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MUM Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia

Fullname:Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia
Editors:Enrico Rukzio
Location:Ulm, Germany
Dates:2012-Dec-04 to 2012-Dec-06
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1815-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: MUM12
Links:Conference Website
  1. Novel designs & insights
  2. Mobile interaction
  3. Technically enhanced social interaction
  4. Security
  5. Mobile augmented reality and mobile video
  6. Models & tools
  7. Industry track
  8. Audio & music
  9. Audio & music: field studies & user experiences
  10. Public displays
  11. Poster
  12. Demos

Novel designs & insights

Creating visibility: understanding the design space for food waste BIBAFull-Text 1
  Eva Ganglbauer; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Georg Molzer
Support for ecological sustainability is of growing interest and the over-consumption, production and disposal of foods are a major concern for sustainability, ethics and the economy. However, there is a deficit in current understandings of how technologies could be used within this area. In this paper we focus on food waste and report on a qualitative study to understand daily food practices around shopping planning, gardening, storing, cooking and throwing away food, and their relations to waste. The findings point to design-relevant factors such as losing sight and reordering; spatial, temporal and social constraints; trust and valuing food source; and busyness, unpredictability and effort. The main contribution of this paper is to understand food practices and in turn to present seven dimensions of visibility to draw out implications for designing mobile and ubiquitous technologies for this new arena for design. We also present a prototype evolving from our qualitative results, the mobile food waste diary.
What influences users' decisions to take apps into use?: a framework for evaluating persuasive and engaging design in mobile Apps for well-being BIBAFull-Text 2
  Ting-Ray Chang; Eija Kaasinen; Kirsikka Kaipainen
Personal well-being is influenced by small daily decisions such as what or when to eat or whether to go jogging. The health consequences of these decisions accumulate over time. Mobile applications can be designed to support people in everyday decisions and thus help to improve well-being real-time. In this paper we propose a framework to study the influential factors for users to download and use applications from the wide selection currently available in App stores. The framework includes attractiveness, value, ease-of-use, trust, social support, diffusiveness, as well as fun and excitement. We illustrated how the framework works in practise by applying it to an online survey to assess 12 mobile Apps for well-being. The results showed that these influential factors did match the decisions on users' attitudes toward taking Apps into use. User feedback explained how people assessed the influential factors before actually using the applications.
Designing gestures for mobile 3D gaming BIBAFull-Text 3
  Florian Daiber; Lianchao Li; Antonio Krüger
In the last years 3D is getting more and more popular. Besides the increasing number of movies for 3D stereoscopic cinemas and television, serious steps have also been undertaken in the field of 3D gaming. Games with stereoscopic 3D output are now available not only for gamers with high-end PCs but also on handheld devices equipped with 3D autostereoscopic displays.
   Recent smartphone technology has powerful processors that allow complex tasks like image processing, e.g. used in augmented reality applications. Moreover these devices are nowadays equipped with various sensors that allow additional input modalities far beyond joystick, mouse, keyboard and other traditional input methods. In this paper we propose an approach for sensor-based interaction with stereoscopic displayed 3D data on mobile devices and present a mobile 3D game that makes use of these concepts.
A mobile indoor navigation system interface adapted to vision-based localization BIBAFull-Text 4
  Andreas Möller; Matthias Kranz; Robert Huitl; Stefan Diewald; Luis Roalter
Vision-based approaches for mobile indoor localization do not rely on the infrastructure and are therefore scalable and cheap. The particular requirements to a navigation user interface for a vision-based system, however, have not been investigated so far.
   Such mobile interfaces should adapt to localization accuracy, which strongly relies on distinctive reference images, and other factors, such as the phone's pose. If necessary, the system should motivate the user to point at distinctive regions with the smartphone to improve localization quality.
   We present a combined interface of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) elements with indicators that help to communicate and ensure localization accuracy. In an evaluation with 81 participants, we found that AR was preferred in case of reliable localization, but with VR, navigation instructions were perceived more accurate in case of localization and orientation errors. The additional indicators showed a potential for making users choose distinctive reference images for reliable localization.
Development and evaluation of media-enhanced learning application BIBAFull-Text 5
  Janne Lahti; Erkki Siira; Vili Törmänen
With the recent developments in mobile and web technologies and mass adoption of mobile devices by the current school generation, significant opportunities have emerged for e-learning applications. This article makes a contribution to the design aspects of media-enhanced e-learning application. We present a design and development process for mobile application that seamlessly combines user-created multimedia with the student's learning process in a school environment. We present the evolution of the application from a simple mobile phone application to a rich tablet application. We also report on field trial results with real users, showing that the application is quite easy to learn and use even for inexperienced users, and present insights from user comments on using mobile devices and user-created multimedia to aid the learning process.

Mobile interaction

A text input method for half-sized keyboard using keying interval BIBAFull-Text 6
  Takuya Katayama; Tsutomu Terada; Kazuya Murao; Masahiko Tsukamoto
In various environments, such as mobile and wearable computing, compact I/O devices are desirable from the viewpoint of portability. Now, many users are accustomed to input with a keyboard, however, there is a limitation of miniaturization because it degrades the performance of key touch. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to miniaturize a keyboard by excluding the half of it. In using the proposed method, one hand hits keys as usual, and the other hand hits the place outside the keyboard as if the user types with both hands. The user can input words with only one hand because the proposed system estimates the input word using keying interval, which appears also when the user inputs with both hands. From the results of user study, we confirmed that the user can input with only one hand and that it does not decrease input speed drastically.
Evaluation study on sensor placement and gesture selection for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 7
  Kazuya Murao; Ai Yano; Tsutomu Terada; Ryuichi Matsukura
Mobile phones and video game controllers using gesture recognition technologies enable easy and intuitive operations, such as scrolling a browser and drawing objects. However, usually only one of each kind of sensor is installed in a device, and the effect of multiple homogeneous sensors on recognition accuracy has not been investigated. Moreover, the effect of the differences in the motion of a gesture has not been examined. We have investigated the use of a test mobile device with nine accelerometers and nine gyroscopes. We have captured the data for 27 kinds of gestures for a mobile tablet. We experimentally investigated the effects on recognition accuracy of changing the number and positions of the sensors and of the number and kinds of gestures. The results showed that the use of multiple homogeneous sensors has zero or negligible effect on recognition accuracy, but that using an accelerometer along with a gyroscope improves recognition accuracy. They also showed that some gestures were not consistent among test subjects and interdependent, so selecting specific gestures to use can improve recognition accuracy.
TouchPosing: multi-modal interaction with geospatial data BIBAFull-Text 8
  Florian Daiber; Sven Gehring; Markus Löchtefeld; Antonio Krüger
Multi-touch interaction offers opportunities to interact with complex data. Especially the exploration of geographical data, which until today mostly relies on mice and keyboard input, could benefit from this interaction paradigm. However, the gestures that are required to interact with complex systems like Geographic Information Systems (GIS) increase in difficulty with every additional functionality. This paper describes a novel interaction approach that allows non-expert users to easily explore geographic data using a combination of multi-touch gestures and handpostures. The use of the additional input modality -- handpose -- is supposed to avoid more complex multi-touch gestures. Furthermore the screen of a wearable device serves as another output modality that on one hand avoids occlusion and on the other hand serves as a magic lens.

