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IIiX Tables of Contents: 0608101214

Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Information Interaction in Context

Fullname:Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Information Interaction in Context
Editors:Ian Ruthven
Location:Copenhagen, Denmark
Dates:2006-Oct-18 to 2006-Oct-20
Standard No:ISBN: 1-59593-482-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: IIiX06
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote presentations
  2. Relevance
  3. Users and context I
  4. Structured documents
  5. Interface issues
  6. Polyrepresentation
  7. Non-textual information interaction
  8. Contextual relevance feedback
  9. Methodological issues
  10. Users and context II

Keynote presentations

Interaction in context in information research: shifting the paradigm BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Micheline Beaulieu
The launch of this First International Symposium on Information Interaction in Context is a significant and innovative development in the field of Information Research. It represents a new departure in providing a forum to explicitly explore the relationship between three major distinct perspectives of information research namely, Information Seeking Behaviour, laboratory and experimental Information Retrieval and Interactive Information Retrieval. Until now it has been the norm to accentuate the differences between these sub-fields and indeed there has been little agreement on recognising the value and dependency of the different approaches and paradigms. In spite of the persistent call from a number of researchers for the need for a paradigm shift from systems to user centred information research, the overall perception is that progress in accommodating the different approaches has been limited and systems based research seemingly continues to predominate.
Social and personal: communities and collaboration in adaptive web search BIBAFull-Text 3-5
  Barry Smyth
Conservative recent estimates of the Web's current size refer to its 10 billion documents and a growth rate that tops 60 terabytes of new information per day [8]. In 2000 the entire World-Wide Web consisted of just 21 terabytes of information, now it grows by 3 times this every single day [5]. This growth frames the information overload problem that is threatening to stall the information revolution going forward. In short, users are finding it increasingly difficult to locate the right information at the right time in the right way. Search engine technologies are struggling to cope with the sheer quantity of information that is available, a problem that is greatly exacerbated by the apparent inability of Web users to formulate effective search queries that accurately reflect their current information needs.


Studying human judgments of relevance: interactions in context BIBAFull-Text 6-14
  Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson
This paper discusses the ways participants in a two-year ethnographic study judged relevance when engaged in searching and research tasks. Two experienced academics have been observed evaluating informative artefacts (documents, citations or other representations) encountered in the course of their own research projects. This study sought to explore the criteria and clues used to make decisions about the relevance of retrievable items. In presenting some of the findings from this longitudinal study, the paper demonstrates the value of this approach for enhancing our understanding of the evolving nature of human relevance judgments. The paper will describe how this interaction involves not only the notion of searcher-system communication, but a range of encounters that inform and influence that particular communication at the search interface. The paper suggests future collaboration between system specialists and human behaviour specialists to further our understanding of the socio-material systems in which people make judgments of relevance.
Situational relevance and task outcome BIBAFull-Text 15-19
  Saila Huuskonen; Pertti Vakkari
It is explored how precision and relative recall and items retrieved and assessed as useful by medical students for writing course work are associated with the degree to which these items were cited in the work and how they were used, as assessed by teachers. The main finding was that precision and relative recall were not associated with most of the indicators measuring the quality of the course work. The implications of this finding are discussed concerning outcome oriented evaluation of IR.
Relevance judgements within the context of work tasks BIBAFull-Text 20-29
  Erica Cosijn
This paper describes the empirical testing of part of a model of relevance manifestations. The research described here is part of a larger study: this paper specifically looks at the types of relevance judgements (manifestations of relevance) that are made by users executing works tasks in different contexts. The relevance judgements of users engaged in three different types of work task (different contexts) were captured through the use of questionnaires at the end of the work task. The different work tasks were chosen to represent different contexts of information use in order to establish whether the context of the information need and work task has an influence on the way that information sources are evaluated and used. It was found that the context of work task performed has a statistically significant influence on the type of relevance judgement that is made.

