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IDGD Tables of Contents: 07-107-20911

UI-HCI International 2007: 2nd International Conference on Usability and Internationalization, Part II: Global and Local User Interfaces

Fullname:UI-HCII 2007: 2nd International Conference on Usability and Internationalization, Part II: Global and Local User Interfaces
Note:Volume 11 of HCI International 2007
Editors:Nuray M. Aykin
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2007-Jul-22 to 2007-Jul-27
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4560
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-73288-4 (print), 978-3-540-73289-1 (online); hcibib: IDGD07-2
Papers:65
Pages:573
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. IDGD 2007-07-22 Volume 2
    1. Part I: Designing Global and Local Products and Services
    2. Part II: Enhancing and Personalizing the User Experience

IDGD 2007-07-22 Volume 2

Part I: Designing Global and Local Products and Services

Localization Issues: A Glimpse at the Korean User (From the Western Perspective) BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Björn-M. Braun; Kerstin Röse
This paper shows how applying Chavan's Quick and Dirty User Profiling Technique proves to be an excellent first step for gaining first insights into users from a different cultural background, exemplified for the Korean market. On this hit products of the Korean market are reviewed, Korean design preferences are analysed, cultural context data is gathered and completed with findings of cultural dimensions.
Keywords: Cross-Cultural; Usability Engineering; User-Profile; South Korea
Increasing the Usability of Text Entry in Mobile Devices for European Languages and Languages Used in Europe BIBAKFull-Text 13-21
  Martin Böcker; Karl Ivar Larsson; Bruno von Niman
Entering text through the 12-key keypad of mobile devices is one of the biggest usability challenges of mobile phone use. The user's problem is potentially increased if the text to be entered contains language-specific letters not included in the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, as users cannot be sure which key of the 12-key keypad the letter they wish to enter is associated to. ETSI, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, has published in 2003 a standard (ES 202 130) that specifies the assignment of characters on the 12-key telephone keypad for a range of European languages. That standard for letters, digits and special characters (such as the Euro symbol and punctuation marks) covered the official languages of the EU and EFTA members, Russia, as well as countries with applicant status for the EU at that time. This paper describes the further development of the standard to cover other major languages spoken in Europe including official languages, minority languages and immigrants' languages.
Keywords: Usability; user interfaces; standards; 12-key keypad; ICT
User Centered Design Approach Applying CPV in Mobile Service Design BIBAKFull-Text 22-29
  Chang K. Cho; Cheol Lee; Myung Hwan Yun
In this paper, applicability of CPV in mobile service design has been investigated in both phase of divergent and convergent thinking. During the scenario-based ideation, potential customer values can be used as ideation stimuli in the process of structured brainstorming. In divergent thinking, CPV can be applied as evaluation criteria in comparing new ideas with alternative services. For the efficient implementation, work templates for accelerated front-end UCD are developed in co-operation with mobile service staffs in Korean mobile operator.
Keywords: mobile service; user centered design; new service design; customer perceived value (CPV)
Design Guidelines to the Application of Extreme Design with Korean Anthropometry BIBAKFull-Text 30-39
  Yongju Cho; Eui S. Jung; Sungjoon Park; Seong W. Jeong; Woojin Park
In this paper, we suggest guidelines related to the design limit or range by body dimensions based on 'SizeKorea 2004'. This paper describes three sequential tests. First, body dimensions' percentile curves were analyzed in order to find out their trends. Second, their appropriateness with respect to normality assumptions by gender and age was tested. Finally, the steepest slopes at both extremes of female and male percentile curves were checked and analyzed. By performing these sequential tests, five patterns of body dimensions were found. Findings from this research were two-fold. First of all, adult percentile curves, by and large, did not follow a normal distribution. The other finding was that the design limit for 33% of the male body dimensions must be from 5th to 97.5th percentiles and the limit for 85% of the female body dimensions must be from 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles, which shows their steepest slope at the extremes of the percentile curves. From this study, eight specific design guidelines for extreme design by patterns of body dimensions were found.
Keywords: Korean anthropometry; Extreme design; Percentile curves
Developing Character Input Methods for Driver Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 40-47
  Youngseok Cho; Sung Ho Han; Sang W. Hong; Yong S. Park; Wonkyu Park; Sunghyun Kang
This study proposes a framework for developing an input method to enter characters into a driver information system (DIS). The framework consists of two phases. The first phase is a conceptual design phase that helps to create and design conceptual input methods and to conduct formative evaluation. The second phase is a detail design phase that helps to design detailed interfaces and interaction, and to select the most usable character input method. A case study is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the developed methodology and to find appropriate input methods for knob control. As a result, character input methods appropriate for knob control were developed, which were proved to work more effectively than an existing method.
Keywords: Character input method; DIS; Development framework; Usability
Linguistic Analysis of Websites: A New Method of Analysing Language, the Poor Cousin of Usability BIBAKFull-Text 48-56
  Sabrina Duda; Michael Schiessl; Gerald Wildgruber; Christian Rohrer; Paul Fu
While text and concepts have always been acknowledged as key players in effecting the overall impact of a website, language -- much like an attention-deprived stepchild -- has always been allocated a little side role. The following work introduces a method for linguistic analysis which enables usability experts to examine language on a website at its various layers, and to carry out a user study about users' perception of language. The method will be illustrated by an eBay case study in Germany and China and will be equipped with concrete examples. These examples indicate that this method is indeed easy to apply and that when used together with the classic usability test, enhances the study results and allows for a strategic optimization of the website.
