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Proceedings of the 2014 Conference of the Association Francophone d'Interaction Homme-Machine

Fullname:Proceedings of the 26ème conférence francophone on l'Interaction Homme-Machine
Editors:Géry Casiez; Thomas Pietrzak; Olivier Chapuis; Stéphane Conversy
Location:Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Dates:2014-Oct-28 to 2014-Oct-31
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2935-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: IHM14
Links:Conference Website
  1. Systèmes mixtes
  2. Techniques d'interaction: Commandes et Gestes
  3. Systèmes critiques
  4. Techniques d'interaction: dimensions > 2
  5. Interactions en situation spécifique
  6. Travaux en cours (TeC)

Systèmes mixtes

PaperComposer: creating interactive paper interfaces for music composition BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Jérémie Garcia; Theophanis Tsandilas; Carlos Agon; Wendy Mackay
Interactive paper technologies offer new opportunities for supporting the highly individual practices of creative artists, such as contemporary music composers, who express and explore their ideas on both paper and the computer. We introduce PaperComposer, a graphical interface builder that allows users to create a personalized interactive paper interface that they can connect to their own computer-based musical data. We also present an API that facilitates the development of interactive paper components for PaperComposer. We describe one public demonstration of a novel musical interface designed for children and our collaborations with composers to create two novel interactive music interfaces that reflected their individual composition styles.
A design space of guidance techniques for large and dense physical environments BIBAFull-Text 9-17
  Hind Gacem; Gilles Bailly; James Eagan; Eric Lecolinet
Finding an object in a physical environment is difficult if the environment contains many objects, especially if it is large and dense. We propose a design space that describes and compares existing guidance techniques according to four dimensions: output modality, physicality, granularity and spatial information. Output modality can be visual, audio or tactile. Guidance information can be displayed using physical objects or virtual artifacts. Granularity indicates whether the technique serves to navigate towards the vicinity of the target or to precisely localize the target. Finally, spatial information is either exocentric or egocentric. This design space aims at providing an overview of the domain and helping designers and researchers to understand the key properties of these techniques. It also enables their comparison and the generation of new techniques by highlighting unexplored areas.
Gesture-based interaction for Strip'TIC, a tangible space for air traffic controllers BIBAFull-Text 18-27
  Yoann Gauthier; Joran Marcy; David Duprat; Alexis Paoleschi; Catherine Letondal; Rémi Lesbordes; Jean-Luc Vinot; Christophe Hurter
In this paper, we explore gesture-based interactions in a mixed interactive system for Air Traffic Controllers. This exploration lies on an analysis of controller gestures, that we were able to observe in a control tower and in a simulator centre. In our design, we focus on gesture-based interaction for the virtual objects associated with the physical objects.

