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IIiX Tables of Contents: 0608101214

Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Information Interaction in Context

Fullname:Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Information Interaction in Context
Editors:Nicholas J. Belkin; Diane Kelly
Location:New Brunswick, New Jersey
Dates:2010-Aug-18 to 2010-Aug-21
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0247-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: IIiX10
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote address
  2. Information seeking in context
  3. Tasks: emotions, multitasking and support
  4. Interfaces and systems
  5. Best paper session
  6. Theory and system design
  7. Research design and methods
  8. Search results and snippets
  9. Querying and relevance behavior
  10. Search behavior and query logs
  11. Poster session

Keynote address

The notion of context in "Information Interaction in Context" BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Tefko Saracevic
As a process, information interaction is (fairly) well defined; considerable amount of research is devoted to the topic in various areas, particularly in human information behavior and human-computer interaction. In contrast the notion of "context" in which this interaction takes place is ill or not defined and rarely researched -- mostly it is taken as a primitive term. Paul Watzlawick (1921-2007) facing a similar issue as to the notion of "communication" formulated five axioms in his theory of communication; the most famous is the first axiom: "One Cannot Not Communicate (Man kann nicht nicht kommunizieren)." [1]. Directly following Watzlawick's axioms, this address is an attempt to formulate five axioms related to "context" in information interaction. We start with an assumption that information interaction involves two distinct parties: an information system on the one hand, and an information user (or group of users) on the other hand. Systems and users are partners in interaction. Both have a context, but since there is no interaction without a user (or group), we concentrate here mostly with the user side of the context.
   Axiom 1: One cannot not have a context in information interaction. Every interaction is conducted within a context. Because context-less information interaction is impossible, it is not possible not to have a context.
   Axiom 2: Every interaction has a content and relationship aspect -- context is the later and classifies the former. It means that all interactions, apart from information derived from meaning of words or terms describing the content, have more information to be derived from context.
   Axiom 3: The nature of information interaction is asymmetric; it involves differing processes and interpretation by parties involved. Contexts are asymmetric as well. Systems context is primarily about meanings; user context is primarily about situations.
   Axiom 4: Context is multilayered. It extends beyond users or systems. In interactions it is customary to consider direct context, but context extends indirectly to broader social context also.
   Axiom 5: Context is not self-revealing, nor is it self-evident. Context may be difficult to formulate and synthesize. But plenty can go wrong when not taken into consideration in interactions.
   The problem of context is determining the conditions and circumstances that are relevant to a given information interaction; with this, the notion of information interaction context is connected with the notion of relevance in information science.

Information seeking in context

Client information system as an everyday information tool in child protection work BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Saila Huuskonen; Pertti Vakkari
We describe information production and use in a client information system (CIS) by social workers in child protection. Data consists of interviews and observations with think aloud material. Information production and use are embedded with other work tasks and go throughout the whole client process. CIS does not support social workers' tasks sufficiently. Our findings imply recommendations for developing CIS for better fitting to work practices in child protection.
A survey of patent users: an analysis of tasks, behavior, search functionality and system requirements BIBAFull-Text 13-24
  Hideo Joho; Leif A. Azzopardi; Wim Vanderbauwhede
With a growing interest in Patent Information Retrieval, there is a need to better understand the context associated with patent users, their tasks, needs and expectations of patent search systems and applications. Patent search is known to be a complex, difficult and challenging activity, usually requiring expert Patent Information Specialists to spend a substantial amount of time sourcing (or not) documents relevant to their particular task. Information Retrieval provides a whole array of possible techniques and tools which could be applied to ease the burden of such retrieval tasks, and also make searching patents more accessible to non-Patent Information Specialists. In this paper, we report the findings from a survey of patent users conducted to ascertain information about patent users and their search requirements with respect to Information Retrieval systems and applications.
Understanding casual-leisure information needs: a diary study in the context of television viewing BIBAFull-Text 25-34
  David Elsweiler; Stefan Mandl; Brian Kirkegaard Lunn
In this paper, we provide novel research on information behaviour and information needs in the context of television viewing. We conducted a diary study of a heterogeneous population (n=38), in the non-work related activity of watching television, and we received 381 responses. From the collected responses, we used a bottom-up approach to generate coding schemes for the needs and reasons given for those needs, respectively. Subsequently, 4 coders tested the coherency of the coding schemes by coding 50 random needs and reasons, and this revealed a large consistency in the use of the schemes. Our findings reveal important aspects of information behaviour in the context of television viewing and show how the characteristics of information needs can be different in leisure or non-work situations. We also found that contextual factors are very influential in relation to the needs and reasons. With these findings we provide important knowledge in relation to future television information systems design.

