, and consequential changes in the organization and their environment. This encompassing scope allows to overcome limitations of current workflow systems and to integrate a large range of organizational and individual behavior. Particular emphasis in this paper is given to organizational activities that precede or follow the planning, scheduling, and execution of organizational work. The integration of planning and scheduling activities in enactment theory is shown and implications for workflow design and architectures are delineated.
Keywords: CSCW, Workflow, Group work, Enactment theory
A Blackboard-Based Architecture for Filtering New Software Features BIBAKPDF 210-215
  Masashi Uyama
Newly designed software products are frequently disseminated and installed in an open network environment. This paper proposes a blackboard-based human interface architecture for filtering these new software features. This architecture performs three-step filtering. First, the credibility-based selection mechanism selects features that trustworthy colleagues have recommended. Second, the context-sensitive selection mechanism selects features specific to the context of a user's task execution. Finally, the context-sensitive disclosure mechanism discloses the selected features to the user dynamically and unobtrusively. This disclosure allows users to try out potentially useful features in their own task context and at the same time, helps users evaluate the real usefulness of the features. With this filtering mechanism, users can incorporate really useful features into their tasks with little effort.
Keywords: Intelligent assistance, Context sensitivity, Task model, Trialability, Information filtering, Modifiability, Organizational memory

Supporting Software Development Organizations

ORDIT: A New Methodology to Assist in the Process of Eliciting and Modelling Organisational Requirements BIBAKPDF 216-227
  A. J. C. Blyth; J. Chudge; J. E. Dobson; M. R. Strens
Requirements engineering from an organisational perspective needs to be viewed as social engineering. Thus in this paper a modelling language will be presented, which is visual in nature, and with which we assert that it is possible to diagrammatically represent and reason about the impact that an information technology system may have on an organisation, and thus derive organisational requirements.
Keywords: Organisational requirements, Enterprise modelling, Structural relationships, Functional relationships, Conversation modelling
Supporting Long Term Collaboration in Software Maintenance BIBAKPDF 228-238
  Robert Lougher; Tom Rodden
The maintenance of large software systems is a collaborative activity requiring the combined efforts of a team of maintenance engineers. Due to the extended time period over which maintenance occurs, direct communication between these team members is however, difficult or impossible.
   This paper presents a system which supports long-term collaboration in software maintenance by allowing maintenance rationale to be captured and shared by maintenance engineers. The system concentrates on the construction of maintenance rationale by providing a range of unconstrained documentation facilities. The general model adopted exploits hypertext technology to allow rationale to be integrated into the system by attaching comments to the appropriate source component.
Keywords: Support for long-term collaboration, Annotative collaboration, Software maintenance, Hypertext
Combining Local Negotiation and Global Planning in Cooperative Software Development Projects BIBAKPDF 239-249
  Kazuo Okamura
In cooperative software development, each programmer has their own plans and conflicts or redundancies inevitably arise among them. We are concerned with two main problems: first, to control changes without sacrificing programmers' flexibility, and, second, to guide change activities to conform project policies. Traditional methods of change request management focus on the management process structure based on project policies while cooperative development methodologies concern mainly with the conflict resolutions among each changes. In this paper, we describe an architecture which deals with proposal of changes. Based on plan integration it seamlessly supports both change coordination through negotiations and the change management process to have changes converge until they meet the project goals.
Keywords: Change management, Software project management, Planning, Conflict resolution, Negotiation, Version and configuration management

Actor-Based Organizational Modeling

Methods for Organizational Development BIBAKPDF 250-257
  Peter de Jong
Organizational development refers to the continual change which large, distributed organizations undergo. Described are some methods for organizational development. These methods include message elimination, regrouping, reclustering, regression, and reuse.
   Development occurs within a modeling system called Ubik. It is a concurrent object based system which supports a high level representation of an organization. The structure of an organization is modeled with collections of linked together objects. The action of an organization is carried out via message passing. Active messages are used to build a specialized object called a Tapeworm, which monitors and constrains organizational structure and action. The Tapeworms are used to identify the mismatch between the model and the external organization. They are also used to support the development methods.
Keywords: Organizational computer systems, Organizational development, Distributed systems, Distributed objects, Active objects, Active messages, Work flow, Tapeworms, Object-based concurrent programming, Actor object model
An Actor Dependency Model of Organizational Work -- With Application to Business Process Reengineering BIBAKPDF 258-268
  Eric S. K. Yu; John Mylopoulos
In developing information systems for use in an organization, one often needs to understand the reasons that underlie established work patterns and practices. Because organizational actors depend on each other for goals to be achieved, tasks to be performed, and resources to be furnished, reasons for work patterns can be revealed by examining the dependencies among actors. We present a model which characterizes a work organization in terms of the network of dependencies among organizational actors. Actor dependencies are taken to be intentional -- they expand or restrict an actor's ability to pursue goals. The network of actor dependencies constitutes the intentional structure of the organization. We use examples from business process reengineering to motivate and illustrate the model.
Keywords: Organization model, Organization analysis and design, Business process reengineering, Workflow, Requirements engineering

Groupware Architectures

ASCW: An Assistant for Cooperative Work BIBAKPDF 269-278
  Thomas Kreifelts; Wolfgang Prinz
The Assistant for Cooperative Work (ASCW) is a powerful system for the management of distributed work. It consists of the Task Manager, the organizational information system TOSCA and the video conferencing tool LIVE. With the Task Manager, common tasks may be shared and manipulated independently by a number of people. Users may organize cooperative tasks, monitor their progress, share documents and services, and exchange messages during task performance. TOSCA provides knowledge about the organizations and their resources which are relevant for the support of communication and cooperation, both for users and applications. Complementary to these two systems, LIVE supports in-house and wide area video conferencing based on the broadband telecommunication net of the German Telecom.
Keywords: Group communication, Distributed work management, Organizational modeling, Video conferencing, Integration
Building Flexible Groupware Through Open Protocols BIBAKPDF 279-288
  Mark Roseman; Saul Greenberg
This paper presents a technical approach to building flexible groupware applications. Flexibility provides the promise of personalizable groupware, allowing different groups to work with the system in diverse ways which best suit the group's own needs. An implementation technique called open protocols is described, which is a variation of client/server architectures. Open protocols facilitate the addition of group-specific modules long after the system has been created. Three examples illustrating the use of open protocols are presented: floor control, conference registration, and brainstorming. Finally, a number of issues facing the groupware developer using open protocols are addressed, along with strategies that can help in dealing with these issues.
Keywords: Personalizable groupware, Expandability, Open protocols, Implementation technique
Access as a Means of Configuring Cooperative Interfaces BIBAKPDF 289-298
  Gareth Smith; Tom Rodden
The emergence of CSCW has seen the development of a number of applications which simultaneously present a number of interfaces to a community of users. Limited consideration has been given to the provision of facilities that support the configuration and tailoring of these cooperative user interfaces. This paper presents a simple mechanism that enables dynamic support for tailoring user interfaces. Rather than focus on the interface as having been derived from a set of shared objects, we choose to view the problem as one of a shared interface constructed from a collection of interface objects and access to this shared interface. This paper presents an access model and an environment that facilitates the construction and runtime support of cooperative user interfaces.
Keywords: Multi-user interface development environment, Access control, User interface tailoring, CSCW architectures