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MOBILEHCI Tables of Contents: 02030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of 9th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services

Fullname:Proceedings of the 9th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services
Editors:Adrian David Cheok; Luca Chittaro
Dates:2007-Sep-09 to 2007-Sep-12
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-862-1, 978-1-59593-862-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: MOBILEHCI07
Links:Conference Home Page
New methods for conducting experiments with mobile systems and services in the field BIBAKFull-Text 167-170
  Kasper Løvborg Jensen
The main aim of this PhD study is to develop new methods for conducting field experiments to evaluate mobile systems and services. A framework is proposed for automatic and remote capture and analysis of usage and contextual data on the mobile devices. The paper presents and discusses the background, motivation and research goals for the study as well as the main problems and envisioned solutions. Also a brief status will be given including preliminary results.
Keywords: analysis, automated, context, data capture, evaluation, field experiments, framework, mobile interaction, remote, usability
Use of formal computational models for designing intelligent mobile device interfaces BIBAFull-Text 171-173
  Maria Vicente A. Bonto-Kane
This research examines the use of formal computational models to design intelligent device interfaces able to predict the function or application a user will use and automatically invoke this function. Computational models considered are Markov Chains, Markov Decision Process, Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy Logic, and Bayesian Networks. Descriptive statistics obtained examine patterns of use on a mobile device. Usage profiles are modeled using the various computational models and verified with historical non-learning data. This computational model framework is then deployed in field/laboratory trials where predictions are made on what the next user operation will be. Probabilistic predictions made by Markov Chains and Markov Decision Process are compared with context classification predictions made by Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy Logic and Bayesian Networks. During the field/laboratory trials, each instance of use is a learning trial and the probabilities are recalculated for the models. In the next experimental phase, model predictions result in the automated delivery of certain functions or user operations. The benefits of automation are assessed in terms of task performance data (ease, accuracy, and speed of task completion) and user perceived usability using a questionnaire. The costs off automation are also assessed in terms of the costs of choosing a different operation and reversing the automated operation. In the last experimental phase, the ability to "undo" an automated operation is given and delivery of the next most highly probably operation is given as well as the capacity to "undo" each time or to come out of the automated prompting altogether. The benefits of this type of automation are assessed in terms of user performance and perceived usability. Future directions for research discuss how formal models can be used to design intelligent, highly-automated device interfaces and how best to design the automation to work in the users best interests.
Pedestrian navigation systems: a showcase for deep personalization theory BIBAKFull-Text 174-177
  Xiangkui Yao
There has been a rapid growth in navigation aids recently. However, no meaningful personalization exists in these devices. Theories and pilot studies show the importance of individual differences in designing pedestrian navigation assistants. I take a Requirements Engineering (RE) perspective to approach the personalization problem. Different from viewing users as a general consumer group, I propose a "deep personalization" method that pays attention to knowledge of an individual user's skills and limitations. In some cases, these skills and limitations might not be self-aware, i.e., a user cannot accurately self-reflect on his or her skills and weaknesses. In this paper, I will demonstrate the notion of deep personalization in the domain of personal navigation systems. I find this an interesting domain for several reasons: (1) There is a domain theory of navigation skills that draws from both Cartography and Psychology. (2) There are individual differences in navigation skills. (3) An individual user may not be self-aware of his or her skills. (4) If a system is delivered that does not match the skills of the user, it may be less than effective, and at worst, abandoned.
Keywords: assessment, assistive technology, deep personalization, individual differences, navigation, requirements engineering, spatial abilities, virtual reality
Xensible interruptions from your mobile phone BIBAKFull-Text 178-181
  G. H. (Henri) ter Hofte
Mobile phones may interrupt in any place at any time. Using the SocioXensor research tool on people's own mobile phones, we conducted an experience sampling study to explore which context information predicts a person's availability for a phone call, and which context information people wanted to disclose to particular social relations. Like other studies, we found that a small set of context information can help initiators of phone calls to improve their ability to know when recipients are receptive to phone calls. We also found that if we restrict the information to information recipients actually want to disclose, which is only a small subset of all information, enough context information is still available for initiators of phone calls to improve their ability to know when recipients are receptive to phone calls.
Keywords: ESM, SocioXensor, context-aware telephony, interruptions
A thermal information display for mobile applications BIBAKFull-Text 182-185
  Reto Wettach; Christian Behrens; Adam Danielsson; Thomas Ness
In this paper, we investigate possibilities and limitations of temperature change as a method for information display in mobile applications. While some widespread and well-recognized haptic displays such as force-feedback often trigger the user's immediate attention, we will focus on ambient strategies for tactile information display, that is, the display of gradual state changes in the user's periphery that do not unexpectedly interrupt her current tasks, but builds on the mind's ability for subliminal perception of environmental change instead [1, 2].
   To this end, we present a series of prototypes of mobile devices that display ambient information by means of thermal change based on the thermo-electric effect [3]. In order to assess the expedience and feasibility of such a display, a series of user tests have been conducted with respect to both, the ability for thermal change recognition and a concrete application scenario for such a display.
Keywords: ambient, display, haptic, mobile, thermal
Development and evaluation of multidimensional tactons for a wearable tactile display BIBAKFull-Text 186-189
  Pierre Barralon; Ginna Ng; Guy Dumont; Stephan K. W. Schwarz; Mark Ansermino
We developed a novel wearable tactile display system as an alternative to the visual and audio displays routinely used by anesthesiologists to monitor patients in the operating room (OR). Visual displays and auditory alarms can be distracting or insufficient in their alarm transmission whereas a tactile display, which utilizes the sense of touch, can act as an effective conduit for alert delivery. A sophisticated alarm scheme is essential to convey the complex array of physiological information available in current monitoring systems; therefore, to report all relevant alerts to the attending anesthesiologist, it is essential that an augmenting or replacement display system be at least as effective and efficacious as conventional systems. Using multidimensional Tactons, we designed a tactile alert scheme consisting of 36 unique stimuli and evaluated the accuracy and response time in stimuli recognition using a tactile prototype worn as a belt. We observed an overall accuracy of 81% and a response time of 4.8 seconds. 4.18 bits (18.07 tokens) of messages were successfully communicated without loss of information. These results demonstrate that the novel tactile display represents an effective and potentially work-load-reducing method to convey vital information non-visually and non-aurally.
