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IDGD Tables of Contents: 07-107-20911

IDGD 2009: 3rd International Conference on Internationalization, Design and Global Development

Fullname:IDGD 2009: 3rd International Conference on Internationalization, Design and Global Development
Note:Volume 14 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Nuray M. Aykin
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5623
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02766-6 (print), 978-3-642-02767-3 (online); hcibib: IDGD09
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Cross-Cultural User Interface Design
  2. Culture, Community, Collaboration and Learning
  3. Internationalisation and Usability
  4. ICT for Global Development
  5. Designing for E-Commerce, E-Business and E-Banking

Cross-Cultural User Interface Design

Identifying and Measuring Cultural Differences in Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Jasem M. Alostath; Sana'a Almoumen; Ahmad B. Alostath
This paper is investigating the role of culture in cross-cultural user interface design, and particularly focused on e-banking user-interface design. The results of this research are presented in two phases. The first phase is focused on the development of a cultural model that has some HCI factors. The second phase introduces the Cross-Use experiment that aims to evaluate the mapping between website design elements and cultural attributes using a user-in-context evaluation approach. This is done by developing three User Interface designs, and applying them to 63 local participants from the case study cultures (Brazil, Kuwait, Egypt, and UK). The experiment was conducted using the developed prototypes was able to classify cultures differently, and highlighted those design markers that affects cultural differences in the design of e-banking websites. This is based on user preferences and usability.
Keywords: Culture; Usability; e-banking; user-in-context evaluation
Cross Cultural Computer Gaming BIBAFull-Text 13-18
  Joyram Chakraborty; Anthony F. Norcio
Computer game development is a rapidly growing global business. However, research in the understanding of the global user is lacking. This paper presents a survey of recent research on cross cultural game development. The paper proposes a cross cultural hybrid model to carry out user modeling to assist developers in understanding the cultural nuances of end users.
This Is Who I Am and This Is What I Do: Demystifying the Process of Designing Culturally Authentic Technology BIBAKFull-Text 19-28
  Wanda Eugene; Leshell Hatley; Kyla McMullen; Quincy Brown; Yolanda Rankin; Sheena Lewis
The goal of this paper is to bridge the gap between existing frameworks for the design of culturally relevant educational technology. Models and guidelines that provide potential frameworks for designing culturally authentic learning environment are explained and transposed into one comprehensive design framework, understanding that integrating culture into the design of educational technology promotes learning and a more authentic user experience. This framework establishes principles that promote a holistic approach to design.
Keywords: human-computer interaction; cultural relevance; educational technology; design
Cultural Dimensions in User Preferences and Behaviors of Mobile Phones and Interpretation of National Cultural Differences BIBAKFull-Text 29-38
  JuHyun Eune; Kun-Pyo Lee
The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in user behaviors and cultural tendencies which will develop a cultural evaluation frame work for mobile phone design among countries in the mobile telecommunication market. Cultural taxonomy helps the understanding of cultural differences. To help understand the Asian market more clearly, a brief overview of Geert Hofstede's findings (Individualism, Uncertainty avoidance, Power distance, Masculinity, and Long-term orientation) and the K.P. Lee's Cultural Variables (Way of Task Handling, Temporal Perception, Conception of Nature, Adherence to rules, Relationship with Human, Nature of Human Activity, Message Contexting, and Expression of Emotion) for the index of different cultures was used in this study. This research is based on an online survey in three countries (Korea, China and Japan), summarizing the responses of questionnaire about user preferences, and behavioral perceptions of UI Design of mobile phones. The result of this research identified the differences and similarities among countries clearly, reorganized the cultural variables. After comparing values of author's value from online survey and two other variables, this study found that Hofstede's and KP Lee's are very meaningful to identify cultural-based national characteristics. This verifies that differences of usage behavior and preference for mobile phone reflect cultural perspectives. This cultural research is the key to understanding these needs and to providing the companies with advanced market positioning. This study should not stop at a simple cross-national comparison but be a cultural comparison framework for giving companies a clear future direction for globalization-based design development.
Keywords: Mobile Phone; Interaction Design; Cultural Comparison; Behavior; Preference; User Questionnaire
Culture and Co-experience: Cultural Variation of User Experience in Social Interaction and Its Implications for Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Jung-Joo Lee
The notion of how multi-users experience technology as a group has opened important vistas in interaction design. Even though literature in cultural anthropology and cognitive psychology implies cultural influence on user experience in social interaction, a cross-cultural notion has, however, been overlooked in this area. This paper aims at exploring relationship between culture and a social aspect of user experience, in a catchier term, "co-experience," drawing on the concept of "role-takings" by following the framework in symbolic interactionism. Based on literature review, we build the conceptual framework of how role-takings vary in different cultures and how the variations can shape different co-experience. In order to illustrate how this framework can be applied in a real design case, a novel interactive system called "Visual-talk table" is introduced. In so doing, we argue how the framework and the design experiment with this technology can serve as a tool to facilitate cultural aspect of social interaction in designing especially tangible and ubiquitous interaction.
Keywords: culture; co-experience; social interaction; interaction design
Cultural Aspect of Interaction Design beyond Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 49-58
  Rungtai Lin; Po-Hsien Lin; Wen-Shin Shiao; Su-Huei Lin
Over the past several decades, we have made many efforts to understand Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). But beyond HCI, we need a better understanding of Human-Culture Interaction not just for taking part in the cultural context, but also for developing the interactive experience of users. Therefore we propose a general framework for cultural product experience that applies to the mental models of designer and user and which can be experienced in Human-Culture Interaction. Then, based on the interactive experience of users with an aboriginal cultural object, the Linnak (a twin drinking cup), a modern Linnak was proposed to demonstrate how to design a successful cultural product using the human-culture interaction framework. The intended purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for examining the way designers interact across cultures and the interactive experience of users in the design process.
