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IE Tables of Contents: 0607080910121314

Proceedings of the 2013 Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment

Fullname:Proceedings of the 9th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: Matters of Life and Death
Editors:Stefan Greuter; Christian McCrea; Florian Mueller; Larissa Hjorth; Deborah Richards
Location:Melbourne, Australia
Dates:2013-Sep-30 to 2013-Oct-01
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2254-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: IE13
Papers:43
Links:Conference Website
Running from zombies BIBAFull-Text 1
  Emma Witkowski
This article explores the quality of running experience under the scaffolding of one particular audio adventure and running app -- Zombies, Run! Drawing on qualitative methods, in particular autophenomenography, this research maps out a 'Zombies, Run'! running aesthetic where body, environment, and technologies are interweaved and absorbed into the creation of local essences relating to this particular way of running. Considerations on body rhythm, practiced and novice runners, and a deepened awareness of running locations are described and analysed as key features of experiencing movement with this running app in hand. "Feeling the way" towards the nuances of embodied movement contributes to an increased awareness of the range and complexity of sensuous details at work when moving with this modern mobile gaming app. But also, other significant situations are explored including the embrace of this modern Indie exer-game by women, and the situatedness of core game mechanics in code, audio/narrative, environment, and moving bodies. Running from zombies is a playful movement practice, albeit a disorienting one, in which ones running experience in the world sits with the pleasures of running, body knowledge, environmental engagement, and speed play.
Watch your steps: designing a semi-public display to promote physical activity BIBAFull-Text 2
  Robert Cercos; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
Sedentary time is considered a health risk factor, even when it is compensated with some exercise. Frequent activities of minimal physical exertion throughout the day like walking or climbing stairs are therefore recommended. To promote these activities through social play and collective awareness, we designed a semi-public display that shows the step count of a group of players in near real-time, using a wearable self-monitoring device that senses their physical activity. We included a fictional player that walked at constant speed during the whole day to promote a shared goal. Our preliminary findings suggest that the display motivated players to use a self-monitoring device everyday and enabled new conversations among players without producing privacy issues. Emotional connections with non-collocated participants and creative ways of cheating were also observed. We believe our work highlights the opportunities to extend the potential of self-monitoring devices, which require little effort and resources to be implemented.
Duel reality: a sword-fighting game for novel gameplay around intentionally hiding body data BIBAFull-Text 3
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Wouter Walmink
New sensor technologies, especially for body related activities, offer new opportunities for play, sparking research into new styles of game interactions. However, how this new sensor data can be utilized for engaging play experiences is not yet fully understood. In order to explore this opportunity, we designed Duel Reality, a novel sword-fighting game offering new gameplay experiences through intentionally hiding real-time body data. In order to articulate the opportunities afforded by novel sensing technology around the body, we identify two key concepts around this topic based on our design knowledge and articulate four challenges when creating novel gameplay using these sensors. With our work, we aim to support game designers who are interested in facilitating novel play experiences through the use of emerging sensing technologies that are concerned with the players' bodies.
SweatAtoms: materializing physical activity BIBAFull-Text 4
  Rohit Ashok Khot; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Larissa Hjorth
Visualization plays an important role in motivating users towards physical activity. In this paper, we present a novel approach to represent physical activity in the form of material artifacts. We have designed a system called SweatAtoms that builds material artifacts using the measured heartbeat data during the physical activity. By crafting such material artifacts, our aim is to harness physical activity as a medium for self-expression and make the experience of participating in physical activity more engaging beyond screen-based feedback. This paper describes the implementation and design of the SweatAtoms system. We hope our work can inspire fellow interaction designers and researchers to consider the role of materiality while designing interactive technology to support physical activity.
Reflections on designing networked exertion games BIBAFull-Text 5
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Martin Gibbs; Frank Vetere
Research in human-computer interaction has begun to acknowledge the benefits of physicality in the way people interact with computers. However, the role of physicality is often understood in terms of the characteristics of physical smart objects and their digital augmentation. We are stressing that the physicality lies within the interaction, not the object, and use a subset of bodily actions, exertion interactions, as an example to demonstrate our point. Emerging game designs have shown that supporting such exertion interactions can enable beneficial experiences between geographically distant participants. Based on several designs from our own work as well as others in this area we articulate reflections for the design of systems that support and facilitate bodily aspects of physicality in networked environments. We believe our work can serve as guidance for designers who are interested in creating future systems that support networked exertion interactions.