Tasks: emotions, multitasking and support

The emotional impact of search tasks BIBAFull-Text 35-44
  Arti Poddar; Ian Ruthven
In this paper we consider the emotional impact of search tasks within Information Retrieval experiments. We study how search tasks of different types lead to different emotional responses by experimental participants and study the interaction between emotions and other subjective search variables. We show that some search tasks can lead to negative emotional responses whilst others are characterised by positive experiences. We discuss these findings with respect to how experiments are designed and conducted in Information Retrieval and how studying emotion within experimentation can lead to improved experimental design.
The effect of cognitive style and curiosity on information task multitasking BIBAFull-Text 45-54
  Angela Manyangara; Elaine G. Toms
In this research, we test the hypothesis that cognitive style, (specifically Verbalizers and Visualizers) and Curiosity influence the multitasking habits of information users. The study surveyed 319 internet users about their multitasking habits with respect to a set of six information tasks and seven technology tasks, as well as the two individual differences scales. Results indicate that generally those who exhibit a more Visual style of processing or those who exhibit simultaneously a high level of both Visual and Verbal styles of processing as well as scoring high on the Curiosity scale tend to multitask the most. A similar pattern emerged with respect to the two information search tasks. However, those who score high on the Verbal style of processing were as likely to do more multitasking when doing search tasks.
When is system support effective? BIBAFull-Text 55-64
  Abdigani Diriye; Ann Blandford; Anastasios Tombros
It is widely acknowledged that exploratory search tasks require more search support than currently provided on most commercial Information Retrieval (IR) systems. As a result, richer modes of interaction, and more functional IR systems are being developed. But these next generation IR systems come at a cost: they can place a large cognitive load on the user during interaction, and hamper progress. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between search tasks and search interfaces, and try to understand when system support is most effective for search tasks. We present a user study comprising known-item and exploratory search tasks and different interfaces that provide varying levels of system support. A quantitative and qualitative data analysis was conducted on the users' performances, preferences, and search behaviours. Our findings suggest that a relationship exists between the level of system support and search tasks, and that system support is most effective when it is enabling search activities appropriate to the task.

Interfaces and systems

Evaluating interfaces for government metasearch BIBAFull-Text 65-74
  Paul Thomas; Katherine Noack; Cecile Paris
Metasearch tools, which combine search results from any number of independent search engines, could be useful in a range of tasks and especially for integrating information from separate government agencies. However, it is not immediately clear what user interfaces might be appropriate for presenting results from more than one source.
   We evaluated four interface designs with real tasks from Centrelink, Australia's social services agency, and with a working metasearch tool. Test users recorded similar overall effectiveness across these interfaces, but did not like the most familiar options, a single ranked list or a link to broaden search scope. Interfaces which supported identifying, understanding, and selecting between sources were strongly preferred.
Using query context models to construct topical search engines BIBAFull-Text 75-84
  Parikshit Sondhi; Raman Chandrasekar; Robert Rounthwaite
Today, if a website owner or blogger wants to provide a search interface on their web site, they have essentially two options: web search or site search. Site search is often too narrow and web search often too broad. We propose a context-specific alternative: the use of 'topical search engines' (TopS) providing results focused on a specific topic determined by the site owner. For example a photography blog could offer a search interface focused on photography.
   In this paper, we describe a promising new approach to easily create such topical search engines with minimal manual effort. In our approach, whenever we have enough contextual information, we alter ambiguous topic related queries issued to a generic search engine by adding contextual keywords derived from (topic-specific) query logs; the altered queries help focus the search engine's results to the specific topic of interest. Our solution is deployed as a query wrapper, requiring no change in the underlying search engine.
   We present techniques to automatically extract queries related to a topic from a web click graph, identify suitable query contexts from these topical queries, and use these contexts to alter queries that are ambiguous or under-specified. We present statistics on three topical search engine prototypes we created. We then describe an evaluation study with the prototypes we developed in the areas of photography and automobiles. We conducted three tests comparing these prototypes to baseline engines with and without fixed query refinements. In each test, we obtained preference judgments from over a hundred participants. Users showed a strong preference for TopS prototypes in all three tests, with statistically significant preference differences ranging from 16% to 42%.
Tag, cloud and ontology based retrieval of images BIBAFull-Text 85-94
  Judit Bar-Ilan; Maayan Zhitomirsky-Geffet; Yitzchak Miller; Snunith Shoham
In this paper, we describe the results of an experiment designed to compare different user interfaces for retrieving tagged images from a database comprised of images of Jewish cultural heritage. The participants were given ten scenarios, for which they were asked to retrieve all the relevant images in the database. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of four retrieval interfaces: tag search in a search box; faceted tag search in a search box, selecting terms from the tag cloud of all the tags in the database and selecting concepts from an ontology created from the tags assigned to the images. Each interface was tested by 21 users. The results show that the highest recall on average was achieved by users of the ontology interface, for seven out of the ten tasks, however users were more satisfied with the textbox based search than the cloud or the ontology. Differences between the precision values were small (less than 10%), but none of the interfaces clearly outdid the others. In terms of recall, on average there was a 27% difference between the group achieving the highest and lowest recall.