Keywords: abdomen, tactile display, tactile icons, tactons
Multi-context photo browsing on mobile devices based on tilt dynamics BIBAKFull-Text 190-197
  Sung-Jung Cho; Roderick Murray-Smith; Yeun-Bae Kim
This paper presents a photo browsing system on mobile devices to browse and search photos efficiently by tilting action. It employs tilt dynamics and a multi-scale photo screen layout for enhancing the browsing and the search capability respectively. The implementation uses continuous inputs from an accelerometer, and a multimodal (visual, audio and vibrotactile) display coupled with the states of this model. The model is based on a simple physical model, with its characteristics shaped to enhance controllability. The multi-scale layout holds both local and global view for users to both control photos and look at the surrounding context in a single framework. The experiment on Samsung MITs PDA used seven novice users browsing from 100 photos. We compare a tilt-based interaction method with a button-based browser and an iPod wheel by a quantitative usability criteria and subjective experience. The proposed tilt dynamics improves the usability over conventional dynamics. The iPod wheel has mixed performance comparing worse on some metrics than button pushing or tilt interaction, despite its commercial popularity.
Keywords: accelerometer, mobile interaction, motion-based interaction, multi-scale view, photo browsing, tilt dynamics
Mobile support for communities of interest: design and implementation of Community2Go BIBAKFull-Text 198-205
  Simone Braun; Wolfgang Gräther
In this paper we present Community2Go, a community portal for mobile devices with small displays. Community2Go offers relevant functions for social interaction and access to Communities of Interest (CoIs) set up by the FIT community toolbar. Thus, Community2Go bridges the gap between desktop functionality and mobile needs. We present the design, functionality and evaluation of Community2Go.
Keywords: Community2Go, communities of interest, mobile communities, mobile support
mCell: platform independent communication for small groups BIBAKFull-Text 206-213
  Merja Haveri; Jan Blom; Jyri Virtanen; Mikko Tarkiainen; Jonna Häkkilä
In this paper, we describe the development and experiences with a mobile group communication application, mCell, that runs on a mobile phone. We present the underlying design implications, the application implementation, and a user study, where three groups used the application for one month. The findings of the user study reveal general user experiences with the application and show different patterns of usage depending on the social setting of the group, and how the preferred features vary accordingly.
Keywords: CSCW, human-computer interaction, mobile devices, user studies
Gait alignment in mobile phone conversations BIBAKFull-Text 214-221
  Roderick Murray-Smith; Andrew Ramsay; Simon Garrod; Melissa Jackson; Bojan Musizza
Conversation partners on mobile phones can align their walking gait without physical proximity or visual feedback. We investigate gait synchronization, measured by accelerometers while users converse via mobile phones. Hilbert transforms are used to infer gait phase angle, and techniques from synchronization theory are used to infer level of alignment. Experimental conditions include the use of vibrotactile feedback to make one conversation partner aware of the other's footsteps. Three modes of interaction are tested: reading a script, discussing a shared image and spontaneous conversation. The vibrotactile feedback loop on its own is sufficient to create synchronization, but there are complex interference effects when users converse spontaneously. Even without vibration crosstalk, synchronisation appeared for long periods in the spontaneous speech condition, indicating that users were aligning their walking behaviour from audible cues alone.
Keywords: accelerometer, alignment, gait alignment, instrumented usability, mobile devices, rhythmic interaction, synchronization
Creating and sharing multi-media packages using large situated public displays and mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 222-225
  Andrew Maunder; Gary Marsden; Richard Harper
This paper will describe a novel interaction technique that allows mobile phone users to create and share contextualised media packages between their personal, BlueTooth enabled camera phones, and situated public displays. Unlike other solutions to this problem, the one presented in this paper does not require any specialist software or hardware on the user's handset. We believe this technique has the potential to revolutionise how people donate and retrieve digital media files without incurring any direct cost.
Keywords: BlueTooth, camera phone, content sharing, human computer interaction, multi-media, public displays
On the design and evaluation of web augmented mobile applications BIBAKFull-Text 226-233
  Natasa Milic-Frayling; Martin Hicks; Rachel Jones; Jamie Costello
This paper reports on an exploratory study of a mobile communication prototype mGuide that enables continuous and data rich messaging across the mobile and desktop platform, augmented by complementary Web services. The study focuses on design aspects of the mobile interface and factors that influence the perceived value and usability of such integrated mobile applications. We show how the complexity of image and voice messaging within a location focused scenario can be successfully mediated by careful user interface design, without detracting from utility and experience. More importantly, our study confirms that the integration of personal communication and Web based information services increases the perceived value of mobile applications. Besides the optimized user interface on the device itself, it is the seamless integration with the user's environment that increases the utility of mobile devices and services. We thus propose design recommendations for Web augmented mobile applications and promote a design optimization approach that encompasses flexible integration with Web-based services.
Keywords: integrated mobile applications, user experience, web services
Experiencing real-world interaction: results from a NFC user experience field trial BIBAKFull-Text 234-237
  Arjan Geven; Peter Strassl; Bernhard Ferro; Manfred Tscheligi; Harald Schwab
Mobile devices equipped with near-field communication can be used in a variety of settings to interact with the real world. In this study, we assessed user experiences with such mobile devices for different groups of users to better understand the possibilities of NFC in real-world interaction, based on a complementary set of studies (diary study, online survey, experience study, focus group and idea development workshop) in a large field-trial, where a group of 75 users interacted with NFC-services. The studies show a large variety in application domains and business potential. However, analyses of the current situation also show user experience breakdowns due to functional failures, missing feedback, inconsistent interaction models and absent affordances.
Keywords: NFC, diary study, field trial, lead user, touch, user experience
MoBiS-Q: a tool for evaluating the success of mobile business services BIBAKFull-Text 238-245
  Maiju Markova; Anne Aula; Teija Vainio; Heli Wigelius; Minna Kulju
Companies deploy mobile business services to enable efficient work processes and gain increases in productivity. However, the success of the services in fulfilling these goals depends on several factors from the usability of the service to its success in supporting the business processes of the companies. This paper reviews existing measures for the usability of services and measures for evaluating the effects of mobile business services on the productivity of the company. We discuss the usefulness of the existing measures in the mobile business context, where both mobility and work-context pose specific demands for the services. The review showed that existing measures rarely consider the great contextual variation caused by mobility of the services and the demands this poses on usability; which, in turn, affects productivity. To build a measurement tool that better meets the requirements of mobile business services, we completed case studies on two mobile business services, one used in passenger transport and the other in construction sites. Based on the understanding gained from the case studies, we propose a list of themes addressing both usability and productivity measures that work as the basis for a multidisciplinary measurement tool, MoBiS-Q.