Technically enhanced social interaction

Saving energy at work: the design of a pervasive game for office spaces BIBAFull-Text 9
  Jonathan Simon; Marco Jahn; Amro Al-Akkad
Decreasing the energy consumption is an important goal for individuals and public or industrial institutions. Pervasive games have been used to teach people to save energy in private households. We present Climate Race, a pervasive game addressing office workers. In the user-centered design process, three main requirements were identified: unobtrusiveness, cooperative gameplay and privacy. The implemented prototype monitors energy consumption and relates it to the activities of the player by measuring corresponding behavior. It provides feedback through a game application. Participants in a pilot study judged the game to be generally appropriate for the workplace, and changes in motivation were reported. Explicitly requesting feedback was preferred over immediate notifications. Sensor measurements showed that energy-saving situations occurred more often during the study.
Social devices: collaborative co-located interactions in a mobile cloud BIBAFull-Text 10
  Niko Mäkitalo; Jari Pääkkö; Mikko Raatikainen; Varvana Myllärniemi; Timo Aaltonen; Tapani Leppänen; Tomi Männistö; Tommi Mikkonen
Online social media services, such as Facebook and Twitter, have set new standards on how people interact with each other online, share their everyday activities, and media services. While current mobile services supporting social interaction are typically primarily for remote communication, similar services can be introduced to co-located social interactions. In such a setting, people and proactive, context sensing mobile devices form a new kind of a socio-digital system where the mobile devices are active participants and can initiate interaction among the devices and people. Physical proximity of the devices becomes a key enabler to advance users' interaction with each other and the supporting mobile services. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Social Devices and its implementation. The Social Devices Platform facilitates autonomously composed cooperative services in co-located devices where the client part is simple and easily deployable to different kinds of devices.
An exploratory study of user-generated spatial gestures with social mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 11
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Thomas Olsson; Jari Laaksonen
Social Devices are smart phones that interact with each other in order to proactively trigger interaction between co-located users. Social Devices promote proxemic interactions between people and can act as enablers of users' social contacts. Various modalities are used to support natural interactions between users and Social Devices. We present an explorative study of spatial gestures that could support interactions with Social Devices. Our aim was to find out what kind of gestures users would like to use for different types of actions. Ten pairs participated in a laboratory study in which they went through three scenarios of Social Devices. The participants were asked to generate gestures that they would find suitable for user actions within the scenarios. In this paper, we present the found gesture types and their fit to various user actions. Our results show that Scan, Swing, Nod and Turn the screen down are potential spatial gestures for intuitive use of Social Devices. User feedback about their preferences of using spatial gestures indicates issues of social acceptance.
Designing conversation-context recommendation display to support opportunistic search in meetings BIBAFull-Text 12
  Nan Li; Pierre Dillenbourg
In meetings, people sometimes come across information in the environment or in the conversation. This kind of accidentally encountered information may be or not be relevant to the main meeting topic, but stirs people's temporary interest and mediates group conversation. In some cases people even need to search these unexpected terms in the Web. This phenomenon is called opportunistic search. We question if digital displays can be designed to support opportunistic search in meetings. Assuming information sharing in collocated meetings may largely come from conversation, we propose to design an ambient tabletop display that provides just-in-time conversational information to support opportunistic browsing and searching. In this paper, we present our design explorations with user study, and answer some of the major design questions for such systems.


Password entry usability and shoulder surfing susceptibility on different smartphone platforms BIBAFull-Text 13
  Florian Schaub; Ruben Deyhle; Michael Weber
Virtual keyboards of different smartphone platforms seem quite similar at first glance, but the transformation from a physical to a virtual keyboard on a small-scale display results in user experience variations that cause significant differences in usability as well as shoulder surfing susceptibility, i.e., the risk of a bystander observing what is being typed. In our work, we investigate the impact of both aspects on the security of text-based password entry on mobile devices. In a between subjects study with 80 participants, we analyzed usability and shoulder surfing susceptibility of password entry on different mobile platforms (iOS, Android, Windows Phone, Symbian, MeeGo). Our results show significant differences in the usability of password entry (required password entry time, typing accuracy) and susceptibility to shoulder surfing. Our results provide insights for security-aware design of on-screen keyboards and for password composition strategies tailored to entry on smartphones.
Exploring user preferences for privacy interfaces in mobile sensing applications BIBAFull-Text 14
  Delphine Christin; Andreas Reinhardt; Matthias Hollick; Kai Trumpold
By leveraging smartphones as sensing platforms, mobile sensing applications can collect information in an unprecedented quantity and granularity. The transmission of unprocessed sensor readings can, however, pose severe threats to the users' privacy. To protect their privacy, users can apply filters to eliminate privacy-sensitive elements of the sensor readings prior to transmission. The resulting privacy protection depends on the configuration of these filters, which is controlled by the users through a privacy interface. In this paper, we study interface elements for the realization of this interface in order to foster its acceptance and maximize the efficacy of the provided privacy protection. To this end, we have implemented six graphical privacy interfaces, which have been evaluated by 80 participants of our user study. The results show a preference of the users towards differently colored and sized elements to visualize the current level of privacy protection and define their preferred privacy settings.
Security in migratory interactive web applications BIBAFull-Text 15
  Giuseppe Ghiani; Fabio Paternò; Lorenzo Isoni
In ubiquitous environments migratory interactive applications allow users to perform their tasks continuously across various devices. Users can push and pull migratory Web applications from one device to another for various reasons. However, the flexibility of such pervasive applications raises various security issues, such as the risk of theft of private information from the migrated user interfaces or the intrusion of malicious versions of the applications replacing the original ones. In this paper, we analyse such risks and present a number of solutions to address them in a client/server-based solution for supporting secure migration of interactive Web applications.

