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INTERACCION Tables of Contents: 1214

Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Interacción Persona-Ordenador

Fullname:Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Interacción Persona-Ordenador
Editors:Carina S. González González; César Collazos Ordóñez; Habib Fardoun
Location:Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain
Dates:2014-Sep-10 to 2014-Sep-12
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2880-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: INTERACCION14
Papers:104
Links:Conference Website
  1. Editorial
  2. Invited Talks
  3. Accessibility and Adaptive Systems
  4. Collaborative Systems and CSCL
  5. Emotional Interfaces
  6. Usability and User Experience
  7. HCI and Videogames
  8. HCI and Health
  9. Interaction Design
  10. Software and Systems Engineering
  11. HCI and Education
  12. Interaction Devices and Multimodal Systems
  13. Posters
  14. Special Track "EnGendering Technologies"
  15. Special Track "E-Learning and Educational Resources"
  16. Special Track "Serious Games"
  17. Tutorial
  18. Projects

Editorial

Foreword: Research and New Directions in Human Computer Interaction BIBFull-Text 1
  Carina S. González González; César A. Collazos Ordoñez

Invited Talks

Computers with emotional intelligence BIBFull-Text 2
  Peter Robinson
Usability versus User Experience: Theory and Practice BIBFull-Text 3
  Cristian Rusu
eGames applied to interaction strategies in practice: Digital anthropology and actual learning BIBFull-Text 4
  Daniel Burgos

Accessibility and Adaptive Systems

Adaptation rules for Accessible Media Player Interface BIBAFull-Text 5
  María González-García; Lourdes Moreno; Paloma Martínez
The constant increase of multimedia content like video on the Web does not entail an equitable increase of the accessibility of this content. This fact provokes that elderly people or people with some kind of disability are excluded of the access to this Web content. This exclusion is due to the fact that the Web user agent that provides the content does not offer alternative content that allows users with disabilities to access it. In the case of a media player, this user agent has to provide control for access this alternative content such as caption or audio description. So, the access to alternative content should be assured to the user with disabilities in accordance with their access needs. Because of these facts, the motivation of this research work arises. The contribution of this research work aims to provide a model-based design solution which includes adaptation rules for accessible media player following accessibility standards.
FiPaWeb: A method for filtering web pages based on user needs BIBAFull-Text 6
  María R. Romagnano; Silvana V. Aciar; Martín G. Marchetta
The rapid evolution of technology and the widespread use of Internet have provided a wealth of information sources available on the Web. These sources present problems: heterogeneity of content, availability of information, lots of irrelevant information. Recent work has suggested different ways to group similar sources of information, trying to solve the problems. However, there are more complex than other domains, where to find the solution is even more complex problem. In this paper, we propose a method to retrieve and group web information sources based on the information provided to allow users to get accurate answers, reducing time and complexity in the search. To validate the proposed model, a case study is presented in the domain of tourism.
Development of EMG-Based Speller BIBAFull-Text 7
  Mindaugas Vasiljevas; Rutenis Turcinas; Robertas Damaševicius
Physiological computing is a paradigm of computing that uses physiological data of users as input during computing tasks. By monitoring, analyzing and responding to such inputs, Physiological Computing Systems (PCS) are able to monitor, diagnose and respond to the cognitive, emotional and physical states of users in real time. A specific case of PCS is Neural Computer Interface (NCI), which uses electrical signals governing muscular activity (EMG data) of a user to establish a direct pathway between the user and a computer. In this paper, we analyze and develop a speller application based on the EMG interface. We present taxonomy of speller application parameters, propose a model of PCS, and describe the development of a speller. Finally, we evaluate the performance and usability of the developed speller using empirical (accuracy, information transfer speed, input speed) metrics.
Impact of web accessibility barriers on users with hearing impairment BIBAFull-Text 8
  Afra Pascual; Mireia Ribera; Toni Granollers
Several users tests were carried out with people with a hearing impairment to evaluate the impact of different web accessibility barriers on two similar web sites, one accessible and the other not accessible. The tests focus was to analyze user's mood when faced to different accessibility barriers. Results show "complex text" and "multimedia content without text alternative" barriers as the most critical for users with this profile. Our investigation contributes to a better understanding of users confronting accessibility barriers, and to emphasize the need of web content authors writing content using plain language and providing captions or sign language to video content.
User Recommender based on information from forums BIBAFull-Text 9
  Silvana V. Aciar; Gabriela I. Aciar; Cesar A. Collazos; Carina S. González
This paper proposes: a tool for virtual learning platforms that recommends users who know about a particular subject; a new recommender method that takes into account the users' knowledge about a subject and their future availability based on past interactions and a text mining method to obtain user information from forums. A user recommender system was implemented in the Moodle platform to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.
A Vibrotactile Interface to Motivate Movement for Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 10
  Cristina Manresa-Yee; Ann Morrison; Jeppe V. Larsen; Javier Varona
V-Sense is a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments to move. The interface makes use of touch, in particular vibrations, as a supportive function to motivate users' actions. Specifically, we propose a vibrotactile interface on the arm and around the shoulder using the saltation perceptual illusion to induce movement of the corresponding joint. In this paper we describe the design principles of the interface and the proposed experimental design to evaluate it.

Collaborative Systems and CSCL

Evaluating the awareness support of COLLECE, a collaborative programming tool BIBAFull-Text 11
  Ana Isabel Molina; Jesús Gallardo; Miguel Ángel Redondo; Crescencio Bravo
The area of programming learning can take advantage of the principles of CSCW. Thus, there exist several systems that have approached to these difficulties. However, awareness support is quite limited in most of these systems. The COLLECE system is one of such tools as it was developed with the goal of supporting synchronous collaborative programming tasks. In this work, an experience of evaluation of this tool is described. Such evaluation focuses on the elements of awareness support that COLLECE includes. The study puts together several techniques for the evaluation of interactive systems, such as questionnaires, empirical testing, heuristic evaluation and eye tracking. The combination of all these techniques has allowed us to carry out a complete analysis of the COLLECE system and its awareness support.
Evaluation framework for m-learning systems: Current situation and proposal BIBAFull-Text 12
  Christian Xavier Navarro Cota; Ana Isabel Molina Díaz; Miguel Ángel Redondo Duque
This paper presents the analysis of recent research on mobile learning and usability areas, applying a systematic mapping study. It also presents the main focus adopted by each publication, the types of mobile device and operative systems. The aim is also to understand the tendencies and needs in the fields of design and evaluation of the m-learning systems. Results demonstrate that research in the area has had a large growth since the 2012, and due to the recent boom of mobile devices in education, we believe that the number of studies will continue to grow in the following years. Also we identify a necessity when we see that not all the m-learning applications have used usability tests, we did not find guidelines or frameworks to evaluate them either. With this results and tendencies, we propose the creation of a model that evaluates the m-learning applications during the development stages, considering educational factors, usability and student experience, to improve the quality in use and to improve the student experience when using mobile learning.
Collaborative Strategies in Multitouch Tabletop to Encourage Social Interaction in People with Autism BIBAFull-Text 13
  Greis F. Mireya Silva; Alberto Raposo; Maryse Suplino
In this paper, we propose a set of collaborative strategies in a collaborative game for multitouch tabletop in order to encourage social interaction between people with severe autism. We evaluated the collaborative strategies with a group of youth with high impairment autism in social interaction. The results suggest that collaborative strategies and the multitouch game encouraged the youth to perform different verbal and gestural social interaction expressions with their partners to cooperate and achieve the game goal. These collaborative strategies could be used in other collaborative applications for people with autism.
Analyzing and Evaluating Collaborative Processes using Case Studies in the Software Development Context BIBAFull-Text 14
  Julio Ariel Hurtado Alegría; César A. Collazos
Collaboration engineering is a systematic approach to build collaborative processes in order to create business value to the organizations. To construct repeatable collaborative processes requires understanding as the process is actually practiced and on the other hand, evaluate the effectiveness of the designed collaborative processes. In this paper, the CSACE (Case Study based Analysis in Collaboration Engineering) method is presented. CSACE is based on a case study methodology for covering the collaborative needs and evaluate if these needs have been covered by the proposed processes, both in an empirical way. The CSACE method was applied for modeling two collaborative processes analyzed and evaluated inside two different learning environments using the study case as validation method. Results in this study case show that the CSACE method is useful and effective in the incremental definition of empirical collaborative processes.
Examination of Computer Supported Collaborative Business Process Modeling with Activity Theory BIBAFull-Text 15
  Duygu Findik Coskunçay; Murat Perit Çakir
Activity Theory provides a framework to examine and explain human-human and human-computer interactions. In this study, Activity Theory was used to examine both interactions in depth in the context of Computer Supported Collaborative Business Process Modeling (CSCBPM) in which geographically dispersed multiple users interact with each other and with the system. This framework enabled us to examine the activities of CSCBPM in detail and understand the process of CSCBPM. During the CSCBPM, some difficulties were identified between the components of Activity Theory framework. The difficulties and how they were handled are also presented and some system design suggestions were offered to increase efficiency of interaction in CSCBPM.

