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Proceedings of 8th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services

Fullname:Proceedings of the 8th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services
Editors:Marko Nieminen; Mika Roykee
Location:Helsinki, Finland
Dates:2006-Sep-12 to 2006-Sep-15
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-390-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: MOBILEHCI06
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Mobile entertainment
  2. Everyday life: mobile wellness and mobility in work
  3. Group communication in mobile context
  4. Wayfinding
  5. Novel interaction solutions
  6. Information structuring
  7. Mobile usability
  8. Displays
  9. Visualization and multimodality
  10. Panels
  11. Demos
  12. Posters
  13. Tutorials
  14. Workshops

Mobile entertainment

Unacceptability of instantaneous errors in mobile television: from annoying audio to video BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Satu Jumisko-Pyykko; Vinod Kumar MV; Jari Korhonen
As in many digital telecommunications systems, the received data streams over Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds (DVB-H) may contain bursty transmission errors. The bursty error characteristics affect the end users' perceived audiovisual quality. This study examined the perceived unacceptability of instantaneous but noticeable audio, visual and audiovisual errors. The erroneous streams were generated from four popular television contents by applying three simulated error patterns with different error rates (1.7%, 6.9%, 13.8%) and error burst durations. Instantaneous unacceptability of errors was evaluated by 30 participants with simplified continuous assessment while watching the program content. The results show that with the two lowest error rates the audio errors were more unacceptable than video errors and with the highest error rate the visual and audiovisual errors become the most unacceptable.
Playability heuristics for mobile games BIBAFull-Text 9-16
  Hannu Korhonen; Elina M. I. Koivisto
Expert evaluation is a widely used method for evaluating the usability of software products. When evaluating games, traditional usability heuristics lack comprehension and cannot be directly applied. In this paper, we introduce playability heuristics that are specifically designed for evaluating mobile games. Heuristics form a core model that can be used in any mobile game evaluation. The model consists of three modules: Game Usability, Mobility, and Gameplay. The mobile context has some unique characteristics, which require special attention during the evaluation. These characteristics are described in mobility heuristics. Mobile devices also set some of their own requirements for general usability and these issues are described along with game usability heuristics. These heuristics have been developed by using an iterative design process of a mobile game. In addition, we have validated the heuristics and evaluated five mobile games by using them with the expert evaluation method. The results indicate that playability problems, which violate game usability or mobility heuristics, are quite easy to identify. Gameplay problems are harder to find, but gameplay heuristics help in evaluation and focus on different aspects of the gameplay.
The impact of the display type and content to a game adaptation BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  Jari Takatalo; Jukka Hakkinen; Jeppe Komulainen; Heikki Sarkela; Gote Nyman
This study examines the impact of the display type (form) and content (game) to the PC-game adaptation. An ordinary tabletop display (cathode ray tube; CRT) and a near-eye display (NED) suitable for mobile gaming are compared in two different driving games. A measurement model based on a large dataset (n=2182) is applied to study psychological aspects of the game adaptation. This model integrates two constructs considered important for the game adaptation: involvement and presence. The results show that the content affected the subjective sense of presence. However, the form did not have an effect on the presence. These results indicate that NED's are capable of supporting similar adaptation to the game worlds as compared to CRT's. However, the results also weakly indicate that playing with a CRT increases the evaluations of interaction. The study shows the advantages of using multidimensional measures in studying a rich human-computer interaction.

Everyday life: mobile wellness and mobility in work

MPTrain: a mobile, music and physiology-based personal trainer BIBAFull-Text 21-28
  Nuria Oliver; Fernando Flores-Mangas
We present MPTrain, a mobile phone based system that takes advantage of the influence of music in exercise performance, enabling users to more easily achieve their exercise goals. MPTrain is designed as a mobile and personal system (hardware and software) that users wear while exercising (walking, jogging or running). MPTrain's hardware includes a set of physiological sensors wirelessly connected to a mobile phone carried by the user. MPTrain's software allows the user to enter a desired exercise pattern (in terms of desired heart-rate over time) and assists the user in achieving his/her exercising goals by: (1) constantly monitoring the user's physiology (heart-rate in number of beats per minute) and movement (speed in number of steps per minute); and (2) selecting and playing music with specific features that will encourage the user to speed up, slow down or keep the pace to be on track with his/her exercise goals.
   We describe the hardware and software components of the MPTrain system, and present some preliminary results when using MPTrain while jogging.
Bringing mobile guides and fitness activities together: a solution based on an embodied virtual trainer BIBAFull-Text 29-36
  Fabio Buttussi; Luca Chittaro; Daniele Nadalutti
Sports and fitness are increasingly attracting the interest of computer science researchers as well as companies. In particular, recent mobile devices with hardware graphics acceleration offer new, still unexplored possibilities. This paper investigates the use of mobile guides in fitness activities, proposing the Mobile Personal Trainer (MOPET) application. MOPET uses a GPS device to monitor user's position during her physical activity in an outdoor fitness trail. It provides navigation assistance by using a fitness trail map and giving speech directions. Moreover, MOPET provides motivation support and exercise demonstrations by using an embodied virtual trainer, called Evita. Evita shows how to correctly perform the exercises along the trail with 3D animations and incites the user. To the best of our knowledge, our project is the first to employ a mobile guide for fitness activities. The effects of MOPET on motivation, as well as its navigational and training support, have been experimentally evaluated with 12 users. Evaluation results encourage the use of mobile guides and embodied virtual trainers in outdoor fitness applications.
Two different interfaces to visualize patient histories on a PDA BIBAFull-Text 37-40
  Carmelo Ardito; Paolo Buono; Maria Francesca Costabile; Rosa Lanzilotti
PHiP (Patient History in Pocket) is a tool designed for a mobile device that displays patient histories and permits to visually query patient data stored in the hospital database. It exploits Information Visualization techniques and it is able to accommodate on the screen a good amount of information that physicians require in their analysis of clinical cases. Two different user interfaces for PHiP have been implemented and informal user testing has been performed to compare their impact on users.
MACCS: enabling communications for mobile workers within healthcare environments BIBAFull-Text 41-44
  Michael J. Sammon; Lynne Shapiro Brotman; Ed Peebles; Doree Duncan Seligmann
As wireless communications systems become more ubiquitous, enterprise workers are becoming more and more mobile. Addressing mobility in the enterprise has recently become a pressing concern for many corporations. In particular, there is a growing component of mobile workers whose job tasks require them to be mobile within their local workspace. These workers sometimes do not have a desk or phone and frequently use their hands in performing required tasks; they typically referred to as "corridor cruisers" or "campus roamers". One class of workers that fall under this category is healthcare professionals (e.g. nurses). Communication enabling these workers usually involves an expensive proposition: equipping them with a mobile/wireless phone, PDA or a paging device. Our goal was to see if we could address the communications needs of healthcare workers by using a small, inexpensive, wearable, hands-free audio device (a wireless headset) along with a speech interface to an intelligent agent. In this paper we present the results of an industrial user study in a real world healthcare environment of our Mobile Access to Converged Communications System (MACCS) which empowers mobile workers with a hands-free voice interface to manage their communications. In addition we also discuss the design, implementation and deployment of MACCS.
Using mobility as a conceptual framework for informing the design of mobile ICT for construction professionals BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Val Mitchell; Andy May; Sarah Bowden; Tony Thorpe
This paper illustrates how the concept of mobility can be used to consider how contextual factors shape user requirements for mobile ICT. The spatial, temporal and contextual mobility of construction professionals is described based on fieldwork conducted within the UK. A distinction between the mobility of workers when they are operating remotely within a geographically distributed team and when they are working cooperatively with others co-located on site is reported. The implications of this finding are discussed in relation to the mobile ICT needs of construction professionals.
"It's always there, its always on": Australian freelancer's management of availability using mobile technologies BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  Kirsten Sadler; Toni Robertson; Melanie Kan
The paradigm of "access, anytime, anywhere" has been critiqued within the mobile HCI literature as a broad assumption that simplifies understandings of actual work practice, and as an example of rhetoric that allows researchers to ignore the temporal aspects of mobility. The key aspect of technology use that remains unclear, however, when discussing this paradigm is the complexity of the concept "anytime, anywhere" from the perspective of the user. This paper addresses this gap by discussing findings from an empirical study of freelance workers, across both work and social contexts, in which availability emerged as an important concern for participants. This paper explores the ways in which freelancers use their mobile devices to manage their availability to others. Finally, we also consider implications for the ways in which mobility is conceptualised within the mobile HCI literature.