Keywords: measurement, mobile business services, productivity, questionnaire, usability
Design evaluation using virtual reality based prototypes: towards realistic visualization and operations BIBAKFull-Text 246-248
  Dongsik Jo; Ungyeon Yang; Wookho Son
In this paper, we introduce a method for design evaluation of mobile devices using virtual reality based prototypes. For this, we present technologies for a classification of design parameters and for visualizing mobile devices with high quality 3D data. Also, we describe an implementation method for natural simulation and interaction of product functions.
Keywords: interaction, mobile devices, virtual reality, visualization
Trafficking: design for the viral exchange of TV content on mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 249-256
  Richard Harper; Tim Regan; Shahram Izadi; Kharsim Al Mosawi; Mark Rouncefield; Simon Rubens
In this paper, we report, first of all, the discovery of a particular kind of emerging social practice involving the exchange of multimedia content on mobiles that we label 'trafficking'. Second, the iteration of a design solution to extend these practices to include the trafficking of broadcast TV content 'segments'. Third, the implications this had for basic assumptions in the interaction design afforded by the two primary OS's in the mobile handset domain. And, fourth, the legal and business inhibitors-enablers that affected not only this research but which are likely to affect all attempts to stretch the capacity of mobile devices and mobile interaction design to afford new ways of 'trafficking' multimedia content.
Keywords: content genre, mobile TV, mobile devices, trafficking
'Divert: mother-in-law': representing and evaluating social context on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 257-264
  Kristijan Mihalic; Manfred Tscheligi
In this paper we examine the role of social context -- for example social relationships or mood -- in the use of mobile phones. A mobile system that uses information on social context can provide a less obtrusive and a more natural way of interaction: it could play a cheery and joyful tone when a friend calls, or divert the call for the mother-in-law. We present a model of social context, along with its implementation in a prototype based on Semantic Web ontologies. The empirical evaluation, based on experience sampling, with participants during a field trial shows that communicated content, relationship types, and mood have an impact on the usage of mobile devices. Based on the findings, we argue that the design of future mobile services needs to be informed by social context to a greater extent.
Keywords: evaluation, experience sampling, mobile phones, ontologies, semantic web, social context
Understanding human-battery interaction on mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 265-272
  Ahmad Rahmati; Angela Qian; Lin Zhong
Mobile phone users have to deal with limited battery lifetime through a reciprocal process we call human-battery interaction (HBI). We conducted three user studies in order to understand HBI and discover the problems in existing mobile phone designs. The studies include a large-scale international survey, a one-month field data collection including quantitative battery logging and qualitative inquiries from ten mobile phone users, and structured interviews with twenty additional mobile phone users. We evaluated various aspects of HBI, including charging behavior, battery indicators, user interfaces for power-saving settings, user knowledge, and user reaction. We find that mobile phone users can be categorized into two types regarding HBI and often have inadequate knowledge regarding phone power characteristics. We provide qualitative and quantitative evidence that problems in state-of-the-art user interfaces has led to under-utilized power-saving settings, under-utilized battery energy, and dissatisfied users. Our findings provide insights into improving mobile phone design for users to effectively deal with the limited battery lifetime. Our work is the first to systematically address HBI on mobile phones and is complementary to the extensive research on energy-efficient design for a longer battery lifetime.
Keywords: batteries, human-battery interaction, mobile phones, power management
Naturalistic use of cell phones in driving and context-based user assistance BIBAKFull-Text 273-276
  Harry Zhang; Christopher Schreiner; Keshu Zhang; Kari Torkkola
A field study has been conducted to investigate the naturalistic use of cell phone applications in driving, home, work, and school and during daytime and nighttime. GPS coordinates are used to determine whether cell phone users are driving. The frequency and duration of use of various cell phone applications such as incoming or outgoing voice calls, music player, calendar, SMS, camera, and the Internet are analyzed separately for driving and non-driving. The present results provide fundamental data for adequately assessing the distraction potential of mobile devices and guiding the design of context-based assistance systems.
Keywords: GPS, driving, mobile devices, user assistance
Co-present photo sharing on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 277-284
  Leonard M. Ah Kun; Gary Marsden
The paper reports a mobile application that allows users to share photos with other co-present users by synchronizing the display on multiple mobile devices. Various floor control policies (software locks that determine when someone can control the displays) were implemented. The behaviour of groups of users was studied to determine how people would use this application for sharing photos and how various floor control policies affect this behaviour. Explicit policies was shown to be the best strategy for structured presentations, but when all locks were removed, the users created a new form of social interaction which seemed to be a more compelling use of the technology than the original, intended, application.
Keywords: co-present sharing, digital photography, mobile photography, photo sharing, storytelling, user centered design
Affordance in mobile speech-based user interaction BIBAKFull-Text 285-288
  Lars Bo Larsen; Kasper L. Jensen; Søren Larsen; Morten H. Rasmussen
We discuss the design of speech-based interaction systems from the perspective of affordance. It is our claim that many of the problems associated with speech interaction stems from a lack of a deeper understanding of the communicative nature of speech in combination with graphical interfaces. Today's graphical interfaces are almost universally based on the Direct Manipulation (DM) interaction paradigm, whereas speech interaction is in nature conversational. However, most multi modal systems accepting spoken input are designed with the DM paradigm as the underlying interaction model, often forcing the spoken input to correspond to simple commands, which are replicated in the GUI anyway. We will discuss how speech-based interfaces can be designed, taking into account that the DM paradigm is not supported by speech. We demonstrate this through the design of a concrete application for a portable device (PDA), and show how an underlying architecture can be built to support both spoken input and DM interfaces.
Keywords: affordance, distributed speech recognition, interface design on mobile devices, multi modal user interaction, speech interaction
Touch-based user interface for elderly users BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Juha Häikiö; Arto Wallin; Minna Isomursu; Heikki Ailisto; Tapio Matinmikko; Tua Huomo
This paper reports the results of a field experiment where a Near Field Communication (NFC) enabled mobile phone was used as a user interface element so as to enable home-dwelling elderly people to choose their meals to be delivered by means of a home care service. The primary research focus was on examining the suitability of a touch-based user interface in the everyday life activities of elderly users. The eight-week experiment took place in the autumn of 2006. The results show that the touch-based user interface was easy to learn and adopt and the users were able to successfully use it regardless of their physical or cognitive weaknesses.
