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IIiX Tables of Contents: 0608101214

Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Information Interaction in Context

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Information Interaction in Context
Editors:Pia Borlund; Jesper W. Schneider; Mounia Lalmas; Anastasios Tombros; John Feather; Diane Kelly; Arjen P. de Vries
Location:London, England
Dates:2008-Oct-14 to 2008-Oct-17
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-60558-310-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: IIiX08
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote presentations
  2. Interactive IR I
  3. Context retrieval models
  4. Personalisation
  5. Evaluation & relevance I
  6. Interactive IR II
  7. Museum & archives in contexts
  8. Evaluation & relevance II
  9. Information seeking

Keynote presentations

The study of information retrieval: a long view BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Stephen Robertson
The Cranfield projects began in 1958 -- fifty years ago. They have of course been extraordinarily influential, forming a view of information retrieval as an experimental science, which in some fashion persists to this day. Although the Cranfield tradition has had its ups and downs -- the main down being in the late eighties, when it showed signs of being moribund -- it revived and regained its status in the nineties with the start of TREC, and remains an extremely influential world-view of the field of search (as it is now commonly known) as we approach the second decade of the 21st century. At the same time, the field itself has become vastly better known, and IR systems vastly more widely used, as a result of the spread of the world wide web and the development of the web search engine.
   But the Cranfield/TREC view of IR has always been partial and biased. In particular, it has very greatly encouraged and promoted research into models, methods and algorithms appropriate to what is seen as the core search functionality of IR systems, at the expense of interaction, cognition, and the task-and user-context of search. It is the case that the basic Cranfield formalisation of the search task itself (receive a query, supply a result set) ignores such aspects; but this is not in itself the heart of the problem. The central problem is that these wider aspects are resistant to being studied experimentally in a laboratory setting.
   The essence of a laboratory experiment is abstraction. The principle is that we abstract, from the complexities and messiness of the real world, some small set of variables representing some limited aspects of the world. The abstraction is defined by both the choice of which aspects to include and which to leave out, and the nature of the variables themselves, whose laboratory representation may be a simplification of their counterparts in the real world.
   The laboratory, and the abstraction of the laboratory experiment, is a fundamental and extraordinarily useful device in the scientific method. Theories and models that can be defined in the context of laboratory abstractions, and tested rigorously in that context, have provided us with vast insights and hugely extended understanding of phenomena in the real world -- and continue to do so. However, it is also the case that some phenomena in the real world are more resistant than others to such abstraction. The study of the phenomena of force, mass, motion and so on, that gave us such insights into basic physics, were much easier to abstract in this way than the phenomena associated with life. During the 20th century, but not before, we began to be able to study at least some aspects of life in the laboratory. But even within physics, much of our knowledge and understanding came from observational astronomy, with chance events that we happened to observe in the real universe, over the several millennia since Babylon, playing a huge role.
   Typically, we cannot expect to understand everything we need to know about a set of phenomena from laboratory abstractions. Even more, we cannot expect to do so from a single laboratory abstraction. We enlist the help of laboratory abstractions where and when we can; ideally we should seek several different ways to abstract the world for laboratory investigation, as well as seeking insights more directly from the real world.
   In some respects, the Cranfield tradition has become relatively rich. Although some parts of the abstraction that it represents are common to many laboratory experiments in IR, there has been a range of different approaches and ideas within it -- as represented by the TREC tracks and other experiments outside TREC. These experiments have included serious forays into the more difficult aspects that I mentioned above, such as interaction, cognition, and the task-and user-context of search. Some of the difficulties thus revealed are obvious enough -- difficulties of scale and reproducibility among them. However, some seem to be more subtle.
   One difficulty might be described thus. The main focus of all Cranfield/TREC work is system effectiveness -- the object of virtually all experiments in this tradition is to evaluate the effectiveness of a method or component, or to compare multiple methods/components for effectiveness, or to optimise a set of parameters for effectiveness, and so on. But this object does not seem to fit well with, say, work on interaction, which tends to be much more interested in questions like 'If I provide this UI feature or device, how do users perceive and use it?' -- with no necessity to attach value-judgments to the possible answers.
   Perhaps, indeed, this focus is itself a limitation, and an unnecessary one, of the Cranfield/TREC tradition. If we take the view that we would like to see IR as (at least in some sense) an experimental science, then it is worth enquiring more deeply into the role of experiment in science.
   A very cavalier account of how science works is as follows. We gather data about a class of phenomena; we try to formulate models or theories to describe or account for the phenomena; we push the models or theories to give us hypotheses, predictions about other things that we have not yet observed; and we then try to observe those new things, in order to test hypotheses. The role of experiments is sometimes in the initial data-gathering, and often after the formation of theories in straightforward measurement; but the main fundamental scientific contribution of experiments is in the testing of hypotheses.
   If we think of a typical TREC-style IR experiment as a test of a hypothesis, then it seems that the only form of hypothesis which we ever test is 'if we apply this model, search will be more effective.' This feels like a very limited class of hypotheses. I would like to suggest that we should be trying to open out the possibilities. We should be looking for ways in which our models or theories might be made to give us other kinds of hypotheses, which we could hope to test in experiments.
   I don't think such a change in the paradigm associated with Cranfield and TREC would be easy, and I'm not at all clear myself on how to go about it. But if it were possible, it could have the effect of breaking down, at least to some extent, the present barrier between what is seen as the Cranfield tradition on the one hand, and all those domains mentioned above, which are also of fundamental interest to IR, on the other.
The context of the interface BIBAFull-Text 3-5
  Ian Ruthven
Our ideas on context (from both a soft and hard laboratory perspective) often manifest themselves at the interface. Interfaces for information seeking range from systems which offer little contextual information or flexibility of use to systems which are highly driven by the searcher's individual interaction. In this talk I will use existing search interfaces to highlight how the nature of information retrieval interfaces has changed in response to research from contextual IS&R. A particular theme will be the commercial nature of web search interfaces and how approaches such as persuasive and emotional design can be used to encourage interaction. I will also consider the nature of specialized versus general purpose search interfaces and the challenges raised in interface design. The (not very) hidden agenda behind this presentation will be to argue for an interaction-centered approach to IR systems.