Best paper session

Information interaction in molecular medicine: integrated use of multiple channels BIBAFull-Text 95-104
  Sanna Kumpulainen; Kalervo Järvelin
Task-based information access is a significant context for studying information interaction and for developing information retrieval (IR) systems. Molecular medicine (MM) is an information-intensive and rapidly growing task domain, which aims at providing new approaches to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of various diseases. The development of bioinformatics databases and tools has led to an extremely distributed information environment. There are numerous generic and domain-specific tools and databases available for online information access. This renders MM as a fruitful context for research in task-based IR. The present paper examines empirically task-based information access in MM and analyzes task processes as contexts of information access and interaction, integrated use of resources in information access and the limitations of (simple server-side) log analysis in understanding information access, retrieval sessions in particular. We shed light on the complexity of the between-systems interaction. The findings suggest that the system development should not be done in isolation as there is considerable interaction between them in real world use. We also classify system-level strategies of information access integration that can be used to reduce the amount of manual system integration by task performers.
Evaluating search systems using result page context BIBAFull-Text 105-114
  Peter Bailey; Nick Craswell; Ryen W. White; Liwei Chen; Ashwin Satyanarayana; S. M. M. Tahaghoghi
We introduce a method for evaluating the relevance of all visible components of a Web search results page, in the context of that results page. Contrary to Cranfield-style evaluation methods, our approach recognizes that a user's initial search interaction is with the result page produced by a search system, not the landing pages linked from it. Our key contribution is that the method allows us to investigate aspects of component relevance that are difficult or impossible to judge in isolation. Such contextual aspects include component-level information redundancy and cross-component coherence. We report on how the method complements traditional document relevance measurement and its support for comparative relevance assessment across multiple search engines. We also study possible issues with applying the method, including brand presentation effects, inter-judge agreement, and comparisons with document-based relevance judgments. Our findings show this is a useful method for evaluating the dominant user experience in interacting with search systems.
Supporting polyrepresentation in a quantum-inspired geometrical retrieval framework BIBAFull-Text 115-124
  Ingo Frommholz; Birger Larsen; Benjamin Piwowarski; Mounia Lalmas; Peter Ingwersen; Keith van Rijsbergen
The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.

Theory and system design

A subjective logic formalisation of the principle of polyrepresentation for information needs BIBAFull-Text 125-134
  Christina Lioma; Birger Larsen; Hinrich Schuetze; Peter Ingwersen
Interactive Information Retrieval refers to the branch of Information Retrieval that considers the retrieval process with respect to a wide range of contexts, which may affect the user's information seeking experience. The identification and representation of such contexts has been the object of the principle of Polyrepresentation, a theoretical framework for reasoning about different representations arising from interactive information retrieval in a given context. Although the principle of Polyrepresentation has received attention from many researchers, not much empirical work has been done based on it. One reason may be that it has not yet been formalised mathematically.
   In this paper we propose an up-to-date and flexible mathematical formalisation of the principle of Polyrepresentation for information needs. Specifically, we apply Subjective Logic to model different representations of information needs as beliefs marked by degrees of uncertainty. We combine such beliefs using different logical operators, and we discuss these combinations with respect to different retrieval scenarios and situations. A formal model is introduced and discussed, with illustrative applications to the modelling of information needs.
Applying information foraging theory to understand user interaction with content-based image retrieval BIBAFull-Text 135-144
  Haiming Liu; Paul Mulholland; Dawei Song; Victoria Uren; Stefan Rüger
The paper proposes an ISE (Information goal, Search strategy, Evaluation threshold) user classification model based on Information Foraging Theory for understanding user interaction with content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The proposed model is verified by a multiple linear regression analysis based on 50 users' interaction features collected from a task-based user study of interactive CBIR systems. To our best knowledge, this is the first principled user classification model in CBIR verified by a formal and systematic qualitative analysis of extensive user interaction data.
Interactive information seeking via selective application of contextual knowledge BIBAFull-Text 145-154
  Gene Golovchinsky; Jeremy Pickens
Exploratory search is a difficult activity that requires iterative interaction. This iterative process helps the searcher to understand and to refine the information need. It also generates a rich set of data that can be used effectively to reflect on what has been found (and found useful). While traditional information retrieval systems have focused on organizing the data that was retrieved, in this paper, we describe a systematic approach to organizing the metadata generated during the search process. We describe a framework for unifying transitions among various stages of exploratory search, and show how context from one stage can be applied to the next. The framework can be used both to describe existing information-seeking interactions, and as a means of generating novel ones. We illustrate the framework with examples from a session-based exploratory search system prototype.