Motivation during videogame play: analysing player experience in terms of cognitive action BIBAFull-Text 6
  Wilawan Inchamnan; Peta Wyeth
This paper describes a method for analysing videogames based on game activities. It examines the impact of these activities on the player experience. The research approach applies heuristic checklists that deconstruct games in terms of cognitive processes that players engage in during gameplay (e.g., addressing goals, interpreting feedback). For this study we examined three puzzle games, Portal 2, I-Fluid and Braid. The Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) survey is used to measure player experience following gameplay. Cognitive action provided within games is examined in light of reported player experiences to determine the extent to which these activities influence players' feelings of competence, autonomy, intuitive control and presence. Findings indicate that the positive experiences are directly influenced by game activity design. Our study also demonstrates the value of expert review in deconstructing gameplay activity as a means of providing direction for game design that enhances the player experience.
Towards personalised, gamified systems: an investigation into game design, personality and player typologies BIBAFull-Text 7
  Lauren S. Ferro; Steffen P. Walz; Stefan Greuter
With the rise of Gamification, the boundaries between play and games on the one hand, and everyday life on the other are being challenged, and as a result game play is entering the realm of everyday life. We believe that with the breakdown of this dichotomy and with the increasing presence of game elements in everyday life in the form of Gamification, there are more factors such as users intrinsic motivation, agenda, learning preferences and personality that should be considered in the design of gamified systems. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between player types, and personality types and traits. By way of investigating pre-existing player type models as well as personality traits and types models, we have identified possible relationships between these two areas of research, and in that, between the realm of games, and the realm of the everyday. As a result, we propose a table identifying these possible relationships between player types, personality types and traits, and game elements and game mechanics and discuss how this connection may impact the design of gamified systems and offer insight towards more user orientated design objectives.
Audiovisual granular synthesis: micro relationships between sound and image BIBAFull-Text 8
  Joshua Batty; Kipps Horn; Stefan Greuter
The real-time audio-visual instrument presented in this paper enables a unified environment for composition and performance through audio-visual granular synthesis. The instrument empowers the user to reconstruct grains into new experiences and make possible real-time improvisation of the material at the granular level. The user can form audio-visual relationships through interacting with and observing perceptual similarities between sound and image at the micro and macro level. These relationships provide the user with a unified parameter for audio-visual manipulation. Throughout the paper I discuss and illustrate the design of the instrument, its performance potential and its innovative application in the field of interactive entertainment, particularly in the performance work of DJs and VJs.
Informative sound design in video games BIBAFull-Text 9
  Patrick Ng; Keith Nesbitt
The importance of sound is quite well known in video games. Although frequently in the past sound was simply used to increase the immersion of the player. Now there is a growing interest in using sound as a means for providing the player with additional information.
   While the use of sound for displaying information has been a topic of research for a number of years, research into the area of informative sound design for games hasn't been widely investigated as such. As a result proper guidelines for game developers to follow when attempting to design informative sound for a game haven't been broadly established. In addition, there has been almost no work done in considering specific genres such as Real Time Strategy and First-Person Shooter games and how sounds can be best used to provide players with information in these types of games. In this work we review previous approaches to sound design including the use of patterns. We then review these approaches in relation to sound design for both FPS and RTS games. Finally we present some key design patterns in relation to these genres.
Context, detail, and conversation: using painting strategies with 3D computer animation software BIBAFull-Text 10
  Gina Moore; Stefan Greuter; Chris Barker
3D modelling and animation software presents artists with unique creative opportunities and limitations that are dependent on design decisions implicit in the software's architecture, interface and workflow. This paper presents preliminary outcomes of a research project which explores these opportunities and limitations in order to develop new ways of working with the software that result in new visual styles of 3D animation. Strategies of production commonly used by 3D animators are significantly different to the strategies used by figurative painters. Painters often refer to their creative process as a type of collaboration or a "conversation" between themselves and the medium (paint). In contrast to this approach, for 3D animators the making process is often regarded as a necessary set of steps that lead to a predefined outcome. This research project examines the process of painting and uses a practice based research methodology to develop approaches to 3D animation that engage the animator in qualities of practice equivalent to those commonly experienced by a painter. The paper highlights some fundamental philosophical and strategic limitations encountered by 3D animators and discusses a series of short experimental 3D animations that aim to overcome these limitations.
