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MUM Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia

Fullname:Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia
Editors:Mark Billinghurst
Location:Christchurch, New Zealand
Dates:2005-Dec-08 to 2005-Dec-10
Standard No:ISBN: 0-473-10658-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: MUM05
  1. Applications and user studies
  2. Networking 1
  3. Graphics 1
  4. Graphics 2
  5. Networking 2
  6. Multimedia
  7. Poster session

Applications and user studies

PhoneGuide: museum guidance supported by on-device object recognition on mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 3-10
  Paul Föckler; Thomas Zeidler; Benjamin Brombach; Erich Bruns; Oliver Bimber
We present PhoneGuide -- an enhanced museum guidance system that uses camera-equipped mobile phones and on-device object recognition.
   Our main technical achievement is a simple and light-weight object recognition approach that is realized with single-layer perceptron neuronal networks. In contrast to related systems which perform computationally intensive image processing tasks on remote servers, our intention is to carry out all computations directly on the phone. This ensures little or even no network traffic and consequently decreases cost for online times. Our laboratory experiments and field surveys have shown that photographed museum exhibits can be recognized with a probability of over 90%.
   We have evaluated different feature sets to optimize the recognition rate and performance. Our experiments revealed that normalized color features are most effective for our method. Choosing such a feature set allows recognizing an object below one second on up-to-date phones. The amount of data that is required for differentiating 50 objects from multiple perspectives is less than 6KBytes.
Interaction for tabletop computing environment: an analysis and implementation BIBAFull-Text 11-18
  Bohyun Cho; Namgyu Kim; Gerard J. Kim
In the future ubiquitous computing living environment, humans will interact with computers (knowingly or unknowingly) any where by various means other than through the traditional desktop interface (e.g. keyboard and mouse). Interacting with a "smart" table could very well be one such probable scenario. In this paper, we outline and classify various possible techniques for interacting with the smart table under reasonable assumptions about the operating environment. We considered the primitive tasks of object selection, object manipulation and menu control. The classification should serve as a basis for experimenting, designing, selecting, composing and implementing a specific interaction technique for a given task to achieve high usability.
Enhancing end-user experience in a multi-device ecosystem BIBAFull-Text 19-25
  Mejdi Trimeche; Riku Suomela; Antti Aaltonen; Gaetan Lorho; Tai Dossaji; Tomi Aarnio; Samuli Tuoriniemi
A person may use many devices capable of rendering digital content on a regular basis. For instance, the user is in front of a large TV screen, and soon he or she moves away from the TV and wants to continue the media consumption. The transfer of media content across devices needs to be handled seamlessly. In this paper, we present a phone-centric approach to improve the end-user experience in multi-device ecosystem. Together with predefined parameters, we use context information to trigger content adaptation, and generate decisions relating to the transcoding operation. We have made a preliminary UI evaluation of the system, and the system was found to be useful, although requiring fine tuning and further development.
Usability methods and mobile devices: an evaluation of MoFax BIBAFull-Text 26-33
  Tim Wright; Pak Yoong; James Noble; Roger Cliffe; Rashina Hoda; Donald Gordon; Chris Andreae
When researchers extend a conventional communication application to mobile devices, the communication becomes ubiquitous. We recently examined a mobile communication application from a usability perspective. We found that despite the potentially high utility of the mobile communication application, it had usability issues that required user interface redesign. This paper is an alert for mobile and ubiquitous multimedia designers that they must not ignore usability considerations when designing software and hardware solutions for ubiquitous mobility.