Research design and methods

Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation: a context instrument for evaluation of information retrieval interaction BIBAFull-Text 155-164
  Pia Borlund; Jesper W. Schneider
The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed.
   The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to 'realism' of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants' point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation to involve the study participants' own information needs (to function as baseline of search interaction) is generally neglected in the reported studies.
Conceptualizing institutional repositories: using co-discovery to uncover mental models BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Soo Young Rieh; Ji Yeon Yang; Elizabeth Yakel; Karen Markey
This study investigates how people construct mental models of new information systems with which they have limited experience. Six different institutional repositories were used as the experimental systems for this lab-based co-discovery experimental study. Sixty subjects (30 pairs) were asked to complete search tasks based on a simulated work situations using an institutional repository. Subsequently, subjects were instructed to visually depict how they thought the institutional repository worked and then explain this to their partner. Our findings are based on these drawings, descriptors written on drawings, and audio-recordings of explanations and conversations. The results reveal that most of the subjects constructed mental models focusing on system operations and the design of the user interface. Few highlighted the interactivity between the system and the end user or presented a global-view of the system to show how it related to other search engines or databases. We found that the co-discovery method provides a viable research design to elicit people's mental model construction. The implications of the results for interactive information retrieval community and institutional repository community are discussed in terms of research design, search behavior, and user instruction.
Using a concept map to evaluate exploratory search BIBAFull-Text 175-184
  Yuka Egusa; Hitomi Saito; Masao Takaku; Hitoshi Terai; Makiko Miwa; Noriko Kando
Users often conduct exploratory searches on the Web to solve complex problems, but how for evaluating the effectiveness of a search, especially in a user-centered approach, remains an open question. We propose a user-centered method to evaluate the effectiveness of an exploratory search by focusing on the change in the users' mental representations of a topic during their exploratory search on the Web. This was done by comparing the concept maps depicted before and after each users searching. Thirty-five undergraduate students recruited from various departments and universities participated in our experiment. The participants were instructed to search for and gather Web pages for the task of writing a term paper on two given topics, politics and media, while working in either of two scenarios: "Selective scenario" (identifying only ten Web pages as important) and "As-Many-As scenario" (collecting as many Web pages as possible). The participants were divided into two groups: one group searched for both topics in the Selective scenario, and the other searched for them in the As-Many-As scenario. They composed their concept maps before and after searching. We defined the following measures to show the differences between the maps before and after a search to analyze the concept maps made by the participants: common, new, and lost map components like nodes, links, and link labels. We used these measures to compare the results from different topics, scenarios, and browser types. The results showed that the concept maps greatly changed after searching and that there were more common nodes and link labels in the Selective scenario than in the As-Many-As scenario. A comparative analysis of the concept maps between the pre- and post-search maps indicated that the users significantly changed their knowledge structure of a topic by completing the exploratory search task.

Search results and snippets

Individual differences in gaze patterns for web search BIBAFull-Text 185-194
  Susan T. Dumais; Georg Buscher; Edward Cutrell
We investigate how people interact with Web search engine result pages using eye-tracking, to provide a detailed understanding of the patterns of user attention. Previous research has examined the visual attention devoted to the 10 organic search results, and we extend this by also examining how gaze is distributed across other components of contemporary search engines, such as ads and related searches. This provides insights about searcher's interactions with the "whole page", and not just individual components. In addition, we used clustering techniques to identify groups of individuals, with distinct gaze patterns. The groups varied in how exhaustively they examined the search results and in what regions of the search result page they paid most attention to (organic results vs. ads). These results further our understanding of how attention is distributed across increasingly complex search result pages, and how individuals exhibit distinct patterns of attention and interaction.
Constructing query-biased summaries: a comparison of human and system generated snippets BIBAFull-Text 195-204
  Lorena Leal Bando; Falk Scholer; Andrew Turpin
Modern search engines display a summary for each ranked document that is returned in response to a query. These summaries typically include a snippet -- a collection of text fragments from the underlying document -- that has some relation to the query that is being answered.
   In this study we investigate how 10 humans construct snippets: participants first generate their own natural language snippet, and then separately extract a snippet by choosing text fragments, for four queries related to two documents. By mapping their generated snippets back to text fragments in the source document using eye tracking data, we observe that participants extract these same pieces of text around 73% of the time when creating their extractive snippets.
   In comparison, we notice that automated approaches for extracting snippets only use these same fragments 10% of the time. However, when the automated methods are evaluated using a position-independent bag-of-words approach, as typically used in the research literature for evaluating snippets, they are scored much more highly, seemingly extracting the "correct" text 24% of the time.
   In addition to demonstrating this large scope for improvement in snippet generation algorithms with our novel methodology, we also offer a series of observations on the behaviour of participants as they constructed their snippets.