Remembrance of games past: the popular memory archive BIBAFull-Text 11
  Helen Stuckey; Melanie Swalwell; Angela Ndalianis; Denise de Vries
Games are one of the most significant cultural forms of our times and yet they are poorly documented in Australia and New Zealand. Knowledge about the history of games is overwhelmingly held by private collectors and fans, with ephemera and other primary sources located amongst the general public. This paper presents and discusses the Popular Memory Archive (PMA), an online portal of the "Play It Again" game history and preservation project. As well as providing a way to disseminate some of the team's research, the PMA taps into what is, effectively, a collective public archive by providing a technique for collecting information, resources and memories from the public about 1980s computer games.
   Digital games are more than inert code; they come to life in the act of play. Collecting games and other artefacts and preserving them is thus only part of the construction of a history about games. The PMA is designed to work with online retro gamer communities and fans, and this paper reflects on the PMA as a method for collecting the memories of those who lived and played their way through this period.
The intersection of video games and patient empowerment: case study of a real world application BIBAFull-Text 12
  Craig Caldwell; Carol Bruggers; Roger Altizer; Grzegorz Bulaj; Troy D'Ambrosio; Robert Kessler; Brianne Christiansen
Video games provide new opportunities for improving patients' quality-of-life via empowerment through physical exercise and interactive feedback. This paper presents an incentive-based video game that transforms physical exercise into mental empowerment to help fight cancer via positive metaphoric visualization. This video game technology can enhance patients' resilience via mechanisms that stimulate coupling between the brain reward systems and physical actions. While the Patient Empowerment (PE) Exercise Video Game is an example of an active-player interactive game designed for pediatric cancer patients, this concept can be applied to neurological, metabolic or cardiovascular diseases.
Designing in sensitive settings: workshops to design a technology to commemorate Black Saturday BIBAFull-Text 13
  Joji Mori; Steve Howard; Martin Gibbs
There is growing interest in the design of interactive technologies in sensitive settings. In designing for people in these settings it is likely researchers and designers will hear people discuss deeply personal and potentially emotional topics. We have completed design workshops with survivors of the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in Victoria. Participants were asked to come up with design ideas for technology concepts to be used for commemorating the bushfires, and also provide feedback on prototypes we created using tablet computers. Our findings indicate that peer groups, mediated with a traditional craft activity provided a setting for participants to discuss emotional topics amongst supportive and similarly affected peers in the design workshops. We conclude with considerations germane to these types of workshops in sensitive settings.
This isn't happening: time in videogames BIBAFull-Text 14
  Adam W. Ruch
In videogames the player's avatar often dies, but because time is not a straight-forward line, the meaning of death is changeable. This paper will analyse this aspect of time in games, a present a model for theorizing how players conceive of time and causation in games.
Living the indie life: mapping creative teams in a 48 hour game jam and playing with data BIBAFull-Text 15
  Truna aka j. turner; Lubi Thomas; Cameron Owen
In contemporary game development circles the 'game making jam' has become an important rite of passage and baptism event, an exploration space and a central indie lifestyle affirmation and community event. Game jams have recently become a focus for design researchers interested in the creative process. In this paper we tell the story of an established local game jam and our various documentation and data collection methods. We present the beginnings of the current project, which seeks to map the creative teams and their process in the space of the challenge, and which aims to enable participants to be more than the objects of the data collection. A perceived issue is that typical documentation approaches are 'about' the event as opposed to 'made by' the participants and are thus both at odds with the spirit of the jam as a phenomenon and do not really access the rich playful potential of participant experience. In the data collection and visualisation projects described here, we focus on using collected data to re-include the participants in telling stories about their experiences of the event as a place-based experience. Our goal is to find a means to encourage production of 'anecdata' -- data based on individual story telling that is subjective, malleable, and resists collection via formal mechanisms -- and to enable mimesis, or active narrating, on the part of the participants. We present a concept design for data as game based on the logic of early medieval maps and we reflect on how we could enable participation in the data collection itself.