Users and context I

Towards genre classification for IR in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 30-36
  Luanne Freund; Charles L. A. Clarke; Elaine G. Toms
Use of document genre in information retrieval systems has the potential to improve the task-appropriateness of results. However, genre classification remains a challenging problem. We describe a case study of genre classification in a software engineering workplace domain, which includes the development of a genre taxonomy and experiments in automatic genre classification using supervised machine learning. We present results based on evaluation using real-life enterprise data from this work domain.
Oh my, where is the end of the context?: dealing with information in a highly complex environment BIBAFull-Text 37-41
  Daniela Petrelli; Vitaveska Lanfranchi; Phil Moore; Fabio Ciravegna; Colin Cadnas
This paper reports on the preliminary results of a study in information production, transmission, access and use in aerospace manufacturing and maintenance. Multiple techniques were used in order to understand the context in which the information flow takes place. The complexity is such that after several meetings with users the full picture is not fully detailed yet. Previously unknown documents, user roles and tasks continue to emerge while the study progresses. The conclusion is that an iterative approach should be adopted when studying highly complex environments: starting from the broadest view, each cycle progressively focuses on a sub-context to identify important details. Researchers should also keep an open mind as unexpected findings are likely to impacts on the current understanding, i.e. discovering the importance of social networks or physical inspection of the hardware as means to access information.
City planners' information seeking behavior: information channels used and information types needed in varying types of perceived work tasks BIBAFull-Text 42-45
  Sami Serola
In this paper it is presented how city planners seek information through different information channels depending on the type of work tasks done and the information types needed. The core tasks in city planning are the actual planning and the writing of surveys. In this study other types of tasks that support the performance of core tasks were also identified. The Internet was used most often, clearly displacing the print media. When problem solving information and domain information were needed, colleagues and other people were the most important information-seeking channel. It was also found that the outcomes of supportive tasks are usually hard to recognize. Supportive tasks have however, an important role in terms of collaborative information seeking and personal information management.

Structured documents

Users, structured documents and overlap: interactive searching of elements and the influence of context on search behaviour BIBAFull-Text 46-55
  Barbara Hammer-Aebi; Kirstine Wilfred Christensen; Haakon Lund; Birger Larsen
This paper contains an analysis of user behaviour when interacting with the result list of an information retrieval (IR) system retrieving elements from structured documents. The data set was obtained from the INEX 2005 Interactive Track, where a group of users searched information on travel destinations marked up in XML. The aim of this study is to determine the user preferences for element granularity and to examine how the users deal with overlapping elements. In addition, the difference in user behaviour when viewing the results in isolation or in the context of the surrounding elements is analysed. The results suggest that the users prefer element of depth 2-4 to whole documents. Users view fewer overlapping elements than expected and the user behaviour suggests the users consciously view some overlapping elements. There is almost no difference in behaviour whether the users view the element in the context of its document or in isolation.
Relevant contextual features in XML retrieval BIBAFull-Text 56-65
  Georgina Ramírez; Arjen P. de Vries
We present and analyze results of a collaborative user study carried out by the Interactive Track at INEX 2005 [4]. The overall goal of the Interactive Track is to investigate the behavior of users when interacting with components of XML documents. In this paper we use the data collected from this user study to investigate dependencies between several contextual features and the structural characteristics of the relevant components (e.g. type and number of relevant elements). The three contextual features analyzed are the user's familiarity with the topic, the request's type, and the user's motivation to perform the search. The dependencies found indicate that XML retrieval systems should also benefit from the use of contextual information.

Interface issues

Slicing and dicing the information space using local contexts BIBAFull-Text 66-74
  Hideo Joho; Joemon M. Jose
In recent years there has been growing interest in faceted grouping of documents for Interactive Information Retrieval (IIR). It is suggested that faceted grouping can offer a flexible way of browsing a collection compared to clustering. However, the success of faceted grouping seems to rely on sufficient knowledge of collection structure. In this paper we propose an approach based on the local contexts of query terms, which is inspired by the interaction of faceted search and browsing. The use of local contexts is appealing since it requires less knowledge of the collection than existing approaches. A task-based user study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of our interface in varied complexity. The results suggest that the local contexts can be exploited as the source of search result browsing in IIR, and that our interface appears to facilitate different aspects of search process over the task complexity. The implication of the evaluation methodology using high complexity tasks is also discussed.
Context browser: ontology based navigation in information spaces BIBAFull-Text 75-78
  Kristina Groth; Pär Lannerö
For people working in knowledge intensive organisations, information about specific projects, documents, etc. are important for performing an ordinary workday. Different kinds of problems, large or small, complex or simple, continually arise and need to be dealt with. Finding information or people with specific knowledge to solve the problem may be of crucial importance. Today, a number of technologies exist facilitating this, but they are either not sophisticated enough, i.e., not providing results detailed enough, or too complicated to prepare for, e.g., tagging large amounts of information. As an alternative, we propose using ontologies to facilitate free-text searches. From an ontology, a menu-like interface can be automatically generated. Such a menu can replace searching with navigation. To demonstrate our ideas, we present Context Browser, a tool providing ontology based navigation in structured and unstructured information spaces.
Time, location and interest: an empirical and user-centred study BIBAFull-Text 79-87
  Ralf Bierig; Ayse Göker
The importance of context in meeting user information needs has gained increasing interest. When developing interactive information retrieval systems, we do need to consider how contextual information might be used to improve information retrieval. In this paper, we present a user-centred experiment that focuses on three potential context attributes. These are time, location, and user's interest. The experiment involved tasks using a scenario that would be suitable for mobile situations -- one very promising area for the application of context information that can help to deliver personalised services. The scenario involves situations with local events such as jazz concerts and includes the use of a simplified map to help visualise locations. The effect of the three attributes and the interactions between them are analysed and discussed. The effects in most cases were considerable and data analysis showed statistically significant effects. The study shows that time, location, and interest matter to users in mobile situations. There appears to be a priority emerging in the relative importance of these attributes for the mobile user. Also, the results show high order interaction effects between the attributes.