Group communication in mobile context

PePe field study: constructing meanings for locations in the context of mobile presence BIBAFull-Text 53-60
  Jaakko T. Lehikoinen; Anne Kaikkonen
Location information contains a huge promise in the area of awareness technologies. In PePe project, automatic location detection was investigated as part of a mobile presence system. A field study with twelve young adults was conducted to explore the usage habits of sharing location information. The participants defined, named, and shared on average twenty meaningful locations with their friends. They found the location information as the most relevant mobile presence attribute, due to a fact that it gave good overview on the status of the other users. We focus on analyzing how the participants named locations and how they used location information in the context of mobile presence. The participants utilized shared meanings of locations in naming and storing them to the PePe system. We classified the created locations as generic locations, points of interest, and geographical areas. The presented results will facilitate in designing location enhanced mobile awareness systems.
Sharing control of dispersed situated displays between nand residential users BIBAFull-Text 61-68
  Christian Kray; Keith Cheverst; Dan Fitton; Corina Sas; John Patterson; Mark Rouncefield; Christoph Stahl
As the number of public displays in the environment increases, new opportunities open up to improve situated interaction and to enable new kinds of applications. In order to make distributed display resources available to nomadic users, a key issue to address is how control can be dynamically shared between display users. It is important to study how control over a shared display can be acquired, released or shared by nomadic and residential users given their competing demands for display resources.
   In this paper, we present a system and a user study investigating these issues in the context of two applications both competing for display resources provided by a deployment of interactive office doorplates. The first application (Hermes II) provides situated note leaving and messaging services whereas the second one (GAUDI) supports user navigating a university department. Office occupants (i.e., residential users) can control whether the navigation application may (temporarily) use their doorplate display (thus giving priority to the navigation needs of nomadic users to the department). We report on findings from a user study, and discuss interface design implications for specifying display control.
Scent field trial: understanding emerging social interaction BIBAFull-Text 69-76
  Younghee Jung; Jan Blom; Per Persson
In spring of 2003, a mobile field trial of a concept prototype application titled Scent was conducted in a corporate environment, attracting more than 500 voluntary users. Scent was a social proximity application enabling scanning of one's immediate environment for other Scent users and initiating social exchanges with them. The design of Scent prototype application aimed at incorporating various facets of face-to-face social interaction. This gave trial users multiple options of using the application in any given social context during the unguided trial period. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected and analyzed, which helped shaping up the foundation to further the research in understanding mediated social proximity interaction. The study revealed not only motivations of use, but also barriers of adoptions, which in turn had implications on evolutionary steps of the development and on the prospect of market entry. Identity expression was seen as the most rudimentary motivation in mediated social proximity interaction. The final section of the paper discusses how the research team utilized the field trial in the spearhead research project in an emerging arena of social interaction.
Time to meet face-to-face and device-to-device BIBAFull-Text 77-80
  Oskar Juhlin; Mattias Ostergren
We examine mobile face-to-face meeting support systems applied to public places and analyse how the temporality of meetings influence the interaction between anonymous participants. Here we uncover a duration paradox. Prolonged meetings between unacquainte people may seem suitable for support systems, since they allow for significant human-computer interaction. At the same time, prolonged meetings can lead to embarrassing consequences, and participants may lose their anonymity. Brief meetings give little opportunity for interacting with systems. But the participants are more prone to provide personal information since the risk of loosing their anonymity is less acute.