Stasis and entropy in Australian videogames classification discourse BIBAFull-Text 16
  Daniel Golding
This article analyses the discourse surrounding the classification and regulation of videogames in Australia, with particular focus on the exclusion, and subsequent introduction of an R18+ rating over the twenty-year period between 1993-2013. This article argues that this period was characterised by a remarkable entropy and stasis within classification discourse, and that the introduction of the R18+ rating was eventually achieved by pro-R18+ advocates reaffirming the perceived validity and power of the core discourse. Thus, the history of videogame classification in Australia -- with or without an R18+ rating -- is the history of protection of children from inappropriate content, and mistrust of an interactive media form; these arguments underpin both the exclusion of an R18+ in the early 1990s and the inclusion of an R18+ in 2012. Finally, though a close analytical exploration of the history of videogame classification in Australia, this article argues that public discourse on classification has been subject to cynical media manipulation from almost all parties involved, which has resulted in a discursive entropy that has been largely disconnected with any understanding of how videogame culture and play is enacted in an everyday sense.
Combining moving bodies with digital elements: design space between players and screens BIBAFull-Text 17
  Jayden Garner; Gavin Wood; Sebastiaan Pijnappel; Martin Murer; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
In playground games, an important part of engagement occurs in the physical space where people focus on each other's movements. In contrast, digital games often focus on engagement via a screen. By combining digital elements with playground ideas we identify new design opportunities where players are given freedom to play face-to-face. During a Game Jam workshop, we explore this design space by looking at innovative ways that digital technology can respond to movement. We find by removing the disparity between player movement and its digital representation, players can concentrate on each other and enjoy closer interaction. Through the exploration of digital elements and playground ideas, we suggest designers of movement-based games should consider the design space between the player and the screen using interactive technology to create engaging social digital play experiences.
Managing cyber-bullying in online educational virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 18
  Diego Fernando Gutierrez Aponte; Deborah Richards
Online Educational Virtual Worlds offer promise that is currently not being realised because of potential threats to the child's safety and wellbeing. This paper seeks to better understand the behavioural and psychological issues, particularly relating to cyber-bullying, faced by school children when they are online and what solutions currently exist. As an outcome of this understanding we make recommendations regarding how cyber-bullying should be managed in educational virtual worlds taking a hybrid approach involving policy, technology and non-technology based solutions.
Ganking, corpse camping and ninja looting from the perception of the MMORPG community: acceptable behavior or unacceptable griefing? BIBAFull-Text 19
  Leigh Achterbosch; Charlynn Miller; Peter Vamplew
Every day in online games designed to entertain, an unknown percentage of users are experiencing what is known as 'Griefing'. Griefing is used to describe when a player within a multiplayer online environment intentionally disrupts another player's game experience for his/her own personal enjoyment or material gain. Unrestrained, griefing could lead to a downward spiral of the number of people playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG)s, and possibly the death of smaller MMORPGs. Big game publishers may not wish to risk supporting the genre. There have been studies conducted in the past that attempt to define griefing and the different forms it takes in MMORPGs. These were outlined from the perception of the general player, and so did not examine differences in perception of griefing by different types of players.
   The authors conducted an online survey with the intention to discover the perception of various in-game actions previously identified in research as griefing, among griefers and griefing victims. In general players who identified themselves as griefers were more likely to regard these actions as a part of the game people had to learn to accept and not griefing. However some patterns of commonality were also observed between griefers and subjects of griefing, with some actions previously identified as griefing in the literature less commonly regarded as griefing by both player types in this survey.