Networking 1

An improved selective-repeat ARQ scheme for IrDA links at high bit error rate BIBAFull-Text 37-42
  Alam Mohammad Shah; Shawkat Shamim Ara; Mitsuji Matsumoto
In this paper, we propose an improved selective-repeat automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme which operates with a finite receiver buffer. The throughput performance of the proposed ARQ scheme is examined and compared with the throughput of the IrDA adopted go-back-N ARQ scheme over half-duplex infrared links. Simulation results show that it significantly outperforms the existing go-back-N ARQ scheme, particularly for links with high bit error rate. We also explore that without adapting window size at high bit error rate, the proposed scheme provides a significant improvement in the throughput over a range of bit error rates including high bit error rate. The proposed ARQ scheme is a good compromise between the go-back-N ARQ and the ideal selective repeat ARQ in throughput performance and receiver buffer size. Therefore, it would be applied on IrDA links for achieving high throughput at high error rate.
QoS aware routing for ad-hoc wireless network BIBAFull-Text 43-47
  Kazi Khaled Al-Zahid; Mitsuji Matsumoto
Ad hoc network has become the primary target for many communications. Recently it is a big issue how we can select best route maintaining highest Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper we have proposed an agent based routing for ad hoc environment which ensures certain level of QoS compared to the traditional system. The proposed protocol also reduces route discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity.
SIMPLE: developing a LBS positioning solution BIBAFull-Text 48-55
  Jonathan Wierenga; Peter Komisarczuk
The SIMPLE (Simple Indoor Multi-level Portable Location Engine) wireless location prototype runs on an IPAQ PDA equipped with an 802.11b wireless LAN interface and provides a handheld location system in conjunction with a number of access points. The system has been particularly developed to work within a museum or heritage scenario that spans multiple locations and may enable metropolitan wide location services. SIMPLE enables a wireless enabled PDA or in the future a cellular phone with WLAN functionality to download a wireless database and map and determine their location based on received signal strength indicator (RSSI) information. A number of techniques have been combined within SIMPLE to enable the PDA to function as an autonomous device with minimal interaction to the service provider infrastructure. This should enable more scalable middleware solutions to be created, where users only interact when requesting delivery of information.

Graphics 1

Automatic image retargeting BIBAFull-Text 59-68
  Vidya Setlur; Saeko Takagi; Ramesh Raskar; Michael Gleicher; Bruce Gooch
We present a non-photorealistic algorithm for retargeting large images to small size displays, particularly on mobile devices. This method adapts large images so that important objects in the image are still recognizable when displayed at a lower target resolution. Existing image manipulation techniques such as cropping works well for images containing a single important object, and down-sampling works well for images containing low frequency information. However, when these techniques are automatically applied to images with multiple objects, the image quality degrades and important information may be lost. Our algorithm addresses the case of multiple important objects in an image. The retargeting algorithm segments an image into regions, identifies important regions, removes them, fills the resulting gaps, resizes the remaining image, and re-inserts the important regions. Our approach lies in constructing a topologically constrained epitome of an image based on a visual attention model that is both comprehensible and size varying, making the method suitable for display-critical applications.
Retargeting vector animation for small displays BIBAFull-Text 69-77
  Vidya Setlur; Yingqing Xu; Xuejin Chen; Bruce Gooch
We present a method that preserves the recognizability of key object interactions in a vector animation. The method allows an artist to author an animation once, and then output it to any display device. We specifically target mobile devices with small screen sizes. In order to adapt an animation, the author specifies an importance value for objects in the animation. The algorithm then identifies and categorizes the vector graphics objects that comprise the animation, leveraging the implicit relationship between extensible Markup Language (XML) and scalable vector graphics (SVG). Based on importance, the animation can then be automatically retargeted for any display using artistically motivated resizing and grouping algorithms that budget size and spatial detail for each object.
Mobile camera-based adaptive viewing BIBAFull-Text 78-83
  Antonio Haro; Koichi Mori; Vidya Setlur; Tolga Capin
In this paper, we present an approach for facilitating user interaction on mobile devices, focusing on camera-enabled mobile phones. A user interacts with an application by moving their device. An on-board camera is used to capture incoming video and the scrolling direction and magnitude are estimated using a computer vision-based algorithm. The direction is used as the scroll direction in the application, and the magnitude is used to set the zoom level. The camera is treated as a pointing device and zoom level control in applications. Our approach generates mouse events, so any application that is mouse-driven can make use of this technique. The user is free to browse through large data sets on a limited size display with one hand, ideal for the mobile domain.