Techniques d'interaction: Commandes et Gestes

Adoiraccourcix: multi-touch command selection using finger identification BIBAFull-Text 28-37
  Alix Goguey; Géry Casiez; Thomas Pietrzak; Daniel Vogel; Nicolas Roussel
Hotkeys are a critical factor of performance for expert users in WIMP interfaces. Multi-touch interfaces, by contrast, do not provide such efficient command shortcuts. We propose Adoiraccourcix, which leverage finger identification to introduce quick command invocation integrated with direct manipulation in this context. After presenting the concept behind, we illustrated Adoiraccourcix in a vectorial drawing application and ran preliminary user studies comparing Adoiraccourcix to classical user interfaces. Results suggest that once mastered, Adoiraccourcix provides very powerful means of interaction.
CtrlMouse et TouchCtrl: duplicating mode delimiters on the mouse BIBAFull-Text 38-47
  Thomas Pietrzak; Sylvain Malacria; Gilles Bailly
Modifier keys of the keyboard such as Ctrl or Cmd are used to delimit text entry and command selection (keyboard shortcuts). In this paper we study the impact of the position of these modifier keys on performance and muscular load by duplicating them on the mouse. We derive two interaction techniques: CtrlMouse duplicates the Ctrl and Shift keys by associating them to the mouse buttons under the thumb; TouchCtrl automatically triggers the Ctrl key when the hand lays on the mouse. Two laboratory experiments reveal that 1) as the task requires more pointing, participants use more these techniques, 2) the temporal cost of the use of modifier keys on command selection is 0.21s, which represents 11.9% of pointing time, and 3) selection time with CtrlMouse with one or two modifiers is similar. We also deployed these techniques to ecologically validate the results we obtained in the laboratory. Finally we present several application scenarios based on CtrlMouse and TouchCtrl.
Manipulating multiple sliders by crossing BIBAFull-Text 48-54
  Charles Perin; Pierre Dragicevic
The Crosset is a new interactive instrument based on crossing and taking advantage of the orthogonal dimension of widgets. We explore the design space of crossets and illustrate their efficiency through a case study: the visual exploration and the formatting of numerical tables. To our knowledge, crossing has never been applied to the simultaneous manipulation of multiple sliders neither to interact with tables. This article opens many perspectives and we hope more interfaces will be based on this technique in the future.
The hotkey palette: flexible contextual retrieval of chosen documents and windows BIBAFull-Text 55-59
  Jonathan Aceituno; Nicolas Roussel
We present the Hotkey Palette, a quasi-modal interface enabling quick retrieval of chosen documents and windows by defining and triggering keyboard shortcuts either on the physical keyboard or with an on-screen keyboard. The Hotkey Palette improves on previous work by providing flexible contextualization of shortcuts that leverages document hierarchies, and by merging document and window retrieval in a single interface. The paper describes the design and implementation of the interface and presents novel use cases for document and window management.

Systèmes critiques

The accident of flight AF447 Rio-Paris: a case study for HCI research BIBAFull-Text 60-69
  Stéphane Conversy; Stéphane Chatty; Hélène Gaspard-Boulinc; Jean-Luc Vinot
On 2009, June 1st, flight AF447 from Rio to Paris crashed into the Atlantic Ocean. The safety and legal investigations have concluded that human factors played an important role in the accident. Observing that a number of elements from the report written by the French Office of Investigations for Civil Aviation Safety may be assimilated to known concepts from HCI, we propose to use the report as a case study for HCI research. After introducing the aeronautical vocabulary required to its understanding, we extract the HCI-related elements from the report, and assimilate, organize and translate them into conceptual frameworks from the Model of Action and Epistemology. We hope to foster further research aiming at a more formal modeling of the accident, or to foster the identification of possible improvements of the onboard systems.
Usability requirements for requirement engineering tools BIBAFull-Text 70-79
  Hélène Gaspard-Boulinc; Stéphane Conversy
Requirement engineering (RE) tools are necessary for several reasons: they allow engineers to manage an increasing amount of information, to maintain traceability between requirements, solution and tests, and to evaluate requirement change impact on the solution and test.
   This article proposes an analysis of system engineering practices in the aeronautical industry, with a focus on requirement engineering. From contextual interviews, we have identified scenarios reflecting system engineers's activity related to the editing and management of requirements. The analysis of these scenarios has allowed us to elicit usability requirements for RE tools, more precise than "user-friendly". These usability requirements will feed our future work on RE tool design.
A fault-tolerant architecture for resilient interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 80-90
  Camille Fayollas; Philippe Palanque; Jean-Charles Fabre; David Navarre; Eric Barboni; Martin Cronel; Yannick Deleris
Research contributions to improve interactive systems reliability as, for now, mainly focused towards fault occurrence prevention by removing software bugs at development time. However, Interactive Systems complexity is so high that whatever efforts are deployed at development time, faults and failures occur at operation time. Root causes of such failures may be due to transient hardware faults or (when systems are used in high atmosphere) may be so called "natural faults" triggered by alpha particles in processors or neutrons from cosmic radiations. This paper proposes an exhaustive identification of faults to be handled in order to improve interactive systems reliability. As currently no research has been carried out in the field of interactive systems to detect and remove natural faults, this paper proposes a software architecture providing fault-tolerant mechanisms dedicated to interactive systems. More precisely, the paper how such architecture addresses the various component of interactive applications namely widgets, user application and window manager. These concepts are demonstrated through a case study from the domain of interactive cockpits of large civil aircrafts.