When game over means game over: using permanent death to craft living stories in Minecraft BIBAFull-Text 20
  Brendan Keogh
The play style of 'perma-death' (permanent death) alters the videogame player's experience by adding harsh consequences to the usually trivial event of character death. While perma-death has a long history as a fixed constraint in certain games and genres, there are numerous cases of players self-imposing the rules of perma-death play in a broader variety of games through voluntary acts such as opting to delete a save file if their character dies. Such self-imposed cases of perma-death radically alter how the player engages with the game. In a collision of fixed affordances and player-imposed rules, the tone of the game's conventional gameplay shifts from one of experimentation to one of vulnerability. To explore how perma-death functions and how it alters the player's experience of a game, this paper looks at a perma-death experiment conducted by the author in the game Minecraft. As the project progressed, its online diary gathered a committed readership. The fear of permanent death did not drastically alter the base game of Minecraft but, as will be explored, imbued the performance of playing Minecraft with a narrative weight.
Collapsing action; or, games of life and death BIBAFull-Text 21
  Robbie Fordyce
Proposing a means to understand videogames in terms of the connections between players' engagement, a videogame's narrative, and the videogame mechanisms for play produces a complex map of relationships. Understanding it in its totality is difficult, but it is possible to identify key points of tension. This paper addresses the tension between the point where play loses its engagements for the player, and examines this problem through the double-sided lens of the principles of life and death. The principles of life and death have a long history in philosophical thought, and this paper contains a projection of some of these concerns from both theological and atheological philosophical thought into the world of gaming and simulation, including a presentation of a methodology for discussing life and death as principles in the context of fiction. Drawing on Marxist social theory, a concept of the 'tendency' finds its purchase, resulting in a number of social and philosophical theories on the conditions under which end-users conclude their game experiences.
Death and dying in DayZ BIBAFull-Text 22
  Marcus Carter; Martin Gibbs; Greg Wadley
Avatar death is essentially universal in combat games, and ubiquitous in all other genres; death of a player's materialization in the game space is used to identify the player's failure and temporary removal from play. Yet the possibilities for creating interesting social dynamics and game play experiences through the design and configuration of death mechanics in games remains largely unexplored. In this paper we discuss the first person shooter game DayZ, which has configured death with an extreme level of consequentiality not found in other online first-person-shooters. We examine the affect of this consequentiality on the player experience and attitudes towards death and dying in DayZ. On the basis of our research data, we find that the increased consequentiality of death in DayZ principally affects the game experience by intensifying social interactions, raising a player's perceived level of investment and invoking moral dilemmas.
Form over function: the use of Lovecraftian elements in World of Warcraft BIBAFull-Text 23
  Michael Hitchens; Adam Ruch
World of Warcraft (WoW) represents a melting pot of popular culture myths, taking inspiration from a huge number of existing works and incorporating them together into its own vast lore. Amongst the many influences it draws upon are the works of H. P. Lovecraft, an influential horror writer. Lovecraft's writing encapsulated a particular pessimistic view of the universe, which stands in contrast to the heroic fantasy of World of Warcraft. This paper examines the presence in World of Warcraft for particular examples of influences from Lovecraft's writings. More importantly the use of these influences is compared to the underlying philosophy of horror that can be found in Lovecraft's work. It is our contention that the aspects of World of Warcraft inspired by Lovecraft are not employed in a way congruent with that source material.
Designing for depth: underwater play BIBAFull-Text 24
  Sarah Jane Pell; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
The underwater domain is an alluring 'other world', inviting of human-aquatic interactivity and bodily play and yet it is also an extreme environment as it is inhospitable to support human life without external air-supply. Playful interactions are therefore matters of life and death in the underwater domain. We correlated data on human-aquatic interactions and narcosis with a range of game design principals to produce a design pallet for digital underwater play from water level to 30m depth. We also present a proof-of-concept system called Gravity Well as an exemplary research tool. Through our work, we aim to inspire other researchers and designers to consider creating digital play in and under water.
A design template for multisensory and multimodal games to train and test children for sound localisation acuity BIBAFull-Text 25
  Maria Carmela Sogono; Deborah Richards
Children with single-sided deafness (SSD) may experience increased rates of behavioural and educational problems since the ability to hear and listen is linked to normal brain development. This paper explores the issue of improving an aspect of hearing ability of children with SSD called sound localisation via an electronic game. We draw on existing literature to identify design principles to guide the creation of a multimodal, multisensory game to improve sound localisation and introduce a game module template to provide a structured framework on how to describe such games. Finally, game evaluation is considered.