A natural wayfinding exploiting photos in pedestrian navigation systems BIBAFull-Text 81-88
  Ashweeni Kumar Beeharee; Anthony Steed
The increasing power and ubiquity of mobile phones mean that a visitor to a city now carries with them a device capable of giving quite detailed guiding and routing information. Whilst there has been a lot of studies of text and map based guiding applications for mobile devices, in this paper we want to propose and give an initial exploratory study of a guiding system that utilises photographs. These photographs are not explicitly taken with the intention of using them subsequently for giving route directions; rather they are extracted from existing geo-tagged photo collections from mobile phones. A user of our system sees a route description as text and a map that refers to a series of photographs. The main contribution of this paper is in demonstrating this concept and testing it in an exploratory between-subjects experiment. The experiment shows that presenting the right photographs certainly can help with particular types of routing instruction for users not familiar with an area. For example, in unusual situation where the user has to walk through a specific gate or path, photographs provide information and reassurance about the navigation decision.
It's a long way to Monte Carlo: probabilistic display in GPS navigation BIBAFull-Text 89-96
  John Williamson; Steven Strachan; Roderick Murray-Smith
We present a mobile, GPS-based multimodal navigation system, equipped with inertial control that allows users to explore and navigate through an augmented physical space, incorporating and displaying the uncertainty resulting from inaccurate sensing and unknown user intentions. The system propagates uncertainty appropriately via Monte Carlo sampling and predicts at a user-controllable time horizon. Control of the Monte Carlo exploration is entirely tilt-based. The system output is displayed both visually and in audio. Audio is rendered via granular synthesis to accurately display the probability of the user reaching targets in the space. We also demonstrate the use of uncertain prediction in a trajectory following task, where a section of music is modulated according to the changing predictions of user position with respect to the target trajectory. We show that appropriate display of the full distribution of potential future users positions with respect to sites-of-interest can improve the quality of interaction over a simplistic interpretation of the sensed data.
Modeling context aware interaction for wayfinding using mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 97-100
  Chao Li; Katharine Willis
In this paper, we introduce and implement a model for context-aware interaction, and demonstrate its usefulness through an empirical study of interaction in a wayfinding task. Firstly, we outline the challenge of modeling context-awareness in dynamic interaction arising from wayfinding and navigation assistance applications. The conceptual model is developed and explained with emphasis on the context-aware interaction, and the three dynamic aspects in such interactions. Secondly, a wayfinding experiment is used to implement the conceptual model. We finish by concluding that the model proposed enables a dynamically inter-relational concept of context to be considered, and that the experiment described provides a valuable method for evaluating context-aware interaction in wayfinding.
A platform for mobile 3D map navigation development BIBAFull-Text 101-104
  Antti Nurminen
We present a platform for developing mobile 3D map navigation interfaces in highly occluded urban environments. The platform enables use of realistically textured city models in mobile devices such as PDA's and smart phones without 3D hardware, being able to render entire city centers at interactive rates. The platform supports network-distributed annotation of the environment with location-based information. Texture resolution can be varied per building. Maneuvering is not restricted, allowing implementation of any navigation metaphor. Efficient collision avoidance is provided. Key optimization methods, the overall system and supported features are presented along with guidelines for efficient modeling. Generic feedback from a focused field experiment is discussed.
Acquisition of spatial knowledge in location aware mobile pedestrian navigation systems BIBAFull-Text 105-108
  Ilhan Aslan; Maximilian Schwalm; Jorg Baus; Antonio Kruger; Tim Schwartz
In this paper we regard the navigation aid provided by mobile navigation systems in a real environment and the effects of these mobile assistants to the development of spatial knowledge. Therefore, we report on a user study concerning the acquisition of spatial knowledge. This study sets up on a former study described by Kruger and colleagues and sheds light on problems concerning the acquisition of survey knowledge while being navigated by a mobile handheld PC.
Comparing conceptual designs for mobile access to geo-spatial information BIBAFull-Text 109-112
  Peter Frohlich; Rainer Simon; Lynne Baillie; Hermann Anegg
Spatial information appliances (SIA), which enable mobile users to interact with the physical environment, have recently received an increasing amount of interest from the research community. This paper presents a comparative outdoor user study on conceptual designs for 4 interaction areas considered important for SIAs: selection, search, information sniffing, and remote viewing. Implications for future research are discussed.

Novel interaction solutions

RodDirect: two-dimensional input with stylus knob BIBAFull-Text 113-120
  Motoki Miura; Susumu Kunifuji
Portable handheld devices inherently involve difficulties with methods of input due to their compact size. Several approaches to attach extra sensors have been proposed, but these have not enabled size or exterior design to be minimized. We propose a novel and simple input technique for handheld devices that makes use of a stylus in a holder that is twisted and pushed/pulled like a knob. Both rotating and sliding the stylus inside the holder can simultaneously adjust two parameters. We implemented a prototype system with an inexpensive image sensor, and evaluated its input. An ANOVA test revealed that our method could scroll as fast as tap-and-drag operations on a screen.
Requirements for in-situ authoring of location based experiences BIBAFull-Text 121-128
  Mark J. Weal; Eva Hornecker; Don G. Cruickshank; Danius T. Michaelides; David E. Millard; John Halloran; David C. De Roure; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
In this paper we describe an investigation into the requirements for and the use of in-situ authoring in the creation of location based pervasive and UbiComp experiences. We will focus on the co-design process with users that resulted in a novel visitor experience to a historic country estate. This has informed the design of new, in-situ, authoring tools supplemented with tools for retrospective revisiting and reorganization of content. An initial trial of these new tools will be discussed and conclusions drawn as to the appropriateness of such tools. Further enhancements as part of future trials will also be described.
Multimodal interaction on mobile phones: development and evaluation using ACICARE BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Marcos Serrano; Laurence Nigay; Rachel Demumieux; Jerome Descos; Patrick Losquin
The development and the evaluation of multimodal interactive systems on mobile phones remains a difficult task. In this paper we address this problem by describing a component-based approach, called ACICARE, for developing and evaluating multimodal interfaces on mobile phones. ACICARE is dedicated to the overall iterative design process of mobile multimodal interfaces, which consists of cycles of designing, prototyping and evaluation. ACICARE is based on two complementary tools that are combined: ICARE and ACIDU. ICARE is a component-based platform for rapidly developing multimodal interfaces. We adapted the ICARE components to run on mobile phones and we connected them to ACIDU, a probe that gathers customer's usage on mobile phones. By reusing and assembling components, ACICARE enables the rapid development of multimodal interfaces as well as the automatic capture of multimodal usage for in-field evaluations. We illustrate ACICARE using our contact manager system, a multimodal system running on the SPV c500 mobile phone.
HybridTouch: an intuitive manipulation technique for PDAs using their front and rear surfaces BIBAFull-Text 137-140
  Masanori Sugimoto; Keiichi Hiroki
This paper describes a new manipulation technique for small-screen mobile devices. The proposed technique, called HybridTouch, uses a touchpad attached to the rear surface of a PDA. A user can manipulate the PDA by simultaneously touching the front surface with a stylus pen held by the dominant hand and the rear surface with a finger of the nondominant hand. User studies were conducted via applications augmented by HybridTouch, and proved that users could perform manipulation tasks intuitively.
Gait analyzer based on a cell phone with a single three-axis accelerometer BIBAFull-Text 141-144
  Toshiki Iso; Kenichi Yamazaki
We propose a fuss-free gait analyzer based on a single three-axis accelerometer mounted on a cell phone for health care and presence services. It is not necessary for users not to wear sensors on any part of their bodies; all they need to do is to carry the cell phone. Our algorithm has two main functions; one is to extract feature vectors by analyzing sensor data in detail using wavelet packet decomposition. The other is to flexibly cluster personal gaits by combining a self-organizing algorithm with Bayesian theory. Not only does the three-axis accelerometer realize low cost personal devices, but we can track aging or situation changes through on-line learning. A prototype that implements the algorithm is constructed. Experiments on the prototype show that the algorithm can identify gaits such as walking, running, going up/down stairs, and walking fast with an accuracy of about 80%.
A novel interface to sensor networks using handheld augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 145-148
  Malinda Rauhala; Ann-Sofie Gunnarsson; Anders Henrysson
Augmented Reality technology enables a mobile phone to be used as an x-ray tool, visualizing structures and states not visible to the naked eye. In this paper we evaluate a set of techniques used augmenting the world with a visualization of data from a sensor network. Combining virtual and real information introduces challenges as information from the two domains might interfere. We have applied our system to humidity data and present a user study together with feedback from domain experts. The prototype system can be seen as the first step towards a novel tool for inspection of building elements.