Interactive IR I

Tagging for use: an analysis of use-centred resource description BIBAFull-Text 6-12
  Luanne Freund; Richard Butterworth
This paper discusses use-centred resource description, a practice whereby an information object is assigned metadata that describes what it can be used for, as opposed to what it is. We look at precedents for this practice in the literature and present three cases of use-centred description in diverse information environments. Through analysis and comparison of the cases, we develop a preliminary framework for use-centred resource description.
Search strategies in multimodal image retrieval BIBAFull-Text 13-20
  Stina Westman; Antti Lustila; Pirkko Oittinen
This paper reports on a study on search strategies in multimodal image retrieval. We analyzed the queries and search tactics employed by image journalism professionals and non-professionals in a user test. Transaction log data show that searchers are able to combine up to four query modes into a query. Most queries combined at least two of the modes (text, color, sketch, quality, and category). Task type was shown to affect the choice of which modes to employ. Known item and data search tasks led to queries combining text, color and category modes. Visually cued tasks resulted in searches combining several content-based and textual modes. Conceptual tasks led to a large number of queries by text and category only. User background also significantly affected the types of queries constructed. Professionals used the color mode more whereas non-professionals drew more sketches. Non-professionals were more likely to switch query modes whereas professionals edited the content of their queries. We described the search processes with Markov models and maximal repeating patterns. Common patterns and probable transitions dealt with querying, inspecting result images and saving them into the workspace or iterating queries of the same type. The results indicate a need to support multimodal image query formulation.