Keywords: NFC, RFID, elderly users, mobile computing, near field communication, radio frequency identification, tag, touch
Personalized mobile health monitoring for elderly BIBAKFull-Text 297-304
  Andreas Lorenz; Dorit Mielke; Reinhard Oppermann; Lars Zahl
The key for successfully deploy mobile applications is the ability to understand the specific needs of its customers. In the field of mobile health monitoring, the currently most important user group is the group of persons of the age 50+. In our project senSAVE® we developed a user interface for monitoring personal vital parameters that is specifically adapted to the needs of this group. The paper illustrates our work to ensure usability of the application and the outcome of the project.
Keywords: disabilities, elderly assistance, gerontechnology, mobile health monitoring, wrist phone
Memory karaoke: using a location-aware mobile reminiscence tool to support aging in place BIBAKFull-Text 305-312
  Karen P. Tang; Jason I. Hong; Ian E. Smith; Annie Ha; Lalatendu Satpathy
Episodic memory exercises such as reminiscing and storytelling have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits for older adults by prolonging their ability to lead an independent lifestyle. In this paper, we describe a mobile reminiscence tool called Memory Karaoke, which facilitates episodic memory exercise through contextualized storytelling of meaningful experiences by using contextual cues such as location, time, and photos. We present results from two studies we conducted with Memory Karaoke to explore which contextual cues contribute to best exercising a person's episodic memory. Our findings suggest that while viewing photos do exercise episodic memory to some extent, additional contextual cues (e.g. location and time) can solicit a greater amount of episodic memory exercise. This suggests that Memory Karaoke's selective capture process and its ability to contextualize memories while users retell stories are two effective features which help it to support episodic memory use. These results, together with positive qualitative feedback, provide promising evidence for Memory Karaoke as a viable mobile alternative for helping older adults to exercise their episodic memory and, in turn, assist them in successfully "aging in place".
Keywords: assistive technologies, location-aware, mobile computing, phones
Mobile sales assistant: NFC for retailers BIBAKFull-Text 313-316
  Florian Resatsch; Stephan Karpischek; Uwe Sandner; Stephan Hamacher
The Mobile Sales Assistant helps retailers and customers to check the availability of articles with any NFC enabled mobile phone at the Point of Sale. The application uses NFC tags attached to products or to warehouse shelves to identify the articles by Electronic Product Code (EPC). It sends a request containing EPC to a server application which is connected to the local and company-wide Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Information about the article is sent to the mobile phone display. This makes the shopping experience for the customer faster and more convenient.
Keywords: EPC, NFC, mobile handsets, near field communication, retail
Mobile interaction with web services through associated real world objects BIBAKFull-Text 319-321
  Gregor Broll; John Hamard; Massimo Paolucci; Markus Haarländer; Matthias Wagner; Sven Siorpaes; Enrico Rukzio; Albrecht Schmidt; Kevin Wiesner
The proposed demonstration is based on the work performed in the PERCI project and presents a generic framework to access and interact with Web Services through mobile interaction with real world objects. The demonstration will put a focus on the front-end of the framework that comprises augmented posters for mobile ticketing as well as a mobile client application for the interaction with associated services. By supporting Physical Mobile Interaction techniques such as Touching or Pointing, the framework tries to make mobile service interaction more intuitive and shift its focus from the menus of mobile devices to augmented physical objects.
Keywords: NFC, direct input, physical mobile interaction, pointing, semantic web services, touching, visual marker recognition
MILKey: multi illuminated indicator for KEYpad BIBAKFull-Text 322-325
  Hiroyuki Manabe; Masaaki Fukumoto
An indicator with switchable faces that suits the cellular phone keypad is proposed and implemented. The prototype, which can show 3 patterns, consists of notch filters (each of which yields a different pattern) and light sources. Each pattern, which emits in a different color, can be activated simply by switching the same color of the illuminating light. Since the patterns do not disturb each other, large characters can be covered on the whole keytop. This indicator is also suitable for handheld/portable devices, such as PDA or notebook PC.
Keywords: input mode, keypad, keywords display, notch filter
Implementation of OpenVG 1.0 using OpenGL ES BIBAKFull-Text 326-328
  Aekyung Oh; Hyunchan Sung; Hwanyong Lee; Kujin Kim; Nakhoon Baek
OpenVG 1.0 is a 2D vector graphics standard and its API (Application Programming Interface) was released by the Khronos Group. In this paper, we introduce our OpenVG 1.0 implementation, accelerated by OpenGL ES 1.x hardware. Our implementation is an efficient and cost-effective way of accelerating OpenVG, fully utilizing the existing hardware in current embedded systems. Conclusively, our OpenVG implementation shows dramatically outstanding performance with low power consumption.
Keywords: OpenVG, vector graphics API, vector graphics engine
Lifelink: a 4G experience game BIBAKFull-Text 329-332
  Ingrid Mulder; Elwin Levels
"Connected anytime, anywhere, anyhow" is what the Dutch research programme Freeband envisions. However, how does always being connected, anywhere and anytime affect your life? Lifelink, an interactive simulation, enables users to experience the impact of 4G technology. This playable simulation is a representation of an imaginary city in which you as being either a student or a general practitioner experience how 4G communication enriches your daily activities. In this way, Lifelink shows the compelling value of 4G at personal and professional level, and enables Lifelink users to discover the uniqueness of the Freeband projects. The interactive simulation has been designed for deployment and usage on demonstration floors. The gameplay is operated with a PDA and can be experienced on a large screen as well.
Keywords: 4G technology, interactive gaming, mobile devices, user experience, user scenarios
BlogWall: a new paradigm of artistic public mobile communication BIBAKFull-Text 333-334
  Adrian David Cheok; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Imiyage Janaka Prasad Wijesena; Abd-ur-Rehman Mustafa; Anne-Katrin Barthoff; Naoko Tosa
Short message service (SMS) is extremely popular today. Currently it is being mainly used for peer-to-peer communication. BlogWall extends the SMS to a new level of self-expression and public communication by combining art and poetry. The application can simply display SMS, gather data using polls, and create poetry or even Japanese "Haiku" all based on the SMS.