Techniques d'interaction: dimensions > 2

Designing an input device to interact with multidimensional data: disco BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Gary Perelman; Marcos Serrano; Mathieu Raynal; Emmanuel Dubois; Célia Picard; Mustapha Derras
This paper presents the design of a new device, DISCO. In addition to the traditional mouse capabilities, DISCO offers multiple degrees of freedom suitable for multidimensional data manipulation. We present various usage scenarios and explore the handling of this device through two studies. First we observe the user's hand posture on three versions of Disco with different form factors. Then we study the capabilities and limitations related to physical translations, rotations (yaw) and tilt (pitch, roll) on two versions of Disco according to three hand postures. Based on the results, we propose design guidelines to create interaction techniques that take benefit of the degrees of freedom of the device to interact with multidimensional data.
Adaptive hand-tracked system for 3D authoring BIBAFull-Text 101-104
  Alexis Heloir; Fabrizio Nunnari; Christophe Kolski
We present the interaction design and the component architecture of an adaptive authoring system based on a consumer-range 3D input device. We claim that this system can help both novice and experienced users performing authoring tasks in a 3D authoring environment. The system uses a keyboardless self-adaptive interaction controller built upon a rule-based system that learns and infers the user's behavior/condition on the fly according to her actions; rearranging rules when necessary and suggesting breaks to avoid performance drops caused by fatigue or the so-called gorilla-arm effect.
A design space for three-dimensional curve edition BIBAFull-Text 105-112
  Thibaut Jacob; Gilles Bailly; Eric Lecolinet; Raphael Foulon; Etienne Corteel
Designing and editing 3D curves is often involved in a wide array of applications such as CAD, multimedia content edition or landscape and road generation. This diversity resulted in a spread of 3D-related works across different communities such as SIGCHI or SIGGRAPH. In this article, we introduce a design space to gather existing techniques in the field of 3D curves creation and edition. This design space is built around two axes: system and language, in order to describe and compare existing techniques.
LinkWave: a visual adjacency list for dynamic weighted networks BIBAFull-Text 113-122
  Nathalie Henry Riche; Yann Riche; Nicolas Roussel; Sheelagh Carpendale; Tara Madhyastha; Thomas J. Grabowski
As the nature and types of graphs in numerous fields such as social sciences, engineering, and biology continue to proliferate, common graph techniques no longer always suffice. In particular, we tackle the problem of visualizing dynamic weighted graphs-graphs with edges whose weight changes over time-to extract connectivity and sequencing patterns. We present LinkWave, a novel technique employing the concept of a visual list of edges. To better support the visual exploration of weight changes in edges and to characterize their rhythmic patterns, LinkWave represents each edge as an individual time series and provides a set of interactions to zoom, filter, sort, and aggregate the edges. We designed LinkWave in collaboration with neuroscientists seeking to extract patterns caused by degenerative diseases in functional brain connectivity data. We report preliminary findings neuroscientists discovered with LinkWave.