Exploring the role of activity in genre BIBAFull-Text 26
  Nicole McMahon; Peta Wyeth; Daniel Johnson
This paper provides an outline of genre as we currently know it, and examines the changes occurring as games become more complex. Recent research we've undertaken suggests that our perception of which games fall into which genre category is subjective and that genre hybridization continues to blur our understanding of these categories. Consequently, it is becoming increasingly difficult to categorise game play experience based on traditional genre classifications. We examine the use of videogame activities as a useful mechanism for supplementing our understanding of videogame genre. Through considering activity as a means of classifying game experiences we may obtain a much more nuanced understanding of how players engage with games within a particular genre and across genres.
"A restless corpse": performativity, fetishism and planescape: torment BIBAFull-Text 27
  Darshana Jayemanne
This paper explores videogames' aesthetics of performativity. J. L. Austin's notion of performative felicity is a useful concept for the comparative study of videogames. However, Austin treats infelicity (ie. failure) simply as a flawed attempt at a felicitous performance. This relates to his conceptualisation of speech acts as units -- an assumption that performances occur one at a time, and that it is a simple matter to discern which performance is being attempted in order to dispassionately judge its felicity. Evidently, such a scenario is inadequate to the messy complexities of videogame play. This paper proposes that by expanding the notion of infelicity through accounts of fetishism and potentiality it becomes possible to see particular performances not as aggregates of units but as multiplicities. The problem then becomes accounting for how particular performances arise out of the multiplicity of play. This approach is then tested through a close reading of the game Planescape: Torment, a game which instantiates this expanded notion of infelicity at thematic, structural and narrative levels.
sPeAK-MAN: towards popular gameplay for speech therapy BIBAFull-Text 28
  Chek Tien Tan; Andrew Johnston; Kirrie Ballard; Samuel Ferguson; Dharani Perera-Schulz
Current speech therapy treatments are not easily accessible to the general public due to cost and demand. Therapy sessions are also laborious and maintaining motivation of patients is hard. We propose using popular games and speech recognition technology for speech therapy in an individualised and accessible manner. sPeAK-MAN is a Pac-Man-like game with a core gameplay mechanic that incorporates vocalisation of words generated from a pool commonly used in clinical speech therapy sessions. Other than improving engagement, sPeAK-MAN aims to provide real-time feedback on the vocalisation performance of patients. It also serves as an initial prototype to demonstrate the possibilities of using familiar popular gameplay (instead of building one from scratch) for rehabilitation purposes.
Improving lives: using Microsoft Kinect to predict the loss of balance for elderly users under cognitive load BIBAFull-Text 29
  Yusuf Pisan; Jaime Garcia Marin; Karla Felix Navarro
Among older adults, falling down while doing everyday tasks is the leading cause for injuries, disabilities and can even result in death. Furthermore, even when no injury has occurred the fear of falling can result in loss of confidence and independence. The two major factors in the loss of balance is weakening of the muscles and reduced cognitive skills. While exercise programmes can reduce the risk of falling by 40%, patient compliance with these programmes is low. We present the Microsoft-Kinect based step training program system that we have developed specifically for elderly patients. The program measures physical health and cognitive abilities and incorporates an individualized adaptive program for improvements. The real-time data obtained from the program is similar to clinical evaluations typically conducted by doctors and the game-like exercises result in increased adherence to the exercise regimes.
Towards a MOOC game BIBAFull-Text 30
  Chek Tien Tan
MOOC, or massive online open course, is the current buzzword in online delivery of higher education. They have enjoyed wide positive reception on the perceived benefits of bringing quality education to anyone willing to learn, but potentially lacks engagement and falls short on delivering several traditional graduate attributes known to be important for higher education. This paper presents the position that a MOOC game can alleviate some of these shortcomings and provides a discussion on how it can be achieved.