Querying and relevance behavior

Context effect on query formulation and subjective relevance in health searches BIBAFull-Text 205-214
  Carla Teixeira Lopes; Cristina Ribeiro
It is recognized by the Information Retrieval community that context affects the retrieval process. Query formulation and relevance assessment are stages where the user role is central. The first determines what the system will search for and the second is frequently used to evaluate how the system behaved. With a large human involvement, these stages are expected to be largely influenced by user and task characteristics. To analyze the influence of these context features on the specified stages of health information retrieval, we conducted a user study in which we collected user features through two questionnaires. User characteristics include features like age, gender, web search experience, health search experience and familiarity with the medical topic. Task features include the medical specialty, the question type, the task's clarity and the task's easiness. Besides user and task features, the relevance assessment analysis also covered features related to the query and document. We found many variables do indeed affect query formulation and relevance judgment. Some of our results question evaluations using test collections and ask for evaluation models that incorporate other kind of success measures.
Helping identify when users find useful documents: examination of query reformulation intervals BIBAFull-Text 215-224
  Chang Liu; Jacek Gwizdka; Jingjing Liu
We explore search behaviors during a new kind of search unit -- the query reformulation interval (QRI). The QRI is defined as an interval between two consecutive queries in one search session that contains at least two queries. Our controlled, web-based study focused on examining behaviors associated with querying and useful document saving. We compared behavioral variables that characterized QRIs during which useful pages were found with those during which no useful pages were found. Our results demonstrated that the QRI duration and the total time spent on content pages during QRIs with useful pages were significantly longer than during QRIs with no useful pages. Users viewed more content pages and spent more time on content pages than on search result pages during QRIs with useful pages. The findings suggest that user behavior during QRIs can be used as an indicator of QRIs containing useful documents.
On the potential search effectiveness of MeSH (medical subject headings) terms BIBAFull-Text 225-234
  Ying-Hsang Liu
The creation of innovative techniques of document representation is critical to the development of effective information retrieval (IR) systems. In this paper, we report on the impact of state-of-the-art human indexing techniques, exemplified by MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, in the document representation. We studied queries formulated by four different kinds of information seekers interactively using an experimental IR system: (1) search novices; (2) domain experts; (3) search experts and (4) medical librarians. The 3,442,321 documents came from the TREC 2004 Genomics Track document set. Effectiveness of retrieval was measured using the relevance judgments provided by TREC. Inclusion of MeSH terms in the document representation did not affect the effectiveness of queries with respect to precision and recall. Adding MeSH terms to the index did not have a positive impact on the effectiveness of queries formulated by different kinds of users. These findings contribute to our understanding of the associations between the users' cognitive space and the information objects in light of the principle of polyrepresentation.

Search behavior and query logs

An analysis of queries intended to search information for children BIBAFull-Text 235-244
  Sergio Duarte Torres; Djoerd Hiemstra; Pavel Serdyukov
Query logs contain valuable information about the behavior, interests, and preferences of the users. The analysis of this information can give insight in their interaction and search behavior. In this paper, we analyze queries and groups of queries intended to find information that is suitable for children by using a large-scale query log. The aim of the analysis it twofold: (i) To identify differences in the query space, content space, user sessions, and user click behavior. (ii) To enhance the query log by including annotations of queries, sessions and actions. The paper presents plans to use this resource for further research on information retrieval for children. We found statistically significant differences between the set of general purpose queries, and the set of children queries. We show that many of these differences are consistent with small-scale research studies in which children were observed while using web search engines.
Search log analysis of user stereotypes, information seeking behavior, and contextual evaluation BIBAFull-Text 245-254
  Junte Zhang; Jaap Kamps
Evaluation is needed in order to benchmark and improve systems. In information retrieval (IR), evaluation is centered around the test collection, i.e. the set of documents that systems should retrieve given the matching queries coming from users. Much of the evaluation is uniform, i.e. there is one test collection and every query is processed in the same way by a system. But does one size fit all? Queries are created by different users in different contexts. This paper presents a method to contextualize the IR evaluation using search logs. We study search log files in the archival domain, and the retrieval of archival finding aids in the popular standard Encoded Archival Description (EAD) in particular. We study various aspects of the searching behavior in the log, and use them to define particular searcher stereotypes. Focusing on two user stereotypes, namely novice and expert users, we can automatically derive queries and pseudo-relevance judgments from the interaction data in the log files. We investigate how this can be used for context-sensitive system evaluation tailored to these user stereotypes. Our findings are in line with and complement prior user studies of archival users. The results also show that satisfying the demand of expert users is harder compared to novices as experts have more challenging information seeking needs, but also that the choice of system does not influence the relative IR performance of a system between different user groups.
Tactics used when searching for digital video BIBAFull-Text 255-264
  Barbara M. Wildemuth; Jung Sun Oh; Gary Marchionini
In a world increasingly using multimedia materials, it is important for us to understand how people search databases for videos, and how the medium of the object in the collection may provide a context for those search behaviors. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the moves and tactics that 36 people used while conducting 141 searches of a video retrieval system. Transaction logs captured the participants' search strategies; each search move was coded and the data were examined for maximal repeating patterns (MRPs). Thirteen different search patterns (i.e., tactics) were used by the study participants; the tactics were mainly characterized by (1) the addition of concepts, resulting in a decrease in the size of the results set, and (2) frequent display and browsing of the search results. To explore the possibility that the multimedia character of the materials in the collection might affect people's search behaviors, these results are compared to results from an earlier study of search tactics used when searching a textual/factual database.