Emotional Interfaces

Empatheticons: Designing Emotion Awareness Tools for Group Recommenders BIBAFull-Text 16
  Yu Chen; Xiaojuan Ma; Alfredo Cerezo; Pearl Pu
Group recommender systems help users to find items of interest collaboratively. Support for such collaboration has been mainly provided by tools that visualize membership awareness, preference awareness and decision awareness. However, these mechanisms do not address group dynamic issues: how member may affect each other. In this paper, we investigate the roles of emotion awareness tools and how they may enable positive group dynamics. We first describe the design process behind a set of dynamic emoticons, which we call empatheticons. We then show that they allow users to represent, annotate, and visualize group members' emotions in GroupFun, a group music recommender. An in-depth user study (N = 18) with GroupFun demonstrates that users' emotion annotation for recommended songs can be influenced by other group members. Most importantly, empatheticons enhance users' perceptions of the connectedness (immediacy) and familiarity (intimacy) with each other and the positive group dynamics.
From Analogue to Digital: Emotions and Phenomena Influencing the Acceptance of Near-Field Communication Technology BIBAFull-Text 17
  Annamaria Andrea Vitali; Lucio Bianchi; Shan Chen
This work presents an initial analysis of phenomena that influence the acceptance of Near-Field Communication technology (NFC) from an emotional point of view. The objective is to experiment the analysis of emotions as a design method to outline useful insights for designer. Even if the NFC technology is ready to grant safe users experience for payment and access to places, it is facing difficulties reaching user's acceptability. The paper will compare emotions and cognitive processes characterizing actual analogue experiences to digital ones supported by NFC. As a result a framework of design guidelines for engaging NFC services will be provided. Emphasis is given to the gestures involved in the interactive experience, potential metaphor and NFC dedicated devices.
Emotional Navigation in nonlinear narratives: a case study on the influence of color BIBAFull-Text 18
  Víctor Socas; Carina González; Sara Caratelli
Color is a powerful visual stimulus to be considered in the design of a visual narrative experience, because it is closely related to emotions and can guide users in nonlinear narrative subjectively. So, this paper discusses and presents a study on the evaluation of user experience in a non-linear audiovisual narrative, which includes techniques such as structured observation, cardsorting, questionnaires and eyetracking. The results show that the color helps the user in navigating in nonlinear narrative structures.
Emotions evoked during the use of Learning Management Systems BIBAFull-Text 19
  Méndez A. Yenny; César A. Collazos; Toni Granollers; Rosa Gil
In order to focus the evaluation of Learning Management Systems (LMS) to the interpretation and analysis of specific emotions, we propose in this paper a "base list" of emotions which are obtained from related research that identified emotions evoked by students in academics environments. Two case studies in which students performed different activities and selected emotions from the criteria themselves considered were evoked during development activities. The selection of emotions was supported in three phases: base case study, related research and analysis of results. Final list of emotions selected was: anxiety, pride, happiness, sadness, fascination, inspiration, pleasant surprise, unpleasant surprise, boredom, anger, admiration, frustration and amusement. This list is a first proposal of emotions that would be appropriate to consider evaluating Learning Management Systems.
Adaptive text generation based on emotional lexical choice BIBAFull-Text 20
  Susana Bautista; Pablo Gervás; Alberto Díaz
The emotional information can have influence in several stages in text generation process. In this paper, the emotional connotations play a role in the lexical choice stage belongs to discourse planner component in the generator. We present a new module for lexical choice, where the inputs are the term and the emotion which you want to generate. In addition, we show a real example of a system using lexical and emotional resources in English, the module generates the best lexical option like output. The adaptive generation is achieved from emotional information, as that determines the most appropriate option.
Methodology of emotional evaluation in education and rehabilitation activities for people with Down syndrome BIBAFull-Text 21
  Pablo Torres-Carrión; Carina González-González; Alberto Mora Carreño
This document describes a methodology applicable to emotions assessment in education and rehabilitation activities for people with Down Syndrome (henceforth DS). This methodology is organized in three assessment phases and include the Tango:H platform to active games based in Kinect, a tool for subjective evaluation of emotions called EMODIANA and a tool for automatic evaluation of emotions called HER. Furthermore, an observational methodology is presented, which allows the emotional evaluation through verbal and nonverbal observation and social interactions.

Usability and User Experience

Potential Individual Differences Regarding Automation Effects in Automated Driving BIBAFull-Text 22
  Moritz Körber; Klaus Bengler
Currently, the legal, technical and psychological regulatory framework of automated driving is being discussed by car manufacturers and researchers to guarantee its safe and smooth introduction into the traffic system. This discussion is accompanied by plenty of studies that seek to study the human side of the interaction with automation and to expose potential problems and hazards. Past research from other domains has shown that the studies' subjects differ considerably, for example in their abilities (e.g. ability to monitor) or in their attitudes (e.g. trust in automation). In this work we discuss potential individual differences -- classified into dispositions, stable traits, operator state, attitudes and demographics -- that could influence the human performance in interactions with automation. Where they exist, valid methods of measurement are referenced. The review closes with a deduction of potential risk groups that were inferred based on the reviewed literature.
Standards Evaluation HMI: Application of the guideline GEDIS to the systems SCADA of the NAP (Network Access Point) Canary Islands BIBAFull-Text 23
  Said Filali; Carina González; Carlos Lecuona
This work presents an evaluation to the interfaces of the Network Operations Center NOC (Network Operations Center) of the NAP (Network Access Point of the Canarias) following the HMI standards and related regulations, as well as the ergonomic monitoring guide GEDIS. Based on the results obtained, it is hereby presented a prototype for the improvement of the current interface used by the operators of the monitoring system.
Integrating Field Studies in Agile Development to Evaluate Usability on Context Dependant Mobile Applications BIBAFull-Text 24
  Juan-Miguel López-Gil; Maite Urretavizcaya; Begoña Losada; Isabel Fernández-Castro
Agile development is a current trend in Software Engineering which is encouraged by the special needs of interactive systems that require incorporating usability engineering in their development processes. In this regard, how usability assessment of mobile interactive applications should be conducted in the frame of agile methodologies is an open question. On the one hand, usability evaluation consumes time and resources, which can make agile methodologies lose their agile essence. On the other hand, there is a considerable debate about whether user interactions with mobile systems should be investigated in the field or in more traditional laboratory environments.
   This paper presents the results of a field study conducted in an interactive context-dependant mobile application. This study allowed detecting different interaction patterns and contextual factors that are difficult or impossible to simulate in laboratory. The way and timing in which evaluations were performed were carefully considered to optimize the cost in time and resources. The integration of field evaluations in agile processes, as the one here presented, is consistent with the objective of improving product quality through incremental assessments.
How to classify to experts in usability evaluation BIBAFull-Text 25
  Federico Botella; Eloy Alarcon; Antonio Peñalver
Usability inspections are a set of methods for evaluating one interactive system by experts. They try to find possible usability problems and determining the level of usability of the system without involving real users. One of these methods is heuristic evaluation, where several experts inspect one system or its interface for searching usability issues. Some authors maintain that evaluation by experts in usability discovers more usability issues than evaluation conducted by non-experts. But the question is how to determine the degree of expertise of an evaluator.
   In this paper we will propose a classification of evaluators based on the university degree obtained or the number of hours of practice gathered in this field. One user could be classified as expert depending on his/her professional career and not only by university degrees. This is why it is important to collect other attributes of each user like domains, skills or projects to determine their expertise. We finally present how to validate these attributes by other users of the proposed repository.
A Usability Study Case of a Vision-Based Gesture Interface BIBAFull-Text 26
  Pere Ponsa; Carlos Urbina; Cristina Manresa-Yee; Ramon Vilanova
Gestural interaction uses human gestures to interact with an interactive system. Many efforts have been done to define gestures and facilitate a comfortable and natural way to interact. In this paper an experimental session in laboratory conditions is presented aiming at analyzing the usability factors of a vision-based gestural interface. Based on the results, recommendations are given to modify the configuration of some parameters between the human, the Kinect sensor, Kinect Mouse and the virtual visit of a museum with the final aim to improve the overall interaction.
A Case Study on Cross-Platform Development Frameworks for Mobile Applications and UX BIBAFull-Text 27
  Esteban Angulo; Xavier Ferre
Cross-platform development frameworks for mobile applications promise important advantages in cost cuttings and easy maintenance, posing as a very good option for organizations interested in the design of mobile applications for several platforms. Given that platform conventions are especially important for the User eXperience (UX) of mobile applications, the usage of a framework where the same code defines the behavior of the app in different platforms could have a negative impact in the UX. This paper describes a study where two independent teams have designed two different versions of a mobile application, one using a framework that generates Android and iOS versions automatically, and another team using native tools. The alternative versions for each platform have been evaluated with 37 users with a combination of a laboratory usability test and a longitudinal study. The results show that differences are minimal in the Android platform, but in iOS, even if a reasonably good UX can be obtained with the usage of this framework by an UX-conscious design team, a higher level of UX can be obtained directly developing with a native tool.
Proposal to evaluate the satisfaction of use in Virtual Learning Environments BIBAFull-Text 28
  Andrés F. Aguirre; Villareal F. Ángela; César A. Collazos; Rosa Gil
Every time there is an increased interest in measuring and evaluating the user experience more objectively and accurately with respect to the real needs of users. However, the evolution of technology has meant various challenges and have achieved a closer understanding of the implicit elements in the user and an interactive system interaction. In the case of virtual learning environments, the challenge is greater as there are contextual specific aspects that traditional methods cannot provide in an adequate way to assess the satisfaction of use in such environments. This proposal intended to include crucial elements that characterize learning software systems and to show how to evaluate these systems from an emotional approach.
Evaluation of Disambiguation Mechanisms of Object-Based Selection in Virtual Environment: Which Performances and Features to Support "Pick Out"? BIBAFull-Text 29
  Zouhair Serrar; Nabil Elmarzouqi; Zahi Jarir; Jean-Christophe Lapayre
A 3D object selection technique is an essential building part of interactive virtual environment system. This ability to choose which object is the target for subsequent actions precedes any further behavior. Selection mechanism as part of manipulation process in a virtual environment is performed using different techniques. Furthermore, many problems make selection a difficult task and contribute to target ambiguity that leads users to select wrong objects by mistake. Therefore, disambiguation mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to solve target ambiguity. In this paper, we present an evaluation study of selection techniques that support disambiguation mechanisms.
   We performed a comparative study of 4 selection techniques including disambiguation mechanisms: Ray-Casting, Depth Ray, SQUAD and Shadow Cone. We developed an automated test environment where we varied scene density and measured the performance of each selection technique. Our goal was to measure the velocity of each technique, its sensitivity to occlusion, how much navigation it required and how far it could select targets. We found that discrete progressive refinement used in SQUAD was the fastest solution when user acts in a scene containing few objects to select. We also found that techniques that augment the pointing metaphor by using a 3D cursor, such as Depth Ray and SQUAD, performed better than ray casting itself or cone casting.

HCI and Videogames

Continuous Assessment in Educational Video Games: A Roleplaying approach BIBAFull-Text 30
  J. R. López-Arcos; F. L. Gutiérrez; N. Padilla-Zea; N. Medina Medina; P. Paderewski
Evaluating competency-based learning requires a continuous assessment process which enables the skills and capabilities that students develop to be detected. Using video games allows a great deal of information to be recorded and merged effectively, which makes them an advantageous option in assessing this kind of learning. Consequently, in this paper we present a design process for educational video games to enable learning and assessment on the basis of competencies. In addition, a mechanism to assess education and games is presented, which allows feedback to be given to students in a similar way to role-playing games, as well as informing the teacher about the learning progress of players. Both proposals have been applied to a video adventure game designed to foster the competency of reading comprehension.
Design of Context-Based AR Videogames BIBAFull-Text 31
  A. J. Soriano Marin; J. L. González Sánchez; F. L. Gutiérrez Vela
The main objective of this work is to present the design principles of educational video games under the paradigm of context learning using augmented reality technologies. This paradigm provides new challenges in the interactive experience, which help to create new mechanisms for the assimilation of educational contents for students..
NFCBOOK: GameBook Digital Based on Tangible User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 32
  Elena de la Guía; María D. Lozano; Víctor M. R. Penichet; Rubén Nieto
Reading is a skill, which is the ground of the most of processes of learning and it is necessary in order to stimulate children cognitive abilities such as mental agility, language, decision making, etc. However, reading is not considered an enjoyable activity by children. Thus, we propose NFCBook, a digital gamebook based on Tangible User Interfaces. The book embodies a literary work where the user is involved in the story deciding the main character's fate. The gamebook is executed on a mobile device (tablet, smartphone, and so on). The interaction style is founded on Tangible User Interfaces which allow the application to be controlled through gestures by touching the screen with the fingers or bringing smart objects close to mobile device. The sequence of this gamebook is as detailed below. First, children must look for common cards that incorporate NFC technology (in ticketing applications, payment cards and so forth). Then, users must configure the tangible interface or common cards (associating the objects with its digital information in the gamebook). And finally, children can start reading and playing with NFCBook.
Modelling Language for Tabletop Hybrid Videogames BIBAFull-Text 33
  Javier Marco; Eva Cerezo; Sandra Baldassarri
This work presents ToyVision TUIML, a Tangible User Interface Modeling Language that enables interaction designers to ideate and express hybrid games for tabletop devices (computer games based on the physical manipulation of playing pieces over an active horizontal surface). This language is based on a hierarchical visual representation of all the playing pieces involved in the game, the meaning of the physical manipulations, and the relationships between playing pieces that players will establish during the game. This representation is used as a bridge between the design and the implementation processes, as it can be automatically translated into a computer understandable language such as XML.
   This paper also details a user test with interaction designers, who ideated and prototyped innovative playing pieces for tabletop hybrid games, with the support of ToyVision TUIML.