Information structuring

Improving photo searching interfaces for small-screen mobile computers BIBAFull-Text 149-156
  Dynal Patel; Gary Marsden; Matt Jones; Steve Jones
In this paper, we conduct a thorough investigation of how people search their photo collections for events (a set of photographs relating to a particular well defined event), singles (individual photographs) and properties (a set of photographs with a common theme) on PDAs. We describe a prototype system that allows us to expose many issues that must be considered when designing photo searching interfaces. We discuss each of these issues and make recommendations where applicable. Our major observation is that several different methods are used to locate photographs. In light of this, we conclude by discussing how photo searching interfaces might embody or support such an approach.
Depth and breadth away from the desktop: the optimal information hierarchy for mobile use BIBAFull-Text 157-164
  Arjan Geven; Reinhard Sefelin; Manfred Tscheligi
The optimal way to structure information in hierarchies has occupied researchers for at least two decades. In the last few years, mobile devices added new challenges to this research: the limited screen size, navigation methods and data transfer rates make the search for the optimal information structure even more complex. In this paper an experiment is presented that investigates the usability of 4 different information hierarchies (46, 84, 163 and 642) on three mobile devices. It turns out that the narrow hierarchies (46 and 84) perform better than the broader hierarchies on the three devices. The experiment was repeated on two more occasions with the same participants to test expertise effects; the preference for narrow hierarchies did not change over the three occasions.
Supporting mobile access to digital video archives without user queries BIBAFull-Text 165-168
  Cathal Gurrin; Lars Brenna; Dmitrii Zagorodnov; Hyowon Lee; Alan F. Smeaton; Dag Johansen
In this paper we present a technique for supporting mobile access to digital video archives without requiring explicit user queries. The idea is to infer the interests and needs of users from their WWW browsing history and represent those needs as persistent queries to the archive. An experiment, which we present here, suggests that this technique is effective for recommending video content to users on mobile devices. We also describe how to apply these findings to a mobile interface for a digital video archive.
GeoPix: image retrieval on the geo web, from camera click to mouse click BIBAFull-Text 169-172
  Davide Carboni; Stefano Sanna; Pietro Zanarini
In this paper we describe a multichannel, mobile, and location-based application called GeoPix developed as a proof-of-concept for several use cases related to eTourism. In GeoPix, mobile users produce geo-referenced pictures and share them with Web users that can access the online database with a smart navigation experience based on maps. Web users can browse, pan, zoom areas immediately seeing the pictures posted by the on-the-road users. Thumbnails are directly overlaid on the maps exactly where the full-size photos are taken. They can also make searches, apply filters, and save geographic bookmarks of the photos displayed on the maps. In this way a large database of images can be easily browsed in a way that we call geo-browsing.
Implementing device UI in standards-based markup BIBAFull-Text 173-176
  Daniel F. Zucker; Elizabeth Dykstra-Erickson; Michimasa Uematsu; Tomy Kamada
In this case study, we present initial implementations for NFDM, a technology for leveraging the mobile web browser for user interface. This study focuses on using NFDM for the idle screen application. We describe NFDM technology and present both user feedback and lessons learned.
A case study of icon-scenario based animated menu's concept development BIBAFull-Text 177-180
  Lim Chee Koon
This paper reports on the implementation of the Icon-Scenario Based Animated Menu graphical user interface that is adopted across our latest 2G platform. We describe the concept development process of the phone's menu enhanced by the use of a captivating Icon-Scenario Based Animated Menu that takes usability into consideration and brings delight to users.