Keywords: Interaction Design; User Experience; Cultural Product Design
Cross-Cultural Analysis of Social Network Services in Japan, Korea, and the USA BIBAKFull-Text 59-68
  Aaron Marcus; Niranjan Krishnamurthi
The techniques of cross-cultural analysis of Websites based on culture models are used to examine user-interface components (the metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction, and appearance) of social networking sites in three countries. The authors note and evaluate patterns of similarity and difference in the Website designs that seem to link social networking sites by culture dimensions.
Keywords: appearance; China; culture; culture model; design; interaction; interface; Japan; Korea; language; mental model; metaphor; navigation; network; social; user
Cross-Culture and Website Design: Cultural Movements and Settled Cultural Variables BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Abdalghani Mushtaha; Olga De Troyer
This paper reports on research carried out to determine the settled as well as other types of cultural markers including interface design elements and cultural dimensions that are appropriate to be used for cultural-centered website design and localization. For this, research discussed in this paper builds upon the existing body of research in website design and anthropologists' cultural dimensions. The research was performed in two phases: a first study was carried out to re-evaluate some pre-researched websites, and the second study was performed to evaluate and rank anthropologist's cultural dimensions. The findings of both research studies were evaluated and compared against earlier research results in order to provide insight into the evolution of the use of cultural markers. The results, a grouping of the cultural markers into 5 levels can be used for designing cultural-centered websites.
Keywords: Website localization; Cultural markers; Cross-cultural usability
Cross-Cultural Design and Evaluation of the Apple iPhone BIBAKFull-Text 79-88
  Michael A. Oren; Utkarsh Seth; Fei Huang; Sunghyun Kang
In this paper, we report the design and results of a study to improve the usability of the iPhone for a global audience, particularly in India and China. With extensive research in cultures of three countries China, India, and the United States, the iPhone interface was redesigned with an eye to culturally universal (for the three cultures of interest to this study) and ease of access of functions most used by mobile phone users in these cultures. Both the iPhone and the new prototype interfaces were tested to measure their usability and results are reported here.
Keywords: Global Design; Usability; iPhone; Mobile Interfaces
Cross-Cultural Understanding of the Dual Structure of Metaphorical Icons: An Explorative Study with French and Turkish Users on an E-Learning Site BIBAKFull-Text 89-98
  Kerem Rizvanoglu; Özgürol Öztürk
Research on the cross-cultural understanding of different interface aspects is an area of growing interest in human-computer interaction discipline. This paper mainly investigates the influence of culture on understanding metaphors in graphical user interfaces. Considering the dual coded structure of compound metaphorical icons which is composed of two major units: image and label, this study evaluates the main hypothesis that understanding of graphical and textual elements of the metaphors differs due to the real world and language experiences of the users. An empirical study on a French e-learning site -- based on a spatial "Campus" metaphor -- was conducted with 68 Turkish and French students. The study applied a multi-method approach including data collection instruments like questionnaires for understanding of metaphorical icons and interview. Findings do suggest differences in understanding across the two cultural groups and provide an in-depth analysis on the process of cross-cultural understanding of metaphors by focusing on the metaphorical inconsistencies.
Keywords: Metaphor; icon; culture; understanding; user interfaces
Cultural Representation for Multi-culture Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 99-107
  Javed Anjum Sheikh; Bob Fields; Elke Duncker
This research works towards the integration of cultural factors in global information systems like the Web or digital libraries to enhance global access to information and services. In this context, we study cultural differences in categorization and classification by means of card sorting experiments in combination with observations and interviews. An initial analysis of data collected in Pakistan and UK reveals a number of differences between Pakistani and British participants as to how they classify every-day objects. The differences found suggest a number of design solutions for cultural inclusion.
Keywords: Cross-cultural design; cross-cultural classification; classification systems; human-computer interaction; globalisation; localisation; cultural inclusion
Designing for a Dialogic View of Interpretation in Cross-Cultural IT Design BIBAKFull-Text 108-116
  Huatong Sun
To search for ways of better communicating the intended meanings to culturally diverse users, this paper uses Bakhtin's concept of dialogicality and its application to examine how interpretation functions in cross-cultural design. It argues for a dialogical view of interpretation based on the genre notion with its features of situatedness and dynamism. This view of interpretation connects action and meaning in cross-cultural IT design and makes a design appealing to a local context without stereotyping the local culture in an essentialist fashion.
Keywords: interpretation; genre; dialogicality; cross-cultural design
Exploring Cultural Context Using the Contextual Scenario Framework BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
  Eric Swanson; Keiichi Sato; Judith Gregory
In applications where individuals in different contexts interact with a technology system, cultural issues present complex challenges for developers attempting to understand context of use. Three features of culture stand out: individuals embody overlapping cultural memberships; cultures and roles interact; and individuals make erroneous assumptions of others' cultural membership. This paper illustrates how the Contextual Scenario Framework (CSF) can address these cultural challenges. The CSF is a tool that supports scenario-based design by structuring, organizing and automatically recalling contextual information. The mechanisms of the CSF enable exploration of human activity in context, linking characters within scenarios to contextual influences discovered in primary field research and secondary analysis.
Keywords: Culture; Context; Scenario; Scenario-Based Design; Information Systems Design; Human-Computer Interface
Attention to Effects of Different Cross-Cultural Levels in User Research Method's Interface: Discipline or Nationality -- Which Has Stronger Force? BIBAKFull-Text 127-134
  Trang-Thu Tran; Kun-Pyo Lee
In the recent years, design research have developed a long way in investigating about the users and their contexts. It was aimed to challenge the way 'cross-culture influence' has been considered in design research field: should there be better way than profiling users solely based on nationality in multinational research project for product specification. Major findings through this research included (1) Nationality factor influenced remarkably on user performance but not much on user attitude. In contrast, discipline factor influenced significantly on every elements of user participation. (2) The gaps of user attitude and performance with nationality as the function maintained same levels while the effects from discipline factor intensified upon the increase of task complexity and change of ask characteristic. Overall, Discipline factor dominated Nationality factor, insisting on the importance of considering different levels of participants' cultures in designing the interface of user experience research methods.