HCI and Health

Assessment of a Tool for Users with Complex Communication Needs BIBAFull-Text 34
  Sandra Baldassarri; Javier Marco; Eva Cerezo; Lourdes Moreno
In this paper, an Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) tool called AraBoard, developed for facilitating the functional communication to persons with complex communication needs, is presented. In order to guarantee the tool's quality, an assessment process with experts has been carried out. The experts used as instrument a checklist previously prepared from the a review of the related work and standards. In this way, a resource for assessment of AAC tools is given, and also the results of this evaluation, which verify a high level of accessibility in AraBoard, are shown. Finally, some suggestions to improve and to be included in new tool versions are presented.
Visualization Model for Learning of Pronunciation with an Approach from Human Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 35
  Sandra Cano; Gloria Inés Álvarez; César Collazos
The fields of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Information Visualization (InfoVis) could complement one another, rather than being treated as two different disciplines, in order to provide visual and interactive aspects for improved information visualization. A model is proposed in this light that allows both researchers and users to analyze a pronunciation learning-oriented task, based on analysis of three reference models for information visualization Card, Mackinlay, Shneiderman; Chi; and Wünsche. These models are linear and although they offer data representation-focused approaches, they recognize the role of the user in their different stages.
   The three visualization models highlight such important aspects as representation, interaction and perception -- elements of study that are essential in the field of HCI -- in order to create a suitable representation of the information that enables a detailed understanding to be acquired and developed, and experiences to be communicated, wherein the user can interact more easily with the information and get the most from the visualization tool.
   This article aims to address both research fields. Information visualization is focused on visual representation of acoustic signals of the voice, based upon multidimensional data, while HCI takes into account user-oriented visual and interactive aspects. It is sought to integrate the two research fields in the proposed model, so that acoustic voice signal data are represented on a two dimensional plane and the user can visually comprehend as many aspects of the voice as possible, being able to recognize the quality of the pronunciation through information succinctly represented by graphic attributes.
   The model is comprised of stages and interaction mechanisms that combine to represent four views. Each view has a different makeup, in order to structure the data and display them using graphical attributes, such as color, position, shape, size, text, orientation and texture. These help in analysis and evaluation and in how to represent the connections between the various visual components in order to establish relationships between data.
   The main objective of the model is to represent a large number of aspects of the voice, so that in pronunciation training tasks a person can understand pronunciation quality visually. The model represents the results of comparing an input signal recorded by a microphone with a correctly pronounced signal set.
   Views constitute the final stage of the model. Data are thus presented so that the user can see and interpret representations of phoneme pronunciations. The views enable the user to learn about different aspects of the voice and recognize pronunciation quality visually. Each view represents different information: the first reveals information rapidly using facial gestures to represent moods -- a happy face for good pronunciation and a sad face when the pronunciation is poor, making use of facial attributes such as eyes, eyebrows, nose and mouth. These represent values of voice characteristics through their size, shape, position or orientation. The second view permits a quick inspection of data, making comparison between correct pronunciation prototypes and the test signal and employing graphical attributes such as color and shape to interpret degrees of similarity of characteristics between phonemes. A third view illustrates similarities between data associated with a color, position and shape, using a visualization technique called Self-organizing Maps. Finally, a fourth view shows a diagonal line to indicate correlations between a set of phonemes relative to the phoneme pronounced. Each view has a level of interpretation and understanding depending on the degree of experience of the user -- from a first view oriented for a child to a fourth view for a person skilled in signal modeling.
   The four views offer different visual explorations and levels of interpretation, so that the user can understand aspects of the voice and gain knowledge about the quality of the pronunciation. The model involves interaction with the user, which takes account of key aspects that might contribute to an easy decoding of information, in order to provide a better understanding of the task. They also allow the user to learn about the different aspects of the acoustic signal of the voice by means of various combinations of visualization and help an understanding of the data, taking full advantage of visual perception skills to discover patterns.
   The proposed model considers aspects of design in the display interface, aspects that could reduce the cognitive effort required to understand the graphic representation, so that users can devote their cognitive ability to understanding that which is being represented.
   Information visualization and HCI are two areas of research that can support each another with the aim of creating a visual representation oriented to the user, in such a way that as much information as possible can be gained and interpreted with the minimum of effort.
SMD-Saúde: Digital Media System for Health Area BIBAFull-Text 36
  Marta R. Bez; Fernando Stahnke; Maria P. Rolim; Fernando Helwanger; José Barbosa
This paper aims to present the SMD-Saúde. This is a web storage system of digital media for teaching medicine in a Brazilian university. The emphasis on issues related to the user interface and system design, considering applicable learning theories applicable to modern technologies.
Design and development of a prototype of an interactive hospital room with Kinect BIBAFull-Text 37
  Julian Arcos Argoty; Pablo Figueroa
When patients visit hospitals, they tend to develop negative feelings such as anxiety and lack of comfort. This paper uses the techniques of Interaction Design and User-Centered Design with the main objective to ask users about their needs and requirements to develop an interactive hospital room with a natural interaction device like Kinect, so we could achieve a reduction on those negative feelings described previously.
   This will allow that people could use their voices and a set of body gestures to control basic devices that could be find in a hospital room, making the hospitalization process a different, more comfortable and with more autonomy. Prototypes were developed and evaluated into two stages by people that could use the application potentially. The results show that people agree to use this form of interaction in terms of comfort, performance and utility.
Applying Movement Based Interaction in Sitting-Down and Getting-Up Rehabilitation Therapies BIBAFull-Text 38
  José Antonio Fernández Valls; Victor M. R. Penichet; María Dolores Lozano; Juan E. Garrido; Carlos Gimena Bello
People suffering from brain damage present disorders which hinder their daily life. They can be limited when walking, catching objects, climbing upstairs, etc. These common activities are natural and simple for people without those handicaps but those with a neurodegenerative disease or brain damage find an important obstacle in them. In this sense, authors have developed a system whose main goal is to offer an assistant to be applied at rehabilitation centers in order to help patients in their specific disabilities. The system guides users with brain damage to improve or learn the capacity of getting up from a chair. The system analyzes continuously the postures and movements of the patients and guides them. Patients receive indications to know the steps to be performed and how to complete each one of them. A complete user interface shows adequate indications, corrections and complementary information.

Interaction Design

Sketching for designing enactive interactions BIBAFull-Text 39
  Andrés Rodríguez; Pascual González López; Gustavo Rossi
A conceptual framework for addressing the sketching of enactive interactions is presented. The importance of sketching for designing interactions and basic concepts on enactive interfaces are reviewed. A framework is proposed, organized as a two dimensional map: the interactivity embodied by the representations and their expressiveness in terms of user experience. The framework includes paper sketches as well as mockups and sketches in hardware, linked by interactivity attributes. A case study applying the framework is presented and emerging requirements for tools supporting the sketching of this kind of interfaces are outlined.
Different interaction paradigms for different user groups: an evaluation regarding content selection BIBAFull-Text 40
  Diana Carvalho; Maximino Bessa; Luís Magalhães
In recent years there has been a boom of different natural interaction paradigms, such as touch, tangible or gesture-based interfaces, that make better use of human's innate skills rather than imposing new learning processes. However, no work has been reported that systematically evaluates how these interfaces influence users' performance with regard to their level of digital literacy or even age. Furthermore, it is also important to understand the interaction paradigms' impact when performing basic operations, such as data selection, insertion and manipulation, and which interface could be the most efficient for each task. This paper reports the first step of an exploratory evaluation about the relationship between different interaction paradigms and specific target-audiences: dealing with a selection task. We conducted an experiment with 60 subjects to evaluate how different interfaces may influence the performance of specific groups of users. Four input modalities are evaluated in a selection task and results for these different user groups are reported in terms of performance, efficacy (error rate) and user preference. For each group of users, we determined there was a statistically significant difference between the mean time taken to complete the task in each interface. Also, the one input modality every user was accustomed with (the computer mouse) was the one that showed the most discrepancy regarding performance between the groups. We believe that this study raises new issues for future research.
Proposing interaction patterns for designing videogames supported in Smartphones BIBAFull-Text 41
  Filigrana B. Leandro; Andrés Solano; César A. Collazos
Finding common solutions to recurring design problems or creating computer programs is one way to improve communication between designers of software products and multiple users. Nowadays, one of the practices used to find these solutions is through patterns, which have their origin in architecture and have been used since the 90s in the software world. Still, it is not easy to decide which of the existing patterns are more appropriate for use in videogames design, so that it can contribute to the ease of use of videogames. For this reason, this paper presents a proposal to obtain a set of interaction patterns focused on ease of use, which are related to the design of videogames supported in Smartphones. This, from gathering information about interaction patterns of traditional software and entertainment software.
Conceptual Model for Automatic Generation of Context-Sensitive User-Tailored Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 42
  Raúl Miñón; Myriam Arrue; Julio Abascal
Ubiquitously available services can be inaccessible to people with physical, sensory or cognitive restrictions. These users require interfaces tailored to their characteristics and needs. In addition, their interaction context should also be considered. The automatic generation of accessible user interfaces deals with all these issues. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for the automatic generation of tailored user interfaces in the context of ubiquitous applications. The model describes the components and the transformations required for providing accessible user-tailored interfaces. It has been successfully applied in several practical approaches, resulting in a coherent and compatible design of each phase of the process.
Facilitation Process Model including elements of the HAMSTERS notation BIBAFull-Text 43
  Andrés Solano; Toni Granollers; César A. Collazos; Cristian Rusu
There is a large number and variety of processes to achieve a certain goal; however, a lot of these processes have been designed to be carried out in individual work environments. For that reason, in the area of Collaboration Engineering it has been proposed a Methodology for the Development of Collaborative Processes, which allows obtaining the collaborative specification of a process. This methodology provides the Facilitation Process Model (FPM) to represent the process flow, which has been updated from a series of elements that provides the HAMSTERS (Human-centered Assessment and Modeling to Support Task Engineering for Resilient Systems) notation, in order to contribute to its understanding and future use. Thus, this paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the elements included in the FPM through a case study that compares a traditional FPM versus one that includes HAMSTERS elements.
Enhancing Privacy Awareness through Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 44
  Sandra R. Murillo; J. Alfredo Sánchez
A wide range of tools can be used for endowing applications with functionality related to user privacy according to customer's requirements and developer's experience. This implies a high investment of resources because it requires team skills in legal areas, computer security, graphic design and cognitive ergonomics. Despite this situation, there are no specific software tools that allow developers to build effective privacy management applications that consider three critical requirements: compliance with legal terms, adherence to budget limitations, and usability for the target audience. This paper proposes applying interaction patterns to reduce current gaps in the interaction between users and privacy notices.