Interactions en situation spécifique

PLACID: a planner for dynamically composing user interface services BIBAFull-Text 123-129
  Yoann Gabillon; Gaelle Calvary; Humbert Fiorino
Dynamic Services Composition (DSC) aims at composing interactive systems from a set of available services corresponding to the available components. A component consists of a Functional Core and/or of a User Interface (UI) respectively providing computation and/or representation functions. In software engineering, a part of the literature focuses on the dynamic composition of computation services. Making the hypothesis that UI services can also be composed leads to a new research area in Human Computer Interaction: the dynamic composition of UI services. This paper presents a planning algorithm that aims to solve the DSC problem. This algorithm produce the task model of the composed UI allowing the user to achieve his/her goal.
A system for user task monitoring and assistance in ambient intelligent settings BIBAFull-Text 130-138
  Asma Gharsellaoui; Yacine Bellik; Christophe Jacquet
Existing task models are generally static (not used at runtime) and are used for the design or predictive evaluation of interactive systems. We propose to use the task model at runtime, in order to monitor user actions, check that they have not made any mistakes and give help when needed. We present a task model suitable for ambient environments that dynamically assigns states to tasks at the runtime. We also describe a monitoring and assistance system that uses our dynamic task model. Finally, we present a validation of our system through a simulation that shows how the interactions with the task model at runtime results in a dynamic system capable of providing assistance to users while they are carrying out their daily tasks.
Drag-and-drop for older adults using touchscreen devices: effects of screen sizes and interaction techniques on accuracy BIBAFull-Text 139-146
  Lilian Genaro Motti; Nadine Vigouroux; Philippe Gorce
This study investigates the accuracy of drag-and-drop interaction for older adults by analyzing the number of supplementary attempts for positioning a target during the execution of tactile puzzle games on two different screen sizes, tablet and smartphone, with finger and pen interaction. 24 older subjects (aged 65 to 86) participated of the experiment. The results showed that there is a significant effect of the interaction techniques during interaction on smartphone. Subjects were more accurate during pen interaction on both screen sizes. Age effects were significant but subjects aged 80 years old or oldest sometimes performed better than subjects aged 70 to 79 years old, especially during pen interaction. This study shows that drag-and-drop is an efficient technique for moving targets even on small touchscreen devices and pen interaction may help older users to execute more accurate drag-and-drop interaction on touchscreen devices.
Direct and indirect multi-touch interaction on a wall display BIBAFull-Text 147-152
  Jérémie Gilliot; Géry Casiez; Nicolas Roussel
Multi-touch wall displays allow to take advantage of co-located interaction (direct interaction) on very large surfaces. However interacting with content beyond arms' reach requires body movements, introducing fatigue and impacting performance. Interacting with distant content using a pointer can alleviate these problems but introduces legibility issues and loses the benefits of multi-touch interaction. We introduce WallPad, a widget designed to quickly access remote content on wall displays while addressing legibility issues and supporting direct multi-touch interaction. After briefly describing how we supported multi-touch interaction on a wall display, we present the WallPad widget and explain how it supports direct, indirect and de-localized direct interaction.

Travaux en cours (TeC)