Keywords: GSM/GPRS, SMS, human-media interaction, mobile computing
Physical mobile interaction with dynamic physical object BIBAFull-Text 339-340
  Johannes Vetter; John Hamard; Massimo Paolucci; Enrico Rukzio; Albrecht Schmidt
The proposed demonstration offers the possibility to access and interact with (web) services through Physical Mobile Interaction (PMI) with tag-based dynamic physical objects such as papers. Our demonstration supports several direct manipulation gestures in the real world and deals with physical objects able to provide system feedback to the user during the course of the interaction.
Mobile spatial audio interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 345-347
  Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Michael Cohen; Adrian David Cheok
For an increasing amount of people (especially young people), the mobile phone, and not the computer, is becoming their main media device and portal to the virtual world. Mobile phones have become a ubiquitous technology and for many people an important tool for communication and information access. Mobile telephony offers an interesting platform for building multipresence-enabled applications that utilize the phone as a social or commercial assistant. The main objective of this research is to develop multipresence-enabled audio windowing systems for visualization, attention, and privacy awareness of narrow-casting (selection) functions in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) for mobile devices such as 3rd- and 4th-generation mobile phones. Mobile audio windowing system enhances auditory information on mobile phones and encourages modernization of office- and mobile-based conferencing.
Keywords: audio windows, mobile computing, narrow-casting, spatial sound
Talking media BIBAKFull-Text 348-350
  Patrick Nepper; Nikolaus Konrad; Uwe Sandner
In this paper we present a prototype for providing media samples of media products such as Audio CDs, DVDs or books on a mobile phone that is equipped with an NFC sensor. The goal is to allow a customer of a retail shop to simply touch a product to receive a preview of the product's content on his mobile phone.
Keywords: Mobile HCI, NFC, retail support, streaming media
Group interaction with smart phones at work place BIBAKFull-Text 355-357
  Sanjay Tripathi
In this demonstration paper, I am putting forward the Human, Technology and Organization concept on the ever-increasing use of mobile communication in our personal as well as professional life. It also reflects the interdisciplinary perspectives of mobile communication. It was our research objective to see the effect of particular technological tool i.e. mobile communication used by human being in a specific work and organizational setting. This paper addresses how the new promising paradigm of mobile technology can apply to the provisioning of service based on the concepts of the virtual organization Environment being developed for third generation mobile communication.
Keywords: context-dependent systems, mobile HCI, mobile intranet, mobility and work environments, social computing, universal usability, user experience
Pileus: umbrella for mobile augmented reality BIBAKFull-Text 358-360
  Sho Hashimoto; Takashi Matsumoto; Naohito Okude
Pileus is the Internet umbrella which augments experience in rainy days. It was designed to couple embodied interaction and social function on the web. It has a built-in camera, a GPS and a large screen under surface of an umbrella to cooperate with photo-sharing service on the internet (Flickr) and 3d-map navigation (Google Earth) in a city. In this paper, we describe that; Pileus is a medium with walking activity to interact with information embedded in a city by metadata.
Keywords: Flickr, HCI, Web 2.0, augmented-reality, design, human-information interaction, mobile, tangible user interface, umbrella, virtual-reality
News-on-the-go BIBAKFull-Text 361-363
  Uwe Sandner; Florian Resatsch; Patrick Nepper; Jan Marco Leimeister; Helmut Krcmar
In this paper, we describe a prototype that allows users to receive news on his NFC enabled mobile phone by touching a poster on the go.
Keywords: NFC, content distribution, haptic user interfaces
Effective learn-quiz generation for handheld devices BIBAKFull-Text 364-366
  Wolfgang Hürst; Sabine Jung; Martina Welte
In this demonstration, we present a system that enables users to easily generate quizzes for mobile devices. With our program, they can create multiple choice tests and general question-answer pairs by just entering (or copy-pasting) text into an input mask. The text is automatically processed and formatted and corresponding images or text notes are created for representation on an Apple iPod.
Keywords: Apple iPod, learn-quizzes, mobile learning, multiple choice tests
A new interface for video browsing on PDAs BIBAKFull-Text 367-369
  Wolfgang Hürst; Georg Götz; Martina Welte
We present an interface for interactive video browsing on pen-based handheld devices. Our solution enables users to navigate through a video along the timeline at different granularity levels. In addition, one can skim a file's content by continuous modification of replay speed. Both interaction concepts are smoothly integrated into a single interface that takes full advantage of the limited screen space being available.
Keywords: handheld devices, interaction, interface design, mobile computing, pen-based computing, video browsing, video navigation
Widgets & Mobile 2.0 BIBAKFull-Text 370
  Scott Weiss
Widgets & Mobile 2.0: What is it all about? What are the cool toys? How is the user experience going to come to everyday people... What needs to change?
Keywords: handheld, mobile, phone, usability, widgets
Target selection on mobile devices using display segmentation BIBAKFull-Text 371-374
  David Dearman; Kori M. Inkpen; Khai N. Truong
In this paper, we explore the use of an interaction technique called sequential segmentation to support target selection for mobile devices. Sequential segmentation iteratively partitions an information space into selectable regions and subsequent sub-regions where each region/sub-region is labeled (1-9) and is mapped to the corresponding key on the mobile device's numeric keypad. We conducted a study comparing the sequential technique to the directional pad for target selection. The results show that the directional pad is significantly faster than sequential for selecting targets that require three or less interactions with the directional pad. However, sequential is significantly faster than the directional pad for targets that require five or more interactions with the directional pad. User feedback shows a preference for sequential and that it is perceived easier to use than the directional pad.
Keywords: display segmentation, mobile interaction, sequential segmentation, target selection, user study
Dynamic visualisation of ski data: a context aware mobile piste map BIBAKFull-Text 375-378
  Mark D. Dunlop; Brian Elsey; Michelle Montgomery Masters
Tourism has been a key driver for mobile applications. This short paper presents the design and initial evaluation of a mobile phone based visualisation to support skiers. Paper piste maps often prove difficult for skiers and provide no natural way of assessing the mountain conditions while on the slope. They are physically large and difficult to manipulate in wind, they provide no information on which runs are currently open, no indication of which runs the user may find most enjoyable, and no information about the snow and weather conditions on each run. All this information is available at resorts, usually on notice boards or screens at central meeting points. The visualisation and personalisation approaches presented here combine this information and a map overview on a mobile phone screen. Initial trials showed significantly better performance for some tasks on the mobile condition (both in terms of accuracy and time), with no clear result for other tasks.