Mobile augmented reality and mobile video

LightBeam: interacting with augmented real-world objects in pico projections BIBAFull-Text 16
  Jochen Huber; Jürgen Steimle; Chunyuan Liao; Qiong Liu; Max Mühlhäuser
Pico projectors have lately been investigated as mobile display and interaction devices. We propose to use them as 'light beams': Everyday objects sojourning in a beam are turned into dedicated projection surfaces and tangible interaction devices. This way, our daily surroundings get populated with interactive objects, each one temporarily chartered with a dedicated sub-issue of pervasive interaction. While interaction with objects has been studied in larger, immersive projection spaces, the affordances of pico projections are fundamentally different: they have a very small, strictly limited field of projection, and they are mobile. This paper contributes the results of an exploratory field study on how people interact with everyday objects in pico projections in nomadic settings. Based upon these results, we present novel interaction techniques that leverage the limited field of projection and trade-off between digitally augmented and traditional uses of everyday objects.
HiStory: a hierarchical storyboard interface design for video browsing on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 17
  Wolfgang Hürst; Dimitri Darzentas
This paper presents an interactive thumbnail-based video browser for mobile devices such as smartphones featuring a touch screen. Developed as part of on-going research and supported by user studies, it introduces HiStory, a hierarchical storyboard design offering an interface metaphor that is familiar and intuitive yet supports fast and effective completion of Known-Item-Search tasks by rapidly providing an overview of a video's content with varying degrees of granularity.
The mobile vision mixer: a mobile network based live video broadcasting system in your mobile phone BIBAFull-Text 18
  Arvid Engström; Goranka Zoric; Oskar Juhlin; Ramin Toussi
Mobile broadcasting services, allowing people to stream live video from their cameraphones to viewers online, are becoming widely used as tools for user-generated content. The next generation of these services enables collaboration in teams of camera operators and a director producing an edited broadcast. This paper contributes to this research area by exploring the possibility for the director to join the camera team on location, performing mixing and broadcasting on a mobile device. The Mobile Vision Mixer prototype embodies a technical solution for connecting four camera streams and displaying them in a mixer interface for the director to select from, under the bandwidth constraints of mobile networks. Based on field trials with amateur users, we discuss technical challenges as well as advantages of enabling the director to be present on location, in visual proximity of the camera team.
Real-time annotation of video objects on tablet computers BIBAFull-Text 19
  João Silva; Diogo Cabral; Carla Fernandes; Nuno Correia
When using a tablet computer, sketching is a natural approach for users to annotate video scenes. However, when these annotations are done in real-time and overlaid in the video, their context can be lost due to changes in the scene being annotated. We propose an approach towards maintaining the annotations' context, by using object tracking to create anchors onto which further annotations can be attached. To this end, the annotator is capable of using different tracking methods, including a Kinect sensor and/or the TLD object tracking algorithm.
   The challenges involved in designing an interface to support the association of video annotations with tracked objects in real-time are also discussed. In particular, we discuss our alternative approaches to handle moving object selection on live video, which we have called "Hold and Overlay" and "Hold and Speed Up". In addition, the results of a set of preliminary tests are reported.
ProPane: fast and precise video browsing on mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 20
  Roman Ganhör
Studies show that every fourth smartphone user watches videos on their device. However, because of increasing camera and encoding quality more and more smartphones are providing an attractive tool for creating and editing videos. The demand for smooth video browsing interfaces is challenged by the limited input and output capabilities that such mobile devices offer. This paper discusses a novel interface for fast and precise video browsing suitable for watching and editing videos. The browsing mechanism offers a simple but powerful interface for browsing videos at different levels of granularity. All interactions can be carried out with no modal changes at all. The interface is easy to understand and efficient to use. A first evaluation proves the suitability of the presented design for casual users as well as for creative professionals such as video editors.