Gaze-based interaction: evaluation of progressive feedback BIBAFull-Text 153-158
  Van Bao Nguyen; Francis Jambon; Gaëlle Calvary
In monomodal approaches, eye-tracking for gaze-based interaction suffers from a tight coupling between perception and action: making the distinction between user action and user perception of information is almost impossible. This paper proposes the concept of progressive feedback to release this coupling. First experiments confirm that gaze-based interaction can be credible in some contexts of use. Moreover, progressive feedback appears as possibly valuable.
An interaction device to foster discussions and engagement in museums BIBAFull-Text 159-164
  Patricia Plénacoste; Yvan Peter
Museums propose more and more digital devices to enrich the visits. However, these devices can take much of the visitor's attention and hinder the social dimension of the visit. We propose a device for groups. It provides a non-intrusive interaction with the aim to foster discussions between visitors. The device has been deployed and experimented in a fine art museum. We describe in this article the design of the device as well as the experiment and results. It allowed us to validate acceptability and usability of the device and shows a positive effect about engagement with the artworks and to a lower extent an effect on discussions between visitors.
Quick-glance and in-depth exploration of a tabletop map for visually impaired people BIBAFull-Text 165-170
  Sandra Bardot; Anke Brock; Marcos Serrano; Christophe Jouffrais
Interactive tactile maps provide visually impaired people with accessible geographic information. However, when these maps are presented on large tabletops, tactile exploration without sight is long and tedious due to the size of the surface. In this paper we present a novel approach to speed up the process of exploring tabletop maps in the absence of vision. Our approach mimics the visual processing of a map and consists in two steps. First, the Quick-Glance step allows creating a global mental representation of the map by using mid-air gestures. Second, the In-Depth step allows users to reach Points of Interest with appropriate hand guidance onto the map. In this paper we present the design and development of a prototype combining a smartwatch and a tactile surface for Quick-Glance and In-Depth interactive exploration of a map.
Hybrid BCI for palliation of severe motor disability BIBAFull-Text 171-176
  Alban Duprès; José Rouillard; François Cabestaing
This article presents work in progress concerning a hybrid brain computer interface (hBCI). Our goal is the palliation of severe motor disability for patients suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A hBCI involves several control channels to a pure brain computer interface (BCI). In our case we associate a motor imagery based BCI with EMG (Electromyography) control channel and distal movement sensors. The idea is to detect a finger movement at three levels of the motor command: cerebral, motor and distal. Data from these levels are merged taking into account state of the patient in order to adapt the system to the changing nature of his/her disease and to his/her high fatigability during the day.
Predictive usability evaluation: aligning HCI and software engineering practices BIBAFull-Text 177-182
  Káthia Marçal de Oliveira; Sophie Lepreux; Christophe Kolski; Ahmed Seffah
Can we -- software developers, usability experts, user interface designers -- predict usability from the early user interface (UI) design artifacts and models? Can we define predictive measures to evaluate usability without a concrete UI? These questions seemed natural for us since UI modeling (task, user, concepts, etc.) is being largely explored in recent years for the automatic generation of final UI. To answer those questions we propose a model-based predictive usability evaluation approach that uses a set of usability measures. These measures are the essence of a framework we are developing for usability prediction. Initial empirical studies were performed to support this approach. This paper presents the fundamental basis on top of which we have developed this approach.
Challenges for usability testing in ubiquitous systems BIBAFull-Text 183-188
  Carla Bezerra; Rossana M. C. Andrade; Rainara Maia Santos; Mourad Abed; Káthia Marçal de Oliveira; José Maria Monteiro; Ismayle Santos; Houcine Ezzedine
Ubiquitous computing expands both the place where the software system is used and the traditional way of interacting with its users. This happens since technologies should be fully integrated in the user daily activities in such way they become indistinguishable. So, in this scenario, new characteristics can emerge like calmness, transparency and context awareness that should be evaluated to assure the ubiquitous system quality. One of the methods used for evaluation of traditional systems is usability testing. Then, in this paper, we identify the main challenges to perform usability testing in ubiquitous systems based on an overview of the literature studies and on our own experience in testing this kind of systems. We also describe our ongoing work where we investigate usability testing to be designed considering context-awareness and to be supported by specific measurements to the ubiquitous computing scenario.
Brain-computer interfaces and serious games: adapting to schizophrenia BIBAFull-Text 189-194
  Piau Charlotte; Bekaert Marie-Hélène; Cabestaing François
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) can be used as a rehabilitation tool for a subject with disabilities. Their use for compensation of severe motor disabilities has already been evaluated. Here we propose to use a BCI for rehabilitation purposes in the framework of mental handicap caused by schizophrenia. We plan to use serious games for patient rehabilitation through a reduction of associated psychiatric disorders. We focus on the necessity of adapting the BCI to this specific situation and on the importance of involving the patient early in the process, i.e. in the development stage, in order to maximize performance and facilitate future rehabilitation.
Impact of usability, user experience and motivation on the engagement to using a mobile application BIBAFull-Text 195-200
  Isabelle Tissier; Guillaume Gronier
This research focuses on ways to engage citizens in sustainable use mobile application. The objective is to determine the place of usability, motivation and user experience (UX) to modify and evaluate the commitment.
SuperVision: spatial control of connected objects in smart-home BIBAFull-Text 201-206
  Sarthak Ghosh; Gilles Bailly; Robin Despouys; Eric Lecolinet; Rémi Sharrock
In this paper, we propose SuperVision, a novel interaction technique for controlling distant connect objects in smart-home. Users point an object with their remote control to visualize its state, and select its functionalities. To achieve this goal, 1) we present a novel remote control augmented with a video-projector and a slider; 2) we introduce a visualization allowing users to see through the walls in order to control objects in the line of sight as well as objects in another rooms; 3) we describe applications relying on this interaction technique.
An anthropomorphic lamp for the communication of emotions BIBAFull-Text 207-212
  Leonardo Angelini; Maurizio Caon; Denis Lalanne; Omar Abou Khaled; Elena Mugellini
This article presents the design of a lamp that is able to represent and collect users' emotional states through a multimodal interaction based on tangible gestures on the users' side, and colors and facial expressions on the lamp side. In particular, the lamp benefits of anthropomorphic form and behavior in order to make the interaction more natural. Two application scenarios are presented, as well as the implementation details of one of these scenarios.