Software and Systems Engineering

Mashup Architecture for Connecting Graphical Linux Applications Using a Software Bus BIBAFull-Text 45
  Mohamed-Ikbel Boulabiar; Gilles Coppin; Franck Poirier
Although UNIX commands are simple, they can be combined to accomplish complex tasks by piping the output of one command, into another's input. With the invasion of GUI applications, we have lost this ability to chain many small tools in order to accomplish a composite task or the possibility to script applications. As such we have become imprisoned into the interface as designed by the developer. Most applications are also designed to be used through a keyboard and a mouse even if the user has newer input devices. In this paper, we demonstrate how we can remove most of these limits and provide the possibility to script, adapt and automate GUI applications using a software bus in a Linux operating system. We provide implemented proof-of-concept cases in addition to conceptual scenarios showing the possibilities arising from the approach.
Semantic Web End-User Tasks BIBAFull-Text 46
  Alfons Palacios; Roberto García; Marta Oliva; Toni Granollers
In order to make the Semantic Web reach "real world" end-users it is important to take into account Semantic Web usability. We focus our study of Semantic Web user tasks in end-user online applications, trying to contribute to establishing guidelines that help the adoption of the Semantic Web. However, as starting point, we take into account existing tasks analysis for Web systems and even online information systems in general in order to avoid constraining our view to the current state of development of the Semantic Web. The proposed set of end-user Semantic Web tasks is Search, Browse, Annotate, Mashup, Map, Share, Communicate and Transact.
Empowering Interfaces for System Administrators: Keeping the Command Line in Mind when Designing GUIs BIBAFull-Text 47
  Sandra R. Murillo; J. Alfredo Sánchez
In terms of usability, network management software based on command line interfaces (CLI) is efficient but error prone. With GUIs, a new generation of security tools emerged and were adopted by young system administrators. Though usability has improved, it has been argued that CLI-based software tends to support better user performance. Incorporating CLI advantages into graphical versions (or vice versa) remains a challenge. This paper presents a quantitative study regarding system administrators' practices and preferences regarding GUIs and CLIs and reports on initial results of a usability evaluation performed on proposed interfaces that are informed by our study. Personalization features are particularly appreciated by network administrators, which suggests possible strategies for graphical interface designs that improve user experience while maintaining the positive aspects of CLI-based software.
Towards Considering Quality of Adaptation in ISATINE BIBFull-Text 48
  Cristina Roda; Víctor López-Jaquero; Francisco Montero
UP4VED: Development Method based on the Unified Process and Best Practices for Building Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 49
  David Cardona Q. Jesús; Luis Joyanes Aguilar; Alejandro Castro B. David
This paper presents a methodological proposal called UP4VED (Unified Development Process for Virtual Environments), a development methodology which is based on the Unified Process and best practices for building virtual environments; this methodology includes the best proposals among the existing methodologies for the development of Virtual Environments (VEs), special considerations for its modeling, the pillars of the unified process, as well as suggestions from the SPEM 2.0 OMG standard. Furthermore, the development of an application called "Platform for Assisted Generation for Virtual Environments (3DGEN)" which employs the methodological process UP4VED.
Learning with an IT tool: analysis of the student's activity BIBAFull-Text 50
  Jean-François Hérold
In France, more and more teachers use an IT tool in their teaching sequence. This raises the question of the effectiveness of this type of tool for student learning. In order to answer this question, we initiated a research program to determine the elements to be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process with an IT tool. For this, we rely on an analysis of student activity in the classroom, through the main results given by the theory of cognitive load. We present in this paper the results of three experimental studies.
Generic Classifier Potential Users of Visual Systems BIBAFull-Text 51
  Laura Patricia Ramírez Rivera; Risto Fermin Rangel Kuoppa
The area of visualization has been widely developed since it provides users the capability to obtain and assimilate information from complex data, therefore a lot of applications and systems that generate such views have been created. Still, certain questions have not been fully answered yet, for example, what kind of visualization can be more useful in certain types of users? or which displays for different deployments are better accepted? Such problems are highly related to the design of graphical user interfaces which involve obtaining key features that allow us to differentiate user productivity observed depending on the type of display and deployment tendencies. The study we are reporting is intended to include the analysis of mental processes developed by the user in order to characterize and to record the actual productivity gained.
Improving User-Insurance Communication on Accident Reports BIBAFull-Text 52
  Habib M. Fardoun; Daniyal M. Alghazzawi; Antonio Paules Cipres
This paper presents an easy to use methodology and system for insurance companies targeting at managing traffic accidents reports process. The main objective is to facilitate and accelerate the process of creating and finalizing the necessary accident reports in cases without mortal victims involved. The diverse entities participating in the process from the moment an accident occurs until the related final actions needed are included. Nowadays, this market is limited to the consulting platforms offered by the insurance companies.

HCI and Education

Adaptation Model Content Based in Cultural Profile into Learning Environment BIBAFull-Text 53
  Laura N. Aballay; Cesar A. Collazos; Silvana V. Aciar; Carina S. González
The adaptation of the user interface is present in several areas, reaching to embrace virtual learning environments. One possible source of adaptation could be based on the student's cultural profile. People from different countries have different cultures and interact with the user interface differently, prefer different graphic designs, and have different expectations and behavior patterns. Therefore, the user interface should be adapted to the needs of each geographical location to provide optimal user experience. This paper presents a preliminary adapting model for interface according to the cultural profile of the user / student, specifically in a ubiquitous environment for collaborative learning.
Personalized adaptive interfaces for supporting recommendation from learning object repositories BIBFull-Text 54
  Oscar M. Salazar Ospina; Paula A. Rodríguez Marín; Demetrio A. Ovalle Carranza; Néstor D. Duque Méndez
A Systematic Review of Technology Acceptance Model in e-Learning Context BIBAFull-Text 55
  Nurcan Alkis; Duygu Findik Coskunçay; Sevgi Özkan Yildirim
In this study, a systematic review was performed to identify the factors that affect adoption of e-learning systems by end-users. There are different studies in literature that examine factors affecting end-users' e-learning acceptance and adoption. However any single study has not examined existing literature systematically in this context. This systematic review will be helpful to the people who are interested in e-learning and its adoption by providing effective factors in the literature which strongly influence the users' e-learning and related systems' perception. More importantly, this systematic review helps to identify the needs of the literature.
A Review of Quantitative Empirical Approaches in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 56
  Javier Fernández Serrano; Silvia T. Acuña; José A. Macías
Experimentation plays a major role in the development and validation of new theories in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). In this paper, we address quantitative empirical studies, an approach that has become the standard methodology for conducting research in HCI. This research provides an in-depth review, gathering a representative and relatively extensive collection of primary studies. We aim to identify relevant research lines in HCI in which quantitative approaches have been employed in order to construct a consistent and comprehensive taxonomy of quantitative approaches and form a broad picture of the procedures, tools and techniques employed. A systematic mapping study methodology has been adopted to produce reliable results in a reproducible and agile manner.
HCI Incorporation: a case for Colombia BIBAFull-Text 57
  William J. Giraldo; Mónica Lorena Tobón; Fáber D. Giraldo; María L. Villegas; Alexandra Guerrero; Mónica Yulieth Cortés; Alexandra Ruiz; César A. Collazos
This paper shows a practical case of HCI incorporation in Colombian software development companies, mainly in the Colombian coffee region. This case is supported by a self-sustaining ecosystem model that emerges from the academy approach to software development companies. This ecosystem model is a response for the need to translate scientific knowledge into practical actions that can be performed by development engineers. This ecosystem should give coverage to all the necessary elements to generate real services of HCI incorporation, regardless of the nature of projects that software development companies are doing. We have been concretizing, one by one, all the necessary components of this ecosystem which have been registered into a log full of events that take place in various capacities which a self-sustaining business model must deal with.