Poster session

A diary study of understanding contextual information needs during leisure traveling BIBAFull-Text 265-270
  Li Chen; Luole Qi
The lack of knowledge about users' information needs will likely impede the applicability of mobile applications to more effectively support users' contextual search behavior. In this paper, we present results from a well-conducted diary study that aimed to learn persons' mobile information needs during their leisure traveling. The analysis of above 200 diary entries of subjects' information needs interestingly suggests question types, intents and topics that these needs exhibited. Moreover, the study reveals respective roles of different context factors, such as location, time and activity, in influencing and prompting users' information needs. Design implications are concluded at the end to show the insights of this study to improve current mobile services.
A step toward an adaptive composition of query suggestion approaches BIBAFull-Text 271-276
  Gérard Dupont; Aurélien Saint Requier; Sébastien Adam; Yves Lecourtier; Bruno Grilhères; Stéphan Brunessaux
The problems of comparing search support tool in interactive information retrieval (IIR) and of selecting the right one have always been difficult due to the inherent dependency to users. Using an adapted evaluation protocol, we study in this paper different suggestion approaches. The results show that the performance are changing for different users and also during the search sessions. As a consequence, they also show that the selection of a particular support tool has to use new grounding. In this way, we propose a system that allows to combine independent suggestion mechanisms based on an analysis of user behavior and considering the search session time as a key factor instead of using only static rules.
Affective utterances as contextual feedback in interactive information retrieval: examples from help-seeking interactions BIBAFull-Text 277-282
  Colleen Cool; Iris Xie
We report early results of our investigation of help-seeking behaviors during interactive information retrieval, with specific attention to one aspect of context, affective utterances made by searchers during the process of completing an assigned search task Searchers' utterances were coded as positive and negative assessments of the results of using automatic Help functionalities in two digital libraries. Although preliminary at this time, data presented in this paper indicate that affective utterances can be mapped to specific help-seeking events and therefore can be construed as important aspects of contextual feedback, worthy of further exploration.
Assessors' search result satisfaction associated with relevance in a scientific domain BIBAFull-Text 283-288
  Peter Ingwersen; Marianne Lykke; Toine Bogers; Birger Larsen; Haakon Lund
In this poster we investigate the associations between perceived ease of assessment of situational relevance made by a four-point scale, perceived satisfaction with retrieval results and the actual relevance assessments and retrieval performance made by test collection assessors based on their own genuine information tasks. Ease of assessment and search satisfaction are cross tabulated with retrieval performance measured by Normalized Discounted Cumulated Gain. Results show that when assessors find small numbers of relevant documents they tend to regard the search results with dissatisfaction and, in addition, they obtain lower performance for all document types involved, except for monographic records.
Blogging with CONTEXT: a context-aware information retrieval system for bloggers BIBAFull-Text 289-292
  Anatoliy Gruzd; Justin Wong
The poster describes the development process and evaluation of a context-aware information retrieval system for blog authors, called CONTEXT. As a blogger writes a post, the system automatically retrieves and displays links to web resources (web sites, news stories, video, etc) that are relevant to the blogger's entry. CONTEXT continuously monitors the blog post for new search keywords to find and display the most relevant resources to the blogger. The main goal of this system is to inform the blogger in real time of other related discussions that are going on in the blogosphere or elsewhere and give her/him a chance to be part of the 'global' conversation and thus improve his/her entry by incorporating some of the suggested resources into a post. Our expectation is that CONTEXT will lead to more interactive and content-rich blog entries, in which bloggers are not just expressing their own opinions, but they are also addressing each other and building on each other's arguments.
Contextualizing user relevance criteria: a meta-ethnographic approach to user-centered relevance studies BIBAFull-Text 293-298
  Peiling Wang
In this poster paper, we report a work-in-progress on contextualizing user relevance criteria using a meta-ethnographic approach. The purpose of the study is to derive higher-order interpretations of current studies to map user relevance criteria across contexts. The ultimate goal is to provide useful guidance to interactive information retrieval (IIR) design.
Evaluating text reuse discovery on the web BIBAFull-Text 299-304
  Stanford Chiu; Ibrahim Uysal; W. Bruce Croft
Text reuse detection aims to identify duplicates, reformulations or partial rewrites of a given text. Some previous research has focused on determining text reuse instances accurately on local corpora. However, the practical usage of finding text reuse on the web has remained largely untested. In this work, we 1) introduce a novel text reuse searching interface for the web, based on a previously proposed architecture, 2) evaluate its feasibility, and 3) investigate techniques to improve both effectiveness and efficiency. Our results show that exhaustive query submission using n-grams can dramatically reduce the execution time with only small losses in accuracy.
Exploring web browsing context for collaborative question answering BIBAFull-Text 305-310
  Qiaoling Liu; Yandong Liu; Eugene Agichtein