Models & tools

ConWIZ: a tool supporting contextual Wizard of Oz simulation BIBAFull-Text 21
  Thomas Grill; Ondrej Polacek; Manfred Tscheligi
When applying the Wizard of Oz (WOz) method to mobile and ubiquitous computing studies, the task of the wizard becomes more difficult as observing the user requires the wizard to be in the context. We address this problem through the ConWIZ system that allows not only to control a specific prototype but also to control parameters included in the contextual settings. In order to evaluate our approach, we setup a study with eight human wizards where we evaluated the applicability, appropriateness and usability of the ConWIZ system for mobile and UbiComp environments. Each wizard had to simulate a navigation system and control contextual parameters like simulation of wind by switching a fan on and off, and tactile feedback mechanism using the ConWIZ system. All wizards stated that the tool is definitely applicable and appropriate for supporting a mobile WOz study which allows the wizard to be hidden also if he resides in the study context. Regarding the applicability of the system, we found out that high workload may hinder the wizard from doing additional tasks such as note taking.
An event-driven workflow framework to develop context-aware mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 22
  Valentim Realinho; Teresa Romão; A. Eduardo Dias
This paper introduces IVO (Integrated Virtual Operator), a framework to build and deploy context-aware mobile applications using smartphones as the ubiquitous interaction device. The framework uses an event-driven workflow model to support the dynamic nature of context-aware applications, and is designed to enable non-programmers to create and run new mobile applications. An IVO application is described as a set of workflows triggered by events that are automatically generated in runtime by sensing the environment, either through the smartphone's own sensors, or using a sensor infrastructure external to the smartphone. This paper describes, in more detail, the Android client developed to validate the framework's usability and usefulness, and discusses the usability tests of an application developed with the framework.
Object circles: modeling physical objects as social relationships BIBAFull-Text 23
  Florian Michahelles; Philipp Probst
Physical products, things, and appliances will be associated with digital counterparts, such as additional product information, instructions, API's, etc.. Thus, it will become challenging for users to consciously manage access rights of data of their objects and stay aware of which data is visible to whom. This paper proposes to transfer the notion of Google's circles for managing social relationships to managing data streams of physical objects. We describe the concept and its implementation, and provide a proof-of-concept by a sample scenario. Thus, we show that object circles offer a more intuitive way for everyday users to manage the data-streams of their objects transparently.
Dynamic tiling display: building an interactive display surface using multiple mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 24
  Ming Li; Leif Kobbelt
Table display surfaces, like Microsoft PixelSense, can display multimedia content to a group of users simultaneously, but it is expensive and lacks mobility. On the contrary, mobile devices are more easily available, but due to limited screen size and resolution, they are not suitable for sharing multimedia data interactively. In this paper we present a "Dynamic Tiling Display", an interactive display surface built from mobile devices. Our framework utilizes the integrated front facing camera of mobile devices to estimate the relative pose of multiple mobile screens arbitrarily placed on a table. Using this framework, users can create a large virtual display where multiple users can explore multimedia data interactively through separate windows (mobile screens). The major technical challenge is the calibration of individual displays, which is solved by visual object recognition using front facing camera inputs.
Model for landmark highlighting in mobile web services BIBAFull-Text 25
  Pekka Kallioniemi; Markku Turunen
We introduce a model for landmark highlighting for pedestrian route guidance services for mobile devices. The model determines which landmarks are the most attractive based on their properties in the current context of user's orientation and the location on the route and highlights these landmarks on the mobile map. The attractiveness of a landmark is based on its visual, structural and semantic properties which are used for calculating the total attractiveness of a single landmark.
   This model was evaluated with voluntary users conducted in laboratory environment. Test subjects were shown images of street intersections from where they selected the most attractive and prominent landmarks in the route's context. We then compared these results with the landmarks selected by the model. The results show that landmarks highlighted by the model were the same ones that were selected by the participants as most salient landmarks.

Industry track

Checking in or checked in: comparing large-scale manual and automatic location disclosure patterns BIBAFull-Text 26
  Eric Malmi; Trinh Minh Tri Do; Daniel Gatica-Perez
Studies on human mobility are built on two fundamentally different data sources: manual check-in data that originates from location-based social networks and automatic check-in data that can be automatically collected through various smartphone sensors. In this paper, we analyze the differences and similarities of manual check-ins from Foursquare and automatic check-ins from Nokia's Mobile Data Challenge. Several new findings follow from our analysis: (1) While automatic checking-in overall results in more visits than manual checking-in, the check-in levels are comparable when visiting new places. (2) Daily and weekly check-in activity patterns are similar for both systems except for Saturdays -- when manual check-ins are relatively more probable. (3) A recently proposed rank distribution to describe human mobility, so far validated on manual check-in data, also holds for automatic check-in data given a slight modification to the definition of rank. (4) The patterns described by automatic check-ins are in general more predictable. We also address the question of whether it is possible to find matching places across the two check-in systems. Our analysis shows that while this is challenging in areas such as city centers, our method achieves an accuracy of 51% for places that are not homes of phone users.
Private public screens: detached multi-user interaction with large displays through mobile augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 27
  Matthias Baldauf; Katrin Lasinger; Peter Fröhlich
As everyday companions, smartphones are well-suited tools for controlling interactive applications on large public displays. To allow concurrent interaction by multiple users beyond traditional collaborative scenarios we introduce the idea of virtually augmented public screens for creating personalized views and thus literally enabling "private public screens". We present a fully functional research prototype in form of a Video Wall application and report on first experiences gathered from a comparative user study. The results show that the proposed personalized Augmented Reality approach, which allows each user to have a private view on the public display, is preferred over a purely competitive mode, where the public display is shared between the users. Further, our study shows that social activity indicators informing about the activities of other users are well appreciated.
Testdroid: automated remote UI testing on Android BIBAFull-Text 28
  Jouko Kaasila; Denzil Ferreira; Vassilis Kostakos; Timo Ojala
Open mobile platforms such as Android currently suffer from the existence of multiple versions, each with its own peculiarities. This makes the comprehensive testing of interactive applications challenging. In this paper we present Testdroid, an online platform for conducting scripted user interface tests on a variety of physical Android handsets. Testdroid allows developers and researchers to record test scripts, which along with their application are automatically executed on a variety of handsets in parallel. The platform reports the outcome of these tests, enabling developers and researchers to quickly identify platforms where their systems may crash or fail. At the same time the platform allows us to identify more broadly the various problems associated with each handset, as well as frequent programming mistakes.
evoGuide: implementation of a tour guide support solution with multimedia and augmented-reality content BIBAFull-Text 29
  Richard Hable; Thomas Rößler; Christina Schuller
This paper provides a description of the technical implementation of a complete software and hardware solution supporting guided factory tours in an industrial environment. It starts with an overview of the strategies applied to come up with a working solution satisfying given user requirements. The overall architecture of the system is shown based on design decisions elaborated during this process. Then, specific topics posing challenges during the implementation are described from the assessment of the current state of the art and possible implementation options to the final working solution. These topics include the organization of configurable content delivery, the selection and application of an augmented reality framework, and the creation of an audio broadcast solution for the tour guide. We conclude with a review of the practical application of the system and possible further development and future improvements.
Personal feature extraction via grip force sensors mounted on a mobile phone: authenticating the user during key-operation BIBAFull-Text 30
  Toshiki Iso; Tsutomu Horikoshi; Masakatsu Tsukamoto; Takeshi Higuchi
We propose an algorithm for authenticating the user of a mobile phone from the outputs of pressure sensors during key-operations such as button-pushes. While not intended to replace password identification, it does help in providing the service which is suitable for a user without any his/her specific action. For example, during user's entering key strokes. if a service cloud can recognize user-authentication by analyzing key strokes, then, it can find the optimal services based on the user preference. Our algorithm is based on a statistic probabilistic model based approach; it calculates the probability distribution of the temporal differential values of pressure by Kalman filtering. The captured sensory data is compared to predicted sensory data based on the probability distribution to judge whether the person making the key-operation is the registered owner or not. We implement the proposed system and subject it to feasibility experiments with 10 subjects; its user-authentication accuracy is quite good with a FAR-FRR error rate of only 10[%].
The scanner at your finger tips: analysis of the effectiveness of the scan mouse device BIBAFull-Text 31
  Matthias Wyss; Alexander Ilic; Florian Michahelles
Scanning parts of paper-based information can be time-consuming and disrupt the user's workflow. Accordingly, we investigate the performance and usability of a computer mouse with document scanning capabilities, referred to as scan mouse. We set up a user study with 20 users scanning parts of paper documents using the scan mouse, a personal desktop scanner, shared network scanner, and the camera of an iPhone. Results show that the scan mouse is both faster and perceived as easier to use than the other devices due to the seamless integration of scanning capabilities into the established routine of handling a computer mouse.