Keywords: Linguistic Analysis; Usability; Web Usability; Usable Language; User Experience; User Test; Expert Analysis; Linguistics; Semiotics; Syntax; Semantics; Pragmatics
Human Communication Based on Icons in Crisis Environments BIBAFull-Text 57-66
  Siska Fitrianie; Dragos Datcu; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz
In recent years, we have developed an icon-based communication interface to represent concepts and ideas. Users can create messages to communicate with others using a spatial arrangement of visual symbols. We deployed our icon-based interface in a serious game environment of a disaster and rescue simulator, which is capable of simulating real disaster situations using information from human user observers' reports. To support faster interaction, we designed a highly adaptive interface for optimizing the next icon look up. Inspired by the Fitaly keyboard, the system rearranges the icons menu's layout dynamically to minimize the searching time. Users are able to find their desired icons fast since the next icon selection is most likely to be one that is (on or) around the center. Our user tests showed that the developed icon-based interface could serve as a communication mediator. The experimental results also indicated that the Fitaly-based interface allowed for much faster and easier icon finding than the hierarchical menu.
ICT for Low-Literate Youth in Ethiopia: The Usability Challenge BIBAFull-Text 67-76
  Marije Geldof
How much can you do with a computer if you are not able to read or write like many people in Africa? This paper discusses the preliminary outcomes of a study into how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be made more usable for low-literate youth in Africa and help to empower their lives. It is based on fieldwork undertaken in Ethiopia in 2006 and 2007 and focuses especially on the challenges associated with designing and implementing such fieldwork, as well as some preliminary results.
Design for Facilitating eBay Transactions Using Skype BIBAKFull-Text 77-83
  Frank Y. Guo; Sulekha Nair
eBay has integrated Skype (a public voice over IP application) chat and voice into hundreds of categories on eBay sites globally. By integrating Skype in the marketplace, eBay sellers have the option of including Skype functionality to their eBay listings. This fosters more consumer to consumer (c2c) communication, in which eBay sellers can provide better customer care and build trust with buyers by answering questions quickly. Buyers also feel more confident to ask for details and get answers using chat or call, without waiting for email responses. Challenges and design solutions regarding trust and safety, building credibility, co-branding, and designing for global eBay communities are discussed.
   Disclaimer. The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of eBay Inc. or its subsidiaries, management, or employees.
Keywords: VoIP; eCommerce; trust and safety; cross-cultural design; online communication; user experience
Localization in Korea of User Interface of the 3G Mobile Handset Built on Open OS BIBAKFull-Text 84-90
  Sungmoo Hong
In order to minimize Korean users' conflict as they use global brand 3G handsets which are built on open OS, Symbian of Nokia and Windows Mobile of Microsoft, the research was operated by KTF, Korean mobile telecommunication company. To figure out the difference between ordinary mobile handsets and 3G open OS handsets, major European handsets and major Korean handsets were observed. According to the result of research the requirements for the handsets were established including key pad layout and key functions, information architecture of native menu, labels and input method of Korean language, and other user scenarios for main services like messaging.
Keywords: Localization; Mobile User Interface; Open OS Mobile Handset
Usability of Multilingual Communication Tools BIBAFull-Text 91-97
  Rieko Inaba
Multilingual communication tools are needed to support intercultural collaboration. I describe a tool that supports multilingual communication and propose a model of the tool in which usability subjects are extracted using empirically evaluated rules.
The Universal Design Model of Set Top Box BIBAKFull-Text 98-102
  Yen-Yu Kang; Han-yu Lin
"E" life, a new trend to influence people's dairy-life since internet explored. No product or concept can be successful if it ignores the needs of its users and Digital Set Top Box (STB) is no exception. However, there has been a noticeable lack of real information about how STB are used. So, the objective of this study is established a series of surveys in an effort to help user in using STB. The study presents a process, based on user requirements, for users. Seven factors affecting E-books design are identified and discussed; these guidelines can be categorized into principles of universal design. Once the affected issues of universal design has been established, designers can get the relative understanding of developing ergonomic designed in STB development.
Keywords: STB; usability; universal design; human factors
"A Quick Dip at the Iceberg's Tip" -- Rapid Immersion Approaches to Understanding Emerging Markets BIBAKFull-Text 103-108
  Anjali Kelkar
Remote research' enables the rapid gathering of activity-oriented data using structured data collection frameworks and disposable camera studies to gain a broad understanding of users and their contexts. This photographic data when used for Rapid Immersion workshops acts as a shared visual reference to enable multiple stakeholders with differing viewpoints to work together. Issues get addressed from multiple standpoints leading to rich concept generation, thus creating the potential for a win-win situation, for businesses and their customers.
Keywords: Emerging markets; BOP; India; user research; remote research; ethnography
Adobe Approaches to Culturalization: Two Case Studies BIBAKFull-Text 109-113
  Hyolin Kim; Judy Shade
Adobe uses diverse user research methods for our Asian geographies. Our approaches differ depending on the target market and the feature set under consideration. There is no cookie-cutter approach to software culturalization. The target user and software space is the starting point for determining research approaches and areas of focus for design. We will focus on two products from our Pro and Consumer product lines and provide case studies for how these approaches differ for two very different product lines that have been culturalized for the Japanese market.