Keywords: design research methodology; generative session; cross culture
A Cross-Cultural Study on the Perception of Sociability within Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 135-144
  Fang-Wu Tung; Keiichi Sato; Yi-Shin Deng; Tsai-Yi Lin
This study tries to use speech and dynamic emoticons as social cues to create a more sociable human-computer interaction. A cross-cultural study was conducted to investigate the influence of cultural backgrounds (Taiwan and America) on children's perceptions of sociability within human-computer interaction and explore how the management of social cues affects their engagement in e-learning environments. A 2x2 (Taiwan/America, speech/dynamic emoticon) quasi experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the independent variables on children's perception of social presence and intrinsic motivation. Cultural differences in the perception of social presence are observed. American children reported higher perceived social presence than Taiwanese children did. No differences of effects of speech and dynamic emoticons on children's feelings of social presence and motivation are found. It suggests that children's social responses and learning motivations are triggered equally strongly by the two social cues. These findings suggest that designers of educational technology could use speech or dynamic emoticons to build more sociable interfaces that could boost children's motivation in learning.
Keywords: Cultural difference; Sociability; Interaction design; Speech; Dynamic Emoticon; Children

Culture, Community, Collaboration and Learning

The Use of Hypertext as a Vocabulary Acquisition Strategy for English as Second Language Learners BIBAKFull-Text 147-155
  Devshikha Bose; Dotty Sammons
This paper has two parts. The first part is a literature review which discusses vocabulary acquisition in ESL learners in context of 1) vocabulary acquisition strategies used by ESL learners 2) efficacy of Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL) in ESL vocabulary acquisition, 3) the use of hypertexts to aid vocabulary acquisition among ESL learners, 4) hypertext use strategies, and 5) hypertext design considerations. The second part of the paper is a proposed study on the use of a website evaluation rubric to evaluate the effectiveness of selected websites based on best practices of teaching-learning ESL.
Keywords: Hypertext; ESL; Vocabulary Acquisition Strategies; CALL; CAI; Rubric
A Systematic Review of Technologies Designed to Improve and Assist Cognitive Decline for Both the Current and Future Aging Populations BIBAKFull-Text 156-163
  Kelley Gurley; Anthony F. Norcio
This paper serves as a literature review focused on understanding the technologies available for all aging populations. It also presents some limitations involved in providing alternative health care and discusses some considerations to designing technologies for future aging populations.
Keywords: Cognitive Decline; Aging Population; Assistive Technologies; Robotics; Telehealth
Developers and Moderators: Observations in the Co-development of an Online Social Space BIBAKFull-Text 164-172
  David Gurzick; Kevin F. White
Online social spaces have emerged at the confluence of three notable trends: an increasing amount of interaction occurring over digital channels, an awareness of the range of technical and social affordances such spaces provide, and a growing participatory culture that fosters member involvement in the creation and maintenance of digital locales. At the same time, these trends offer both great promise and significant challenges to the creation and maintenance of online social spaces. This paper unpacks the observations from the creation of one such online social space developed with involvement from the moderators tasked with facilitating its operation. Observations run the gamut from the technical (modifying system features to meet described work practices) to the social (fostering a joint ownership in the success of the social space) and set the stage for a broad research agenda for discovering best practice in constructing social spaces online.
Keywords: Online Communities; Sociotechnical Systems; Adolescents; Moderation; Design; Tools
Anthropomorphic Systems: An Approach for Categorization BIBAFull-Text 173-179
  Kathryn Howe
Are systems that incorporate anthropomorphic attributes better at interactivity with a user than systems that do not use such attributes? Do these systems allow a user to interact with the system in a natural way; or can the system cause more frustration then aid? It is a fact that many systems nowadays are attempting to make their interfaces more natural to use. Some systems attempt to do so by the advance of various input systems, such as touch screens, screen readers, etc. Other systems attempt to create user interfaces that a user can easily relate to. They can take on various anthropomorphic attributes such as emotion, speech, cognition and learning abilities. These systems vary dramatically in how they incorporate the attributes as well. Some systems use an interface of cartoon characters that allow a user to believe that the character can speak and learn like the user, while still keeping a separation of the virtual and real world by its physical form. Others attempt to effect human attributes so much that it could be difficult to distinguish between the two.
Cyber Society and Cooperative Cyber Defence BIBAKFull-Text 180-186
  Peeter Lorents; Rain Ottis; Raul Rikk
Emergence of cyber societies places new emphasis on the protection of information and information services. The paper provides a definition for the concept of information that is based on the concept of knowledge and a definition for cyber society, which encompasses the relationship between a society of humans and a network of computers. Estonia and the cyber attacks of spring 2007 are briefly examined as an example of an early cyber society under cyber attack. Finally, the role and principles of the Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence are explained.
Keywords: Knowledge; information; cyber society; cyber attacks; cooperative cyber defence; CCD COE
Constructing a Model of Internet-Based Career Information System for Industrial Design Students in Universities BIBAKFull-Text 187-196
  Ming-Ying Yang; Manlai You; Ya-Lin Tu; Yung-Ping Chou
This study aims to propose a model of Industrial Design Career Information System (IDCIS) to help ID students plan their career. The study was divided into three stages. The content analysis of nine relevant websites framed a basic structure of IDCIS. Next, four focus groups with a total of twenty-four ID students were interviewed to find out what career information they would like to know. Finally, a web-based model of IDCIS was simulated and eight ID students were invited to provide their feedback. The outcome would provide an integrated base to help students be aware of the ID profession and plan their career in advance during the school years. Also, the process of constructing a model of IDCIS adopted by this study could be a reference for other fields.