Mobile usability

Usability evaluation for mobile device: a comparison of laboratory and field tests BIBAFull-Text 181-186
  Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Gerald C. B. Tan; Vivian Hsueh-hua Chen
Usability testing of mobile devices is an emerging area of research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. Guidelines had been established as to how usability tests should be conducted. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of conventional usability tests, especially for mobile devices. Mobile devices typically are used in different situations, but current evaluation method cannot uncover problems in all type of situations. Hence, this study evaluates the effectiveness of conventional laboratory usability tests. It investigated the differences between usability tests on mobile phones conducted in laboratory and real life situation. Significant differences were found, including the frequency and severity of usability problems encountered, the users' behavior, and subjective responses to the device and the interaction.
ripcord: rapid interface prototyping for cordless devices BIBAFull-Text 187-190
  Matthias Krausz; Dennis Krannich
Mobile devices such as cellular phones are indispensable in our daily life. The success and penetration of the market of mobile services and applications does not only depend on good, innovative ideas, but also on their usability.
   Therefore several endeavors have been made to tackle these problems in order to provide suitable usability testing methods for user interfaces. But traditional testing methods cannot always be extended to mobile devices directly. In contrast to the widely standardized and static testing setup for Desktop PCs, the variety of physical device-specific characteristics as well as the highly dynamic context of use [5]. influences these methods.
   In this paper, we propose a novel approach for prototyping and testing mobile applications and services. It enables testing user interfaces and recording the interaction within context-of-use in early stages of the product development and therefore allows determining conceptional or design flaws before they can cause cost-intensive corrections or even refactoring of the product.
   Besides its direct applicability this approach allows us to elaborate if and how classical usability testing methods can be transferred to mobile devices and how they are influenced by the device-specific characteristics.
Scan and tilt: towards natural interaction for mobile museum guides BIBAFull-Text 191-194
  Jani Mantyjarvi; Fabio Paterno; Zigor Salvador; Carmen Santoro
This paper presents a new interaction technique - scan and tilt - aiming to enable a more natural interaction with mobile museum guides. Our work combines multiple modalities - gestures, physical selection, location, graphical and voice. In particular, physical selection is obtained by scanning RFID tags associated with the artworks, and tilt gestures are used to control and navigate the user interface and multimedia information. We report on how it has been applied to a mobile museum guide in order to enhance the user experience, providing details on a first user test carried out on our prototype.
Usability benchmarking case study: media downloads via mobile phones in the US BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Richard Martin; Scott Weiss
In spring 2004 Usable Products Company set to study the shopping, purchase, and assignment process for mobile media (wallpaper, ring tones and games for mobile phones) in the US market. A large scale (200 initial interviews followed by an additional 60) study covering 5 major US carriers and 13 handsets was conducted between 2004 and 2005 to benchmark the usability of mobile media purchase process. In this paper, we describe the goals, procedures, timeline, and results of this project with particular focus on what changes were necessary to move from a formative to a normative usability testing process.
The right to information: setup of mobile terminals and services BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Matthias Schneider-Hufschmidt; David Williams; Martin Bocker; Margareta Flygt; Pekka Ketola; Bruno von Niman; Michael Tate
The Technical Committee Human Factors (TC HF) of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI, www.etsi.org) has initiated the development of guidelines for the design of setup procedures, applicable to mobile terminals and e-services.
   This work is performed under the policy framework defined by the e-Europe 2005 action plan, by and in close collaboration between major industry players and ETSI.The goal of this activity is the development of design guidelines for user interface and service developers based on specific use cases which help to understand the difficulties users are experiencing when configuring their devices or accessing the services.
   The result of this work will be presented at the conference and the resulting ETSI Guide will be available free of charge.


Target size study for one-handed thumb use on small touchscreen devices BIBAFull-Text 203-210
  Pekka Parhi; Amy K. Karlson; Benjamin B. Bederson
This paper describes a two-phase study conducted to determine optimal target sizes for one-handed thumb use of mobile handheld devices equipped with a touch-sensitive screen. Similar studies have provided recommendations for target sizes when using a mobile device with two hands plus a stylus, and interacting with a desktop-sized display with an index finger, but never for thumbs when holding a small device in a single hand. The first phase explored the required target size for single-target (discrete) pointing tasks, such as activating buttons, radio buttons or checkboxes. The second phase investigated optimal sizes for widgets used for tasks that involve a sequence of taps (serial), such as text entry. Since holding a device in one hand constrains thumb movement, we varied target positions to determine if performance depended on screen location. The results showed that while speed generally improved as targets grew, there were no significant differences in error rate between target sizes =9.6 mm in discrete tasks and targets =7.7 mm in serial tasks. Along with subjective ratings and the findings on hit response variability, we found that target size of 9.2 mm for discrete tasks and targets of 9.6 mm for serial tasks should be sufficiently large for one-handed thumb use on touchscreen-based handhelds without degrading performance and preference.
eye-q: eyeglass peripheral display for subtle intimate notifications BIBAFull-Text 211-218
  Enrico Costanza; Samuel A. Inverso; Elan Pavlov; Rebecca Allen; Pattie Maes
Mobile devices are generally used in public, where the user is surrounded by others not involved in the interaction. Audible notification cues are often a cause of unnecessary disruption and distraction both for co-located people and even for the user to whom they are directed. We present a wearable peripheral display embedded in eyeglasses that delivers subtle, discreet and unobtrusive cues. The display is personal and intimate; it delivers visual cues in the wearers' periphery without disrupting their immediate environment. A user study conducted to validate the design reveals that the display is effective and subtle in notifying users. Experimental results show, with significance, that the cues can be designed to meet specific levels of visibility and disruption for the wearer, so that some cues are less noticeable when the user is not under high workload, which is highly desirable in many practical circumstances. Hence, peripheral notification displays can provide an effective solution for designing socially acceptable notification displays, unobtrusive to the user and the immediate environment.
Reading on-the-go: a comparison of audio and hand-held displays BIBAFull-Text 219-226
  Kristin Vadas; Nirmal Patel; Kent Lyons; Thad Starner; Julie Jacko
In this paper we present a 20-participant controlled experiment to evaluate and compare a head-down visual display and a synthesized speech audio display for comprehending text while mobile. Participants completed reading comprehension trials while walking a path and sitting. We examine overall performance and perceived workload for four conditions: audio-walking, audio-sitting, visual-walking, and visual-sitting. Results suggest audio is an acceptable modality for mobile comprehension of text. Participants' comprehension scores for the audio-walking condition were comparable to the scores for the visual-walking condition. More importantly, participants saw improvements in their ability to navigate the environment when using the audio display.
Simulator sickness in virtual display gaming: a comparison of stereoscopic and non-stereoscopic situations BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Jukka Hakkinen; Monika Polonen; Jari Takatalo; Gote Nyman
In this paper we compare simulator sickness symptoms produced by racing game in three different conditions. In the first experiment the participants played the Need for Speed car racing game with an ordinary 17" display and in the second and third experiments they used a head-worn virtual display for the game playing. The difference between experiments 2 and 3 was in the use of stereoscopy, as in the third experiment the car racing game was seen in stereoscopic three-dimensions. Our results indicated that there were no significant differences in sickness symptoms when we compared the ordinary display and the virtual display in non-stereoscopic mode. In stereoscopic condition the eye strain and disorientation symptoms were significantly elevated compared to the ordinary display. We conclude that using a virtual display as an accessory in a mobile device is a viable alternative, because the non-stereoscopic virtual display did not produce significantly more sickness symptoms compared to ordinary game playing.