Keywords: Adobe; Creative Professionals; Consumers; Creative Suite; Illustrator; InDesign; Elements; Photoshop Elements; Premiere Elements; Gaiji; Japan; Japanese; Culturalization
User-Centered Design: Component-Based Web Technology BIBAKFull-Text 114-122
  Esin O. Kiris; Howard Abrams; Roman Longoria
In this age of rapid technological progression and heightened competition, designers of interactive systems, especially web applications, must be able to prepare for, cope with, and adopt to design processes that meet both customer needs and expectations and cutting edge-technology. This paper presents the authors' experience with designing and prototyping a web application using a new web user interface (UI) development technology. We describe how the technological progression forced significant changes in User-Centered Design (UCD) process and design tools. We then discuss the contributions of these changes to the design and development of an internationalized web application. We provide background information about an Abstract UI and the web implementation using JavaServer Faces (JSF)[1] technology. We describe how this new technology will be adopted into CA's UCD process and present a case study in which the new JSF technology solution is used for a prototype of an enterprise storage management application. We then discuss the pros and cons of using this technology at the design stage, providing some structure and guidance to designers who might be faced with similar situations. This paper suggests there may be a more appropriate alternative to the current design processes and tools used for designing web applications.
Keywords: UI technology; Java Server Faces (JSF); Prototyping; User-Centered Design; Internationalization; AJAX
Color Your Website: Use of Colors on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 123-132
  Irina Kondratova; Ilia Goldfarb
In spite of the wealth of information available on designing international user interfaces, it is not easy for web designers to acquire a deep understanding of culturally appropriate user interface design. There is a lack of tools that assist web developers in creating culturally appropriate user interfaces. In our paper we present an empirical study that identifies culture-specific web interface design elements for a number of countries using semi-automated approach, in order to incorporate the results into a cultural interface design advisor tool. The paper presents results of the pilot study on web design color preferences for a number of countries. Results show that along with ten colors that are used universally in website design for all countries studied, country-specific color palettes could be identified. Examples of these "preferred" palettes are presented in the paper along with suggestions on how designers can work with such palettes creating culturally appropriate websites.
Keywords: Color preferences; color theory; cultural user interface; usability
Cultural Environment for Social Learning and Adaptation in Different Countries -- A Comparison of Minority Foreigners and Majority Foreigners BIBAFull-Text 133-139
  Masaaki Kurosu; Masako Morishita
Before WWII, number of foreign people was not large in Japan. But after the war, it grew larger and now we have total of 2,011,555 foreigners (in 2005). There are some majority groups such as Koren (598,687), Chinese (519,561), Brazilian (302,080), and Filipinos (187,261). At the same time, there are minority groups such as Bangladeshi (9,707) and Iranian (5,769). Organizing local communities of such people and those of them with Japanese people plays important roles for their life in Japan. Information systems and communication devices such as the PC and the cell phone may play one of the key roles for maintaining such communities. Some people think that the use of such devices and systems may differ for majorities and minorities. Majorities can organize a local community far easily than minorities and will have more chances to meet friends face-to-face. They also have chances of getting information on their own country via the satellite TV, newspapers and magazines and other media. On the other hand, minorities may have only a small linkage with people from the same country. In such a case, the website on the internet or the cell phone may be important for them. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted interviews with and did research among Japanese Brazilians as the majority and Iranians as the minority to specify how the information system can serve a useful tool for their life and their social learning to adapt to the target society.
Transborder Data Protection and the Effects on Business and Government BIBAKFull-Text 140-149
  Julian Ligertwood; Margaret Jackson
The expansion of the internet has brought with it a huge increase in the number of instances of personal information sent by businesses and governments from one jurisdiction to another. Concern arising out of Europe, in particular, over the adequacy of data protection measures in many jurisdictions around the world has resulted in increasing international pressure being applied to those countries not meeting adequacy requirements. This paper examines the nature and effect of this pressure particularly on Australian business and government.
Keywords: Australia; EU; India; data protection; law; business; government
Designing Globally Accepted Human Interfaces for Instant Messaging BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Dylan Sung; Ching-Chow Yang; Yung-Tsan Jou; Chih-Wei Yang; Lai-Yu Cheng
This study investigated the perception differences of IM (instant messaging) icons between users of different cultural backgrounds. Two major parts were developed for this study. The first part investigated the frequent IM icons as a basis for improving the IM user-interface design. The second part tested the use of different graphical symbols using subjects from two different populations, Taiwan and the United States. From the result, there is significant difference between the two user groups on their recognition of those frequent icons. Confusion matrices further show that some icons were thought to be associated with same functions by the two groups while some others were linked with different functions. These similarities and differences could be due to the cultural differences between the two user groups. It is suggested that cultural differences should be effectively recognized by icon designers for globally accepted human computer interfaces in software products.
Keywords: Graphical User Interface; Globalization; Instant messaging; Icon
User Validation of Cultural Dimensions of a Website Design BIBAKFull-Text 160-167
  Aaron Marcus; Chava Alexander
The majority of Websites are constructed with a single homogenous user in mind, or a limited number of user profiles, usually from one country or culture. In order to accommodate the international growth of the Internet, this mono-cultural bias of Website design must change. If crucial steps of user-centered user-interface (UI) development for Websites are omitted, which happens when people unconsciously apply their own rules to interactive communication intended for others, effective communication of the Website will be less successful, or may even be dysfunctional.