Audio & music

Affective quality of audio feedback in different contexts BIBAFull-Text 32
  Julia Seebode; Robert Schleicher; Sebastian Möller
To give feedback on mobile devices, sound is commonly used in different ways. Much research has focused on the learnability and user performance with systems that have audio feedback. But so far, there is no standardized method to evaluate the subjective quality of auditory feedback messages. We describe a study to investigate the affective impression of short audio feedback on mobile devices and their functional connotation in three different contexts. Results show that context influences the affective impression of sounds and that there is a relation between ratings according affective quality and functional applicability. We conclude that sounds can be unobtrusive, but still convey their intended meaning in a working context as well as in a leisure time situation without being perceived as disturbing.
Assessing the impact of language style on emergent leadership perception from ubiquitous audio BIBAFull-Text 33
  Dairazalia Sanchez-Cortes; Petr Motlicek; Daniel Gatica-Perez
Leaders stand out for what they say and how they say it. This work describes the impact of the language style of emergent leaders in small group discussions based on 7 hours of audio from English spoken discussions recorded with a ubiquitous platform. For the language style analysis, word categories are extracted from manual transcriptions of the discussions as well as from automatically detected keywords. The most relevant word categories are then used to predict the emergent leader in each group. Our findings reveal that non-privacy sensitive word categories like amount of words, conjunctions and assent are good predictors of emergent leadership. The emergent leader can be correctly inferred in a fully automatic approach with up to 82% accuracy using categories derived from keywords, and up to 86% using categories derived from full manual transcriptions.
The sound of music: sharing song selections between collocated strangers in public urban places BIBAFull-Text 34
  Jan Seeburger; Marcus Foth; Dian Tjondronegoro
This paper presents Capital Music, a mobile application enabling real-time sharing of song choices with collocated urban dwellers. Due to the real-time, location-based peer-to-peer approach of the application, a user experience study was performed utilising the Wizard of Oz method. The study provides insight into how sharing non-privacy sensitive but personal data in an anonymous way can influence the user experience of people in public urban places. We discuss the findings in relation to how Capital Music influences the process of "cocooning" in public urban places, the practice of designing anonymous interactions between collocated strangers, and how the sharing of song choices can create a sense of commonality between anonymous users in the urban space. The outcomes of this study are relevant for future location-based social networking applications that aim to create interactions between collocated strangers.
MyTerritory: evaluation of outdoor gaming prototype for music discovery BIBAFull-Text 35
  Arto Lehtiniemi; Jarno Ojala
This paper presents an outdoor gaming prototype for music discovery and its field-trial evaluation by 15 Finnish users. The implemented mobile prototype enables users to conquer physical areas from a map view by circulating them and assigning songs to dominate the areas. Music can then be consumed from these areas by other users using three different methods. Based on the results, the concept adds novel experiences to outdoor gaming and music discovery. Populating the world with music by competing in the game was seen as a motivating way to discover and share music. Outdoor exercising combined to discovering places conquered with new music were seen as important and interesting by all the users in the interviews. Users found the different music consumption options to be novel and useful. This paper proposes a set of general design drivers for music discovery in outdoor gaming and further development ideas for the concept.