Visualization and multimodality

Multidimensional tactons for non-visual information presentation in mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 231-238
  Lorna M. Brown; Stephen A. Brewster; Helen C. Purchase
Tactons are structured vibrotactile messages which can be used for non-visual information presentation when visual displays are limited, unavailable or inappropriate, such as in mobile phones and other mobile devices. Little is yet known about how to design them effectively. Previous studies have investigated the perception of Tactons which encode two dimensions of information using two different vibrotactile parameters (rhythm and roughness) and found recognition rates of around 70. When more dimensions of information are required it may be necessary to extend the parameter-space of these Tactons. Therefore this study investigates recognition rates for Tactons which encode a third dimension of information using spatial location. The results show that identification rate for three-parameter Tactons is just 48, but that this can be increased to 81 by reducing the number of values of one of the parameters. These results will aid designers to select suitable Tactons for use when designing mobile displays.
Visualizing locations of off-screen objects on mobile devices: a comparative evaluation of three approaches BIBAFull-Text 239-246
  Stefano Burigat; Luca Chittaro; Silvia Gabrielli
Browsing large information spaces such as maps on the limited screen of mobile devices often requires people to perform panning and zooming operations that move relevant display content off-screen. This makes it difficult to perform spatial tasks such as finding the location of Points Of Interest (POIs) in a city. Visualizing the location of off-screen objects can mitigate this problem: in this paper, we present a user study comparing the Halo [2] approach with two other techniques based on arrows. Halo surrounds off-screen objects with circles that reach the display window, so that users can derive the location and distance of objects by observing the visible portion of the corresponding circles. In the two arrow-based techniques, arrows point at objects and their size and body length, respectively, inform about the distance of objects. Our study involved four tasks requiring users to identify and compare off-screen objects locations, and also investigated the effectiveness of the three techniques with respect to the number of off-screen objects. Arrows allowed users to order off-screen objects faster and more accurately according to their distance, while Halo allowed users to better identify the correct location of off-screen objects. Implications of these results for mobile map-based applications are also discussed.
Visualization of uncertainty in context aware mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Enrico Rukzio; John Hamard; Chie Noda; Alexander De Luca
Context-aware mobile applications and systems have been extensively explored in the last decade and in the last few years we already saw promising products on the market. Most of these applications assume that context data is highly accurate. But in practice this information is often unreliable, especially when gathered from sensors or external sources. Previous research has argued that the system usability can be improved by displaying the uncertainty to the user. The research presented in this paper shows that it is not always an advantage to show the confidence of the context-aware application to the user. We developed a system for automatic form filling on mobile devices which fills in any web form with user data stored on the mobile device. The used algorithm generates rules which indicate with which probability which input field of a form should be filled in with which value. Based on this we developed two versions of our system. One shows the uncertainty of the system and one not. We then conducted a user study which shows that the user needs slightly more time and produces slightly more errors when the confidence of the system is visualized.
A mobile multimodal dialogue system for public transportation navigation evaluated BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Topi Hurtig
As the technical capabilities of latest mobile devices are combined with mobile broadband internet access, we are ready to make use of free and natural speech in mobile services by utilizing optional and complementary means of input. In these kinds of multimodal dialogue systems the possibility to disambiguate between several input and also output modalities can substantially increase intelligibility of dialogues and robustness of interaction. The combination of natural speech and tactile gestures as input mediums, especially in map-based systems, have shown promising results, although mature commercial applications are still to be developed. In this paper we present the MUMS Multimodal Route Navigation System, which allows users of a mobile device to present public transportation route queries with any preferred combination of speech and pen input, with the system providing navigational information via speech and graphical map representations. We also present the results of a user study, with focus on the users' subjective experience of the MUMS system and especially its multimodal qualities.
Automatic rotation and zooming in mobile roadmaps BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Timo Partala; Mika Luimula; Ossi Saukko
The aim of this research was to explore the navigational effects of two common features in current mobile roadmap systems: automatic rotation based on the vehicle's direction of movement and speed-dependent automatic zooming. 12 subjects tried four different visualization techniques for a mobile map in real traffic: no rotation/constant zooming, no rotation/automatic zooming, automatic rotation/constant zooming, and automatic rotation/automatic zooming. The subjects rated the techniques on four scales: position knowledge support, direction knowledge support, identification of real-world objects based on map objects and an overall score. The results showed that conditions involving automatic rotation and/or zooming got systematically more positive ratings on all scales than the conditions without those features. The implementation of automatic zooming created for this experiment was rated as very close to optimal. These results suggest that both automatic rotation and automatic zooming can enhance navigation when implemented to a mobile roadmap.


"Collaborative mobile user interface design": how should companies design the mobile UI together? BIBAFull-Text 259
  David M. L. Williams
The panel will discuss the challenges, real-world examples and future directions in the collaborative design of mobile service, devices and application user interfaces.
Novel input method shoot-out BIBAFull-Text 260
  Scott Weiss
MobileHCI regularly features papers about novel mobile phone input technologies. This panel presents four speakers representing their technologies. Each technology is approaching commercialization and this panel gives the inventors an opportunity to discuss the merits of their intellectual property and how it can be deployed on mobile devices. Speakers represent corporations whose sole purpose is to sell mobile input technology intellectual property. Questions will focus on what the technology is, how it is better than what is available today, and how it is superior to other input technologies. Audience input will be welcomed.