Interaction Devices and Multimodal Systems

DiscoverView Saudi: A new point of view of Saudi Arabia BIBAFull-Text 58
  Habib M. Fardoun; Abdullah AL-Malaise AL-Ghamdi; Lorenzo Carretero Gonzalez
Few people know about real Saudi history and culture; this is because what most people know is based on clichés based on word of mouth. Anchoring in new ways of combining existing technologies such as GPS, the web services, the cloud hosted information, 3D modelling and the services offered by mobile devices, the proposed system offers to the user, located at anywhere in Saudi Arabia, the ability to acquire desired information about his/her surroundings on a mobile device. Thus, the user's mobility and the mobile device location information can be obtained related to the city areas surrounding the user. As such, not only someone can visit Saudi Arabia, but also a global 360 degrees vision of the surroundings is possible related to the buildings, sightseeing and under constructions areas along with their history; in other words, providing a glance and insight into Saudi Arabia's past, present and future.
A multisensor system for positioning of multiple users BIBAFull-Text 59
  Miguel Oliver; José Pascual Molina; Francisco Montero; Pascual González; Antonio Fernández-Caballero
Interaction Human-Computer Systems that use cameras are gaining presence and demand based on more accurate and affordable development of body-language interaction systems.
   Using only a camera to detect the motion of a user may be enough when he/she is in its field of view. In that case, the system provides accurate information about the position and motion of the user, but when the interaction takes place in a large space or a large number of users are considered, a single camera system has limitations to detect and track the users. However, if the use of a set of cameras is considered, the system may deal properly with the recognition of the users, proving higher accuracy and capacity.
   This paper presents a solution based on a multisensor positioning system using motion capture to overcome the described shortcomings. Currently, this solution is being used to create systems which need information about the position and visual identification of multiple users, such as solutions to support physical rehabilitation activities.
Testing Open-Source Implementations for Detection Response Tasks BIBAFull-Text 60
  Michael Krause; Antonia Conti; Moritz Späth; Klaus Bengler
Open-Source variants of Detection Response Task (DRT) were implemented on an Arduino board and Android smartphone. These systems were tested in an experiment under single task (only the DRT), double task (DRT + driving simulation), and triple task conditions (DRT + driving simulation + 2-back cognitive task). All DRT variants reflected different task set load, nevertheless, the smartphone setup exhibited lower internal correlations and in one condition failed to reach significance.
Wireless Virtual Reality System Based on a Minimum Set of Inertial Sensors BIBAFull-Text 61
  Ernesto de la Rubia; Antonio Diaz-Estrella
Using the whole body to interact in Virtual Reality experiences leads to significant benefits as increasing the levels of engagement and satisfaction.
   This paper presents the ongoing project Orion. Its main objective is to design, develop and evaluate a wireless Virtual Reality system that is based on a minimum set of inertial sensors. Using this system, the users will be able to really walk to navigate across the 3D environment and interact with virtual objects using their hands directly.
   After describing similar systems, the project objectives are presented and the challenges to overcome are identified. Next, the performed work is described as well as preliminary results from pilot studies and the tasks to address subsequently.
Comparing the Glance time Required to Operate Standard Interface Devices and Touchscreen Devices in Automobiles BIBAFull-Text 62
  Rafael Silva Duarte; Branca Freitas de Oliveira
This paper measures and compares the user's glance time required to perform a secondary task in different interfaces while driving an automobile in a simulator. The simulator was built using a videogame equipped with steering wheel, pedals and shift gears. A pre-determined route is set on the simulator and, while driving, the user is required to perform a list of three secondary tasks: turn on an automotive radio, change tuning and rise volume. The tests are performed using three different devices: a conventional car radio, a virtual touchscreen copy of this radio, and a modified touchscreen interface. The tests were conducted with 21 participants, between 18 and 72 years old. Every user was tested using all the three layouts in similar simulated conditions. While the participants were been tested, they were also filmed. Later, each video was analyzed to determine the time that each user look away from the main monitor to realized the required secondary task. The results were compared to determine the impact of replacing conventional devices for touchscreen technologies in the driver's attention.
Conversational Structured Hybrid 3D Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 63
  Pablo Almajano; Enric Mayas; Inmaculada Rodriguez; Maite Lopez-Sanchez
Structured 3D Virtual Environments are 3D virtual spaces where some users' interactions are regulated by a subjacent Organisation Centered Multi Agent System (OCMAS) -- an Electronic Institution (EI). They are task-oriented hybrid systems, where staff (organisational) software agents support -- based on activities' specification and current EI state -- human users in their task achievement. The contribution of this paper is a conversational task-oriented structured 3D environment, where users interact with staff bots (i.e. the embodiment of staff agents) using natural language and, as a result, the communication is improved. With this aim, we extend the Artificial Intelligence Mark-up Language (AIML) with special tags to enable the complex flow of task-oriented conversations. They are characterised by different conversation' states -- such as asked, responded, failed or confirmed -- and by data types from the EI ontology. We evaluate the usability of our conversational proposal and compare it to a previous command-based interaction system. As expected, data analysis on users' skills -- command-based novice vs expert profile -- suggests the co-existence both conversational and command-based user-agent interaction styles. But overall, results show a higher users' satisfaction with the conversational approach which, in average, also performs better in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and errors.
How efficient can be a user with a tablet versus a smartphone? BIBAFull-Text 64
  Federico Botella; Juan P. Moreno; Antonio Peñalver
We can see at these days a large number of users utilizing a smartphone or a tablet as their daily working tool. Many professionals are changing the use of their desktop computers by using their mobile devices due to trends in their business. Thus, we can find more enterprise mobile apps that allow users to manage their companies using a mobile device in a more efficient and effective way and everywhere. This growing demand for mobile applications has become a challenge for current developers. We can find more and more enterprise applications delivered in three versions: desktop, tablet and smartphone. However, it is difficult to determine how productive a user can be in each version. In this paper we present a comparative usability study of one management mobile application designed for smartphone and tablet platforms for measuring the efficiency of the tablet version versus the smartphone version. We conducted a study with 8 participants to measure the efficiency of one mobile app and also measured the perceived usability using SUS questionnaire. This way, we obtained a ratio of the efficiency of using a tablet compared to a smartphone that could be significant for the development of future apps in small screens.
Identifying Optimal Attributes in 3D Interface DevicesSite BIBAFull-Text 65
  Martin Henschke; Tom Gedeon
We measured the precision and ease of use of three separate interface devices designed to be operated in 3D space, specifically with 3D environments and tasks. A gyroscopic, handheld mouse, a finger mounted gyroscopic mouse and a wired glove accompanied with a Microsoft Kinect were used to see which attributes of the devices were most important in their use. Results found interfaces with the closest analogue to typical computer usage performed the best, with participants commenting mainly on the importance of precision and accuracy over the 'naturalness' or appropriateness of the style of interface. We conclude that usability factors and maximizing user effectiveness in an environment far outweigh UX concerns of immersion or closeness to interface paradigm.
An approach to improve user experience with conversational recommenders through a 3D virtual environment BIBAFull-Text 66
  David Contreras; Maria Salamó; Inmaculada Rodríguez; Anna Puig
Nowadays e-commerce websites offer users such a huge amount of products, which far from facilitating the buying process, actually make it more difficult. Hence, recommenders, which learn from users' preferences, are consolidating as valuable instruments to enhance the buying process in the 2D Web. Indeed, 3D virtual environments are an alternative interface for recommenders. They provide the user with an immersive 3D social experience, enabling a richer visualisation and increasing the interaction possibilities with other users and with the recommender. In this paper, we focus on a novel framework to tightly integrate interactive recommendation systems in a 3D virtual environment. Additionally, we evaluate the framework based on several usability criteria. Results demonstrate that users positively valued the experience.

Posters

How to textually describe images in medical academic publications BIBAFull-Text 67
  Bruno Splendiani; Mireia Ribera
Figures in medicine publications are an essential source of information, but people with visual impairments cannot access them. The publishing workflow adopted by biomedical publishers does not include acceptable accessibility recommendations. A main solution to image accessibility is the inclusion of an alternative text. The article presents a proposal of supporting authors in the creation of appropriate textual alternatives by means of a decision tree, which would guide authors through the process of selecting where and how to include a text alternative, and a checklist of items for a comprehensive description of the figure content in the caption.
Deckubik: An Unique Open Building Experimental Facility Aimed to Test ICT Based Ambient Assisted Living Products BIBAFull-Text 68
  Ivan Arakistain; Josu Albizu; Amaia Castelruiz
DECKUBIK is a unique facility for R&D aimed at developing new concepts, products and services for the aging market. This new facility has been installed on the ground floor of the experimental building KUBIK, located in Derio, Vizcaya (Spain).
   DECKUBIK simulates a dwelling, with two bedrooms, a living room, a kitchen and a bathroom. The spaces are equipped with the necessary infrastructure and are prepared to place new products, interfaces, sensor systems, services and technologies that need to be tested and validated by Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) users.
   This paper will focus in two of the technologies that we brought into practice which can enhance user experience at AAL infrastructure. Interactive furniture with capacitance based sensing which can provide new non-intrusive functionalities, and self-powered control systems.
Graphical User Interface for the Container Loading Problem: [An approach using JavaScript] BIBAFull-Text 69
  Yanira González; Coromoto León; Gara Miranda; Javier Villamonte
This paper presents a Graphical User Interface for a service used to solve the Container Loading Problem as applied to the logistic industry, commonly encountered in transportation and wholesaling industries. This interface allows users to see how items (boxes) are to be placed in the container. In order to decide where exactly to locate each item, we used two evaluation heuristics based on a fill-by-levels strategy in which the items are storaged into the container. The user must choose the input file with the definition of the problem and the solution with the coordinates for each item inside the container. This information is then used by the GUI to arrange the boxes. However, the solutions given by evaluation heuristics can be modified using the mouse. The users can remove or exchange the items inside the container. Between of the features presented by this interface is the ability to keep track of all solutions that were rejected by the heuristics in its search for the final solution. The GUI was implemented using JavaScript and Three.js, a 3D library. While the heuristics were coded using C/C++.
Collaborative framework for the management of knowledge, an approach from gamification techniques BIBAFull-Text 70
  Jose Luis Jurado; Cesar Alberto Collazos; Luis Merchan Paredez
This paper presents an approach to the conceptual architecture of a proposal that seeks to integrate in a collaborative environment process knowledge management, from the perspective of gamification. In the same document those works that have a relationship with the work done and later presented the architectural layout of a collaborative environment, that integrates the generic process of knowledge management from a view of gamification.
Interactive Technologies Applied on Automotive Industry for Mass Customization BIBAFull-Text 71
  Rafael Silva Duarte; Branca Freitas de Oliveira
This paper propose is to analyses the insertion of interactive technologies in automotive industries, studying applications possibilities through a tridimensional model, to create a mass customizable product consistent with contemporary trends that can satisfy most of the potential buyers with a single product line.
Adapting Heuristics for the Mobile Panorama BIBAFull-Text 72
  Ger Joyce; Mariana Lilley; Trevor Barker; Amanda Jefferies
Expert-based usability inspection methods are well established; the heuristic method in particular is widely known for being fast, relatively inexpensive and easy to learn. However, traditional heuristics are not easily applied to the mobile panorama. This paper is concerned with preliminary work in the design of a set of heuristics that are tailored to the evaluation of native smartphone applications. In this work, Nielsen's original set of heuristics as well as research in the field of usability evaluation for mobile computing were analysed and used to derive a set of heuristics for the evaluation of native smartphone applications.
Activity Taxonomy: Analysis of Proposals for Development of Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 73
  Maria L. Villegas; César A. Collazos; William J. Giraldo
In developing an interactive system, the part of the design corresponding to the specification of the functionality is commonly directed by the requirements. The specifications of these requirements are based on templates that classify activity in a way that in most cases, developers are not conscious and therefore do not understand how wrong classification due to methodological weaknesses, affects the understanding that has the user in relation with the system he is using. An ideal situation is that the developer fully understands what the impact of wrong classification and helps him to recognize the limits to define a scope for usability, safety or any other aspect. Our proposal is to define an activity classification model and make explicit the need for it to serve as a framework to promote software quality mainly it has to do with the Human Computer Interaction (HCI).
Accessibility in eGovernment BIBAFull-Text 74
  Raquel Hernando Posada; Teodoro Calonge Cano; Joaquín Adiego Rodríguez
Two main features are that the administration should be open and participatory, and both are much easier through the channels offered by eGovernment. However, many electronic administrations procedures available to the public start with a letter or an application form in PDF format not recognized a priori by the WAI accessibility guidelines to content on the web, which many of its intended beneficiaries would be excluded. eGovernment is a modern administration that relates to society using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), without having to travel to traditional offices and enabling roles without using any procedure performed at any time of any day of the year. That's why it should ensure accessibility and pay special attention to people with disabilities.
Building an Easy to Use Flexible University Timetabling User Interface BIBAFull-Text 75
  Carlos G. Prieto Álvarez; Lluvia Morales Reynaga; Mario A. Moreno Rocha; José Figueroa Martínez
University timetabling, better known in the community as course timetabling, is a widely studied issue for problem solving and operational research community. For many years, research groups in many universities have been developing possible solutions that, in most cases, solve only a small portion of the problem. In this poster, we propose a way to solve the timetabling issue using the power of a robust algorithm with a user interface which represents a real-world problem. This algorithm and user interface combination allows us to take into consideration that each university has their own constraints such as a large number of students, limited classrooms, common halls and a certain number of university lecturers, which makes necessary the development of a flexible problem constraints definitions and a proper representation. Preliminary tests show that our user interfaces are mostly accepted and they are easy-to-use for the users involved in the timetabling process of our university.
Control of a wheelchair simulator in a three-dimensional environment using eye blink detection through non-invasive brain-computer interface BIBAFull-Text 76
  Ânderson R. Schuh; Alessandro Lima; Gustavo Morche; João Mossmann; Marta R. Bez
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a computational system capable of establishing communication between neurophysiological activity and a computer. This paper presents the study and the development of the prototype of a wheelchair simulator in a three-dimensional environment, controlled by non-invasive BCI. To this end, we used a low-cost electroencephalogram, the NeuroSky Mindwave, as the device for signals acquisition. For the development, the game engine Unity3d was used. The prototype can detect the blink of eyes, and, therefore, this feature is used as a command to the simulator. The simulator will be used to train people with special needs, in a way that when they use the wheelchair, it will be easier to control the equipment, preventing accidents.
Description of "ICT Ways for Science Classrooms" project BIBAFull-Text 77
  Alexandra Baldaque
In the recent years there has been, at European level, an increase in the implementation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Education, due to different strategies and policies implemented in several projects since the 80s. In the literature much has been debated about the potential of ICT and its applications in Education. It discusses and problematizes how ICT can help to extend or renew the traditional means of knowledge production bearing in mind that they allow access to multiple opportunities for interaction, mediation and expression, facilitated by flows of information and operational flexibility. The reality we see in primary and secondary schools leads us to realize that the ICT measures recommended by government in schools are not being fully implemented, at least effectively between students and teachers. In this way, the main proposal of this investigation is to draw a roadmap of the implementation/use of ICT in Primary and Secondary Schools in order to assess their use and thus design guidelines in order to find best practices of ICT use in teaching-learning processes. In particular, the study and design focus on the application of ICT in sciences teaching and learning.

