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Inputs-Outputs Tables of Contents: 13

Proceedings of the 2013 Inputs-Outputs Conference

Fullname:Inputs/Outputs 2013 Conference on Interdisciplinary Approaches to Causality in Engagement, Immersion, and Presence in Performance and Human-Computer Interaction
Location:Brighton, United Kingdom
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2581-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: Inputs-Outputs13
Links:Conference Website
Engagement: the inputs and the outputs: conference overview BIBAFull-Text 1
  Harry J. Witchel
The Inputs-Outputs interdisciplinary conference on engagement (and related terms) was structured to cross-fertilise the relevant researchers from the arts, sciences and engineering on the causes, consequences and assessment of engagement. The goal of the conference was to encourage interdisciplinary research and collaboration on engagement, presence, immersion, interest, cognitive absorption, motivation (educational), vigilance and user-experience. Three themes emerged from the juxtaposition of this broad group of academics and practitioners: 1) Challenge, in many cases, aids the creation of engagement. 2) The consequences arising from engagement are often fundamentally social. 3) The measurement and assessment of engagement is advancing via engineering and computer science.
Synchronized movement in social interaction BIBAFull-Text 2
  Fabian Ramseyer
Social interaction is a core aspect of human life that affects individuals' physical and mental health. Social interaction usually leads to mutual engagement in diverse areas of cognitive, emotional, physiological and physical activity involving both interacting persons and subsequently impacting the outcome of these interactions. A common approach to the analysis of social interaction is the study of the verbal content transmitted between sender and receiver. However, additional important processes and dynamics are occurring in other domains too, for example in the area of nonverbal behaviour. In a series of studies, we have looked at interactional synchrony -- the coordination of two persons' movement patterns -- and its association with relationship quality and with the outcome of interactions. Using a computer-based algorithm, which automatically quantifies a person's body-movement, we were able to objectively calculate interactional synchrony in a large number of dyads interacting in various settings. In a first step, we showed that the phenomenon of interactional synchrony existed at a level that was significantly higher than expected by chance. In a second step, we ascertained that across different settings -- including patient-therapist dyads and healthy subject dyads -- more synchronized movement was associated with better relationship quality and better interactional outcomes. The quality of a relationship is thus embodied by the synchronized movement patterns emerging between partners. Our studies suggested that embodied cognition is a valuable approach to research in social interaction, providing important clues for an improved understanding of interaction dynamics.
Immersion and confusion BIBAFull-Text 3
  Carina Westling
The traditional position in human-computer interaction usability studies is that confusion is anathema -- an entirely undesirable experience. But in art, gaming, and experience design, confusion can be a contributing factor to immersion and engagement. For this to occur, the prerequisites are some of the properties of play: agency, delineation in time (and space), and the potential for resolution. In the continuum of experience from total confusion to manifest resolution, there is a range of responses from lack of interest to anger and/or fear, via enjoyment and excitement. Artworks that create confusion (disorientation and/or uncertainty) tend to elicit polarised audience responses that broadly fall into two categories: frustrated denouncement and enthusiastic approval.
   There are many factors that have a fundamental role in determining how welcome confusion is to an individual within an experience: e.g. the context, the structure of the experience, and the audience subculture. Pervading the context are the audience's expectations (and the ability of the audience to manage their own expectations), which can be crucial for immersive confusion. Theatre and events companies apply considerable resources to designing not just the experience itself, but also the build up to the experience. In spite of such efforts, immersive artworks polarise audiences. A possible explanation for this may be personality factors such as ambiguity tolerance, openness to new experiences, and a low need for cognitive closure, which may be important for transforming confusion into immersion.
Visual impairment and presence: measuring the effect of audio description BIBAFull-Text 4
  Louise Fryer; Jonathan Freeman
In this paper we compare levels of presence between sighted audiences and those with a visual impairment accessing audiovisual media via Audio Description (AD). AD is a verbal commentary conveying visual information. Anecdotal evidence suggests AD is at its best when the user is unaware of it. The strength of this 'perceptual illusion of non-mediation' [8] may therefore be a useful measure of effective AD. This paper discusses the results of two studies comparing the impact of sound effects and verbal pictures on dimensions of presence (spatial presence, ecological validity, engagement and negative effects) in people with varying levels of sight for audio-only and audiovisual media. Findings suggest AD influences the various dimensions of presence in different ways. Spatial presence and ecological validity are enhanced when media form is reflected in the AD script, while engagement is affected by content comprehension. Most surprisingly, levels of presence for those with visual impairments can exceed those of the sighted audience when an audiovisual stimulus is accessed via AD of an appropriate style. Possible reasons for this are discussed.