Audio & music: field studies & user experiences

Driving behavior analysis with smartphones: insights from a controlled field study BIBAFull-Text 36
  Johannes Paefgen; Flavius Kehr; Yudan Zhai; Florian Michahelles
We evaluate a mobile application that assesses driving behavior based on in-vehicle acceleration measurements and gives corresponding feedback to drivers. In the insurance business, such applications have recently gained traction as a viable alternative to the monitoring of drivers via "black boxes" installed in vehicles, which lacks interaction opportunities and is perceived as privacy intrusive by policyholders. However, pose uncertainty and other noise-inducing factors make smartphones potentially less reliable as sensor platforms. We therefore compare critical driving events generated by a smartphone with reference measurements from a vehicle-fixed IMU in a controlled field study. The study was designed to capture driver variability under real-world conditions, while minimizing the influence of external factors. We find that the mobile measurements tend to overestimate critical driving events, possibly due to deviation from the calibrated initial device pose. While weather and daytime do not appear to influence event counts, road type is a significant factor that is not considered in most current state-of-the-art implementations.
Fresh and local: the rural produce market as a site for co-design, ubiquitous technological intervention and digital-economic development BIBAFull-Text 37
  Alan Chamberlain; Andy Crabtree; Mark Davies; Chris Greenhalgh; Stela Valchovska; Tom Rodden; Kevin Glover
Ethnographic studies have played a key part in informing the design and development of a multitude of ubiquitous systems, from control room systems to pervasive games. While other papers have often focused on systems developed for urban contexts, this paper presents the initial findings of a study that focuses on a rural produce market in West Wales as a site for ubiquitous multimedia system-based intervention, digital economic considerations and co-design. The findings relate to the initial ethnographic fieldwork, digital-economic considerations for the site, the evolution of a participatory design strategy for developing a Market Portal and -- importantly -- the way that these are informing the design of the ubiquitous technologies relating to the Market Portal.
Two field trials on the efficiency of unsolicited Bluetooth proximity marketing BIBAFull-Text 38
  Timo Ojala; Fabio Kruger; Vassilis Kostakos; Ville Valkama
We report two one-month-long field trials where Bluetooth access points deployed around Oulu, Finland, were employed to attempt to push unsolicited multimedia marketing messages to bypassing mobile devices that had their Bluetooth on and visible. The logs involving 65000 unique discovered devices of real users show that only 0.12% of the 650000 transmission attempts were successful. On average, 1.1% of the devices received the message and 3.3% of the owners of these devices signed up to the marketing campaign. These statistics characterize the efficiency of 'carpet bombing' type of proximity marketing realized with the current Bluetooth technology without any support mechanisms.
Towards better UIs for mobile learning: experiences in using mobile phones as multimedia tools at schools in rural Panama BIBAFull-Text 39
  Elba del Carmen Valderrama Bahamóndez; Jonna Häkkilä; Albrecht Schmidt
Mobile phones have become pervasive in the developing world and are much more affordable and accessible than computers. For many children and teenagers, phones have become a familiar tool for communication as well as for multimedia creation and consumption. We run a two-week field study with 78 students and 6 teachers, where the use of mobile phones was integrated to the regular school days in the rural Panama. Based on our findings, we present recommendations how the applications and the general phone user interface design could be improved to better support teaching and learning tasks. The results show that there is potential for a tighter integration of applications to improve the learning experience.
"It would be handy if it had pictures, if you can't read": young digital natives as mobile phone users BIBAFull-Text 40
  Marianne Kinnula; Katja Moilanen; Atte Kinnula
Mobile devices and communication have become ubiquitous in the west and people born to this millennium start interacting with this environment from early on. These digital natives' approach to the world and expectations of how it should operate may differ from that of the digital immigrants'. This creates a risk of a design conflict, where solutions developed by immigrants may fit poorly to the natives' way to do things. It is important to understand digital natives better in order to know what design principles hold true with them. We interviewed 6-7 year old Finnish girls, who had just started school and had gotten their first mobile phone, to understand what their experiences are on using mobile phones, what they think of mobile phone use, and how they use them. This paper reports our preliminary results and proposes possible new avenues for research of digital natives.
Insights into user experiences and acceptance of mobile indoor navigation devices BIBAFull-Text 41
  Katrin Arning; Martina Ziefle; Ming Li; Leif Kobbelt
Location-based services, which can be applied in navigation systems, are a key application in mobile and ubiquitous computing. Combined with indoor localization techniques, pico projectors can be used for navigation purposes to augment the environment with navigation information. In the present empirical study (n = 24) we explore users' perceptions, workload and navigation performance when navigating with a mobile projector in comparison to a mobile screen as indoor navigation interface. To capture user perceptions and to predict acceptance by applying structural equation modeling, we assessed perceived disorientation, privacy concerns, trust, ease of use, usefulness and sources of visibility problems. Moreover, the impact of user factors (spatial abilities, technical self-efficacy, familiarity) on acceptance was analyzed. The structural models exhibited adequate predictive and psychometric properties. Based on real user experience, they clearly pointed out a) similarities and device-specific differences in navigation device acceptance, b) the role of specific user experiences (visibility, trust, and disorientation) during navigation device usage and c) illuminated the underlying relationships between determinants of user acceptance. Practical implications of the results and future research questions are provided.

Public displays

Toolkit support for interactive projected displays BIBAFull-Text 42
  John Hardy; Jason Alexander
This paper presents a software toolkit designed to enable the rapid development of multimedia-rich, multi-touch enabled, and interactive projection-based displays. For instance: door displays, floor displays, wall displays, and interactive tables. Despite recent technological advances and the commercialization of hardware required to achieve this at a relatively low cost, creating and deploying such displays remains a difficult task, even for those with the essential technical skills and experience. We assert that greater accessibility of toolkits like the one presented in this paper will reduce these barriers and allow people (not necessarily from the ubiquitous computing domain) to apply the technology to their own fields. To assess this toolkit's suitability for this role, we present a system and usability evaluation. We observed that participants were able to quickly create their own novel display deployments. Our findings offer insights for potential toolkit users and those considering how to write programs for future ubiquitous projected display environments.
Designing "interacting places" for a student community using a communicative ecology approach BIBAFull-Text 43
  Nemanja Memarovic; Marc Langheinrich; Elisa Rubegni; Andreia David; Ivan Elhart
In the age of online social networks, local communities still play an essential role in supporting social cohesion. In this paper we present a study that explores the design of "interacting places" -- networked public multimedia services that foster community awareness between local members -- in the context of a student community. In order to have interacting places "fit in" with the existing communication practices of the students, we performed and analyzed a set of semi-structured interviews with n=17 students regarding their use of email, social networking services, and instant messaging to stay in touch with others. A follow-up online survey (n=76) then explored how networked public multimedia services could complement these practices. Following a "communicative ecology" approach -- a conceptual model that represents the technical, social, and discursive contexts of communication -- we draw up guidelines to support the design of both content and channels (applications) for interacting places in student communities.
Direct, bodily or mobile interaction?: comparing interaction techniques for personalized public displays BIBAFull-Text 44
  Ekaterina Kurdyukova; Mohammad Obaid; Elisabeth André
Interaction with personalized data on a large public display represents a sensitive scenario: first, users expose the fact of interaction in public; and, personalized data may be private. In this work we investigate how interaction design can support the user in such a scenario. Through experimentation, we compare three interaction techniques: direct, bodily, and mobile-based. We report on the users' preferences with the presented techniques at different interaction phases (identification, navigation, and collecting results). We analyze how user preferences in the personalized display scenario are similar or different to other scenarios, such as interaction with physical objects or non-personalized public displays. The analysis is summarized in a form of design recommendations that should be considered when designing for interaction with personalized public displays.
Don't queue up!: user attitudes towards mobile interactions with public terminals BIBAFull-Text 45
  Julian Seifert; Alexander De Luca; Enrico Rukzio
Public terminals for service provision provide high convenience to users due to their constant availability. Yet, the interaction with them lacks security and privacy as it takes place in a public setting. Additionally, users have to wait in line until they can interact with the terminal. In comparison to that, personal mobile devices allow for private service execution. Since many services, like with-drawing money from an ATM, require physical presence at the terminal, hybrid approaches have been developed. These move parts of the interaction to a mobile device. In this work we present the results of a four week long real world user study, in which we investigated whether hybrid approaches would actually be used. The results show that users accept the hybrid service as they understood that they could use down downtimes (like bus rides) to prepare the interaction with the public terminal. Our findings give novel insights about security relevant aspects such as where and when users interact with the mobile service before accessing the public terminal. So the preparation of the transaction on the mobile phone was often conducted much further away from the terminal than expected (81.0% with a distance greater than 400m) and earlier than expected (82.1% at least 5 minutes in advance).