The polyrepresentation continuum in IR BIBAFull-Text 88-96
  Birger Larsen; Peter Ingwersen; Jaana Kekäläinen
The polyrepresentation principle suggests that cognitively and functionally different representations of information objects may be used in information retrieval to enhance quality of results. In the paper, several empirical studies that intentionally or unintentionally have tested the principle are introduced and discussed. The continuum proposed by Larsen (2004; Ingwersen & Larsen, 2005) showing the structural dimension of the retrieval techniques involved in polyrepresentation is further elaborated by adding a novel second dimension consisting of query structure and modus. The new two-dimensional continuum can be seen as a constructive framework for further investigations of polyrepresentative principles in IR.
Inter and intra-document contexts applied in polyrepresentation BIBAFull-Text 97-101
  Mette Skov; Birger Larsen; Peter Ingwersen
The principle of polyrepresentation offers a theoretical framework for handling multiple contexts in Information Retrieval (IR). This paper presents an empirical study of polyrepresentation of the information space with focus on inter and intra-document features. The Cystic Fibrosis test collection indexed in a best match system constitutes the experimental setting. Overlaps between four functionally and/or cognitively different representations are identified. Supporting the principle of polyrepresentation, results show that in general overlaps generated by three or four representations have higher precision than those generated from one or two overlaps both in structured and unstructured search mode. It is concluded that a highly structured query language is necessary when implementing the principle of polyrepresentation in a best match IR system because the principle is inherently Boolean. Finally a re-ranking test shows promising results when search results are re-ranked according to precision obtained in the overlaps.

Non-textual information interaction

Image retrieval by end-users and intermediaries in a journalistic work context BIBAFull-Text 102-110
  Stina Westman; Pirkko Oittinen
This paper describes a study on the image searching behavior of end-users (journalists) and intermediaries (archivists) in a newspaper editorial office. Image queries by end-users and requests to intermediaries were analyzed, compared and categorized according to typologies from literature. The process of image selection was modeled and selection criteria were studied based on interviews, observation and a survey. The results indicate that most image queries and requests dealt with specific entities, but that object types were also common. Thematic image needs seem to be fulfilled by end-user searching and browsing rather than by requests. Image retrieval tasks were highly influenced by contextual factors. Relevance assessments were made at situational level using several types of criteria, including abstract and affective factors. Several types of collaborative searches were observed. Richer research and analysis methods are needed to characterize journalists' image needs and searching behavior.
Video needs at the different stages of television program making process BIBAFull-Text 111-118
  Marjo Markkula; Eero Sormunen
The paper reports a field study on the needs for archive video in different stages of the television program making process. The work process typically consists of six basic stages: idea generation, planning, shooting, pre-selecting, script writing and editing. During the stages, the journalist gradually develops the program idea into a detailed script. The needs for archive video also evolve with the stages towards increasing specificity. The high level of uncertainty at the planning stage often leads to intense and unfocused searching of the archive and to a collection of a pile of textual listings of video material potentially useful in the task. The pile of materials at hand was consulted frequently especially in lengthy productions like documentaries. The perceived availability of archive and shot video obviously affected the content of the final script. A special limitation of the conventional archive and one reason for maintaining the pile of textual listings is that the journalist often sees the audiovisual contents of retrieved videos very late in the work process. The paper discusses the potential changes in the journalistic work process and the needs for archive video in the case of integrated video retrieval systems supporting instant access to audiovisual contents in addition to textual annotations.
Implicit relevance feedback in interactive music: issues, challenges, and case studies BIBAFull-Text 119-128
  Lars Graugaard
This paper presents methods for correlating a human performer and a synthetic accompaniment based on Implicit Relevance Feedback (IRF) using Graugaard's expanded model for interactive music (Graugaard 2006c). The research is the result of experience with practical work with interactive music systems developed 2004-06 for a body of commissioned works and is based on human perception of music as an expressive artform where musically significant data may be present not only in the audio signal but also in human gestures and in physiological data. The relevance and feasibility of including expression and emotion as a high-level signal processing means for bridging man and machine is discussed. The resulting model is multi-level (physical, sensorial, perceptual, formal, expressive) and multi-modal (sound, human gesture, physiological), which makes it applicable to purely musical contexts, as well as intermodal contexts where music is combined with visual and/or physiological data.