The historicity of play: games as historical documents BIBAFull-Text 31
  Robson Scarassati Bello; Gilson Schwartz
This paper addresses videogames as historical documents so that the study of play may open new perspectives for professional historians and other social scientists in their research of the role of videogames in creative industries. This research agenda relies on a critical view of these industries as an expression of social and cultural history rather than as self-indulgent and legitimating market-led, functional activities.
Understanding player threat responses in FPS games BIBAFull-Text 32
  David Conroy; Peta Wyeth; Daniel Johnson
This paper describes the results of a study designed to understand the components contributing to a participant's assessment of threatening situations in a competitive First Person Shooter (FPS) game Quake III: Arena. The analysis process described compares theoretical, questionnaire based data with that of actual game play footage and identifies how skill and experience can affect a player's ability to accurately assess threat. This research also identifies relationships between variables contributing to a participant's threat assessment process which are not usually acknowledged in game AI design. A suggestion for integrating player-like threat based decision making processes is proposed.
Activity, motivation and games for young children BIBAFull-Text 33
  Peta Wyeth; Daniel Johnson; Jenny Ziviani
The research described in this paper examines the extent to which very young children were able to use the Stomp platform (a floor-based gaming system designed to provide new, active participatory experiences) to engage in game play. We are interested in how children's engagement in different activities within the game world influences their motivation to play games. We map activity to motivational needs of competence, autonomy and relatedness. A detailed examination of two Stomp experiences demonstrates how this type of analysis is useful in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the games for this audience.
Shadow showdown: twister in a digital space BIBAFull-Text 34
  Matthew Martin; Jenna Gavin; Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath; Charles Walker; Ben Kenobi
Shadow Showdown is a playful installation utilising whole-body interaction. The Kinect-based game challenges and attempts to overcome several boundaries: bodily proximity in a public place; the distinction between physical and digital play; and the separation of physical and digital spaces.
Media filter access BIBAFull-Text 35
  Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath; Clinton Watkins; Ben Kenobi
Silently and without attracting much attention, the filter establishes itself at the heart of digital media: It becomes an essential tool and a limiting factor, on technical and conceptual levels, in all areas of life. In this brave new world of digital technically implemented policies, essential decisions are made for us, many of them in microseconds, of which we never know. This installation employs the tactics it criticises; it offers a limited world to explore easily while making it difficult to access anything else. The work indicates a pervasive tendency in digital, networked media to filter and therefore control. Participants are offered a direct and controversial experience, and are challenged to make up their own minds.
Making cake, swearing, and the indefinite meaning of media BIBAFull-Text 36
  Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath; Matthew Martin; Jenna Gavin; Charles Walker
The Makin' Cake installation [Figures 1-3] is a skill-based competitive single player game with a twist. Players type-in 1950's cake recipes as fast as they can and get points for every word. The twist is extra points are given for swearing. The installation demonstrates that media are transparent to the point of being empty. They do not contain fixed messages that (only) need to be uncovered, recognized or identified, but meaning is always constituted or produced by media users in context. This is an active, creative, on-going and fluent process between the audience and the work. The installation calls for participants to recognize the possibility and, in effect, the necessity to take control, decide what things mean, appropriate media for their own purposes, subvert them, and play with them.
The pathway driven narrative machine BIBAFull-Text 37
  Helen Dickson; Rebecca Hayes
In this project we investigated how animation could be fragmented with the aim to provide viewers with the opportunity to experience and reinterpret a storyline while navigating around a space. "The Show", is a linear animation, depicting 1940's circus life, characters and performances. It is set in a world that implies the past -- something that speaks of nostalgia and charm. The VRoom (Virtual Room) is a cinema that is a series of eight screens positioned in a 360-degree octagon shape. The audience navigates the space created by the screens to view media. The exhibition showcases the animation screened in the Virtual Room.
Children's interactive narratives: how far is UP? BIBAFull-Text 38
  Betty Sargeant
How Far is UP? is a children's book app. In making this work I drew on cognitive science, games and children's literary theory with the aim of investigating the relationships between multimedia, interactivity and narrative flow.
Sonic city installation BIBAFull-Text 39
  Davey Sams
Sonic City is an interactive work that explores themes of man's dislocation with nature and the social tensions inherent in urban living in an imaginative, engaging way.