Keywords: Industrial Design; Career Information System; Design Education; Career Guidance
Factors Affecting Online Game Players' Loyalty BIBAKFull-Text 197-206
  Fan Zhao; Xiaowen Fang
In the past decade, online games have become an important electronic commerce application. A good understanding of customer online game behaviors is critical for both researchers and practitioners, such as game vendors and game developers. Many researchers focus their studies on the consumers' intention to play online games. However, the industry becomes more and more interested in the key factors to retain customers. To tackle the retention problem, this paper proposes a research framework of online game play loyalty. Based on this framework, thirteen hypotheses were developed and tested through a survey in U.S. universities. Overall, the results indicate the following: 1) Online game technology factors, such as the game story, game graphics, game length, game control and online game services, have significant impact on players' game enjoyment; 2) Game enjoyment and social norms have positive effects on intention to play; 3) Social norms, quality of online game community and intention to play are important predictors of online game loyalty.
Keywords: online games; loyalty; intention; enjoyment
Exploring the Influences of Individualism-Collectivism on Individual's Perceived Participation Equality in Virtual Learning Teams BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  Yingqin Zhong; Na Liu; John Lim
This study aims to investigate the effects of equal participation on individual member's self assessment in terms of self-reported learning, self-perceived value of contribution, group identity and process satisfaction. Further, we examine how these effects of equal participation on individual learners are moderated by learners' cultural orientation in terms of individualism-collectivism. Data were collected from 65 virtual learning teams involving 195 undergraduates in a college in south China. MANOVA tests were performed to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed supportive results to most of posited main effects as well as moderating effects.
Keywords: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL); e-Learning; Individualism-Collectivism; participation; learning outcomes

Internationalisation and Usability

Application of the Labeled Magnitude Scale in Kansei Research BIBAKFull-Text 219-227
  Chun Yueh Chen; Kuohsiang Chen
This study intended to construct a labeled magnitude scale based on Kansei researches so that data with ratio-level can be retrieved easily and further extensive analysis can be conducted. In this study, scale derivation was generated based on the research of Green et al.[8] 32 subjects, include 23 male and 9 female, average age of 24.6 yrs with design education background, participated in the experiment. 19 car samples and 5 Kansei phrases were used in the experiment. Results showed that the intensity indicators were significantly different in the experiment (F1,137=.122,p=.727). But subjects in the experiment gave rating in different ways to each Kansei phrases (Kansei phrases * intensity indicators, F20,2952=3.55,p=.00). This may due to the status quo bias of subjects. Comparisons with OPUS (Oral Pleasantness /Unpleasant scale) [9] and CALM (Comfort Affective Labeled Magnitude) [5] showed similar orders of intersity indicators but different maximum magnitude in each scales.
Keywords: Kansei research; labeled magnitude scale (LMS); scale method; sensory evaluation
Internationalizing Mainframe Applications through Screen Scraping BIBAFull-Text 228-235
  Chris Durand
This paper is a case study describing the internationalization of a mainframe application without changing mainframe code. By utilizing screen scraping techniques, the project team created Chinese and Korean versions of mainframe application screens and reports. The paper describes specific issues encountered on the project, the solutions considered, and the strengths and weaknesses of the selected solution. It also describes an algorithm used to perform efficient translation of system messages with embedded variables.
A Case Study in Community-Driven Translation of a Fast-Changing Website BIBAFull-Text 236-244
  David Ellis
Facebook's translation tool allows users (translators) to click on a phrase as they browse the site, and inline see the original native string, vote on translations suggested by their peers or offer their own. We offer an innovative approach to web site internationalization that leverages a unique infrastructure and a dedicated user community to keep our interface up-to-date in translation.
Rescaling Non-metric Data to Metric Data Using Multi-Dimensional Scaling BIBAKFull-Text 245-253
  Kelley M. Engle; Guisseppi A. Forgionne
Rescaling of nominal- and ordinal-scaled data to interval-scaled data is an important preparatory step prior to applying parametric statistical tests. Without rescaling, the analyst typically must resort to non-parametric tests that are less robust statistically than the metric counterparts. Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) is a procedure that can be used to perform the desired rescaling. This paper utilizes MDS to transform nonmetric data from the IAN (Interactive Autism Network) and illustrates the application of the results to autism. Two simulated distributions were created from the MDS procedure to determine the best transformation. The tests reveal that either a normal or uniform distribution is acceptable with the uniform distribution performing marginally better than the normal.
Keywords: rescaling techniques; MDS (Multi-dimensional scaling); parametric test requirements; autism; data mining
Intercultural Usability Surveys: Do People Always Tell "The Truth"? BIBAKFull-Text 254-258
  Emilie West Gould
Researchers have identified many ways that culture affects usability methods -- interviews, moderated tests, think-aloud protocols, and card sorts. This paper reviews some of that literature and discusses a project investigating the effect of culture on usability surveys.
Keywords: culture; cultural usability; survey methodology
Cultural Interface Design Advisor Tool: Research Methodology and Practical Development Efforts BIBAKFull-Text 259-265
  Irina Kondratova; Ilia Goldfarb
Within the cultural user interface design research and development project we address the need in culturally appropriate user interface design that is brought up by globalization. Globalization is affecting most computer-mediated communication and, in particular, user interface design for the Internet applications. To address this need, we are building a cultural "look and feel" advisor tool that is based on the research study utilizing cultural analysis of a large number of websites for a particular locale. This paper addresses the research methodology we employed in manual evaluation of specific cultural markers on a large set of country-specific websites and reports on several important aspects of transferring our research results into the practical implementation of the cultural design advisor tool.