Special Track "EnGendering Technologies"

Digital Inclusion of Low-Income Women: Are Users of Internet Able to Improve their Life Conditions? BIBAFull-Text 78
  Ana M. González Ramos; Lidia Arroyo Prieto
This paper addresses the impact of digital inclusion in life conditions of low-income women who may stir a process of transformation due to the ICT (Information and Communication Technologies). Supposedly, ICT and especially the Internet has been highlighted as powerful instrument for social change. Internet users would improve life conditions and, particularly, low-income women would gain some advantages in their lives in the medium- and long-term. This work explores the impact of digital inclusion in the following dimensions of women's lives: employment, family and private spheres. The results point some benefits and risk of digital inclusion that policy makers would pay attention in launching the gender digital agenda to reduce social exclusion and poverty.
Girls' Day experience at the University of Zaragoza: attracting women to technology BIBAFull-Text 79
  Maria Villarroya-Gaudó; Sandra Baldassarri; Mayte Lozano; Raquel Trillo; Ana C. Murillo; Piedad Garrido
The proportion of women in engineering and technology degrees does not reach 30%, and multiple activities are performed worldwide to change this situation. This paper presents the effects of the Girls' Day activities organized at University of Zaragoza (Aragón, Spain) yearly from 2008. It consists on a day where women who play important roles, both in business and research worlds, bring students of secondary education closer to engineering and technology. After five editions, Girls' Day has achieved an extraordinary impact: it has increased the visibility of female engineers in Aragón; more female students know what engineering is about and are willing to become one; the government and other institutions have pushed and supported the event and a collaboration network of female engineers in the region has been established.
Doing and Undoing Genders and Information and Communication Technologies BIBAFull-Text 80
  Núria Vergés Bosch; Ana M. González Ramos; Elisabet Almeda Samaranch
With the emergence of Information and Communication technologies and third wave feminism, new opportunities for women involved in ICT have been emphasized with critical optimism.
   Feminists of technology have approached gender and technology from diverse conceptions and feminisms. Nowadays feminist research is moving from the concern of numbers and the digital divide, to focus on inclusion and the presence of women in ICT and analyze their experiences in technological fields.
   These current feminisms introduce the notions of doing and undoing gender in relation to technology, pointing to a mutually constitutive process of gender and technology that develops in a fluid and dynamic manner. Therefore, gender and ICT relationship is no longer understood in a deterministic manner or with no agency given to women, but in a way that gender and technology become coproduced in a mutable, fluid, dynamic, interactive and performative process where gender is not only being done and undone, but also the technologies and their relationship with gender. Thus, it is considered that both gender and technology may not be fixed concepts, but dynamic and changing over time and situations, making it possible to recognize and open new possibilities for change and transformation through feminist politics.
   In this sense, we consider that gender is being done when the tendency is to emphasize femininity in contrast to the hegemonic masculinity, resulting in difference. Otherwise, we understand that gender is being undone in those situations that a break with binarisms and / or heteronormativity is produced, producing a different doing gender to that expected from a woman and / or challenging the dual gender binary, even when producing certain degendering. Similarly, we understand that ICT are being done when the discourses and practices on the design and use of ICT are associated with artifacts, occupations and sectors traditionally considered technological. Conversely ICT are being undone, for example, when they become hybridized with other ICT issues and areas less traditionally associated with technology or, somehow, emphasize communication and information.
   Based on these theoretical positions we explore how gender is being done and undone and, in turn, how ICT is being done and undone in the processes of self-inclusion of women in ICT. We consider the process of self-inclusion to be dynamic and fluid, occurring over time and going beyond access. This is to say that self-inclusion implies accessing ICT, but also remaining, advancing, recognizing it, and being recognized, as well as transforming and contributing to ICT.
   We depart from the experiences of a sample of women artists and computer technologists based in Barcelona. In order to select them we considered that both the concept of women as well as ICT could be fluid and mutable and therefore could be troubled. Understanding women and ICT in an inclusive and critical sense, we questioned the understanding of the categories imposed from outside, to understand them from the inside, in a way open to alternative interpretations of the same participants. Therefore, the sample included transgender experiences, and also other sexual orientations beyond being heterosexual. Similarly, we troubled ICT, understanding it beyond the studies and ICT occupations traditionally considered ICT and turned our attention to other areas than could capture their hybrid and transversal condition, such as technoart, where women seem to be better represented, at least in numbers. A qualitative analysis was carried out in a way that their experiences were collected through interviews and focus groups. Firstly, 22 episodic interviews, that combined the narrative and the semi-structured interview, were conducted in order to study their ICT trajectories in relation to gender. Secondly, 2 mini focus groups were performed in order to delve into key issues in a collective way. In total then, 28 women participated in our research; half of them were artistic technologists and the other half computer technologists. Those interviews and focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using Atlas.ti software in a bottom up process. In doing so we intended to answer the main question: how, and to what extent, the research participants were doing and undoing gender and ICT in their processes of self-inclusion in ICT?
   Given the ICT context of the participants, they all shared the experience of being in a qualitatively masculinised environment (referring to culture, understood as masculine norms and values). In the case of computer technologists, quantitatively speaking as well, they all commented on the fact that they were a minority in their courses or working environments. This implies that environment and technology practices are gendered and therefore those women will often be doing and undoing gender in a masculinised context and under a heteronormative gender regime. In this sense the existence of a certain number of women technologists practicing advanced ICT could be considered a form of undoing gender, because their practices are immersed in activities traditionally considered masculine. At the same time, their ICT practice could be seen to be undoing ICT or, at least, the traditional conception of ICT linked to masculinity and certain characteristics and associated ways of doing ICT. Therefore with their advanced ICT practices these women might be undoing gender, but also undoing ICT. In any case, what we show in this article is that the processes of doing and undoing gender and ICT become more complex than this.
   The analysis of the participants' discourses on their ICT practices show how gender and ICT are being done and undone generating a combined and performative multiplicity of actions of gender and ICT, situated, changing over time and situations and, on occasions, even contradictorily. In addition, we also argue that gender could be done and undone in parallel, at the same time, and even that gender could be done and undone in a changing manner during the course of life, and similarly with ICT in relation to gender. For example, one of the participants commented that when she does the sound check before an electronic music concert she is consciously playing masculine and feminine at the same time. Thus, she incorporates elements of self-promotion and shows herself competent using technical language and doing ICT, as well as very competitive through her attitudes, in a way of undoing gender. However, at the same time, she is doing gender by being open to a soft dialogue and emphasizing feminine communicative forms. Similarly, in relation to doing and undoing ICT when some of the participants were involved in the Caneluntu experience they were doing ICT by installing Ubuntu in their computers. However, they were consciously undoing ICT when relating it to cooking, as well as they were doing gender in a collective way, in a women only group.
   One of the most interesting issues emerging from the analysis is that what used to be presented as inexplicable, paradoxical and impossible in a previous logic of gender identities, fixed, essential and binary, makes sense when it opens to question gender identities, and thus, to gender performativity and fluidity, and also in relation to ICT. In this regard, the participants were not performing according to the hegemonic masculinity or emphasized femininity, but, above all, they were doing and undoing gender on a continuum of gender and in relation and interacting with the context in a fluid manner. In this sense, they were strengthening the intermediate positions in a gender continuum instead of causing a pendulum motion. This allowed them to move smoothly through the different specific situations they encountered in their ICT trajectories. To understand gender as constructed and fluid implies that this can similarly occur among many men, as the discourses of the participants have shown. Therefore, this situating in the midst becomes reinforced. In the same way, this happens to ICT if the practice is understood as a dynamic and fluid continuum. ICT, a priori, neither impacts positively nor negatively on women, but they are being done and undone in relation to gender and this could also bring transformative changes. Change is possible if we discard essential, immutable and binary concepts of gender. Furthermore, it is feasible if we recognize the importance of the agency in relation and constant interaction within a dynamic environment. Finally, it is possible if the same is applied to ICT.
   In the process of doing and undoing gender and ICT, especially when reflexive practices beyond binarisms are taking place, women could contribute to critically examining and transforming current gender relations, as well as ICT concepts and practices, breaking the domination of hegemonic masculinity associated with ICT. This process can result in accommodating women in ICT. As the word expresses, rather than integrating women in ICT, women might be accommodating (to) them. That is, women would be changing themselves and the way they are doing gender, but they would also be producing changes in their environments and in the definitions and ICT practices.
   Therefore, it is necessary that both the research and the measures that are designed to improve gender and technology relations move beyond numbers towards a concern on qualitative issues. Thus, we must recognize the heterogeneity of gender and ICT, as well as its dynamic, fluid and situated practice. This would facilitate the process of self-inclusion of women in ICT and would express how gender and ICT are mutually produced, as well as opening the way to a transformative process of accommodation of women with ICT.
Individual Differences in Spatial Abilities: Effects of Gender and Videogames BIBAFull-Text 81
  Norena Martín-Dorta; Jose Luis Saorín-Perez; Manuel Contero González
Spatial Abilities are cognitive skills that are linked to success in science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics (STEAM) fields. The goal of this paper is to develop a predictive model of Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization scores to freshman engineering students. To this end, we conducted a study with 433 students at University of La Laguna in autumn of 2004. The ANCOVA analysis showed that gender, age, videogame players, the years that students course technical drawing and if they are workers are significant variables. The paper propose two predictive models for Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization that helps us early detect students with lower levels of spatial abilities.
Women in computer science: Survey on the perception of the women's participation in STEM studies BIBAFull-Text 82
  Lourdes Moreno; Yolanda González; Isabel Segura; Paloma Martínez
Studies that have been done for more than a decade indicate a persistent shortage of women's participation in STEM studies (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). Women do not usually choose STEM studies, and their participation in the ICT business sector is still lower. The Polytechnic School (EPS) of the Carlos III University of Madrid (UC3M) has carried out a survey study with the aim of collecting data to understand the perception of students/teachers, and analyze the factors of the gender gap. The conclusions of the study are introduced.