Graphics 2

User experiences with mobile phone camera game interfaces BIBAFull-Text 87-94
  Sam Bucolo; Mark Billinghurst; David Sickinger
This paper presents the findings of a comparative study investigating different input interfaces for a mobile phone games application. A standard mobile phone joystick interface is compared with a phone camera interface to detect the phone translation and tilt to control a ball's movement within various levels of difficulty of a virtual maze game. Game completion times together with the resultant user experience for each of the games was collected during the studies. Results indicate that the joystick control provided the fastest completion times for each game, but with the lowest levels of user engagement. The Tilt interface, although perceived as challenging by the participants, provided the greatest level of user involvement, independent of game complexity. The design of appropriate human interfaces which go beyond the standard phone keypad is suggested. The selection and design of these interfaces should also consider the intended user experience for the game.
Mobile phone based AR scene assembly BIBAFull-Text 95-102
  Anders Henrysson; Mark Ollila; Mark Billinghurst
In this paper we describe a mobile phone based Augmented Reality application for 3D scene assembly. Augmented Reality on mobile phones extends the interaction capabilities on such handheld devices. It adds a 6 DOF isomorphic interaction technique for manipulating 3D content. We give details of an application that we believe to be the first where 3D content can be manipulated using both the movement of a camera tracked mobile phone and a traditional button interface as input for transformations. By centering the scene in a tangible marker space in front of the phone we provide a mean for bimanual interaction. We describe the implementation, the interaction techniques we have developed and initial user response to trying the application.
Fast camera motion estimation for hand-held devices and applications BIBAFull-Text 103-108
  Xu Liu; David Doermann; Huiping Li
In this paper we present an efficient motion estimation algorithm for camera-enabled handheld devices, such as mobile phones and PDAs. Compared to general camera motion estimation, the estimation of ego-motion of handheld devices presents unique challenges because most devices are limited in resources (processing power, memory and battery). The algorithm must be lightweight so it can be efficiently embedded and run fast enough to produce smooth seamless translation. Our solution includes a multi-resolution scheme which searches the match from coarse to fine; and optimization of the search space. As a demonstration, we implemented the algorithm on the Symbian based Nokia 3650/6600 camera phone, and explored several interesting applications, including using camera motion for browsing documents and as a pointing device. A cross-platform implementation is also discussed.
Selective rendering quality for an efficient navigational aid in virtual urban environments on mobile platforms BIBAFull-Text 109-113
  Maximino Bessa; Antonio Coelho; Alan Chalmers
The perception that we have of our world depends on the task we are currently performing in the environment, so if we are driving a car we will pay attention to the objects that are visually important to the task we are performing such as, the road, road signs, other vehicles, etc. The same is true when we explore virtual environments. The creation of high-fidelity 3D maps on mobile devices to aid navigation in urban environments is computationally very expensive, precluding achieving this quality at interactive rates. In this paper we present a case study to show how the human visual system may be exploited, when viewers are undertaking a task, to reduce the overall quality of the displayed image, without the users being aware of this reduction in quality. The displayed images are selectively rendered with the key features used to identify location and orientation in a 3D urban environment produced in high quality and the remainder of the image in low quality.

Networking 2

Managing virtual and physical mobility for mobile immersive voice communications BIBAFull-Text 117-122
  Mehran Dowlatshahi; Farzad Safaei
Delivery of immersive communications to mobile devices presents several technical challenges. These include the limitations of wireless link bandwidth and scarcity of computational resources in mobile devices. We propose a system design to overcome these bottlenecks based on a distributed proxy model where bandwidth management tasks and low level functions associated with service mobility are implemented in proxies within the fixed network infrastructure. However, additional complexity is introduced with respect to mobility management. This is associated with both mobility of avatars in the virtual world and movement of users in the physical world. This paper proposes an efficient method to enable adaptation of the communication flows between the distributed proxies in response to both virtual and physical movements.
Creating ubiquitous computing simulators using P-VoT BIBAFull-Text 123-126
  Jinseok Seo; Gwanghoon Goh; Gerard J. Kim
In this paper, we propose to use P-VoT (POSTECH Virtual reality system development Tool), a component based interactive authoring toolkit for virtual environments, to quickly build a virtual ubiquitous computing environment. We have created four sets of components in P-VoT for this purpose: (1) sensors, (2) displays, (3) processing objects, and (4) data collection objects. The first three types of objects are used for quickly prototyping and planting ubiquitous computing subsystems in the virtual environment. They are easily reusable within P-VoT and can be adapted as needed: its function or behavior can be altered easily at different levels of abstraction. The data collection objects are used for collecting usability data such as performance measurements and survey answers. Such a virtual ubiquitous computing environment can be effectively used for system architects to walk through and present various scenarios, to validate interaction usability and simply as software testing platforms.
A virtual mouse system for mobile device BIBAFull-Text 127-131
  YongBo Gai; Hao Wang; KongQiao Wang
This paper presents a novel virtual mouse system for mobile phones. The system is based on computer vision techniques. It first captures an image using the camera of the mobile phone, then extracts feature points of the scene and tracks them. By using this algorithm we can estimate the camera motion and give the translation vector to our virtual mouse interface. We use NOKIA 6630 camera phone as the developing platform which has a Mega Pixel camera on the back of it. The experiments show the promising results.