Context retrieval models

Query reformulation, search performance, and term suggestion devices in question-answering tasks BIBAFull-Text 21-26
  Ying-Hsang Liu; Nicholas J. Belkin
Capturing context within query in query reformulation tasks has been identified as a promising technique for supporting users who are engaged with interactive information retrieval systems. User queries represent the evolution of information problems. A deeper understanding of the structure and process of query reformulation, in particular, could provide further information for system adaptations. The present study characterizes the query reformulation process in two types of term suggestion devices, relevance feedback (RF) and Local Context Analysis (LCA), in simulated question-answering tasks using Rutgers' TREC-8 Interactive Track dataset. Four types of query reformulation were identified on the basis of semantic contents and relations, as well as sequences in users' modifications of queries. We found a significant relationship between the types of query reformulations and the use of term suggestion devices. But we did not find significant correlations between types of query reformulations and search performance. Some issues regarding systematic biases in query reformulations and capturing context within queries in interactive IR system are discussed.
Novelty as a form of contextual re-ranking: efficient KLD models and mixture models BIBAFull-Text 27-34
  Ronald T. Fernández; David E. Losada
Current Information Retrieval systems are often based on topicality. They estimate relevance by comparing the similarity between the user query and each document. These systems do not take into account important contextual information. More specifically, they do not often apply mechanisms to filter out redundant information. We interpret context here as the set of chunks of text from the ranked set of documents that the user has already seen. This is a valuable contextual information to guide the retrieval processes in a way that avoids redundancy. It is desirable that the ranking of results is composed by relevant but also novel material. This means that each document must provide to the user unseen information which is related to his need.
   In this work we study different novelty detection approaches that make good use of this contextual information. We show that these techniques can be applied effectively and efficiently at the sentence level.
A graph based approach to estimating lexical cohesion BIBAFull-Text 35-43
  Hayrettin Gürkök; Murat Karamuftuoglu; Markus Schaal
Traditionally, information retrieval systems rank documents according to the query terms they contain. However, even if a document may contain all query terms, this does not guarantee that it is relevant to the query. The query terms can occur together in the same document, but may have been used in different contexts, expressing separate topics. Lexical cohesion is a characteristic of natural language texts, which can be used to determine whether the query terms are used in the same context in the document. In this paper we make use of a graph-based approach to capture term contexts and estimate the level of lexical cohesion in a document. To evaluate the performance of our system, we compare it against two benchmark systems using three TREC document collections.


A study of remembered context for information access from personal digital archives BIBAFull-Text 44-50
  Liadh Kelly; Yi Chen; Marguerite Fuller; Gareth J. F. Jones
Retrieval from personal archives (or Human Digital Memories (HDMs)) is set to become a significant challenge in information retrieval (IR) research. These archives are unique in that the items in them are personal to the owner and as such the owner may have personal memories associated with the items. It is recognized that the harnessing of an individual's memories about HDM items can be used as context data (such as user location at the time of item access) to aid retrieval. We present a pilot study, using one subject's HDM, of remembered context data and its utility in retrieval. Our results explore the types of context data best remembered for different item types and categories over time and show that context appears to become a more important factor in effective HDM IR over time as the subject's recall of contents declines.
Activity put in context: identifying implicit task context within the user's document interaction BIBAFull-Text 51-56
  Karl Gyllstrom; Craig Soules; Alistair Veitch
Modern desktop search is ill-fitted to our personal document workspace. On one hand, many of the methods which render web search effective cannot be applied on the desktop. On the other, desktop search does not take full advantage of attributes that are unique to our personal documents. In this work, we present Confluence, a desktop search system that addresses this problem by capturing the task context within which a user interacts with their documents. This context is then integrated with traditional desktop search techniques to enable task-based document retrieval.
   Building upon Connections, a system that identifies task context by passively monitoring the user's interaction with their documents within the file system. Confluence also traces user activity within the user interface and incorporates methods to analyze and integrate this new stream of information. We show that this approach significantly improves the accuracy of task identification, achieving 25% to 30% better recall.
Learning user interests for a session-based personalized search BIBAFull-Text 57-64
  Mariam Daoud; Lynda Tamine-Lechani; Mohand Boughanem
It is now widely assumed in personalized information retrieval (IR) area that user interests can provide substantial clues for document relevance estimation. User interests reflect generally the user background and topics of interests. However most of the proposed personalized retrieval models and strategies do not distinguish between short term and long term user interests and make use of the whole search history to improve the search accuracy. In this paper, we study how to learn long term user interests by aggregating concept-based short term ones identified within related search activities. For this purpose, we tackle the problem of session boundary recognition using context-sensitive similarity measures that are able to gauge the changes in the user interest topics with regard to reference ontology. Finally, the search personalization is achieved by re-ranking the search results for a given query using the short term user interest. Our experimental evaluation is carried out using TREC collection and shows that personalization brings significant improvements in retrieval effectiveness. Moreover, we observe that our context-sensitive session boundary recognition method can, to some extent, find a semantic correlation between the query and the user context across the search sessions.