   People from different countries/cultures have certain expectations of a particular site that may differ significantly from other countries/cultures. For example, many middle-class Germans may typically prefer a design that is more subdued and easy to navigate, while many middle-class Mexicans may prefer a more colorful screen and tolerate more ambiguity.
   The present study is derived from the previous efforts of Marcus and Baumgartner [4, 5]. Using five cultural dimensions (from Hofstede, as a useful, well-known set) and the schema of five UI design components, Marcus and Baumgartner created a five-by-five matrix that allowed for twenty-five fields of interest. The authors analyzed 12 corporate business-to-business and business-to-consumer interactive Websites and found patterns in divergence from corporate design standards. Baumgartner, with Marcus' assistance, also analyzed a set of 29 culture dimensions abstracted from nine models and presented to a group of 57 experts. The two authors analyzed the experts' evaluations of the importance of each dimension [2]. They reviewed this list to derive which items comprised the top five in levels of importance. "Best of breed" culture dimensions are context, technology, uncertainty avoidance, time perception, and authority conception, in that order.
   Context is described as the amount and specificity of information in a given communication. The cultural dimension of technology is comprised of the experience of technology and technological development. As a cultural dimension, technology has to do with the development and attitude of the members of a certain society towards technological development. The cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance takes into account the behavior of the user regarding uncertain or unknown situations. Time perception concerns whether one has a long- or short-term orientation to achieving objectives and whether one is oriented to the past, present, or future. This cultural dimension can be related to the perceived amount of time that it takes to comprehend and utilize a Website. Authority conception concerns how people think of authority and the way their behavior is influenced when reacting to a Web UI design as official and authoritative, or not [4, 5].
   Hofstede's five cultural indexes include power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, gender roles, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term time orientation. Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This index measures whether or not there is a strong representation of inequality of a society. Individualism is the opposite of collectivism. This index demonstrates how loose or tight the ties are between individuals and their society at large. Masculinity is generally understood to be the opposite of femininity. This index refers to the roles people play according to their genders. Uncertainty avoidance concerns a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This index includes to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either comfortable or uncomfortable in unstructured situations. Long-term time orientation is generally the opposite of short-term time orientation. Long-term time orientation values thrift, education, and perseverance, while short-term time-orientation is concerned more with the achieving short-term goals, fulfilling obligations, and protecting one's self under changing conditions [3]'.
   This study concerns an analysis of certain (undisclosable) public-facing pages of a financial-related Website by individuals from different countries and cultures. Based on the previously cited studies and after Website design interviews with twenty-four individuals from eleven different countries, the authors of this paper intend to shed light on these two questions: which dimensions seem to have the strongest impact or effect on a particular ethnic group? What considerations about culture should developers take into account when designing Websites for specific cultures/countries?
   The authors used a working Website and carried out user-preferences tests. Preferences were extracted from a questionnaire of seven distinct questions that were based on the usability of and user opinions of the Website. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part inquired about demographic variables. The second part contained questions based on the navigation of the Website. The third part measured the user experience and preferences. The goal of the user tests was to examine whether users with culturally different backgrounds experience and evaluate Websites in a way that is consistent with their culture-specific attributes.
   The participants selected for this experiment ranged from students to professionals, with an age range of 20-50, all living in the San Francisco Bay area of California. The participants had been living in the United States for less than five years and came directly from their respective countries, which included Argentina, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom.
   When comparing the final results with Hofstede's cultural dimensions, the following results became clear: cultural dimensions must be considered in order for a Website to be effective. For example, cultures like Russia and Slovakia, with a high level of power distance find Websites most useful when they have concise language and demonstrate a high level of professionalism. Countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Great Britain and Canada, which have a shorter-term time orientation, desire a Website that is quick to navigate and does not require a lot of time and effort through which to browse. Participants from countries with a high index score for uncertainty avoidance, such as Argentina, France and Mexico, are not trusting of Website content, want Websites that look highly official and professional, want them in their own languages. Countries that ranked relatively higher in individualism, such as Italy, need to have a Website design that is particular to their culture and country.
Keywords: culture; design; dimensions; interface; user; Web
Usability Challenges in Designing Foreign Language Keypads for Handheld Devices BIBAKFull-Text 168-177
  Parul Nanda; Kem-Laurin Kramer
This paper discusses the importance of language and culture in the effective design and widespread acceptance of handheld devices in foreign markets. To this end, key challenges that usability experts and interaction designers face while designing foreign language keypads for handheld devices are discussed and analyzed. The discussion presupposes English as the point of reference for design decisions but focuses on the challenges faced when considering foreign language devices. For the context of this paper, Arabic is cited as the 'foreign' language in the design of BlackBerry devices.
Keywords: Handhelds; keypads; Arabic; language; culture; usability; design
Comparing User and Software Information Structures for Compatibility BIBAKFull-Text 178-182
  Thomas Plocher; Torkil Clemmensen
Eastern and Western cultures differ quite systematically in how they group objects, functions and concepts into categories [1,2,3]. This has implications for how navigation features, such as menus, links, directories, should be designed in software applications. This is particularly of interest when the application is developed in one culture for use in a second culture. This paper presents this problem and discusses some approaches to comparing user and software information architectures both visually and quantitatively.