MobileHCI'06 demo: mobile remote usability testing BIBAFull-Text 261
  Xavier Mestres
This paper describes the usability remote testing using the UserZoom technology. In this paper, we describe how we do mobile remote usability testing using UserZoom technology.
MobileEssence: meeting capture on smartphones BIBAFull-Text 262-263
  Anthony Johnson; Ted Selker
We demonstrate a software system that runs on the Symbian smartphone platform, and allows a group to capture the essence of a face-to-face meeting or remote conference call in a decentralized manner. We show how the users set up a meeting, record elements from the meeting, and are able to continue the collaboration after the original meeting has ended. We show how the information collected during the meeting can be used by members to analyze the collective impression of the meeting, as well view consensus or differences of opinions.
Immersive video as a rapid prototyping and evaluation tool for mobile and ambient applications BIBAFull-Text 264
  Pushpendra Singh; Hai Nam Ha; Zhiwen Kuang; Patrick Olivier; Christian Kray; Phil Blythe; Phil James
A key issue in mobile and ambient computing is the effort required to rapidly prototype and evaluate user interfaces and applications. Existing technologies for these tasks suffer either from low fidelity (e.g. paper prototypes, mental walkthroughs) or effectively require a near full-scale deployment. We propose an approach using immersive video with surround sound and a simulated infrastructure to create a very realistic environment in the office or the lab. It provides a low-cost and rapid means to prototype user interfaces and applications, and to evaluate them in a realistic simulation of the context, in which they are intended to be used.
AdapTex: contextually adaptive text entry for mobiles BIBAFull-Text 265
  Mark D. Dunlop; Andrew Glen; Sunil Motaparti; Sanjay Patel
This demonstration introduces AdapTex: a new text entry system that suggests words and phrases to the user based on the current working context on the device, the user's history on the device and an initial corpus analysis. User studies show that AdapTex speeds up text entry while reducing errors.
RIM: framework and tool support for adaptive graphical user interface for mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 266
  Oyvind Ryan; Haakon Bryhni; Ole Smordal
This demonstration shows how one can build advanced web applications by embedding user interaction elements inside the graphical application using the RIM framework for image processing. This framework was developed for high-performance image processing applications, in particular web map applications. The framework is described further at the conference poster stand, and in upcoming publications. MobileHCI06 participants can try out the application for themselves at the conference.


Real-time spatial socializing through mobile device BIBAFull-Text 267-268
  Kiran Pal Sagoo; Youngho Rhee
There has been an unprecedented increase in availability of real-time streaming services on today's mobile devices, for example: Satellite/GPRS radio, Digital media broadcast (DMB TV). Yet the majority of the services available today fail to provide dynamic social experience as compared to the PC/real-world environment, especially socializing in terms of common interests such as real-time music/video/news etc. Such real-time common interest acts like a fuel for dialogue exchange & social interaction. The presence & availability of real-time mobile services gives us opportunity to realize above concept while the user is on the move. Geographica is a combination of application software & services for mobile device that stimulate users to locate other potential users who share same interests (ex: radio, DMB etc) in real-time & locate, socialize through map interface either locally or globally. We have attempted to create a new user interface & experience focusing on user's unmet need of socializing through real-time content while on the move.
Mobile studying and social usability on a wireless campus BIBAFull-Text 269-270
  Kirsi Paykkanen; Hanna Raisanen; Hannakaisa Isomaki
When mobile technology is utilized successfully in computer supported collaborative learning, it can engender students' feelings of belonging to a safe virtual community, which helps to construct shared knowledge through collaboration and applying information and experiences received from others. In this paper, our main argument is that collaborative learning through mobile technology can be successful only if virtual communication is supported by suitable means. In this case, different factors of knowledge sharing and social usability in the virtual learning environment along with issues of data security within the wireless network become crucial with respect to collaborative learning that is supported by mobile technology.
senseMix: sharing creative mobile content BIBAFull-Text 271-272
  Jeremy Yuille; Miranda Forwood; Andrew Brown; Gavin Sade; Greg Jenkins; Jenny Weight
This poster presentation will report on research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team into the design and development of applications for creation and sharing of audio visual content on mobile phones. It outlines the conceptual basis and design process of the project, describing a number of the demonstration applications developed. It also reports on the use of augmented reality middleware to implement a gestural user interface to these demonstrator applications.
A taxonomy for the evaluation of mobile museum guides BIBAFull-Text 273-274
  Areti Damala; Hub Kockelkorn
Museums are a fertile ground for experimentations with edutainment applications conceived for mobile devices. However the design, implementation and maintenance of mobile multimedia guides is a time and resources consuming iterative process to which ideally all involved stakeholders should participate. Evaluation therefore is of outmost importance. Drawing from already published results and on site experience from DANAE project we define three categories of evaluation key points, under which all possible evaluation questions measuring the effectiveness of an edutainment application can be classified; we then match them with all involved stakeholders, mainly museums, their visitors and information technologies companies. Finally, we argue that the proposed taxonomy can be used for the classification of different evaluation questions so as to constitute a comprehensive and adjustable guide for evaluation purposes of applications for different and heterogeneous museum environments.
The mobile phone as a medium for heightened sonic perception BIBAFull-Text 275-276
  Zeenath Hasan; Richard Widerberg
In this paper, we describe the design and research phase of a project that aims to create conditions for heightened sonic perception through a mobile phone based software application. The initial design concept is that of an aural architecture for sonic socio-cultural exchange where sonic realities of the everyday are improvised live in a non-linear mode. The design approach adopted is collaborative. The project is a work in progress.
Striving for ubiquitous citizenship with mobile PICOLA BIBAFull-Text 277-278
  Samantha Konwinski; Zachary Sam Zaiss
This paper introduces Mobile PICOLA - a mobile extension to the original PICOLA (Public Informed Citizens' OnLine Assembly) which is meant to provide an interactive online environment for the purpose of conducting deliberative polling. After justifying the exploration of the mobile environment, we discuss the usability analysis conducted with Mobile PICOLA, and the resulting design changes.
User experience design guidelines for telecare services BIBAFull-Text 279-280
  Bruno von Niman; Alejandro Rodriguez-Ascaso; Torbjorn Sund; Steve J. Brown
The present paper introduces the telecare user experience guidelines under development in the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), www.etsi.org, co-funded by the European Commission and EFTA.This work is performed under the policy framework defined by the European Commission's e-Europe 2005 action plan, by and in close collaboration between major industry players and ETSI.
Character repertoires, ordering and assignment to the 12-key keypad supporting European cultural diversity BIBAFull-Text 281-282
  Martin Bocker; Karl Ivar Larsson; Bruno von Niman
ETSI, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, has published a standard (ES 202 130) in 2003 that specifies the character repertoires and assignment of characters to the 12-key telephone keypad for a range of European languages. The standard for letters, digits and special characters (such as the Euro symbol and punctuation marks) covered the official languages of the EU and EFTA members, Russia, as well as countries with applicant status for the EU at that time. This paper describes the further development of the standard to cover other major languages spoken in Europe including official languages, minority languages and immigrants' languages.