Evaluation & relevance I

Retrieval of context-aware applications on mobile devices: how to evaluate? BIBAFull-Text 65-71
  Stefano Mizzaro; Elena Nazzi; Luca Vassena
This paper discusses the issue of evaluation of context-aware retrieval applications. We begin by describing MoBe, a specific architecture that allows automatic download and execution of context-aware applications on mobile devices. In MoBe, the most relevant applications are selected by matching context and application descriptors. Since several alternatives for descriptors implementation exist, it is important to compare their effectiveness. To this aim, we develop a TREC-like benchmark, in which the collection is made up by a set of application descriptors and the topics are made up by context descriptors. We then use the benchmark to evaluate the effectiveness of different descriptors components, and of structured and unstructured (i.e., free text) data, finding results that are somehow useful for future MoBe development. We also discuss the issue of the evaluation methodology for highly interactive and novel applications like context-aware retrieval systems, and MoBe in particular.
Content or context?: searching for musical meaning in task-based interactive information retrieval BIBAFull-Text 72-74
  Charlie Inskip; Andy MacFarlane; Pauline Rafferty
Creative professionals search for digital music to accompany moving images using interactive information retrieval systems run by music publishers and record companies. This research-in-progress investigates creative professionals and intermediaries communication processes and information seeking and use behaviour with a view to making recommendations to information retrieval systems builders about the relative importance of content and contextual factors. A communications model is used to suggest that the meaning of music is determined by its listener and use context, as well as cultural codes and competences.
Effects of performance feedback on users' evaluations of an interactive IR system BIBAFull-Text 75-82
  Diane Kelly; Chirag Shah; Cassidy R. Sugimoto; Earl W. Bailey; Rachael A. Clemens; Ann K. Irvine; Nicholas A. Johnson; Weimao Ke; Sanghee Oh; Anezka Poljakova; Marcos A. Rodriguez; Megan G. van Noord; Yan Zhang
In this study, we seek to understand how providing feedback to users about their performances with an interactive information retrieval (IIR) system impacts their evaluations of that system. Sixty subjects completed three recall-based searching tasks with an experimental IIR system and were asked to evaluate the system after each task and after finishing all three tasks. Before completing the final evaluation, three-fourths of the subjects were provided with feedback about their performances. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of four feedback conditions: a baseline condition where no feedback was provided; an actual feedback condition where subjects were provided with their real performances; and two conditions where subjects were deceived and told that they performed very well or very poorly. Results show that the type of feedback provided significantly affected subjects' system evaluations; most importantly there was a significant difference in subjects' satisfaction ratings before and after feedback was provided in the actual feedback condition.

Interactive IR II

Improving skim reading for document triage BIBAFull-Text 83-88
  George Buchanan; Tom Owen
When users seek for information, they repeatedly make relevance judgements on individual documents: the act of document triage. Recent research demonstrates that document triage decisions are prone to significant error rates. Document triage also affects the future course of information seeking: users form beliefs about the availability of information, determine new information goals and conclude others. Developing effective interactions to support document triage is therefore critical. This paper investigates how improve support for the quick review of a document, exploiting the principle of semantic zooming. We discover that applying semantic zooming improves the legibility of heading text during the rapid scrolling and overview reading that is associated with the earliest phases of document triage.
Comparing collaborative and independent search in a recall-oriented task BIBAFull-Text 89-96
  Hideo Joho; David Hannah; Joemon M. Jose
Search interfaces are mainly designed to support a single searcher at a time. We therefore have a limited understanding of how an interface can support search where more than one searcher concurrently pursues a shared information need. This paper investigated the performance and user behaviour of concurrent search. Based on a recall-oriented search task, a user study was carried out to compare an independent search condition to collaborative search conditions. The results show that the collaborative conditions helped searchers diversify search vocabulary while reducing redundant documents to be bookmarked within teams. However, these effects were found to be insufficient to improve the retrieval effectiveness. We discussed the implications for concurrent search support based on our findings.
A task-based information retrieval interface to support bioinformatics analysis BIBAFull-Text 97-101
  Joan C. Bartlett; Tomasz Neugebauer
In this research-in-progress paper, we present the design and pilot testing of an interface created to support the integration of bioinformatics analysis with biological laboratory research. The interface presents a task-based bioinformatics analysis protocol detailing the functional analysis of a gene sequence, a complex information task that is problematic for many biologists. The interface guides the user through a series of 14 analytical steps, providing details on why to follow the step, what data is input/output, what tool(s) to use and how to interpret the results. It provides the framework and support within which the user can accomplish the information task. Our pilot testing has demonstrated initial evidence of the effectiveness of the interface, but also highlighted areas for clarification and enhancement.