Group-based content push with dynamic session startup BIBAFull-Text 135-141
  Otso Kassinen; Timo Koskela; Erkki Harjula; Jussi Ala-Kurikka; Petri Pohjanen; Mika Ylianttila
This paper proposes an intelligent mobile middleware utilizing group-based content push with dynamic session startup and plug-and-play features. Solution enhances the distribution of mobile content, such as game applications or multimedia files, within a peer group community. It exploits the social relationships of the user community to enable instant application downloading, installation, and licensing upon incoming connection attempt initiated by another peer group member. In the core of the middleware functionality are dynamic application identification and immediate session startup. This paper presents a use case scenario for a content push procedure. Functional and technical analysis of the novel middleware component are provided. Observations from experimental signaling system setup are mapped with estimates of end-to-end delay budget.
Kimono: kiosk-mobile phone knowledge sharing system BIBAFull-Text 142-149
  Albert Huang; Kari Pulli; Larry Rudolph
The functionality of an information kiosk can be extended by allowing it to interact with a smartphone, as demonstrated by the Kimono system, and the user interface can be greatly simplified by "associations" between pieces of information. A kiosk provides information that is relevant to a particular location and can use valuable context information, such as the fact that a user is physically standing in front of the kiosk, to tailor the display. Its graphically rich screen is suitable for presenting information to the user and has a natural input modality requiring the user to simply touch the screen. However, a kiosk lacks mobility and cannot stay with the user as he or she moves about the environment. Also, information provided by the kiosk must be remembered by the user. Finally, it is difficult to add information to the kiosk, and so the kiosk remains an information display device.
   All this changes when a handset, such as a PDA or smart-phone, can interact with the kiosk. The handset acts like a personalized proxy of the kiosk. It accompanies the user serving as a memory device. It is also an excellent media creation device, capable of taking pictures and recording voice memos as well as short text messages. Associating newly created content with other currently selected content makes for a simpler user interface. Content and its associations can be uploaded to a kiosk allowing others to access to it.
A modified video codec for MBMS applications BIBAFull-Text 150-157
  Praveenkumar Sanigepalli; Hari Kalva; Borko Furht
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) is currently being standardized by the 3GPP. The MBMS services will enable new class of applications with efficient use of spectrum. MBMS also poses a new set of requirements on video coding and delivery. In this paper we present a short overview of MBMS and a video codec designed for MBMS. The proposed video codec addresses the two key issues in video delivery over MBMS: 1) error resilience and 2) resource adaptive playback. We show that the proposed codec is simple to implement on low-resource terminals such as mobile phones and outperforms MPEG-4 SP coding under lossy conditions.

Poster session

Non-homogeneous connectivity management for GPRS and bluetooth enabled networks BIBAFull-Text 161-162
  Flavio Esposito; Francesco Chiti; Romano Fantacci; Simo Hosio; Junzhao Sun
In this paper, a middleware architecture allowing the transparent mobility among two different wireless networks is presented. The proposed scheme is basically based on adaptively maintaining the access to the communication channel for a mobile client enabled with GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and Bluetooth interfaces. In particular, both the GPRS and the Bluetooth connections are automatically established by means of an RFID tag. To validate this architecture, a preliminary field trial have been set up pointing out the effectiveness of the proposed approach in supporting seamless handover procedures within a heterogeneous network.
A 3D virtual desktop BIBAFull-Text 163
  Steven E. Boone; SK Semwal
Virtual workspaces can take many forms but the common problem is to develop an easy and intuitive way to interact with the environment. The application of a three-dimensional interface device that is based on traditional hand gestures promises to provide an effective way to interface with a flexible virtual workspace.
Usability-driven evolution of context-sensitive nomadic media BIBAFull-Text 164
  Lech Krzanik
Evolution is a fundamental way of developing nomadic media systems. Usability is one of their most critical qualities. The project Nomadic Media (E!2023 ITEA) offers a platform for usability-driven evolution of context-sensitive nomadic media.