Keywords: culture; cognition; information architecture; usability; visualization
Regulating India's Digital Public Cultures: A Grey or Differently Regulated Area BIBAFull-Text 183-192
  Nimmi Rangaswamy
The paper draws on ethnographic studies of urban, peri-urban cyber cafes in Western India, to understand public norms governing digital security and privacy in a context brimming with inconsistent and arbitrary state telecom regulation and a widespread culture of software piracy. We focus on issues emerging from three interrelated contexts crucial to cyber regulation in India: the grass-root, the state and the non-formal economy. While café managers dismiss their responsibility to police on-line security, state level initiatives show contradictions in their stated enthusiasm for an IT enabled society and sporadic regulatory behaviour directing public usage of the internet. There is a lack of will and genuine bemusement in the state apparatus to handle cyber regulation in non-formal and paralegal economies.
Entrepreneurial Digital Photography -- A Case Study for Design Research Method in the Emerging Indian Market BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Naznin Rao
This paper describes a research method termed "Contextual Invention" used by Hewlett Packard Research Labs for design research in emerging markets like India. The core value of this method lies in its multi-disciplinary approach towards design research. The process takes inputs from design, business and technology in order to reach a comprehensive solution. It involves a deep understanding of user needs and cultural context [1] to drive design ideas, business modeling and technological investigations. It aims to inspire and generate new technology inventions with high social and business value. The method has been developed and tested through a project, namely, "Entrepreneurial Digital Photography in India". This process describes how needs and opportunity spaces were identified in the domain of digital photography within the Indian context. It goes on to delineate steps that led to the mapping of those user needs onto opportunity spaces and culminates into implementable guidelines and research findings.
Keywords: design research; multi-disciplinary; contextual invention; iterative process; user research; digital photography
Culturally Adaptive Software: Moving Beyond Internationalization BIBAFull-Text 201-210
  Katharina Reinecke; Abraham Bernstein
So far, culture has played a minor role in the design of software. Our experience with imbuto, a program designed for Rwandan agricultural advisors, has shown that cultural adaptation increased efficiency, but was extremely time-consuming and, thus, prohibitively expensive. In order to bridge the gap between cost-savings on one hand, and international usability on the other, this paper promotes the idea of culturally adaptive software. In contrast to manual localization, adaptive software is able to acquire details about an individual's cultural identity during use. Combining insights from the related fields international usability, user modeling and user interface adaptation, we show how research findings can be exploited for an integrated approach to automatically adapt software to the user's cultural frame.
Local Websites as the New Existence of Traditional Local Cultures in the Virtual Space: An Overview on the Local Websites of Turkey BIBAKFull-Text 211-218
  Kerem Rizvanoglu; Özgürol Öztürk
With its original traditions and values dating back to hundreds of years in seven different regions, Turkey distinguishes by its own cosmopolite culture from the others. The local sites of the regions also differ by their aspects reflecting the old culture at both the content and the design level with original tools like "virtual graveyard visit, condolence function etc." Benefiting from the Internet technologies creatively and pragmatically, the sites actually enable the citizens (townsman) who live geographically apart to share the traditions and values of their culture. In other words, by providing the familiar cultural experience on the web, the sites enable a kind of virtual access to hometown. Being a former step of a larger study, this study aims to investigate qualitatively this new existence of the local cultures on the Internet by focusing on the content and design aspects of the sites involved.
Keywords: Local; Culture; Web Site; Cultural Experience; Content; Design
Word Processing in Spanish Using an English Keyboard: A Study of Spelling Errors BIBAKFull-Text 219-227
  Néstor J. Rodriguez; Maria I. Diaz
This article describes a study of spelling errors made by writers while typing in Spanish using an English keyboard. The most important contribution of this study is the identification of a profile of errors made by writers using a word processor and an English keyboard to write in Spanish. The study revealed that a large number of the errors are related with words that have a character such as á, é, í, ó, ú or ñ. Another important finding of the study was that a substantial number of errors (approximately one third) are not corrected and that backspace was used to correct approximately two thirds of all the words corrected. The study supports the conclusion that the lack of straightforward support for characters such as á, é, í, ó, ú or ñ in the Spanish language can cause a significant number of errors.
Keywords: spelling errors detection; spelling errors correction; spell checking; word processing; Spanish writing
Introducing New Methodologies for Identifying Design Patterns for Internationalization and Localization BIBAFull-Text 228-237
  Nicole Schadewitz; Timothy Jachna
This paper describes a new methodology for deriving interaction design patterns from an analysis of ethnographic data. It suggests using inductive and deductive analysis processes to identify and articulate patterns that address the needs of culturally diverse users of interactive, collaborative systems. This might inform the internationalization and localization process of computer supported collaboration systems.
The Globalization of User Research: Emerging Trends and Complexities BIBAKFull-Text 238-248
  Robert M. Schumacher; Yiner Ya
With the ubiquitous reach of the Internet, products and services that were once mostly limited to local audiences now have global reach. To support this shift, user researchers have developed new tactics and refined old methods. As usability practitioners who frequently perform global usability tests for our clients, we focus on maintaining the integrity of the research objectives irrespective of location and culture. From this perspective, we have faced many challenges in testing both in country and remotely.