Collaborative Question Answering (CQA) sites such as Yahoo! Answers and recent real-time CQA sites such as Aardvark, provide a promising approach for information seeking. Yet, the behavior of the answerers, especially the factors influencing the quality and timeliness of the answers, are not well understood. We hypothesize that the information context of the answerer at the time a question is received is an important factor in the effectiveness of CQA systems. As a first step in exploring this hypothesis, our study shows that the relevant web browsing context can have significant positive effects on the answerers' reported ability, effort, and willingness to answer questions.
First impressions: how search engine results contextualise digital identities BIBAFull-Text 311-316
  Ian Ruthven; Caroline Clews; Wajihah Haji Md Dali
In this paper, we explore how the results of a person search can provide a context for making judgments about other people. Exploring the new aggregated method of search results presentation, we describe two simulated studies to cast light on whether the results from an aggregated search can change opinions on another person. We show that information presentations can modify opinions on a person we do not know but it is far harder to change existing opinions.
Identifying queries in the wild, wild web BIBAFull-Text 317-322
  Jingjing Liu; Chang Liu; Jun Zhang; Ralf Bierig; Michael J. Cole
Identifying user querying behavior is an important problem for information seeking and retrieval research. Query-related studies typically rely on server-side logs taken from a single search engine, but a comprehensive view of user querying behaviors requires analysis of data collected from the client-side for unrestricted searches. We developed three methods to identify querying behaviors and tested them on client-side logs collected in a lab experiment for realistic tasks and unrestricted searches on the entire Web. Results show that the best method was able to identify 97% of queries issued, with a precision of 92%. Although based on a relatively small number of search episodes, our methods, perhaps with minimal modifications, should be adequate for identification of queries in logs of unconstrained Web search.
Information interaction in 140 characters or less: genres on Twitter BIBAFull-Text 323-328
  Stina Westman; Luanne Freund
In this paper, we describe a genre analysis of Twitter updates, commonly called tweets. The aim was to understand and characterize the communication supported by Twitter in a structured manner enabled by the genre concept. We analyzed six facets of Twitter genres: who, what, where, when, why, and how, and identified a set of five common Twitter genres.
Interaction-based information filtering for children BIBAFull-Text 329-334
  Richard Glassey; Desmond Elliott; Tamara Polajnar; Leif Azzopardi
This paper presents an interaction-based information filtering system designed for the needs of children accessing multiple streams of information. This is an emerging problem due to the increased information access and engagement by children for their education and entertainment, and the explosion of stream-based information sources on most topics.
   It has been shown that children have difficulties formulating text-based queries and using interfaces primarily designed for adults. The in-progress system presented in this paper attempts to address these difficulties by employing an interaction-based interface that simplifies the expression of information needs and adapts itself to user interests over time. To overcome issues of content moderation, the system aggregates multiple child-friendly information feeds and performs offline processing to facilitate topic filtering. A set of standing topics are created for initial interaction and subsequent interactions are used to infer and refine which topics the child would most likely want to have presented. A simple and easy-to-use interface is presented which uses relevance information to determine the appropriate size of the document title to display to act as a relevance-cue to the user.
   The planned research focuses on validating the interaction-based approach with both child and adult populations to discover the differences and similarities that may exist.
Is there a universal instrument for measuring interactive information retrieval?: the case of the user engagement scale BIBAFull-Text 335-340
  Heather L. O'Brien; Elaine G. Toms
This paper examines the validity of the User Engagement Scale (UES). Originally developed and tested in e-shopping, the scale was administered to users of a multimedia webcast system in an experimental setting. Factor analysis examined the structure and loadings of 31 items. As in previous research, a six-factor solution was found. However, the number of items was reduced and one of the original sub-scales (Felt Involvement) was eliminated. These results are examined contextually by comparing the current study with previous research. The findings discuss the feasibility of a universal measure of user engagement in Interactive Information Retrieval (IIR).
Performing document triage on small screen devices. part 1: structured documents BIBAFull-Text 341-346
  Fernando Loizides; George R. Buchanan
Document triage is defined as the rapid process by which information seekers make relevance decisions on a set of documents [1]. With the rising popularity of small screen readers such as Amazon's Kindle and the ubiquity of smartphones capable of displaying documents, we are faced with the challenge of facilitating information seekers with effective ways of searching for information using these small screen devices, while bypassing the space limitation affordance. In this paper we begin to explore how information seekers go about their document triage process on small screens beginning by looking at structured documents.
Physicists' information tasks: structure, length and retrieval performance BIBAFull-Text 347-352
  Marianne Lykke; Peter Ingwersen; Toine Bogers; Haakon Lund; Birger Larsen