Museum & archives in contexts

Access to archival material in context BIBAFull-Text 102-109
  Khairun Nisa Fachry; Jaap Kamps; Junte Zhang
Archival finding aids are long and complexly structured documents describing archival material -- the paper trails of the lives of corporate bodies, persons, and families. Currently, finding aids are encoded in XML using the standard Encoded Archival Description (EAD) and made available to the public on web-sites of archival institutions. But how to provide access to such long and complexly structured documents? On the one hand, users tend to look for specific archival material that may be deeply nested inside the archive. On the other hand, interpreting the meaning of an item is crucially dependent on its context.
   Using insights from the field of XML retrieval -- a subfield of information retrieval that has recently attracted a lot of attention, mainly through the annual evaluation effort in INEX -- we developed three different systems for searching in collections of digital finding aids corresponding to three fundamental choices about archival access. The first system provides access to the fonds or archive as a whole; the second system provides direct access to individual archival material at any level of description; the third system retrieves archival material while preserving the original context. This paper reports on the results of an extensive user study with the three systems. Our main finding is that test persons have a preference for the third system that retrieves archival material in their original context, with test persons indicating that the system assisted them in assessing relevancy, navigation and direct access to relevant parts of the finding aids.
Exploring information seeking behaviour in a digital museum context BIBAFull-Text 110-115
  Mette Skov; Peter Ingwersen
This paper describes the preliminary results of a case study of task-based interactive information seeking and retrieval behaviour of virtual museum visitors in context. The research described here is part of a larger study: this paper specifically looks at 1) leisure tasks/interests and derived information needs, and 2) main characteristics of virtual museum visitors' information seeking behaviour. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from written enquiries to the museum, an online questionnaire and a user study of simulated interest tasks combined with retrospective think-aloud sessions. The data collected did not show exploratory behaviour to be predominant as expected. Rather analysis of data indicates a broad coverage of different types of needs. Finally, four main characteristics of virtual museum guests' information seeking behaviour were identified.
Characteristics of information needs for television broadcasts of scholars and students in media studies BIBAFull-Text 116-122
  Brian Kirkegaard; Pia Borlund
This paper reports on an explorative study of information need characteristics in a television broadcast context. Nine in-depth interviews are conducted with scholars and students within the academic field of Media Studies, and we identify four characteristics. Firstly, broadcasts are needed as objects of analysis in empirical research. Secondly, the needs are related to three broadcast dimensions: 1) Transmission; 2) Archive; and 3) Reception. Thirdly, four fundamental types of information needs are verified in a television broadcast context: 1) Known item; 2) Factual data; 3) Known topic or content; and 4) Muddled topic or content. Fourthly, the interviewees' needs consist of four phases: 1) Getting an overview of transmitted broadcasts; 2) Identification of borderline exemplars; 3) Selection of specific programmes; and 4) Verification of facts. In this way, the present paper presents novel research on characteristics of information needs in a television broadcast context. This knowledge is imperative for the design and construction of future broadcast retrieval systems.

Evaluation & relevance II

Searchers' relevance judgments and criteria in evaluating web pages in a learning style perspective BIBAFull-Text 123-132
  Chariste Papaeconomou; Annemarie F. Zijlema; Peter Ingwersen
The paper presents the results of a case study of searcher's relevance criteria used for assessments of Web pages in a perspective of learning style. 15 test persons participated in the experiments based on two simulated work tasks that provided cover stories to trigger their information needs. Two learning styles were examined: Global and Sequential learners. The study applied eye-tracking for the observation of relevance hot spots on Web pages, learning style index analysis and post-search interviews to gain more in-depth information on relevance behavior.
   Findings reveal that with respect to use of graded relevance scores and number of relevance criteria applied per task and test person there are no significant difference between the different styles. Although there differences are detected in the use of relevance criteria between Global and Sequential learners during assessments, they are statistically insignificant. When interviewed in retrospective the resulting profiles tend to become even similar across learning styles but a shift occurs from instant assessments with content features of web pages replacing topicality judgments as predominant relevance criteria.
Deriving context from users' evaluations to inform software development BIBAFull-Text 133-135
  Stevie Barrett; Charlie Inskip
The EASAIER project (EASAIER) aims to provide enriched internet-enabled access to a broad range of digital sound and video archives, and as a result, the user base will consist of a very wide and deep constituency with varying and specialized user needs. Ten classical music students at the Royal Academy of Music and Drama, having been given a short introduction to software evaluation, assessed an alpha release of the EASAIER software and their outputs revealed the importance of user context in the process of software development. This short paper details the evaluation model and highlights the key findings revealed when expert musicians but non-expert computer users applied this model to the EASAIER software.
Experiences evaluating personal metasearch BIBAFull-Text 136-138
  Paul Thomas; David Hawking
Many current evaluation techniques for information retrieval, such as test collections and simulations, are difficult to apply in situations where queries and preferred results are context-dependent. This is particularly true in personal metasearch applications, which provide a person with unified search access to all their usual online sources. A recently-proposed technique, based on presenting two or more search results sets in a single comparison interface, offers an alternative.
   We have embedded this technique in a working personal metasearch tool which we have distributed to volunteers. Initial experiments with server selection suggest that the technique is accepted by users, can operate over diverse and unarticulated contexts, and that the data it provides can provide a useful comparison to that from test collections. Further experimentation with the technique is continuing.