Keywords: Global User Research; Multi-Country Testing
Chinese Web Browser Design Utilising Cultural Icons BIBAKFull-Text 249-258
  Siu-Tsen Shen; Stephen D. Prior; Kuen-Meau Chen; Man-Lai You
This study investigates the appropriateness and effectiveness of the design of icons for a Chinese web browser. Web browser developments are outlined, together with the future potential growth of Chinese internet users. The findings of the study show that the subjects shown icons and text, had higher recognition rates, and had higher satisfaction ratings. Furthermore, some evidence points to a gender bias in favour of males in terms of recognition and females in terms of satisfaction. Future work is suggested in terms of refining the web browser icons and exploring the usability of colour and 3D effects.
Keywords: Web browser; Icon design; Chinese users; Metaphor; GUI

Part II: Enhancing and Personalizing the User Experience

Evaluation and Usability of Back Translation for Intercultural Communication BIBAKFull-Text 259-265
  Tomohiro Shigenobu
When users communicate with each other via machine translation, it is important to improve the quality of the translations. The "Back Translation" technique can improve the translation accuracy. A back translation, first, translates the input language into the target language (outward), and then translates the target language into the input language (homeward). This allows the users to confirm the accuracy of the machine translation by themselves. If the user finds that his input sentence is unsuitable for machine translator, he can rewrite the input sentence. For effective multilingual communication, it is important that the back translation offer good accuracy and good usability. This paper focuses on these two points; we evaluated the accuracy of back translation, and developed a user interface that improves the usability of back translation. The outward and homeward translations show a correlation. Back translation can improve the accuracy of outward translation for users.
Keywords: Machine translation; Back translation; Intercultural communication; Usability
Contextual User Research for International Software Design BIBAFull-Text 266-273
  David A. Siegel; Susan M. Dray
This paper, which is based on our many years of experience conducting research in more than 20 countries, examines both the importance and pitfalls of doing contextual field research when developing software, websites, or interactive products for the international market. We examine the ways in which field research gives crucial information that complements what can be obtained from other methods such as usability testing. We identify a number of core challenges in doing international fieldwork and recommend ways to address them. We conclude with at least one case study.
Language Issues in Cross Cultural Usability Testing: A Pilot Study in China BIBAKFull-Text 274-284
  Xianghong Sun; Qingxin Shi
Language effect (Chinese vs. English), and power distance between evaluator and user in usability test were investigated. 12 participants from China, Swede, and Denmark formed 7 evaluator-test user pairs. Test users were asked to use a software. Evaluators were asked to conduct the usability test, and try to find usability problems. Participants' conversation, behaviour, and screen operation were recorded by behaviour observation system. Results showed that Speaking Chinese made evaluator giving more help in detail, and encouraging users more frequently; Speaking English asked evaluator and user look at each other more often to make themselves understood, and evaluators paid more attention to check task list. Power distance also had effect on evaluators and users. When evaluator's title were higher than users, evaluator would pay more attention to users' doing, not like to give user detailed instruction, usually loose communication with user, and spent less for task management. In contrast, talking to evaluators with higher rank, users tend to use more gesture to express themselves.
Keywords: Language; think aloud; cultural usability; field study
Extending the User Experience to Localized Products BIBAKFull-Text 285-292
  Yanxia Yang
One of the research and development goals for Trend Micro, Inc. is to improve the user experience and process for product localization. To achieve this goal, we need to understand the localization process. Localization is the process of modifying an application or product to support the requirements of a particular locale. The paper was based on the discussions between the user experience group and localization teams. It involved studying the existing localization process, identifying the common pain points, and then proposing solutions for them. Because localization is the last link in the product development chain and focuses on content rather than function, there are obvious dependencies on product development, user interface design, and documentation. We found that to improve the user experience and process for localization, different functional groups must collaborate from the start of the project and design their deliverables with localization in mind. The proposed solutions to localization teams from the user experience group (including User Interface Design and Documentation) were aligned with the software development processes and helped to improve localized products.
Keywords: User Experience; User Interface Design; Information Presentation; Usability; Documentation; Localization; International Use; Software Product Development
The Technologist and Internet Security and Privacy Practices BIBAKFull-Text 295-304
  Greg Adamson
The Internet's underlying architecture poorly supports many users' current security and privacy needs. This architecture reflects decades-old design decisions by technologists involved in creating the Internet. It can be viewed as an example of the separation between the interests and understanding of technologists and those of the subsequent technology end users. Alternatively, it can be considered the outcome of the needs of a particular set of users, technologists. This view, of the technologist as part of a technology culture among many cultural groupings using the Internet, goes further in explaining the security and privacy characteristics of the Internet today than an alternative critique of technology and usage, that there is an inevitable divide between technologists and non-technologist users.
Keywords: internet; technology usage; engineering and society
A Statistical Model of Relationship Between Affective Responses and Product Design Attributes for Capturing User Needs BIBAKFull-Text 305-313
  Sangwoo Bahn; Cheol Lee; Joo Hwan Lee; Myung Hwan Yun
Customer's satisfaction is a critical factor to a product's success and identifying key affective response factors which customers mainly perceive is critical to satisfy customers. This study aims to identify the key affective response factor of satisfaction for passenger car interior material using statistical approach. Related variables of satisfaction consisting of 10 affective response variables associated with look-and-feel and touch feel of a surface material was systematically identified through literature survey, customer reviews, and expert opinions. Thirty participants evaluated 41 different crash pad samples using a questionnaire survey with 9-point semantic differential scale and 100-point scale. Based on the survey results, softness was identified as the key affective response factor of satisfaction for car crash pad. Then the relationship between softness and related engineering variables was identified. It is expected that the results could suggest the optimal combination and provide specific design guidelines quantitatively.