In this poster, we describe central aspects of 65 natural information tasks from 23 senior researchers, PhDs, and experienced MSc students from three different university departments of physics. We analyze 1) the main purpose of the information task, 2) which and how many search facets were used to describe the tasks, 3) what semantic categories were used to express the search facets, and 4) retrieval performance. Results show variety in structure and length across task descriptions and task purposes. The results indicate effect of length and, in particular, of task purpose on retrieval performance of different document description levels that should be examined further.
Social tags in text and image search BIBAFull-Text 353-358
  Yong-Mi Kim
This research-in-progress investigates the use of tags during the search process, for both image searches and text searches, through a user study. The use of tags for query reformulation, predictive judgment, and evaluative judgment of relevance is examined through transaction log data and post-search interviews. For both text and image searches, tags are most frequently used for query reformulation, but rarely used for evaluative judgment. Tag use occurs most frequently from the search results page, as the tags displayed in the search results page are used for query reformulation as well as predictive judgment. Results suggest that tags should be visible to users across all stages of the search process.
Supporting semantic navigation BIBAFull-Text 359-364
  Rick Kopak; Luanne Freund; Heather L. O'Brien
In this paper we outline an approach to improving information interaction in exploratory search based on the concept of semantic navigation. We introduce the concept of semantic navigation, discuss some approaches to providing support for semantic navigation at the interface level, and introduce the example of reading tools that have been developed in the context of the Open Journal Systems.
Testing visualization on the use of information systems BIBAFull-Text 365-370
  Xiaojun Yuan; Xiangmin Zhang; Alex Trofimovsky
In this study, we tested how users perceived differently between an information visualization system and a text information retrieval system. A between-subjects user-centered experiment was conducted and 32 subjects participated in this study. The CiteSpace system and the Web of Science system were compared, with the former focuses on visualization output and the latter addresses textual output. The results showed that subjects gave significantly more positive ratings in a majority of measures to the CiteSpace system than the Web of Science system. Results indicate that it would be helpful to consider different visualization techniques to represent and organize information in the design of information retrieval systems.
The effect of task type and topic familiarity on information search behaviors BIBAFull-Text 371-376
  Peng Qu; Chang Liu; Maosheng Lai
The paper describes results from a task-driven experiment on Web users' search behaviors. Subjects' search behavior and search experience in three types of search tasks (Fact Finding, Hierarchical Information Gathering, and Parallel Information Gathering) are compared. Our results indicate that both task type and familiarity can influence search behaviors (completion time and number of queries), but do not influence habitual behaviors, like the search entrance. In addition, users often gained new knowledge after searching.
The process of serendipity in knowledge work BIBAFull-Text 377-382
  Lori McCay-Peet; Elaine G. Toms
While serendipity is generally considered a spark for innovation and new knowledge, the triggers for serendipity appear infinite and consequently information systems' support for serendipity has been difficult to realize. Research to date has tended to focus only on supplying users with unexpected triggers for serendipity (e.g., embedded links in results). We adapt a model of the serendipitous process that examines serendipity more holistically. Using previously collected data, we focus on understanding the precipitating conditions that must be present to facilitate serendipity. Results suggest that serendipity occurs during social networking and active learning, and more specifically in the act of exploratory search. Results also suggest that serendipity is not always instant -- the usefulness of triggers may not be immediately apparent and a period of incubation is sometimes necessary before recognition of the serendipitous nature of a latent trigger is attained. Implications for the design of information systems are explored and support for the incubation period is discussed.
Using complexity measures in information retrieval BIBAFull-Text 383-388
  Frans van der Sluis; E. L. van den Broek
Although IR is meant to serve its users, surprisingly little IR research is not user-centered. In contrast, this article utilizes the concept complexity of information as the determinant of the user's comprehension, not as a formal golden measure. Four aspects of user's comprehension are applies on a database of simple and normal Wikipedia articles and found to distinguish between them. The results underline the feasibility of the principle of parsimony for IR: where two topical articles are available, the simpler one is preferred.
What eyes can tell about the use of relevance criteria during predictive relevance judgment? BIBAFull-Text 389-394
  Panos Balatsoukas; Ian Ruthven
This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a user study that explored how searchers fixate on information associated with different relevance criteria during the process of predictive relevance judgment. In order to address this objective a user study was conducted that involved the completion of questionnaires, use of eye tracking technology, talk aloud protocols and post-search interviews. As opposed to previous studies, the present research asked participants to search for real information needs that represented different search contexts (e.g. from searches about personal interest to academic related searches). This permitted the identification of several relevance criteria that naturally occur across different search contexts and the emergence of some fixation patterns, not observed before, associated to the use of these criteria. The paper concludes with a discussion of the impact and implication of this study in the wider context of relevance judgment and information seeking in context research.