Blockon: a block based buildable remote controller BIBAFull-Text 46
  Kohei Matsumura; Yasuyuki Sumi
There are many consumer electronics placed on our home. When we control these consumer electronics remotely, we are often forced to switch between remote controllers. Further, the increased functions of electronics also increase a number of buttons of remote controllers. These complexities make it difficult for users to control consumer electronics. To simplify interaction between remote controllers and the electronics, we propose a user buildable remote controller device, called Blockon. The Blockon enables a user to build his own controller easily by placing button blocks on the board as building LEGO blocks. The Blockon not only supports placing buttons freely but also makes it possible to define macro commands by stacking button blocks. In this paper, we also present a prototype of the Blockon for technical verification along with our future plan.
Towards next generation barcode scanning BIBAFull-Text 47
  Gábor Sörös; Christian Flörkemeier
Smartphones and tablets are increasingly used to scan visual codes that act as physical hyperlinks to digital information. Compared with the outstanding performance of enterprise laser scanners, smartphone cameras suffer from defocus and motion blur. In this project, we propose to turn every smartphone into an enterprise-grade barcode scanner by adapting the latest research results in photograph restoration to the very specific properties of barcode images.
Charting the audience perceptions of projected 3D media installations BIBAFull-Text 48
  Minna Karukka; Pekka Nisula; Jonna Häkkilä; Jussi Kangasoja
In this paper we present our work on exploring the possibilities of using 3D projection, instead of 2D displays, for a media installation set-up, which we aim to use for exhibition and teaching purposes. We compare two visual media installations presenting a rotating Earth, one presented on a 2D display and the other projected on a physical 3D object, and present the feedback collected by using the product evaluation cards method.
Heat maps as a usability tool for multi-touch interaction in mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 49
  Florian Lettner; Clemens Holzmann
Heat maps are an important usability tool for visualising eye gaze data, mouse movement or click interaction on web pages. Regarding mobile applications however, use cases for heat maps are still limited. For example, eye tracking is difficult to realise due to limitations imposed by mobility or hardware requirements. Moreover, heat maps for understanding multi-touch interaction have not been used as a usability tool for mobile applications yet. In this paper we present a concept to generate heat maps for finger-based multi-touch interaction. Our goal is to provide a usability tool for mobile applications, which can be used in studies with a huge number of test participants in real-world environments. As a benefit, developers and designers will be able to comprehend user interaction within mobile applications, which aids in identifying commonly used touch gestures, focus areas and points of interest without the need for additional and bulky hardware.
Mobile augmented reality and adaptive art: a game-based motivation for energy saving BIBAFull-Text 50
  René Bühling; Mohammad Obaid; Stephan Hammer; Elisabeth André
We present the design of an educational treasure hunt game that uses mobile Augmented Reality (AR) and adaptive virtual gardens to raise awareness on energy consumption ways. Within the game, AR is used to present 3D content that allows for visually understanding the energy consumption problems and their solutions. In addition, the players' performances are given in a form of a visual feedback as dynamic virtual gardens that change from poor to good status. Initial tests show that the presented game is highly appealing to players and motivated them to be aware of the presented problem using AR technologies and the visual effects of their virtual garden's health. Future work will focus on evaluating the learnability and engagement of players.
Structural ties between idea generation process and design decision BIBAFull-Text 51
  Özge Subasi
Many innovative methods have been introduced to support creativity in the design process, but results from idea generation usually don't include a documentation of the process. They rather concentrate on generating creative design solutions (design outcome). The aim of this explorative study was to follow structural relations of visual documentation and presentation in the design process. The study followed principles from existing idea generation methods (e.g.: brainstorming, sketching, collages). Additionally it introduced a visual documentation procedure (structural ties) to capture relations to pre-given requirements. 25 young interaction designers participated in the study. Initial results of the study have shown that documenting structural ties during the creative process is possible to some extend and it has two major advantages: It has a potential to make stronger claims on the scientific value of creative techniques and such structures can help young designers to refine their creative ideas in alignment with pre-given requirements.
User expectations of mobile mixed reality service content BIBAFull-Text 52
  Leena Ventä-Olkkonen; Maaret Posti; Olli Koskenranta; Jonna Häkkilä
During recent years augmented reality services have become commonly known. To ensure the acceptance of these services, their development should be based on the users' expectations and needs. In this paper, we investigate the initial user perceptions of service content in a mobile mixed reality (MMR) application through a two-phase user study, where early concept ideas were charted. We conducted a field study with 35 participants, and an online survey filled out by 111 people. Our findings provide indication of desired content types and differences between local and visiting people.