Keywords: Affective response; Satisfaction; Crash pad; Quantification Theory Type I; Softness
Guidelines to Develop Emotional Awareness Devices from a Cultural-Perspective: A Latin American Example BIBAFull-Text 314-323
  César A. Collazos; María Paula González; H. Andrés Neyem; Christian Sturm
Interpersonal communication involves more than just words; it involves emotional issues that can be roughly seen as complex organized internal states. Awareness of those states allows human beings to evaluate social information and develop strategic social intelligence. In this setting, developing emotional awareness devices can be successfully achieved under a Cultural Centred Design perspective, as social and cultural features are crucial to ensure an adequate level of emotional awareness. However, cultural-oriented recommendations are not always included to lead the promoting of an adequate emotional awareness in digital and physical devices. To cope with this problem, this paper presents a minimal set of cultural guidelines that should be taken into account to develop emotional awareness devices under Cultural Centred Design. To illustrate the proposal, the development of an extended virtual portrait is discussed by highlighting a cultural viewpoint form a Latin-American perspective.
User Interaction with User-Adaptive Information Filters BIBAKFull-Text 324-333
  Henriette S. M. Cramer; Vanessa Evers; Maarten van Someren; Bob J. Wielinga; Sam Besselink; Lloyd Rutledge; Natalia Stash; Lora Aroyo
User-adaptive information filters can be a tool to achieve timely delivery of the right information to the right person, a feat critical in crisis management. This paper explores interaction issues that need to be taken into account when designing a user-adaptive information filter. Two case studies are used to illustrate which factors affect trust and acceptance in user-adaptive filters as a starting point for further research. The first study deals with user interaction with user-adaptive spam filters. The second study explores the user experience of an art recommender system, focusing on transparency. It appears that while participants appreciate filter functionality, they do not accept fully automated filtering. Transparency appears to be a promising way to increase trust and acceptance, but its successful implementation is challenging. Additional observations indicate that careful design of training mechanisms and the interface will be crucial in successful filter implementation.
Keywords: user-adaptive systems; information filtering; transparency; trust; acceptance; recommenders
A System for Adaptive Multimodal Interaction in Crisis Environments BIBAKFull-Text 334-343
  Dragos Datcu; Zhenke Yang; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz
In the recent years multimodal interfaces have acquired an important role in human computer interaction applications. Subsequently these interfaces become more and more human-oriented. Humans use multimodality to reduce ambiguity and incompleteness of information. Seemingly they are able to switch easily from one modality to the other and fuse the information from different multimodal sources. The goal of our research was to develop a crisis based human like multimodal system. In particular, we bring into focus the multimodal interaction between human users and the automatic crisis system and its correlation with the adaptability to the human behavior in crisis situations. Our system is capable of conceding for an optimal interaction process by taking into account the major informational human channels while gathering the user inputs and producing the system feedback. In this paper we describe the design of our system which is implemented as a running prototype. We have conducted a simulation of a crisis event to measure the degree of user satisfaction. At last we discuss the drawbacks as well as the premises of our solution in the context of the high level of performance achieved by our approach.
Keywords: Multimodal human computer interfaces; adaptive interfaces; crisis support systems; multimodal framework
Integrating Emotions and Knowledge in Aesthetics Designs Using Cultural Profiles BIBAKFull-Text 344-353
  Rosa Gil; César A. Collazos
Emotions have been described as complex organized states and some Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) have been developed based on them. TUIs using some kind of physical interfaces called Phidgets, have included a strong emphasis on touch and physicality as well as on exploiting the meaning and cultural usage associated with everyday physical objects. However, there is a gap between emotions and knowledge management. This paper presents a detailed analysis to show how this relationship is developed in several cultures, trying to find a common understanding to relate them. From a cognitive point of view, some image schemas have been established and extended using metaphors. As a result it is possible to relate schemas that come from perception to abstract schemas. For instance, several physical properties as position in a frame or curve shape properties used in aesthetics designs can be associated to some kind of emotions as 'joy for speed'. Cultural profiles are the missing element to formalize it because emotion expression can be different in every culture; moreover scientific knowledge and emotions come together in the same representation in some cultures. As conclusion, a research line is exposed for integrating knowledge management in TUIs, and in this paper a previous prototype has been developed.
Keywords: emotions; interfaces; aesthetics designs; cultural relations
"Only Famous Companies I Would Ever Buy": Understanding How People Learn to Trust Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 354-362
  Emilie West Gould
Many studies of e-commerce continue to be constrained by classic marketing concerns like product type. However, new aspects emerge when Fogg's (2003) Typology of Web Credibility is applied to the development of trust. Results from a set of focus groups with Malaysian students highlight interesting issues associated with process, cultural values, and global inequities in infrastructure. The pilot study reported here will be updated with information from additional focus groups at the HCI International 2007 Conference in Beijing.