Keywords: Cultural preferences; color theory; cultural user interface; usability
An Investigation of the Relationship between Digit Ratio and Spatial Ability BIBAKFull-Text 266-273
  Hanyu Lin; Moli Yeh; Yenyu Kang
Spatial ability plays a key role in many types of reasoning and communication, and is important in domains such as design. Digit ratio is related to a range of cognitive abilities, including spatial ability. In digit ratio studies, most studies were limited by using only one test for spatial ability. The purpose of present study was to investigate which sub-factors of spatial ability are related to digit ratio. We analyzed sex differences and the relationship between digit ratio and three sub-factors of spatial ability. Our results found that right hand digit ratio was significantly lower in males than in females, no significant differences were found between males and females on the left hand ratio. For female samples, both hands digit ratio were significantly negative correlated with perceptual speed factor of spatial ability. There was no association between digit ratio and spatial visualization factor and spatial relation factor.
Keywords: digit ratio; spatial ability; perceptual speed
"Whose Rule Is It Anyway?" -- A Case Study in the Internationalization of User-Configurable Business Rules BIBAFull-Text 274-282
  Morgan McCollough
This paper consists of a case study concerning the internationalization of an electronic invoice management web application and its central rules engine. It examines the challenges faced in introducing internationalization changes at the level of a custom scripting language processor and the problems inherent in maintaining compatibility with existing deployments. The paper outlines the specific solution and the ways in which the key concepts of locale context and lazy initialization may be applied to other similar internationalization problems.
Design of Face-to-Face Multilingual Communication Environment for Illiterate People BIBAKFull-Text 283-292
  Mai Miyabe; Takashi Yoshino
In the medical field, a serious problem exists with regard to communication between hospital staffs and patients. Currently, although a medical translator accompanies a patient to medical care facilities, round-the-clock or emergency support is difficult to provide due to increasing requests. The medical field has high expectations from information technology. Therefore, we have developed a support system for multilingual medical reception termed M3. We have installed our system in the Kyoto City Hospital in Japan. However, we found that our system cannot provide support to illiterate people. If an illiterate person and another person speak different languages, it is difficult the other person to communicate face to face with the illiterate person while explaining the meaning of texts shown on the display of the support system. This is one of the problems specific to the multilingual communication. There is a need to solve this problem. Therefore, we have developed a method to provide support to illiterate people engaging in multilingual face-to-face communication. We use a text-to-speech function implemented using a selector switch to provide support to illiterate people in performing operations using a touch screen. We performed an experiment to examine the effect of the proposed method. The results of the experiment are as follows. (1) From the results of the questionnaire, we find that the subjects are able to operate the selector switch easily. Therefore, we conclude that the method using the selector switch has little effect on the operation of the system. (2) Retrieval time using the text-to-speech function is five times that using the normal operation. We need to consider a structure that can retrieve the required information easily if many readings of texts are required.
Keywords: Parallel texts; Multilingual communication; Medical field
Internationalization and Localization of Websites: Navigation in English Language and Chinese Language Sites BIBAKFull-Text 293-300
  Helen Petrie; Christopher Power; Wei Song
Guidelines exist for the internationalization and localization of websites, but these do not mention possible changes in the layout of navigational elements on websites. Two studies were conducted to investigate the importance of navigational layout for Chinese and English language speakers. In the first study it was found that major Chinese and North American/European companies did not significantly adapt the navigation on their websites in relation to the target linguistic/cultural market. In the second study it was found that there were significant difference in the preferences of Chinese and English native speakers for navigational layout on websites. The implications of these studies are discussed.
Keywords: localization of websites; internationalization of websites; navigation in websites; user perceptions of websites
Considerations for Using Eye Trackers during Usability Studies BIBAKFull-Text 301-307
  Anjali Phukan; Margaret Re
The purpose of this usability study was to see if eye trackers collect valid data, regardless of the user's method of corrected vision, eye color, or gender. The motivation to explore the idea that these human factors can distort eye trackers is based on marketing claims by several companies that say these factors should not affect results. This study found that the validity of data in usability studies that involved eye trackers in testing can produce biased results based on eyewear and eye color, and that adjustments should be made to control for these variables. The results showed no significant correlations based on gender. As a consideration into developing international signage for mass transportation systems that effectively accommodate global users, this study also explored how first language affects the way in which a user views and organizes a message and hence interprets procedural directions and related imagery. This is within the context of usability testing for a wide variety of users who may not share a first language or have the same method of vision correction.
Keywords: eye trackers; usability testing methodologies; internationalization; eye color; eyewear; gender; language
The Future of Enterprise Is with the Mobile Workforce: An International Field Study BIBAKFull-Text 308-315
  Lynn Rampoldi-Hnilo; Brent-Kaan White; Michele Snyder; Chad Sampanes
To create the most effective mobile applications, Oracle must understand how and in what contexts the mobile workforce is using their mobile devices. Oracle mobile researchers went into the workforce population and conducted an international, ethnographic field study to fully understand the mobile worker's needs, behaviors, and contextually based activities.
Keywords: Ethnography; Field study; International research; Mobile; Enterprise applications

ICT for Global Development

Representation and Reflexivity in ICT for Development (Telecentre) Research BIBAKFull-Text 319-327
  Savita Bailur
The author argues there is insufficient discussion of representation (the problems of showing the realities of the lived experiences of the observed settings) and reflexivity (the relationship between knowledge and the ways whereby knowledge is produced) in ICTD literature, particularly regarding telecentre users and non-users. It first reviews six papers from 2007-8 in Information Technologies and International Development and find that the process of research methods and theorizing from findings could be analyzed in more detail. It then shares how deconstructing the research process affected findings in Our Voices telecentre, the author's own case study.