Crafting the mobile experience BIBAFull-Text 283-284
  Didier Chincholle; Maria Farrugia; Cristian Norlin
This tutorial provides a deep insight into the issues that surround the development of mobile services, including the mobile user, the target device, the user experience and the mobile network supporting the delivery of services. The emphasis is on developing skills through methods and techniques that can be used to approach these issues from an interaction design point of view. The tutorial combines lectures segments, demonstrations and videos with hands-on exercises and group discussions. The content of the tutorial is based on several years experience gained through the research and development of mobile services at two of the mobile industry's largest companies.
Institutionalizing mobile user experience: key success factors, strategic positioning, and sustainable organisational implementations BIBAFull-Text 285-286
  Tobias Herrmann; Manfred Tscheligi
This course addresses strategic and organisational aspects of user experience work in companies, based on experiences in the mobile service industry. It focuses on the question of how to successfully set-up a Corporate User Experience Team in the areas of conflict between top management, marketing, sales, IT, customer service, and product development. Besides the presentation of general motivations and drivers for corporate user experience work and several concepts for doing so, the course in particular represents the authors' experiences in setting-up such a team, discusses key success factors, and the role of selected strategic concepts (ROI, BSC). The organisers will provide an insight into the institutionalization within Austria's largest telecom & mobile service providing company - mobilkom austria. The tutorial provides attendees with the information required in order to be successful in establishing user experience work, and with insights and ideas for strategic positioning.
Designing user interfaces for future mobile applications and devices: a user-centred interaction and visual design process walkthrough BIBAFull-Text 287-288
  Matt Davies; Richard Peel
In this paper, we describe the tutorial content and the target audience for the tutorial.


"Innovative mobile applications of context" BIBAFull-Text 289-290
  Kristijan Mihalic; Manfred Tscheligi; Pertti Huuskonen
Many different kinds of context aware systems have been proposed in the domain of mobile systems. So there are many application concepts available which are based some form of context parameters. However, there is additional potential available. In our belief, the truly novel systems that are using context as a major enabler are just appearing. There are now improved platforms for mobile context applications - how to use them to their full potential?
   The outcome of the workshop on Innovative Mobile Applications of Context (IMAC) will be a set of promising application concepts and scenarios with a solid understanding of the technical feasibility as well as requirements towards enabling context parameters.
Mobile usage of video and TV BIBAFull-Text 291-292
  Barbara Schmidt-Belz; Matt Jones
This workshop aims to review and discuss research on mobile usage of multimedia, in particular of video and TV on mobile devices. The workshop focuses on human behaviour, human needs, and interaction design concerning the creation, management, and consumption of moving images using mobile devices.
SiMPE: speech in mobile and pervasive environments BIBAFull-Text 293-294
  A. A. Nanavati; N. Rajput; A. I. Rudnicky; R. Sicconi
Traditionally, voice-based applications have been accessed using unintelligent telephone devices through Voice Browsers that reside on the server. The proliferation of pervasive devices and the increase in their processing capabilities, client-side speech processing is emerging as a viable alternative. This workshop will explore the various possibilities and issues that arise while enabling speech processing on resource-constrained, possibly mobile devices. The workshop will highlight the many open areas that require research attention, identify key problems that need to be addressed, and also discuss a few approaches for solving some of them - to build the next generation of conversational systems.
Mobile interaction with the real world BIBAFull-Text 295-296
  Enrico Rukzio; Massimo Paolucci; Tim Finin; Paul Wisner; Terry Payne
The main goal of the workshop is to discuss approaches that use a mobile device (e.g. mobile phone, smartphone, PDA) for interactions with objects in the real world. Relevant topics include (but are not limited to) mobile interaction with the real world; mobile devices as user interfaces for terminals and vending machines; and Frameworks, middleware and APIs for the development of applications that take mobile interactions with the real world into account. The workshop combines technical presentations with the presentation of prototypes and focussed discussions to drive interaction between participants.
MODIE 2006: modeling and designing user assistance in intelligent environments BIBAFull-Text 297-298
  Christoph Stahl; Helder Pinto; Thomas Pederson; Michael Schmitz; Lucia Terrenghi
The MODIE workshop is focused on models, principles and methodologie for the modeling and designing of user assistance in intelligent environments. One of the most interesting topics for the MobileHCI community is the question on how the complemetar paradigms of mobile computing and pervasive computing can supplement each other. How can mobile-personal and static-public devices be integrate to form Intelligent Environments, which effectively assist their users in typical activities and situations? We will invite researchers from multiple disciplines to submit short position papers, which contribute theoretical results and practical insights in order to foster a lively discussion about key research issues.
MUIA 2006: third international workshop on mobile and ubiquitous information access BIBAFull-Text 299-300
  Fabio Crestani; Matt Jones; Stefano Mizzaro
The recent trend towards pervasive computing and information technology becoming omnipresent and entering all aspects of modern living, means that we are moving away from the traditional interaction paradigm between human and technology being that of the desktop computer. This shift towards ubiquitous computing is perhaps most evident in the increased sophistication and extended utility of mobile devices, such as mobile phones, PDAs, mobile communicators (telephone/PDA) and Tablet PCs. Advances in these mobile device technologies coupled with their much-improved functionality means that current mobile devices can be considered as multi-purpose information access tools capable of complex tasks. This Third Workshop on Mobile and Ubiquitous Information Access (MUIA 2006) aims to be a forum for the presentation of current research and exchange of experiences into technological and usability aspects of mobile information access.
MobileHCI'06 doctoral consortium BIBFull-Text 301-302
  Kari Kuutti; Jonna Hakkila