Information seeking

Optimal access to information while writing: writing in the internet age BIBAFull-Text 139-144
  Olga Muñoz Ramos; Mari Carmen Puerta Melguizo; Lou Boves; Maria Gracia Castillo Vergara
Writing professional documents requires finding relevant related information. Although the availability of information constantly increases, seeking for information relevant for the task is not easy. A Proactive Recommendation System (PRS) retrieves information relevant to the written text and presents it without user intervention. The information presented can improve the quality of the text, but can also interrupt the process of writing. We investigated the impact of a PRS on writing in comparison to active seeking situations. We explored the effects of both ways to access information (active versus proactive) during the different stages of writing. The results suggest that people need to access information especially in the first stage of writing: planning. Participants found that proactive presentation of relevant information is more useful and less disturbing during planning.
Toward a model of children's information seeking behavior in using digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 145-151
  Dania Bilal; Sonia Sarangthem; Imad Bachir
This paper presents an empirical model of Arabic-speaking children's interaction with the International Children's Digital Library (ICDL). The model is based on data collected from ten children ages 6-10 who interacted with the ICDL to find information for assigned and self-generated tasks. Two contexts influenced children's information seeking behavior: 1. the non-naturalistic laboratory environment where they used the ICDL as volunteers rather than as part of their everyday life or as a requirement for an assignment, and 2. the international and multicultural nature of the ICDL that provided access to an Arabic book collection, but did not support analytical searching in Arabic. The model presents 7 modes that characterized children's information seeking behavior and the range of moves associated with them. Underlying the behavior is the children's information need and their affective states that consisted of uncertainty and anxiety in the beginning and certainty and satisfaction upon completing the tasks.
Differences between informational and transactional tasks in information seeking on the web BIBAFull-Text 152-159
  Hitoshi Terai; Hitomi Saito; Yuka Egusa; Masao Takaku; Makiko Miwa; Noriko Kando
We examine the influence of task types on information-seeking behaviors on the Web by using screen capture logs and eye-movement data. Eleven participants performed two different types of web search, an informational task and a transactional task, and their think aloud protocols and behaviors were recorded. Analyses of the screen capture logs showed that the task type affected the participants' information-seeking behaviors. In the transactional task, participants visited more web pages than for the informational task, but their reading time for each page was shorter than in the informational task. A preliminary analysis of eye-movement data for nine participants revealed characteristics of the scanpaths followed in search result pages as well as the distribution of lookzones for each task.
The doctoral forum at the second IIiX symposium BIBAFull-Text 160-162
  Erica Cosijn; Ross Wilkinson
This paper gives a description of the Doctoral Forum held at the second symposium on Information Interaction in Context (IIiX) and provides brief descriptions of the presented student projects. Six senior researchers gave feedback to a total of 14 doctoral students.
Tutorials at the second IIiX symposium BIBAFull-Text 163-164
  Peter Ingwersen; Eero Sormunen
Information Interaction in Context 2008 began with two half day tutorials. The role of a tutorial is to give a detailed introduction to a single topic related to the themes of the symposium. The first tutorial by Ayse Göker and her colleagues focused on information interaction in mobile environments. The second tutorial by Peter Ingwersen proposed and demonstrated a research framework for semi-controlled field studies in interactive IR. The contents of tutorials are summarized below.