Keywords: maps, mobile devices, personalisation, skiing, visualization
Culturally adapted mobile phone interface design: correlation between categorization style and menu structure BIBAKFull-Text 379-382
  Ji Hye Kim; Kun Pyo Lee
This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to understand the correlation between culturally different cognitive styles and issues of information architecture and flow, specifically in a mobile phone interface. 30 Korean participants and 30 Dutch participants participated in an on-screen prototype test as well as a cognitive style test. Different preferences were found for each cultural group regarding function/theme-related menus. In addition, individual categorization styles were found to be correlated to individual preferences. Overall, the findings indicated that performance and preferences in a certain menu structure are associated with cognitive styles, which may eventually help design culturally adapted interfaces. The correlation between prior experience and preference was not found to be significant in any of the tests.
Keywords: cognitive styles, cultural difference, interface design
The roaring navigator: a group guide for the zoo with shared auditory landmark display BIBAKFull-Text 383-386
  Christoph Stahl
In this paper, we introduce a shared auditory landmark display which conveys spatial survey knowledge and navigational aid to multiple users. Our guide is situated in a zoo environment, so we use recordings of animal voices to indicate the location of the animal enclosures. Spatial audio manipulates the volume and stereo balance of the sound clips, so that the listener can identify their distance and direction. The system also proactively presents audio clips with detailed information about each animal. To avoid the typical effect of social isolation through audio guides, we use shared audio so that the same sounds will be presented to each user at the same time. We have conducted an initial user study of paired visitors in the zoo to evaluate the usability of the system with positive results. The participants reported that the system is easy to use and has a stimulating influence on the communication between the visitors. As a further result, the study indicates that 'lightweight' navigational aid can be sufficient for wayfinding tasks in certain environments, which provides only the linear distance and direction of the destination.
Keywords: audio guide, auditory landmark display, electronic guidebooks, pedestrian navigation, shared audio, spatial audio
Sensing-based interaction for information navigation on handheld displays BIBAKFull-Text 387-394
  Michael Rohs; Georg Essl
Information navigation on handheld displays is characterized by the small display dimensions and limited input capabilities of today's mobile devices. Special strategies are required to help users navigate to off-screen content and develop awareness of spatial layouts despite the small display. On the other hand, handheld devices offer interaction possibilities that desktop computers do not. Handheld devices can easily be moved in space and used as a movable window into a large virtual workspace. We investigate different information navigation methods for small-scale handheld displays using a range of sensor technologies for spatial tracking. We compare user performance in an map navigation task and discuss the tradeoffs of the different sensor and visualization techniques.
Keywords: camera phones, camera-based interaction, handheld displays, mobile devices, mobile phones, navigation techniques, sensing-based interaction, spatially aware displays
Mobile search: the future BIBAKFull-Text 395-396
  Scott Weiss
This panel covers mobile search: what does the future have in store for us? What about marketing and advertising -- how will that impact the user experience? What about voice search? Do we have to all get QWERTY (or Asian language equivalent) keypads, or will the 12-digit keypad be enough?
Keywords: handheld, mobile, phone, search, usability
Mobile findex: supporting mobile web search with automatic result categories BIBAKFull-Text 397-404
  Tomi Heimonen; Mika Käki
Designing an effective mobile search user interface is challenging, as interacting with the results is often complicated by the lack of available screen space and limited interaction methods. This paper presents Mobile Findex; a mobile search user interface that uses automatically computed categories to present the user with an overview of the result set. In addition, it utilizes a focus+context result list presentation combined with an intuitive browsing method to aid the user in the evaluation of results. A user study with 16 participants was carried out to evaluate Mobile Findex. Subjective evaluations show that Mobile Findex was clearly preferred by the participants over the traditional ranked result list in terms of ease of finding relevant results, suitability to tasks and perceived efficiency. While the use of categories resulted in a lower rate of non-relevant result selections, an overall significant difference in search performance was not observed.
Keywords: document clustering, mobile information access, mobile web search, search user interfaces
The role of context in query input: using contextual signals to complete queries on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 405-412
  Maryam Kamvar; Shumeet Baluja
The difficulty of entering queries from impoverished keyboards impedes the use of web search on mobile devices. On average, it takes a mobile user approximately 60 seconds to enter a query from a 9-key keypad [1]. In this paper, we explore the use of contextual signals to facilitate query entry on mobile phones. We present a query prediction system which offers automatically generated word completions as the user is typing her query. The query prediction system redefines the prediction dictionary after considering contextual signals such as the application being used (e.g. search vs. general text messaging), the inferred location of the user, the time of day and day of week. We demonstrate a 46.4% improvement in query entry, measured by number of key presses needed to enter queries. We found that the two contextual signals that make the largest impact are knowledge of the application being used and the location of the user.
Keywords: context, mobile search, query, query prediction, web search, word completion
Incidental information and mobile search BIBAKFull-Text 413-420
  David Arter; George Buchanan; Matt Jones; Richard Harper
There is much interest in providing effective mobile search tools. Our focus is the value of in-situ sharing of users' mobile search activity. The QnotA prototype displays other people's queries about locations in an attempt to both provide users with an enriched sense of the places they visit, and to accommodate the limited input and output capabilities of many mobile platforms. We present the prototype and user experiences it affords. A study has been performed which allowed us to gather logged usage data and subjective participant information via diary and interview protocols. We report on findings that give insights as to the use and usefulness of the approach.
Keywords: collaborative interfaces, evaluation, location, mobile search
A picture is worth a thousand keywords: exploring mobile image-based web search BIBAKFull-Text 421-428
  Konrad Tollmar; Ted Möller; Björn Nilsved
Images of objects as queries is a new approach to search for information on the web. Image-based information retrieval goes beyond only matching images, as information in other modalities also can be extracted from data collections using image search. We have developed a new system that uses images to search for web-based information. This paper has a particular focus towards exploring user's experience of general mobile image-based Web searches to find what issues and phenomena it contains. This was achieved in a multi-part study by creating and letting respondents test prototypes of mobile image-based search systems and collecting data using interviews, observations, video-observations, and questionnaires. We observed that searching for information only based on visual similarity and without any assistance is sometimes difficult, especially on mobile devices with limited interaction bandwidth. Most of our subjects preferred a search tool that guides the users through the search result based on contextual information, compared to presenting the search result as a plain ranked list.