Service fusion: an interactive 3D user interface BIBAFull-Text 53
  Seamus Hickey; Minna Pakanen; Leena Arhippainen; Erno Kuusela; Antti Karhu
This paper describes an interactive 3D user interface which allows different real-time services to cooperate in order to complete a user task on a mobile tablet sized device. The UI is based on objectifying data and describing it in an ontological language and combing this with behavioral scripts. The 3D UI is used to visualize the different data and services, while providing a means for object selection and manipulation. Two use cases, a cinema and music service, have been implemented in a prototype, which demonstrates how a general 3D user interface can be used to provide added value to users. The prototype is also meant to advance the thinking of what 3D UIs can accomplish, for virtual environments and mobile augmented reality, by showing practical use cases in action.
Find my stuff: a search engine for everyday objects BIBAFull-Text 54
  Pascal Knierim; Jens Nickels; Steffen Musiol; Bastian Könings; Florian Schaub; Björn Wiedersheim; Michael Weber
Searching for lost keys, wallets or mobile phones is a common nuisance. Compared to digital information, search support for physical objects is very limited. We propose Find My Stuff (FiMS) as a search engine for physical objects. We built a fully functional Arduino-based prototype. FiMS offers the users a simple search interface to locate tagged physical items in different indoor environments. A hierarchical search process ensures energy efficient and effective searches. Instead of a fixed search infrastructure, the localization system is based on SmartFurniture equipped with RFID readers and ZigBee modules. Search results provide intuitive search cues based on relative positioning to support users in the physical retrieval of their lost objects. The system requires no manual calibration and is robust against rearrangement of SmartFurniture. Safety mechanisms prevent abuse of the system and protect user privacy.
Creating web-based interactive public display applications with the PuReWidgets toolkit BIBAFull-Text 55
  Jorge C. S. Cardoso; Rui José
Interaction is repeatedly pointed out as a key enabling element towards more engaging and valuable public displays. Still, most digital public displays today do not support any interactive features. We believe that this is mainly due to the lack of efficient and clear abstractions that developers can use to incorporate interactivity into their applications. In this demo we present PuReWidgets, a toolkit that developers can use in their public display applications to support the interaction process across multiple display systems, without considering the specifics of what interaction modality will be used on each particular display. PuReWidgets provides high-level widgets to application programmers, and allows users to interact via various interaction mechanisms, such as graphical user interfaces for mobile devices, QR codes, SMS, etc.
Demo: uncovering device whispers in smart homes BIBAFull-Text 56
  Simon Mayer; Christian Beckel; Bram Scheidegger; Claude Barthels; Gábor Sörös
As the Internet of Things finds its way into private households, more and more everyday objects communicate with services that are running inside the home and on the Internet. For individuals to trust their smart homes, they should be aware of possibly privacy-sensitive data flows and control commands. In this demo paper, we present a system that combines a real time network analysis tool with an augmented reality user interface to visualize data streams within the home network and to remote services. Our system requires no modifications to a typical home network infrastructure, as it operates by merely observing packets sent over the network.
Tripzoom: an app to improve your mobility behavior BIBAFull-Text 57
  Gregor Broll; Hu Cao; Peter Ebben; Paul Holleis; Koen Jacobs; Johan Koolwaaij; Marko Luther; Bertrand Souville
Mobile devices can help to solve urban traffic problems by improving personal mobility and making transport, traveling, and commuting for individual users more flexible, sustainable, and rewarding. For that purpose, the tripzoom application combines mobility data and patterns from mobile sensing, a dynamic incentive system, and community feedback from social networks. This paper gives an overview of tripzoom, its features, and technical realization, and explains how users can take advantage of it to monitor, manage, and improve their mobility behavior.
Personal routine visualization using mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 58
  Nuno Correia; Cristiano Lopes; Jared Hawkey; Sofia Oliveira; Olivier Perriquet
This demonstration presents work done in the TimeMachine project with the goal to explore patterns in everyday life using a mobile application. This mobile application captures GPS data and uses this information to provide a subjective map of the user behavior using several visualizations. The project resorts to a rigorous data capture and processing approach with the goal of providing meaningful visualizations to the users. The visualizations depart from common map based representations as time is the main variable that is considered. Routines are represented through time based variables such as duration and frequency (for a given place or set of places) and a glimpse of the future is also provided considering what happened in the past. The demonstration presents the current version of the mobile application and desktop based tools used to extract information or prototype additional visualizations.
MobIES: extending mobile interfaces using external screens BIBAFull-Text 59
  Dennis Schneider; Julian Seifert; Enrico Rukzio
Recent mobile phones allow users to perform a multitude of different tasks. Complexity of tasks challenges the design of mobile applications in many ways. For instance, the limited screen space of mobile devices allows only a small number of items to be displayed. Therefore, users often have to change the view or have to resize the displayed content (e.g., images or maps) to view the required information. We present the system MobIES, which allows users to extend the mobile interfaces of their mobiles phones using external screens. Users connect their mobile phone with an external display by holding it on the border of the external display. When the connection is established, the user interface of the currently active mobile application is distributed on the phone and the external screen. This enables users to take advantage of using existing screens in their environments and temporarily benefit from an extended screen space. In this paper, we discuss the concept of MobIES and present a prototype implementation.
An off-the-shelf wearable HUD system for support in indoor environments BIBAFull-Text 60
  C. Sulisz; P. Seeling
In this paper we introduce a system based on commercial off-the-shelf components for augmented reality support in general assisted living scenarios. Our system is comprised of (i) a smartphone with near field communication (NFC) capabilities and (ii) a wearable 3D see-through display. Both components utilize the Android operating system and are connected wirelessly. We demonstrate how such system can be used for aiding interaction of mobile users with their environment, e.g., as patients in assisted living or rehabilitation facilities. In our demonstrated state, the system allows users to gain language-independent contextual hints about their environment by touching tagged objects with their phone, which displays corresponding information on the head-mounted display.
MagMobile: enhancing social interactions with rapid view-stitching games of mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 61
  Da-Yuan Huang; Chien-Pang Lin; Yi-Ping Hung; Tzu-Wen Chang; Neng-Hao Yu; Min-Lun Tsai; Mike Y. Chen
Most mobile games are designed for users to only focus on their own screens thus lack of face-to-face interaction even users are sitting together. Prior work shows that the shared information space created by multiple mobile devices can encourage users to communicate to each other naturally. The aim of this work is to provide a fluent view-stitching technique for mobile phone users to establish their information-shared view. We present MagMobile: a new spatial interaction technique that allows users to stitch views by simply putting multiple mobile devices close to each other. We describe the design of spatial-aware sensor module which is low cost and easy to be obtained into phones. We also propose two collaborative games to engage social interactions in the co-located place.