Contextual relevance feedback

Contextual relevance feedback BIBAFull-Text 129-137
  David J. Harper; Diane Kelly
We present results of a preliminary study of a pile-based information retrieval interface that supports contextual relevance feedback. We designed two interfaces based on the pile metaphor, one which supported contextual relevance feedback and the other which did not, and conducted a within-subjects laboratory evaluation with 24 subjects. Results demonstrate support for the pile-based approach generally, with users indicating that it assisted them in structuring and managing their search results. There were significant differences between usability assessments of each interface and in the interactions in which subjects engaged while they were seeking information. Although we found no significant differences in performance between interfaces, subjects showed a strong preference for the contextual relevance feedback interface over the other, and believed that they did better with that interface.
Contextual relevance feedback in web information retrieval BIBAFull-Text 138-143
  Dilip Kumar Limbu; Andy Connor; Russel Pears; Stephen MacDonell
In this paper, we present an alternative approach to the problem of contextual relevance feedback in web-based information retrieval. Our approach utilises a rich contextual model that exploits a user's implicit and explicit data. Each user's implicit data are gathered from their Internet search histories on their local machine. The user's explicit data are captured from a lexical database, a shared contextual knowledge base and domain-specific concepts using data mining techniques and a relevance feedback approach. This data is later used by our approach to modify queries to more accurately reflect the user's interests as well as to continually build the user's contextual profile and a shared contextual knowledge base. Finally, the approach retrieves personalised or contextual search results from the search engine using the modified/expanded query. Preliminary experiments indicate that our approach has the potential to not only aid in the contextual relevance feedback but also contribute towards the long term goal of intelligent relevance feedback in web-based information retrieval.

Methodological issues

Perspectives to the classification of information interactions: the Cool and Belkin faceted classification scheme under scrutiny BIBAFull-Text 144-152
  Isto Huvila; Gunilla Widén-Wulff
The faceted classification system of information interactions proposed by Cool and Belkin is discussed in the light of two case studies. The two examples use the classification scheme as a structural research instrument in two different phases of investigation: in framing the collection of data and in the analysis of already existing data. The discussion is focussed on usability and the issues related to the classification scheme. We conclude that the proposed scheme is a workable instrument for studying complex information interactions with different kinds of research designs. The either premisory or post-collection use of the classification scheme was recognised to have effects on the classification outcome. The principal issues of using the scheme seemed to relate to the frequent overlap of the facets and the tendency of the classifications to be highly dependent on the perspectives of the study.
Using diaries in group based information behavior research: a methodological study BIBAFull-Text 153-161
  Jette Hyldegård
This paper presents and discusses the usage of the diary method in two case studies of group members' information behavior and reflects upon the results and implications for future work. The diary focused on group members' activities and emotional experiences during a project assignment, but differed in both design and usage between the two case studies, e.g. between a structured diary with fixed response-categories and an unstructured diary with no response-categories; between an electronic and a manually kept diary; and between four weeks and one week at three selected points. The diary method was found to generate useful data on group members' actions and behavior, though also stressing the importance of a proper introduction, training, a free format with minor structure, practical feasibility, and participant motivation. As a side effect, both diaries turned out to serve as an instrument for group members' reflection and project management.

Users and context II

Using the information seeking and retrieval framework to analyse non-professional information use BIBAFull-Text 162-168
  Richard Butterworth; Veronica Davis Perkins
The outcomes of three digital library projects are discussed within Ingwersen and Järvelin's Information Seeking and Retrieval framework [1]. The common theme of these projects is that they addressed information use by users who were neither academics or information professionals. This generates a picture of information use not often seen in the LIS literature, and shows some interesting differences between professional and non-professional information use, particularly in the areas of organisational and social context. The value of Ingwersen and Järvelin's framework is shown in that it promotes the identification of commonalities between the different projects, promotes explanations of some of the observations made in the three projects, and suggests an agenda for future work.
Rationality and educational requirements: exploring students' information behaviour BIBAFull-Text 169-175
  Niels Ole Pors
The paper is based on a comprehensive investigation into students' information behaviour. The paper departs from the concept of rationality as it is expressed in the standards of information literacy and confronts this concept against the rationality that lies behind students' actual information behaviour. In the paper some of the main results from the research are presented. The analysis departs from two different cluster analyses. One of them is formed on the basis of the intensity of the students use of physical libraries, web based services and the frequency of use. The other cluster analysis is formed on variables that express the students' perception of educational requirements. For both cluster analyses the information behaviour, study style and the exposure in relation to information literacy is discussed. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
The doctoral forum at the first IIiX symposium BIBAFull-Text 176-179
  Birger Larsen; Jesper W. Schneider
This paper gives a description of the Doctoral Forum held at the first symposium on Information Interaction in Context (IIiX) and provides brief descriptions of the presented student projects. Six senior researchers gave feedback to a total of 14 doctoral students.