   Users interact with a custom-made iPad app to wirelessly play audio loops that, in turn, generate animation loops within the Sonic City. There are 6 touch inputs on the app that correlate to various sound and animation loops, which are projection mapped onto medium scale custom-build surfaces in a unique use of the technology.
   It's narrative focuses on the tensions that exist on the fringes of this society between the magical/otherworldly elements and the other, regular people.
Audio-visual granular synthesis performance demo BIBAFull-Text 40
  Joshua Batty
In this paper, I present a prototype of my audio-visual granular synthesis instrument Kortex. The instrument enables real-time improvisation of audio-visual material in a performance context. Granular synthesis is a processing technique that segments media into thousands of individual pieces and is used during the performance to manipulate audio and visual material on micro time levels (1-100ms). The performance demonstrates an approach to real-time improvisation of audio-visual granular synthesis and aims to illustrate an alternative form of interactive entertainment. A single performer embodies the role of both the musician and visual artist simultaneously, contrasting the usually separate audio and visual roles found in the contemporary DJ and VJ scene. The integrated audio-visual performer is then able to communicate ideas and meaning to an audience with the help of both senses at once.
Reproduction game demo BIBAFull-Text 41
  Adam Nash; John McCormick; Stefan Greuter
In this demo, we present an eight-screen immersive mixed-reality artwork, comprised of an artificially evolving virtual environment that generates artificial 'lifeforms' that are interacted with audiovisually by human visitors via a network of Kinect motion-detection cameras.
Trouble tower game demo BIBAFull-Text 42
  Stefan Greuter; Susanne Tepe; Frank Boukamp; Ron Wakefield
The Construction Industry has one of the highest rates of injury and fatality in Australia and across the world. A key challenge for OH&S training is to engage learners. Construction students tend to be experiential learners and class room teaching is often not engaging for them. In this project we developed a computer game aimed to motivate students to learn about construction sites hazards and their management via application of OH&S controls. The exhibition showcases the game.
E-sports on the rise?: Critical considerations on the growth and erosion of organized digital gaming competitions BIBAFull-Text 43
  Emma Witkowski; Brett Hutchins; Marcus Carter
At a recent Reddit AMA (Ask Me Anything), Emmett Shear, CEO of Twitch.tv, the leading live video platform for streaming games, claimed that in a decade e-sports will be bigger than athletic sports [7]. While his statement was both hyperbolic and speculative, the particulars were not: e-sports tournaments have spectator numbers in the millions, recent franchise games have logged over a billion hours of gameplay, while experts and amateur e-sports enthusiasts alike regularly broadcast and share their competitive play online [1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10]. The growing passion for mainstream e-sports is apparent, though there are also interesting, less visible happenings on the periphery of the e-sports media industry -- notably, the acts of life and death that happen off the polished main stage. Smaller tournaments have been cut to make way for major e-sports franchises [11]; games with a strong culture of dark play have attempted to encourage esport iterations, encountering conflict where bribery and espionage is interwoven with traditional sporting structures [2]; and third party organizations have created new ways to watch, participate, celebrate, but also profit from one's love of games [3]. In these actions, we find some of the ways in which competitive games and gaming lifestyles are extended, but also often dissolved from the main stages of e-sports. At a broader level, these events allow us to witness the growth and sedimentation of this new socio-technical form. Simultaneously, we observe its erosion as the practices and form of e-sports are subject to the compromises demanded by processes of cultural and audience reception, and attempts to maximise cultural appeal and commercial success. It is in the interplay between this ceaseless growth and erosion that the significance of e-sport can be found. E-sport represents a rare opportunity to observe the historical emergence of interactive gaming in a sporting 'skin', as well as new forms of sports-like competition realised through interactive gaming platforms. The position of this panel moves beyond questions of (sports) disciplinary rivalry to consider how e-sports extend our understanding of sports and competitive games more broadly. Drawing on qualitative studies, theoretical considerations, and practical work, this panel explores the tensions, but also the new "sporting" possibilities which emerge in moments of transition -- between the life and death of a tournament, the extension of spectatorship opportunities, the construction of a competitive gaming scene, and the question of how to best conceptualise e-sport at the intersection of gaming and sport.