Keywords: content-based image retrieval, mobile information retrieval, mobile interface, object recognition
Interactive aesthetics: culture and games BIBAKFull-Text 436-439
  Tsen Wang
Rhythm Action Games [RAG] are designed specially for musical and physical interaction. The experience of the RAG genre encourages each player have the ability to participate the virtual world in the game. No matter whether in RAG games or the KTV experience, we all share the human desire to extend our powers and, by coping with and adapting to the technology, escape from the reality of social structure and jump into the aesthetics of the screen imagery, the virtual world. As famous scholar, Jody Berland claims "The technical reconstruction is instrumental in the changing topography of social, cultural and political space." [7] Through the common cultural codings exchange in the practice of games, the aesthetic has been established and recognized. Just like singing in KTV, where the users share the collective aesthetic and cultural values through their interaction in the cubicles, here they share playing the games.
Keywords: KTV, RAG, culture, game
The digital workbook; using web 2.0 for generative research purposes BIBAKFull-Text 440-443
  M. C. Kaptein; K. Slegers; H. Nelissen; A. Weisscher; J. M. B. Terken
If we want future products and services to be designed for a specific target group, we need to assess the latent needs of this target group. Assessing these needs can be done using generative research techniques. This paper describes the development of the digital workbook, a digital tool to be used in the sensitizing stage of a context-mapping study, a methodology for generative research. Evaluation of the digital workbook shows the great potential of using the possibilities of web 2.0 to create digital research tools which combine the size and low costs of online surveys with the richness of data provided by generative research methods.
Keywords: context mapping, digital research tools, generative research
Combining methods to evaluate mobile usability BIBAKFull-Text 444-447
  Elisabeth Lesemann; Natalie Woletz; Sven Koerber
In this paper, we will discuss the deployment of quantitative and qualitative methods with focus on our special situation as being an external usability consultancy. We will report on two case studies in which we used different approaches to collect quantitative data from a large sample as well as qualitative data from a smaller sub-sample. In a simplified way, user tests in study 1 consisted of two phases, a first to collect quantitative data and a second to collect qualitative data. In study 2, quantitative and qualitative data were collected alternately. Qualitative data collection was skipped by a sub-sample in both studies. We will discuss methodological weaknesses of combined designs and how they can nevertheless be used to yield good results at a reasonable cost in a short amount of time. From our experience, we conclude that the approach used in study 1 proved to be more efficient concerning time and costs. From a methodological viewpoint, we will argue that the approach used in study 1 yielded satisfactory results for quantitative as well as qualitative measurements.
Keywords: methods, mobile usability, qualitative measurements, quantitative measurements, study design, usability evaluation, user experience, user interfaces
An industrial case study on wearable computing applications BIBAKFull-Text 448-451
  Michael Lawo; Otthein Herzog; Hendrik Witt
Wearable computing means a paradigm shift: instead of working at the computer users are supported by computing systems in their primary tasks. Currently wearable computing is still a technology of niches and in a laboratory stage. However, with wearIT@work a project dedicated to applications was launched by the European Commission (EC IP 004216). The first 30 months of this project are over and industrial demonstrators, evaluations and results are available. In this paper we present results from industrial case studies in two of the four application domains, namely production and maintenance, with a newly designed wearable user interface.
Keywords: applications, user-centred design, wearable computing, wearable user interface
Create, sync, share: the role of mobile device on social entity BIBAKFull-Text 452-456
  Rhee Youngho; Shim Jennifer; Kim Junghun; Chung Amy
The features of a mobile device already penetrate everyday life and support every moment in life. Mobile connection between people does not imply only communication way, rather it means a gateway to connect virtual world as well. In the present study, mobile device close a gadget recording everyday life named "Life diary". The life diary is embedded mobile phone application and automatically summarizes user's daily life and encourages looking back previous events. Life diary's value proposition exits in keeping memories and sharing them automatically among phone, pc, and web in a systematical way.
Keywords: life caching, social interaction
Research issues in next generation DBMS for mobile platforms BIBAKFull-Text 457-461
  Sang-Won Lee; Gap-Joo Na; Jae-Myung Kim; Joo-Hyung Oh; Sang-Woo Kim
Recently, flash memory (in particular, NAND) is being rapidly deployed as data storage for mobile platforms such as PDAs, MP3 players, mobile phones and digital cameras, mainly because of its many advantages over its competitor, hard disk, including its low electronic power, non-volatile storage, high performance, physical stability, smaller size, light weight, and portability. Considering its rapid technical improvement both in capacity and speed, it will have a competitive advantage over its rivalry minidrive (i.e. a small size hard disk) under 100 Gbytes within a few years, As the applications in next generation mobile platforms become large, complex, and more data-oriented, they requires the database technology, because the file interface is too complex to manage their complicated data requirements. However, flash memory, compared to hard disk, has a few unique characteristics, and thus the traditional disk-based database technology does not seem to go well with flash memory. Therefore, we need to revisit almost every aspect of DBMS implementation techniques from the perspectives of flash memory. In this paper, we introduce the technical characteristics of flash memory, which we think might have huge impact on database performance to database community that are 1) no-overwrite (erase-before-write paradigm), 2) asymmetric read and write speed, and 3) no seek or rotation time. These small differences necessitate us to revisit all the major DBMS modules which have evolved over the several decades. Based on the characteristics, we identify several key issues in implementing major DBMS modules, and suggest alternative approaches to solve the issues. The topics covered in this article are neither comprehensive nor in-depth, but the main goal of this article is just to issue that a practical and urgent research topic is ahead and it poses us many challenges and opportunities.
Keywords: flash-memory database, mobile platforms
A study on usability of human-robot interaction using a mobile computer and a human interface device BIBAKFull-Text 462-466
  T. H. Song; J. H. Park; S. M. Chung; S. H. Hong; K. H. Kwon; S. Lee; J. W. Jeon
A variety of devices are used for robot control such as personal computers or other human interface devices, haptic devices, and so on. However, sometimes it is not easy to select a device which fits the specific character of varied kinds of robots while at the same time increasing the user's convenience. Under these circumstances, in this study, we have tried to measure user convenience. We tried to understand the characteristics of several devices used to achieve human robot interaction by using each of these devices that could be used with a personal computer: We used a button type device, a joystick, a driving device which consisted of a handle and pedals, and a motion-based human interface device including an acceleration sensor.