Keywords: telecentre; telecentre users; representation; reflexivity; research method
Ubiquitous Society -- Cultural Factors Driving Mobile Innovations and Adoption in Japan BIBAKFull-Text 328-336
  Henning Breuer
Streets without names, golden silence on the subway, cables installed above-ground, experimental drive of developers and nosy customers prepare the ground for ultimate perfection. This article analyzes and describes culturally embedded usability scenarios, research activities and geographical and political frameworks of developing mobile technologies in Japan. Furthermore, decisive factors contributing to the development of a mobile and ubiquitous society in Japan are outlined. This aims at raising awareness for new starting-points of mobile innovation in Europe.
Keywords: Cultural factors; mobile applications; innovation management; intercultural design
A Study of Innovation Design on Taiwan Culture Creative Product -- A Case Study of the Facial Mask of Ba Ja Jang BIBAKFull-Text 337-346
  Chi-Hsiung Chen; Being-Chenem Chen; Cheng-Dar Jan
In the trend of advocating the cultural and creative industry in recent years, Taiwan elevates the people's spiritual satisfaction and the value of cultural products through the mutual impact of art/culture and the creative design. This is just a new-type industry that all nations worldwide pay attention to in recent years. This research studies on Taiwan's local Ja Jang culture transforming in the innovative design of cultural and creative products. Besides actually developing the product design of Ja Jang culture, we emphasize much more the discussion on the essence of cultural products and the construction of designing mode. According to the research result, there are four conclusions: 1. In terms of the development of Taiwan's cultural and creative industry, the focus should be on (1) centering on key industries, (2) cultivating the cultural industries with Taiwan's specialties, (3) introducing international capital, having international communication, making good use of China's resources, and (4) founding a platform of information integration. 2. The designing meanings of cultural products should contain three levels, which are the exterior level (visible and material), the middle level (of using behavior and ritual/customary), and the interior level (ideological and spiritual). 3. Comparing to attributes of general product design, the cultural product design generally changes from use-base to the elevation of symbol value to bring out the product's peculiarity and its differentiation. 4. The design mode of Taiwan's local culture is constructed, and products of global culture are brought from the age of technology to the age of design for "heart" of humanistic culture.
Keywords: Taiwan; cultural and creative industry; innovative design; Ja Jang
The Application of ICTs and Digital Divide in Rural China BIBAKFull-Text 347-355
  Peng Chen; Jieping Wang; Zuoxian Si; Jie Wang; Ying Liu
In this article, we explored rural China's digital divide problem from a social structure perspective, especially regarding the practical process and mechanism of the digital divide forming in different village structures. Traditional village and industrialized village represent two types of rural China's social structure, which provide a good case for studying the digital divide between different types of villages. We consider the gap formed in possessing information and communication technologies (ICTs) as the primary divide, and take the gap formed in using ICTs as the secondary divide. Moreover, a "mutual reproduction" effect exists between the divides formed in the course of possessing and using ICTs. Finally we pointed out that cell phones, as a mobile network, may become the first carrier of the integration of the future information technology and an effective agent weapon helps bridging the digital divide.
Keywords: Digital Divide; Social Structure; Traditional Village; Industrialized Village; Mobile Network
Perceptions on Interaction Design in Malaysia BIBAKFull-Text 356-365
  Idyawati Hussein; Esmadi Abu Abu Seman; Murni Mahmud
Even though researchers have introduced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) methodologies, since 1980's, Malaysia's user interface is still considered inadequate. Despite being aware of the importance of usable design, several non-technical issues have more significant influence towards poorly designed user interfaces in Malaysia. This paper reports the findings of a study of interaction design and/or any HCI methodologies in practice among Malaysian companies for software design and computer-related design development. The research involved senior Information Communication Technology (ICT) managers and focused on the application developers, whose job descriptions and responsibilities vary. The study used semi-structured interviews and a focus group study to uncover the current perceptions of people involved in ICT project development. The findings serve as a pointer to the Malaysian government and stakeholders towards the improvement of user interface design.
Keywords: HCI; usable design; interaction design; practices; Malaysia
The Cultural Creative of Product Design for Pingtung County in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 366-375
  Yen-Yu Kang; Ming-Shean Wang; Wei-Shiang Hung; Han-yu Lin
Research results relies on the cooperation of National Kaohsiung Normal University Industrial Design and Cultural Affairs Department of Pingtung County. Method of Cultural Creative Design shows Pingtung County cultural connotation will display in the Pingtung County villages and towns characteristic commodity design, is helpful to the designer regarding the villages and towns discussion and the understanding. Entrusts with the new annotation and the creation using the design Taiwan multi-dimensional tribal grouping tribal group culture characteristic, expected that achievement of this research will be helpful to design on the cultural commodity in the future reference.
Keywords: Cultural Creative Design; Product Design; Creative Industries
A Study of Service Innovation Design in Cultural and Creative Industry BIBAKFull-Text 376-385
  Yu-Yuan Ko; Po-Hsien Lin; Rungtai Lin
Service design is considered to be one of the pivotal components in cultural and creative design industries which has a significant impact on consumer perception of innovation. Despite service design's recognized importance, cultural and creative industries lack a systematic approach to it. Therefore, based on the "Taiwan experience", this paper proposes a service innovation design model and provides examples illustrating how to transfer cultural features into service design, and design these cultural features into modern products to reinforce their design value. Results presented herein create an interface for looking at the way service innovation design crosses over cultures, as well as illustrating the interwoven experience of service design and cultural creativity in the innovation design process.