Special Track "E-Learning and Educational Resources"

A brief overview of quality inside learning object repositories BIBAFull-Text 83
  Cristian Cechinel; Xavier Ochoa
Assessing quality of learning objects (LOs) is a difficult and complex task that normally revolves around multiples and different aspects that need to be addressed. Nowadays, quality assessment of LOs inside repositories is based on the information provided by the same community of users and experts that use such platforms. These kinds of information are known as evaluative metadata and constitute a value body of knowledge about Los that is normally used inside the repositories during the process of searching and retrieving. The present work aims to present a brief overview about how LOs quality is being assessed inside some of the most important repositories existent nowadays, as well as some limitations of these existing approaches.
Virtual Learning Environment adoption and organizational change in Higher Education BIBAFull-Text 84
  Virginia Rodés; Alén Pérez Casas; Leticia Lorier; Natalia Correa; Gabriel Budiño; José Fager; Manuel Podetti
The growing use of virtual environments in higher education results in the need to identify different management models that can guide their use in a manner consistent with institutional conditions. To this end, a case-study interdisciplinary research project was conducted between 2011 and 2013. It focused on the analysis of management, from an organizational perspective, of the institutional change effected by the adoption of Moodle at the Universidad de la República.
   The research methodology included qualitative and quantitative techniques to collect information: focused interviews, surveys and participatory work dynamics with teachers, students, government officials and experts, as well as the analysis of documentary sources.
   Conclusions were drawn regarding the perceptions of students, teachers and government officials, conclusions that make it possible to identify various management aspects and that contribute to the assessment of the impact of Moodle as a VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) at universities.
   It was through the analysis and descriptive reading of the sources that it was possible to create the following conceptual categories: 1) Development of Human Resources; 2) Changes in Management and Organizational Structure; 3) Design and Implementation of Institutional Policies; 4) Technological Infrastructure; 5) Transformation of Education.
   This research project makes it possible the understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the process studied, and also to build a conceptual perspective that is theoretically grounded, and on the subject at hand. Thus, important contributions can be made to the field and the practice.
   The results obtained through this research are a significant antecedent and theoretical-methodological contribution for the diagnosis, design, planning and implementation of institutional strategies related to the adoption of Virtual Learning Environments in higher education.
Use of repositories of digital educational resources in higher education BIBAFull-Text 85
  Virginia Rodés Paragarino; Adriana Gewerc Barujel; Martín Llamas Nistal
Repositories of digital educational resources have reached a significant level of development and diversification in the last decade, to the point of becoming a central component in higher education transformation. Millions of educational resources are available at local and global levels, in repositories and content aggregators. The processes of content creation, publishing and distribution have been modified in their patterns and increased their potential and impact. The educational material produced in many different contexts can improve the conditions of teaching and learning, helping to expand equitable access to relevant sources of knowledge and Higher Education. This paper presents a research project which seeks to know which are the dimensions of the adoption of repositories of educational resources by scholars from Latin America; how this adoption overlaps in teaching practices and which subjective, contextual, institutional, curricular and instructional factors are involved in the different types of use. The methodological approach of the study is qualitative, seeking to obtain content from the perspective of the actors' discourse. It also aims to contribute to the development of the so-called digital ethnographic methods, which use internet and digital technologies for the collection and analysis of research data. It is expected that the substantive theory generated under this study will contribute to the specification of new requirements so as to improve the design and development of technology related to the field of digital repositories of educational resources, expanding equitable access to relevant sources of knowledge.
Automatic Gathering of Educational Digital Resources to Populate Repositories BIBAFull-Text 86
  Ana Casali; Claudia Deco; Santiago Beltramone
To populate Institutional Repositories, it is necessary to apply appropriate policies and strategies for dissemination and it is important to develop tools to detect all educational digital objects that are already published on institutional web sites that could be uploaded to a repository. This recopilation is a tedious task and is usually performed manually. In this paper we propose a system architecture for collecting text documents in Spanish or English to assist the manager of institutional repositories in the recopilation task of EDOs within a restricted website. Thus, plausible documents to be uploaded to a repository can be detected. Also, its metadata such as title, category, author, language, keywords and relevant contact data, are automatically extracted in order to ask the author for the publication of his/her document. A prototype of this system was developed and a case study at Universidad Nacional de Rosario (UNR) is analyzed.
The social dimension of Self-Regulated Learning: Social networks as a means for teaching BIBAFull-Text 87
  Adriana Gewerc Barujel; Ana Rodríguez Groba
Under the current socioeconomic conditions, an education is needed that goes beyond the boundaries of formal education and enables the acquisition of skills fostering lifelong learning. Therefore, we seek a model where students can be active learners protagonists and responsible for their own learning. Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) is a skill in demand in 21st century society. It aims for individuals to address the need to "learn to learn" successfully. It is an active and constructive process by which students sets their own goals while trying to monitor, regulate and control their thoughts, motivation and behaviour in accordance with those goals [1]. The four areas that encompass the process of self-regulated learning are behaviour, motivation, cognition and context. The latter frames and has an influence that cuts across all these factors. It does not merely surround the aspects involved, but rather directly affects how they develop. Socio-cultural theory [3] rightly draws attention to the fundamental fact that no student learns in isolation from their social environment and social tools [4]. Knowledge is recognized to be the result of interaction between individuals and the environment, thus, revealing the importance that context plays in teaching processes.
   As discussed by Hadwin et al. [5] self-regulated learning can be socially regulated through activities supported by others (co-regulation) or when individuals negotiate their perceptions, objectives and strategies during shared tasks. Regulation thus occurs in tasks carried out independently, cooperatively or collaboratively, leading to changes in individual knowledge, beliefs and strategies. These changes, which are transferred to the new tasks, have the ultimate purpose of personally adapting the regulatory activity.
   Given the importance of the social dimension, it seems only appropriate for education to start working in contexts and activities that integrate this dimension. By encouraging students to be active in their own learning process and connecting to a virtual learning community, the potential of web 2.0 is considerable [6]. Specifically, academic social networks are work environments that enable the development of these skills and represent a network (Knowledge Networks) to promote information acquisition and the joint construction of knowledge. They has become a new way for horizontal communication that allows students to work in a context for creating, sharing, collaborating and interacting with their peers. They have become allies in the development of SRL. However, the likelihood that this occurs depends on the type of teaching proposed with respect to the three basic components of the didactic triangle: the content to be taught and learned, the activity of teachers and the activity of student [8].
   This paper presents a study analysing an experience at the University of Santiago de Compostela, where Stellae Research Group teachers worked on subjects from various degree programs at the Faculty of Education with the ELGG open source platform hosted on an institutional server. It is a social network that includes a variety of tools such as discussion forums, blogs, micro-blogging in the main space, friend lists, activities screen, personal walls, calendars, bookmarks, pages and the ability to add comments to contributions made by classmates. This study focused on a core subject in the 3rd year of the degree in Education analyzed in the 2013-2014 academic year, which used Blended Learning. The proposed methodology involved the elaboration of student e-Portfolios with a personal space for their learning process to be evidenced.
   The basic idea is that the less structured an activity is, the more learning strategies are implemented. This is a fundamental aspect of self-regulated learning [8]. Therefore, little is provided in the way of specific guidelines so as not to constrain the process. Instead, conscious decision-making is fostered. Thus, each personal web space is different because, although there is a guided path for everyone to work on, the trail is built with those elements that students individually integrate into their space. At the same time, however, there is also collaborative learning, because even though group members represent interdependent agents of self-regulation, they constitute a social entity that imposes group possibilities and limitations as well as individual commitment [9]. This paper delves into the social self-regulated learning of students enrolled in the subject mentioned. It is interesting to analyze what happens in the context of this social network, how the process of exchange that is stimulated by self-regulatory processes develops and what impact it all has on student achievement. Specifically, we delve into whether changes exist in the mode and number of interactions that occur throughout the course, and we will examine whether these variations point to improvement in the processes of social self-regulation by class members.
Collaborative Production in Latin America of the Open Text Books in Human Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 88
  Jaime Muñoz Arteaga; Héctor Cardona Reyes; César A. Collazos Ordóñez; Viviana Bustos Amador; Francisco J. Álvarez Rodríguez
The area of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has acquired great importance in the last decade, its main objective is to increase the quality of interaction between the user and information technology. Constantly emerging technological changes and therefore there is a need for educational content and more research in the field of IHC, one of the main complications in Latin America is the access, availability, and cost of books in Spanish language. As a way of responding to this problematic this paper applies a collaborative production process of open textbooks and matching effort to teachers and researchers from Latin America to provide a textbook for IHC community in Spanish. Also seeks that they continue the sharing of experiences in the field of IHC to follow continuous improvement in production processes open textbooks at Latin America.
Evaluation of the collaboration process from an individual and collaborative perspective BIBAFull-Text 89
  Mayela Coto; Sonia Mora; Cesar Collazos
Many proposals to evaluate the collaborative process focus on "measure" the group's participation in the fulfillment of the activity and do not consider the individual aspect. This paper reports the results of an exploratory study which aims to analyze the potential of the Google Drive (GD) tool for assessment of collaborative work process from an individual and collaborative perspective.
Towards the recognition of relevance and reputation in Edu-AREA BIBAFull-Text 90
  Manuel Caeiro Rodríguez; Martín Llamas Nistal; Juan M. Santos Gago
This paper introduces a Web 2.0 application, Edu-AREA, which offers a dynamic space to support the development of lesson plans and to promote teaching innovation. The development of lesson plans is proposed in a wide way, both in accordance to their lifecycle, covering design, monitoring, reflection and evolution, as well as in accordance to their dimension, taking into account all the educational activities and resources involved, and the educational and technological context in which they are carried out. Following the Web 2.0 principles we promote users as the key stakeholders of the application, providing the resources and activities, managing the lesson plans, classifying and ensuring the quality of the elements, etc. In order to support users on these tasks, this paper introduces a proposal to provide an automatic estimation of a reputation index for users and a relevance index for elements (e.g. resources, activities). The proposal is based on the HITS algorithm and on the actual usage or resources by users in Edu-AREA. The purpose of these indexes is to provide some measurement about the quality and relevance and also references for the calculation of recommendations.
Metadata for Educational Games in Online Repositories BIBAFull-Text 91
  Manuel Freire; Baltasar Fernández-Manjón
In this paper, we describe the special challenges that educational games (aka serious games) pose for online Learning Object repositories. As in all metadata, a tension exists between descriptive power and the effort needed to create these descriptions. This tension is even greater when describing complex highly interactive multimedia content such as games. We consider serious games as LOs, proposing game-specific metadata, and advocate for game authoring tool support that streamlines its creation.
Use of a Semantic Learning Repository to Facilitate the Creation of Modern e-Learning Systems BIBAFull-Text 92
  Xavier Ochoa; Gladys Carrillo; Cristian Cechinel
Learning Object Repositories (LOR) has been usually implemented as traditional document stores. In this paper we explain the design of a Semantic Learning Repository that expand the concept of LORs to include linked information of entities not usually referred as Learning Objects, but necessary for the implementation of more advance e-learning systems. To demonstrate the usefulness of this new concept, this paper presents the design and evaluation of a Personalized Learning Path Recommender based on the Semantic Learning Repository. The main result obtained from the evaluation is that the inclusion of external information enables more accurate recommendations and these recommendations has a measurable impact on the student learning.
Instructional Design Models to support Collaborative Open Books for Open Education BIBAFull-Text 93
  Virginia Rodés; Pollyana Notargiacomo Mustaro; Ismar Frango Silveira; Nizam Omar; Xavier Ochôa
The recent open education movement, with its most visible aspect, the MOOCs -- Massive Open Online Courses), brought a wide discussion regarding the potential and threats that this model could represent to traditional education, being on classroom or online. However, regarding to instructional design models for open courses, meanwhile, very little discussion or proposals have been presented. This article discusses instructional design proposals for projects based on the insertion of collaborative open books with open licenses as supporting elements for MOOCs.
EMATIC: an inclusive educational application for tablets BIBAFull-Text 94
  Carina González; Vanesa Muñoz; Pedro Toledo; Alberto Mora; Lorenzo Moreno
EMATIC project (Mathematics Education through ICT) is a multi-device Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) focused on the teaching of mathematics, especially for children with educational difficulties. Logical thinking and learning different aspects of basic math are the main learning goals of EMATIC. Also, EMATIC allows students to perform non-repetitively the same type of exercise, making the process of learning something as dynamic and entertaining as if it were a game. This paper examines key issues to support students with special education needs (SEN) in their learning of math, involving the interaction design and usability of the application's interface. The research goals include the identification of the main interaction difficulties and the improvement of the interaction design to get a better suit to these groups of users.
Evaluating OER Repositories BIBAFull-Text 95
  Regina Motz; Libertad Tansini
This paper describes ongoing work carried out in order to produce a set of tools to assist in the evaluation of OER repositories. Specialization Profiles of OER Metadata are proposed as part of this work as the means to define the needs of users or the desired quality of Repositories. The main idea is to offer a Friendly Toolkit based on the adaptation of OER Metadata using Specialization Profiles and feedback given by OER users to improve the quality of the Metadata of the OER in Repositories and to increase the usability by dynamical adaptation to the users needs. The interaction with the users is done as a friendly process within Moodle, with little or no effort from the users.