Keywords: human-robot interaction, mobile computer, ubiquitous
Renewal model of mobile data services through user experience analysis BIBAKFull-Text 467-470
  Sun-Joo Jun; Min-Jeong Kim
In this paper, we introduced real renewal examples of KTF's mobile data service. At the time of development, we focused on user analysis and tried to improve the existing mobile data service based on user's opinion. After the new mobile data service was launched based on user experience analysis, the customers were satisfied with the newly developed mobile data service. We expect that new mobile data service would make continuous revenue streams and contribute to image up the company.
Keywords: mobile data service, user analysis, user interface
A study on the emotion expression using lights in apparel types BIBAKFull-Text 478-482
  Yongsoon Choi; Younghwan Pan; Jihong Jeung
When types of communication between people are observed, one can see that communication not only consist of words but also, contextual communication consist of facial expressions and body gestures. In this study, elements that need to be considered when using light in clothes in order to express the thoughts and various emotions of the wearer and surrounding people and to design contextual interaction rather than simply for visual effects, are examined. Clothes and light are central visual elements therefore, the relationship between perception of objects through sight and emotions are examined, elements of visual language of cloths and light are examined through documentary record, elements of visual language such as shape, color, and texture of light and clothes that influence each other are classified as well as unique elements of visual elements of light such as blink speed and blink pattern, and terms that are related to the psychological effects of these elements are extracted. Based on this, using the 8 most representative human emotions which includes happiness, excitement, anger, hatred, sadness, shock, fear, and shame as standards of design, interaction design elements using clothes and light for expression of each emotion are organized in a matrix. Then, scenarios and ideas are generated, and based on the Matrix, interaction concept design in which expression of emotions and information possible using light in apparel are produced.
Keywords: clothes, communication, interaction, light, wearable
BlogWall: displaying artistic and poetic messages on public displays via SMS BIBAKFull-Text 483-486
  Adrian David Cheok; Abd-ur-Rehman Mustafa; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Anne-Katrin Barthoff; Janaka Prasad Wijesena; Naoko Tosa
Short message service (SMS) is extremely popular today. Currently it is being mainly used for peer-to-peer communication. Electronic displays can be seen everywhere and those are mainly used to convey information to the masses rather than provide artistic and social communication. BlogWall extends the SMS to a new level of self expression and public communication by combining art and poetry. Furthermore it will provide a means of expression in the language that young people understand, and the forms of social communication. The user stands in front of a projected screen and sends a SMS to a given number. The system can display users SMS in an animated manner. It also provides users to participate in polls. The most notable feature of the application is its ability to create poetry in multiple languages such as English, Korean, Chinese poems or Japanese "Haiku" all based on the SMS. This is a step into new forms of cultural computing.
Keywords: GSM/GPRS, Haiku, SMS, human-media interaction, mobile computing, poetry
An evaluation of stylus-based text entry methods on handheld devices in stationary and mobile settings BIBAKFull-Text 487-494
  Koji Yatani; Khai N. Truong
Effective text entry on handheld devices remains a significant problem in the field of mobile computing. On a personal digital assistant (PDA), text entry methods traditionally support input through the motion of a stylus held in the user's dominant hand. In this paper, we present the design of a two-handed software keyboard for a PDA which specifically takes advantage of the thumb in the non-dominant hand. We compare our chorded keyboard design to other stylus-based text entry methods in an evaluation that studies user input in both stationary and mobile settings. Our study shows that users type fastest using the mini-qwerty keyboard, and most accurately using our two-handed keyboard. We also discovered a difference in input performance with the mini-qwerty keyboard between stationary and mobile settings. As a user walks, text input speed decreases while error rates and mental workload increases; however, these metrics remain relatively stable in our two-handed technique despite user mobility.
Keywords: PDAs, text entry, two-handed interaction
Positional mapping Myanmar text input scheme for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 495-502
  Ye Kyaw Thu; Yoshiyori Urano
Current Myanmar PC keyboards or key mappings are very difficult to learn for novice users, and there is no efficient key mapping for mobile device keypads. In this paper, we introduce a new idea of key mapping (Positional Mapping) for phonetic scripts such as Myanmar language. Positional Mapping is a key mapping idea, based on Myanmar language characters writing positions, for small computing devices such as mobile phones, PDAs and electronic dictionaries etc. Our approach has made key mapping for Myanmar language very simple and easier to memorize. The results of first evaluation show that first time users have no problem with this key mapping and they can type Myanmar text with appropriate typing speed. Positional Mapping can be extended to other phonetic scripts such as Khmer, Thai, Indic and Lao etc.
Keywords: Myanmar language, positional mapping for small computing devices, soft-keyboard, stylus-based input, text input scheme, user interfaces for mobile devices
Ad-hoc co-located collaborative work with mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 507-514
  Kris Luyten; Kristof Verpoorten; Karin Coninx
This paper presents how ad-hoc co-located collaborations can be supported with an arbitrary number of users that only have access to small-size mobile displays. Our approach is based on tracking of these personal displays that share the same information space. All displays involved in the collaboration act as autonomous windows on a set of data items (the information space) positioned on a shared virtual canvas. Data items are identified by their three-dimensional location in physical space and can be manipulated through the displays that serve as windows on the shared canvas. Each display is tracked in physical space and is aware of its own location. Since different mobile displays can access and manipulate the same information space, a distributed locking mechanism makes sure the data stays consistent during simultaneous access of data in this information space.
An environment to support multi-user interaction and cooperation for improving museum visits through games BIBAKFull-Text 515-521
  Riccardo Dini; Fabio Paternò; Carmen Santoro
The availability of mobile and stationary devices opens up new challenges to support users in several contexts. Here we present a multi-device environment to support cooperation among museum visitors through games. In particular, we present a design and the associated implementation for using a combination of PDAs and public displays to enhance the learning experience in a museum setting by using game playing interactions. The basic assumption is to use the mobile devices for individual game play, and the situated displays for synchronized public views of shared game play; the individual game play contributes to the shared game.
Keywords: collaborative games, mobile guides, multi-device environments, museum applications