Keywords: service innovation design; creative industries; experiencing culture
The Impact of Culture on the Design of Arabic Websites BIBAKFull-Text 386-394
  Aaron Marcus; Sundus Hamoodi
This paper discusses issues regarding the influence of culture on Arabic Websites. Arabic Websites from three countries serve as an initial sample for this study. Do the Websites of Arabian countries reflect their culture? How specifically? Do they share attitudes about design? Can an Arabian designer achieve what users in other cultures need and want? What are differences reflected in the differences between Arabic countries in the Eastern world and Western countries? This paper discusses these and other issues.
Keywords: Arabic; culture; design; interface; user; Website
Personalizing the Shared Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 395-403
  Nimmi Rangaswamy; Supriya Singh
Sharing mobile phones, an enduring practice in developing nations, finds insufficient empirical effort or theoretical scrutiny as a sociological phenomena. Predominant conceptions of design for a mobile phone are aimed at independent and private behaviour as the device is perceived and designed to be a private object for personal use. In this paper we draw attention to the need for designing personalized spaces within the shared or familial culture around the mobile phone. We report on a qualitative case-study of shared mobile phones in low-middle income families in Mumbai city and Dharamshala, reframing personal communication devices as shared objects.
Keywords: Mobile Phone; Shared phones; India; Middle-class; Ethnographic Design
Affordable Wireless Connectivity Linking Poor Latin American Communities Binding Their Schools by Sharing ICT Training for "Maestros" of Primary Schools BIBAKFull-Text 404-412
  C. Osvaldo Rodriguez
A very poor neighborhood in Argentina that has many features of lower middle class is called "barrio carenciado". Many heads of the families are unemployed and although children have access to schools it is common that they do not finish their basic instruction. In many cases NGOs play a fundamental role in changing this reality. In this presentation we detail the implementation of a test bed where 14 families and a school were provided with computers, Internet access and were educated out of digital illiteracy. Connectivity was provided by Wireless Mesh Networking (WMN). The research project, was carried out by a group of researchers from the Universidad de La Plata with different backgrounds in collaboration with the NGO Barrios del Plata (a chapter of Muhammad Yunus's Grameen Bank). The study monitored the changes in families' life (in particularly children education and parents opportunities related to obtaining work). The deployment of WMN in a such a broad area, aimed to define the possible lowest cost implementation, and conforms an important part of the research activities. The school #502, originally a node of the WMN, has become a "Laboratory for the use of innovative methodologies in ICT training of primary school teachers". The project was financed through an award given in a public competition by Microsoft research and CentralTech, a leading Argentinean educational center.
Keywords: Digital Inclusion; Wireless Mesh Networking; ICT Teachers Education
Note: Best Paper Award
Testing of a Novel Web Browser Interface for the Chinese Market BIBAKFull-Text 413-418
  Siu-Tsen Shen; Stephen D. Prior; Kuen-Meau Chen
This paper compares the perspicacity, appropriateness and preference of web browser icons from leading software providers with those of a culture-specific design. This online study was conducted in Taiwan and involved 103 participants, who were given three sets of web browser icons to review, namely Microsoft Internet Explorer, Macintosh Safari, and culturally specific icons created using the Culture-Centred Design methodology. The findings of the study show that all three sets have generally high recognition rates, but that some icon functions (e.g. Go/Visit and Favourite) in all three sets have poor recognition rates and are considered inappropriate.
Keywords: web browser icons; icons; perspicacity; Chinese; culturalisation; user interface design
Looking for the Image of Modernization: The Story of Made in Taiwan (MIT) BIBAKFull-Text 419-428
  Ju-Joan Wong
Beginning in the 1980s, Taiwan's most vigorous global economic activity trade department faced several difficult issues in succession. Reversing this unfavorable situation by improving the MIT product image in international markets was seen as the solution to these issues. This paper analyzes the cultural contents of those economic and trade policies, and reveals how Taiwan, a marginal state forced by the wave of globalization, constructed a national identity by improving the product image of MIT. Furthermore, this process demonstrates Taiwan's desire to be a 'modern' nation among the developing countries. Based on the above, this paper argues that 'Taiwan's modern design movement' was promoted by MIT discourses through a succession of economic and trade policies. Besides declaring an aesthetic form, this movement also was one of nationalism. However, whether modern design or nationalism movement, both are transcended by the reasonable manipulation of capitalism, and become ideological bubbles.
Keywords: Made in Taiwan (MIT); modernization; economic development; industrial design; national identity
Innovation through Customers' Eyes BIBAKFull-Text 429-434
  Yanxia Yang; Mayuresh Ektare
The User Centered Design (UCD) process is well established and used extensively in the industry, except with varying results. Upon engaging the customers in the iterative design process why it is that in some cases the UCD process results in a less than stellar outcome needs to be discussed. A thorough analysis of one scenario reveals that the design innovation means different things to various stakeholders. This paper is a case study illustrating ways of enhancing the UCD process while providing insight into varying viewpoints on the product innovation.