Special Track "Serious Games"

Can SME Managers Learn from Games? BIBAFull-Text 96
  António Andrade; David Gouveia; Paula Escudeiro; Carlos Vaz de Carvalho
Serious Games are especially useful for training because they offer immersive and engaging environment where users 'learn by doing'. This trial and error based approach supports well learning and is able also to improve teamwork, social skills, leadership and collaboration. This article presents an ongoing project that was meant to design and develop a serious game that fosters the improvement of internationalization and language skills of SME managers. Initial results have been quite promising but there are still improvements to be made.
Serious Game on Sign Language BIBAFull-Text 97
  Paula Escudeiro; Nuno Escudeiro; Rosa Reis; Fernando Maciel Barbosa; José Bidarra; Ana Bela Baltazar; Pedro Rodrigues; Jorge Lopes; Marcelo Norberto
The quantity of educational digital content available for the hearing impaired community is very scarce. However, due to extraordinary progress of the new technologies, remarkable opportunities to bring a better quality of life to the public in general arose. Making these opportunities available to those who endure handicap and disabilities is a core concern in today's society and a must to promote equity and inclusion.
   The target community addressed by our work, the hearing impaired community, has its own language, known as Sign language. The work presented in this paper consists in the development of a game to make the process of learning sign language enjoyable and interactive. In order to do this, a game was created in which the player controls a character and interacts with various objects and non-player characters with the aim of collecting several gestures from the Portuguese Sign Language. These gestures can then be represented by the character. This allows the user to visualize and learn or train the various existing gestures. To raise the interactivity and to make the game more interesting and motivating, several checkpoints were placed along the level. This will provide the players a chance to test the knowledge they have acquired so far on the checkpoints by using Kinect. A High Scores system was also created as well as a history to ensure that the game is a continuous motivating process as well as a learning process.
A Model for Implementing Learning Games on Virtual World Platforms BIBAFull-Text 98
  Rosa Reis; Paula Escudeiro
The virtual worlds can be used to achieve different purposes according to the intended use. The design of games for learning under platforms virtual worlds has been an important research field for several years. However, the research in this specific field has shown that in most of the cases, the environments do not have appropriate technical characteristics. The development of the games for learning under virtual worlds platforms has as goal to produce environments that encourage users to achieve effective learning. In this sense, the current study presents a development model for implementation of games for learning under platforms virtual worlds. This model is based on the engineering software techniques and methods. It is supported by a spiral cycle that allows us to develop applications. The process is divided into a set of activities that are being carried out throughout each cycle, producing several work products, with the aim to provide each team member a set of guidelines and tools necessary for to make intelligent decisions about what they do.
   The model includes five steps, namely: Conception, Analysis, Design, Implementation and Evaluation. Each step contains a set of diagrams to support the developer team in their tasks. With this model, the applications are developed in a series of incremental releases, that is, the final system is constructed, based on the refined prototype. These steps include activities that enable to quantify the quality of games for learning. It is based on the Quantitative Evaluation Framework developed by Escudeiro [2], and allows us to have a degree of freedom in the selection of quality criteria. Thus, we can obtain a single quantitative value of quality for any domain in analysis, i.e., we can adapt it in any domain and valence.
A serious game development process using competency approach: Case Study: Elementary School Math BIBAFull-Text 99
  Arturo Barajas Saavedra; Francisco J. Álvarez Rodríguez; Jaime Muñoz Arteaga; René Santaolaya Salgado; César A. Collazos Ordoñez
Development of digital resources is difficult due to their particular complexity relying on pedagogical aspects. Another aspect is the lack of well-defined development processes, experiences documented, and standard methodologies to guide and organize game development. This research proposes a Game Development Process founded in the traditional Software Engineering paradigms and complemented by previous efforts on large scale development of digital learning resources. This process matches a formal competency to an educational digital resource (video game), with which the formal learning process will be complemented to improve the way students learn in Mexico. Through a case study will be demonstrated its utility by implementing the process in the whole of mathematics competencies for sixth grade of elementary school. The result of applying the proposed process for study case, is producing a collection of video games attached to the competencies and knowledge areas specified for sixth grade of elementary school in Mexico by the Ministry of Public Education.
TimeMesh: Producing and Evaluating a Serious Game BIBAFull-Text 100
  Pedro M. Latorre Andrés; Francisco J. Serón Arbeloa; Jorge López Moreno; Carlos Vaz de Carvalho
Serious Games are specifically designed to develop mental abilities and skills such as strategy, mental calculation and decision making but the acquisition of deep knowledge with Serious Games is less well understood. To improve this understanding, a game called TimeMesh, as well as the needed graphic engine, called TimeMesh engine, a multi-player graphical adventure engine inspired by the 90s graphic adventures created by LucasArts, have been developed. TimeMesh has been designed to impart knowledge and competences in the area of History and Geography.
   To test the acquisition of knowledge with Time-mesh a complete process of evaluation was designed, divided in three parts, always with user intervention: first, with the game developers, then with teachers and lastly, but most importantly with students.
   In this paper we present our experience in designing, implementing and evaluating TimeMesh and formulate the conclusions of this study.

Tutorial

Visually Interpreting Experience: Circle of Visual Interpretation Methodology BIBAFull-Text 101
  Dave Wood
This paper provides an overview of the Circle of Visual Interpretation methodology that is workshopped during Interacción 2014. This new method uses visual interpretation techniques to phenomenologically reveal extra detail of user behaviour from within user research. The Circle of Visual Interpretation methodology is aimed at design teams engaged in designing interactions to use during their ideation phase. Through visual interpretation a dialogue between designers and their target audience is phenomenologically crafted. From engaging in this hermeneutic-semiotic process fresh understanding regarding user motivations behind user actions visually emerges. In this paper each practical step in this methodology is summarised and illustrated with examples from a user research project.

Projects

A Model for Collaborative Content Production in Digital Literacy Context BIBAFull-Text 102
  José Eder Guzmán Mendoza; Jaime Muñoz Arteaga; Javier Álvarez Rodríguez; Cesar Alberto Collazos Ordoñez
In order to achieve a knowledge society involves first to solve the problem of the digital divide. Overcoming the digital divide involves addressing three factors: infrastructure, digital literacy and content. This article describes an architectural model that addresses the digital divide from the factors digital literacy and digital content creation from the perspective of collaborative work. The proposed model is based on a strategy that combines collaborative work and the content digital production to facilitate the acquisition of digital skills to differentiated users.
Interface Personalization through Inclusive User Modelling Web Service BIBAFull-Text 103
  Pradipta Biswas; Pat Langdon; Sanat Sarangi; Vineet Mimrot; Subrat Kar; Vinay J. Ribeiro; Jaya Umadikar; Suma Prashant
This paper presents a process of developing personalized applications through user modelling. The process involves understanding users' requirements through survey, formulating those requirements into a user model, integrating the model with different applications and finally conducting user trials to validate the personalization system. We have developed the inclusive user model, which consists of a user interaction simulator and an interface personalization web service. The inclusive user modelling system has found applications in a wide variety of systems for EU and Indian population including a digital TV framework for elderly users, an electronic agricultural advisory system, a weather monitoring system and an emergency warning system. Our user studies confirmed that users prefer and performed better with personalized systems than non-personalized versions.
Interactive Visualization of Association Rules Model Using SOM BIBAFull-Text 104
  Wilson Castillo-Rojas; Camilo Vargas; Claudio Meneses Villegas
The paper describes a proposal for interactive visualization of a data-mining model generated with Association Rule (AR) technique, applying the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). Representations of visual perception model of AR based on a schema called AVM-DM (Augmented Visualization Models for Data Mining) are established, together with data and patterns, which support the visual exploration stage model, fit in the context of a data-mining (DM) process. This seeks to answer generic questions of users or data analysts regarding the inner workings of the model, and to achieve support in understanding the generated model. The use of the SOM technique as a visual enhancer applied to model AR, serves a dual purpose: to obtain the spatial distribution of the subset of data associated with a rule, and the display of this partition using a map. The visualization for the RA model proposed in this work is implemented through experimental software where users have different interaction mechanisms that allow them. Finally, the results from a controlled experiment, conducted with the user group are analyzed, those using this application prototype in parallel with other software to perform the same DM task on a previously prepared data. Preliminary analysis of the results of this evaluation allows on the one hand, to check the usefulness of the technique to increase visually SOM a model of AR, on the other hand, with additional views provided by the graphical elements, the level efficiency to support the understanding of the generated model.