Engaging theatre audiences before the play: the design of playful interactive storytelling experiences BIBAFull-Text 5
  Mariza Dima
In this paper I present Mobile Stories, a design-led project that explored ways of playfully motivating and engaging theatre audiences in their journey before the premiere of a theatrical play. The project used the art of storytelling and mobile technology to engage the audience in a creative way. The ultimate goal was to investigate innovative ways of connecting theatres with their audiences in meaningful organic relationships that can be sustained.
   I discuss the design mechanisms that were developed to enable participation, describe issues and opportunities with the specific approach and discuss the value of the project for the audience, the theatre, and the research on designing for audience engagement.
Rhetorical considerations for innovative approaches to performance and audience engagement BIBAFull-Text 6
  John Vh Bonner; David Peebles
This research explores how digital media could be used to enhance engagement between an audience and a presenter, orator, or lecturer. Our aim is to think creatively about what a presentation could become and how the use of digital media technologies could form an intrinsic part of the presenter/audience experience. To help anchor this concept, we devised a development framework, which is briefly described. The framework was used to develop a potential component element of a performance presentation: the use of multiple video projections that would supplement a presentation and form a connected but non-linear narrative to produce an element of a performance presentation. To contextualize the framework and assess its effectiveness, an evaluation study of a multiple video projection project was evaluated. The study revealed the importance of audience priming within the rhetorical considerations of the development framework.
Metropolis raised her voice: live digital-Foley & multimedia accompaniment BIBAFull-Text 7
  Robert Dean; Benjamin Challis
Since sound was first recorded on a cylinder wrapped in tin foil by Edison in 1877, technology has steadily evolved to allow an ever increasing level of sonic mutability. Gradually, pre-recorded sounds (or 'inputs') which where once fixed could be increasingly manipulated both before and during playback. While early gramophones and tape players afforded the operator very few parameters to experiment within, the development of digital technology transformed sound into a fully plastic medium. As such, sound in the age of digital reproduction has achieved a level of playability more commonly associated with the performance of live music. The sound-operator is now able to react to events unfolding in a live environment and adjust both subtle and prominent aspects of the sound in many of the same ways a musician can.
   Through a series of theatrical productions and collaborations Challis & Dean have explored the sonic and dramatic possibilities created by the utilization of digital technology in a live performance context. Their current project is a multimedia adaptation of the novel and film Metropolis (Harbou & Lang, 1927). The aural accompaniment for this project will be performed live using a range of adapted and purpose built sonic triggers (such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, tilt switches, and proximity sensors). This paper will outline the processes and techniques adopted in this production and consider how this way of working has altered the interactional relationship between those that perform sound and those that receive it.
Interaction and engagement between an agent and participant in an on-line communication paradigm as mediated by gaze direction BIBAFull-Text 8
  Adam Qureshi; Christopher Peters; Ian Apperly
Computer based perspective taking tasks in cognitive psychology often utilise static images to assess on-line communication [1] explaining results in terms of theory of mind (the ability to understand that other agents have different beliefs, desires and knowledge to oneself [10]).
   The current study utilises the method used in [1] in which participants are required to respond correctly to instructions from an on-screen director by taking the perspective of the director into account. Results showed that participants reliably made errors, attributable to not using the information from the director's perspective efficiently, rather than not being able to take the director's perspective. However, the fact that the director was represented by a static sprite could mean that participant engagement with the director and the task was low.
   This study, a collaboration between computer science and psychology, advances this model by incorporating head movement into a more realistic on-screen director [9], potentially improving engagement.
   Whether the gaze direction of the director facilitated or hindered participants in object selection was investigated, and results will be discussed in terms of the level of engagement shown by the participant with the director, as measured by their efficiency in object selection, and how this varied with gaze direction. Further adaptations of the model (body movement, blinking) will also be discussed as ways of improving engagement.
Lost time never BIBAFull-Text 9
  Daniel Buzzo
As Nam June Paik intuits in his 1976 article "input-time and output-time" [11] our experience and expression of time and events are not connected to each other in a linear fashion (fig. 1). As a result the incidents that create what we decide to express can have little or no relationship to each other, illustrated in the example of Proust, where a momentary incident of childhood takes a lifetime to express [12]. In this sense input-time vs. output-time in our expressions and our creative acts is necessarily unequal.
   If we take these experiential aspects of time and lay them side by side against the abstracted tempo of technology and time-based media, we see a deepening contrast. The sensations of input in a given experience are balanced against the expression of the effects of the engagement into the interaction itself. The rules of temporality at the fundament of digital media cross changes in contemporary language when considering and comparing representations of time.
   This presents new challenges to researchers and artists seeking to create digital experiences while allowing for representations and expression of personalised time. From Lifelogging to notions of the Quantified Self [13] we see these contradictions and collisions becoming increasingly apparent and we ask with Martin and Holtzman: "If everyone says time is relative, why is it still so rigidly defined?" [10]