Keywords: Innovation; User-Centered Design process; Unified messaging

Designing for E-Commerce, E-Business and E-Banking

The Effect of E-Learning on Business Organizations: A UAE Case Study BIBAFull-Text 437-446
  Osama K. Alshara; Mohamad Khalid AlSharo
A major problem that most researchers in developing countries face is that of data availability. The UAE is experiencing advances in many areas; however, availability of raw data is not one of those areas. We are interested in measuring the level of response and adaptation as well as the correctness of the practice of e-learning in non-educational organizations in the UAE. We reviewed the literature to learn about the state-of the art of global practices and experiences of e-learning in non-educational organizations. Unfortunately, we were unable to find any reference to similar work that was done for the UAE market. This paper presents factors of implementing E-learning in non-educational organizations and how does that apply to the UAE culture. UAE based survey with a thorough analysis of the results are presented too.
txteagle: Mobile Crowdsourcing BIBAKFull-Text 447-456
  Nathan Eagle
We present txteagle, a system that enables people to earn small amounts of money by completing simple tasks on their mobile phone for corporations who pay them in either airtime or MPESA (mobile money). The system is currently being launched in Kenya and Rwanda in collaboration with the mobile phone service providers Safaricom and MTN Rwanda. Tasks include translation, transcription, and surveys. User studies in Nairobi involving high school students, taxi drivers, and local security guards have been completed and the service has recently launched in Kenya nationwide.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; mobile phones; appropriate technology; reputation systems
User Experience Research and Management of Online Advertising and Merchandising BIBAKFull-Text 457-466
  Frank Y. Guo
Managing user experience of advertising on eCommerce sites poses unique challenges due to the need of balancing profiting and optimizing user experience. Merchandising on eCommerce sites is similar to online advertising, because users oftentimes do not perceive and interact with them differently due to their similar look and feel. This paper proposes a framework of user experience management, an approach towards user research, and a number of design recommendations for online advertising and merchandising.
Keywords: eCommerce; advertising; merchandising; eye tracking; user experience; usability
Supportive Web Design for Users from Different Culture Origins in E-Commerce BIBAKFull-Text 467-474
  Kyeong Kang
This paper presents an investigation of supportive design features for users from different cultural origins in global e-commerce sites applying the principles of human computer interaction to web interface design. This investigation was necessitated from a need to establish an understanding of the barriers in the implementation of e-business on a global level. The paper begins with an overview of current business-to-user (B2C) e-commerce implementation on the web, and then describes cultural issues in the global e-commerce.
Keywords: culture; e-commerce; web design
How Mobile Money Can Drive Financial Inclusion for Women at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) in Indian Urban Centers BIBAKFull-Text 475-484
  Apala Lahiri Chavan; Sarit Arora; Anand Kumar; Praneet Koppula
This paper looks at challenges and opportunities on how mobile money can drive financial inclusion for women at the BOP (Bottom of the Pyramid) in urban Indian centers. We explore the current ecosystem of financial transactions and the role of women in a BOP household. Specifically we look at how this ecosystem differs based on how long ago they migrated from rural India and how that impacts their financial transactions. By understanding the gaps and the barriers, we outline specific challenges and opportunities for driving financial inclusion for women, through mobile money. We also posit that the success of mobile money depends on whether the 'solution' moves away from the paradigms used for designing mobile money solutions for those at the top of pyramid.
Keywords: Financial inclusion; mobile money; women; bottom of the pyramid (BOP); microfinance; loans; credit; payments
Mobile-Banking Adoption and Usage by Low-Literate, Low-Income Users in the Developing World BIBAKFull-Text 485-494
  Indrani Medhi; Aishwarya Ratan; Kentaro Toyama
Due to the increasing penetration of mobile phones even in poor communities, mobile-phone-enabled banking (m-banking) services are being increasingly targeted at the "unbanked" to bring formal financial services to the poor. Research in understanding actual usage and adoption by this target population, though, is sparse. There appear to be a number of issues which prevent low-income, low-literate populations from meaningfully adopting and using existing m-banking services. This paper examines variations across countries in adoption and usage of existing m-banking services by low-literate, low-income individuals and possible factors responsible for the same. It is observed that variations are along several parameters: household type, services adopted, pace of uptake, frequency of usage, and ease of use. Each of these observations is followed by a set of explanatory factors that mediate adoption and usage.
Keywords: m-banking; mobile UX; financial inclusion; economic development
Examining the Usage and Impact of Transformational M-Banking in Kenya BIBAKFull-Text 495-504
  Olga Morawczynski
Since its introduction in March of 2007, the M-PESA application has acquired a user base of over five million, and an agent network of over five thousand. Because of its rapid growth, the application has received a significant amount of attention. There have been assertions that it can engender transformational benefits by providing the unbanked with new opportunities to access financial services. There is, however, very little discussion of what these transformational benefits are and how they are engendered. This paper will contribute to filling this gap in the literature. It will draw from ethnographic fieldwork that was deployed over a period of fourteen months in two locations -- an informal settlement near Nairobi and a farming village in Western Kenya. It will show that the M-PESA application was utilized for the cultivation of livelihood strategies. Such strategies helped residents to cope with (temporarily adjust) and recover from (longer term shifts in livelihood strategies) stresses and shocks. The outcomes of these strategies will also be discussed.
Keywords: M-PESA; m-banking; livelihoods; impact; transformational technologies; migration
Balancing Separateness and Jointness of Money in Relationships: The Design of Bank Accounts in Australia and India BIBAKFull-Text 505-514
  Supriya Singh
Personal bank accounts are an important way of signaling the separation, ownership, control and management of money. They are however a blunt instrument for balancing the separateness and jointness of money in relationships. This paper draws on the author's research on money and banking in Australia and India to describe the ways in which middle-income urban families in Australia and India use bank accounts in personal relationships. The paper points to ways that bank account holders can retain control by setting the limits to which information and money in the account can be shared with a designated person for a set time limit. It is submitted that having this partial shared account, together with existing personal accounts, will fit social practice, and help reflect the changing balance of separateness and jointness of money across a person's life stage.
Keywords: joint accounts; India; Australia: separateness; jointness
Mobile Remittances: Design for Financial Inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 515-524
  Supriya Singh
This paper investigates the design requirements for international mobile remittances in the context of users' money management and control in the household and the family. Through scenarios that draw on remittance literature, the paper suggests five design principles for mobile remittances that could be a US$ 41 billion market while empowering women, varying patterns of money management and control in transnational families and aiding financial inclusion.
Keywords: mobile remittances; money management; money control; empowering women; privacy; financial inclusion