Keywords: trust; credibility; e-commerce; advertising; cultural values
A User Experience Study on C2C E-Commerce Localization in China BIBAKFull-Text 363-371
  Dan Guo; Zhengjie Liu; Zhiwei Guo; Kai Qian
Chinese online commerce develops rapidly. How to give user the good shopping experience in C2C e-commerce website is discussed. In this research, we selected 22 college students, and let them try their first online shopping experience on two Chinese C2C e-commerce websites-Ebay (China) and Taobao which are designed under two different cultures, through the analysis of their experience process and satisfaction questionnaire, we found that in user's purchase decision process, the transfer and expression of function/ concept provided by website play a decisive role, shopping flow control have certain effect to the purchase implement process, and the main factor which impacts user total experience is whether the website provides the necessary function for shopping. Both websites have their own advantages in either interaction or interface, although they do not have effect to user's total shopping experience, but they do effect to the user's shopping feeling.
Keywords: E-commerce; localization; user experience; user testing; satisfaction questionnaire
Towards Cultural Adaptability in Driver Information and Assistance Systems BIBAKFull-Text 372-381
  Rüdiger Heimgärtner
This paper elucidates and discusses some aspects of cultural adaptability. It describes the concept, influence and Use Cases of cultural adaptability in driver information and assistance systems exemplified by driver navigation systems. Thereby, the reasons, advantages and problems of using adaptability regarding driving safety and driver preferences will be addressed. The results of two online studies concerning use cases of navigation systems revealed differences in interaction behavior, which depend on the cultural background of the users (e.g. attitude, preference, skill etc.). Furthermore, cultural adaptability can improve usability and share in universal access.
Keywords: cultural adaptability; cultural user interface design; adaptive HCI (Human Computer Interaction/Interface); adaptive HMI (Human Machine Interaction/Interface); driver navigation systems; driver information systems; driver assistance systems; tool; cross-cultural HCI analysis; cultural adaptability; cultural user interface design; intercultural usability
Sound Detection as an Aid to Increase Detectability of CCTV in Surveillance System BIBAKFull-Text 382-389
  Yongjun Kim; Sang Won Lee; Daniel Hyundo Lee; Jaeyong Kim; Myun W. Lee
An operator in CCTV surveillance system is required to detect abnormal events over long working hours, and the events are intermittent, unpredictable and infrequent. Therefore, Operators often show lower performance than desirable. This paper proposes an automated surveillance system that integrates vision and audition to increase detectability. Sound surveillance system using TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) can locate a sound source accurately, turn the camera towards it, and it has more advantages in reliability and cost-effectiveness than the existing surveillance system. The system is verified by conducting experiments in various environments.
Keywords: automated Surveillance System; Sound Localization
Approaches to Create a Universal User Experience in Handheld Electronic Product BIBAKFull-Text 390-396
  Joonhwan Kim; Wanje Park; Scott Song; Boeun Park; Hyunkook Jang
A study with the purpose of providing user experience that is consistent with various devices was conducted at a global electronics company that manufactures a variety of digital electronic products. Products selected as study subjects were handheld devices that can receive DMB (Digital Media Broadcasting), play multimedia files, and create files such as photos. The study was conducted by a task force team with User Interface practitioners of managing divisions of each product. In this study, methods and processes that were attempted in order to establish consistency principles of user experiences, enhancing the various characteristics of each product, are described. The results and practical experiences obtained through the processes are introduced.
Keywords: User Experience; Design Process; Usability; Handheld Device; Multimedia Player
Statistical Modeling of Affective Responses from Visual and Auditory Attributes in the Movies BIBAKFull-Text 397-406
  In Ki Kim; Kyung Jae Lee; Woojin Chang; Myung Hwan Yun
The affective responses of audience watching movie are selected and the visual and auditory attributes in movie, which have a significant effect on the affective responses of audience, are measured. The relationship between the movie attributes and affective responses are modeled using regression analysis. Fun of a movie is evaluated based on the audiences' affective responses and an affective response is explained using either movie attributes or other affective responses. These structures are visually summarized in the hierarchical diagram.
Keywords: movie; visual and auditory attribute; affective response
User-Specific Service Generation: A Morphological Approach to Customized Blog Creation BIBAKFull-Text 407-416
  Namjoong Kim; Hyojeong Lim; Sookyeong Seo; Yoo Suk Hong; Yongtae Park
As the growth of service industry, new service creation has become as important as traditional view on new product development. It is particularly recognized that users want customized services for their intention. This study weighs blog-service characteristics (functions) based on user intentions and suggests a new service design method to combine functional levels among the existing blog service characteristics to meet each user intention. This research conducts online surveys to identify different user intentions, clusters them into five user intention groups, and then determines functional levels for a specific blogger group for an exemplified application. Morphology analysis is used to combine functional characteristics and the existing service levels at each function to generate a new blog concept for the target user group.
Keywords: new service generation; morphology; web service; blog
Computer Task-Based Evaluation Technique for Measuring Everyday Risk-Taking Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 417-421
  Kentaro Kotani; Chiho Tateda; Ken Horii
Human risk-taking behavior is a major factor for accidents. Several techniques for quantifying human risk-taking tendency include questionnaire and observation methods. These techniques, however, have been questioned their validity and reliability. Our objective was to propose and evaluate a computer task-based evaluation technique for measuring everyday risk-taking tendency. In this technique, the users perform tracing a certain length of pathway, from start to goal, shown on the display by mouse. The system monitors the trajectory of the mouse cursor and detects the point of decision-making when users change their strategy from steering motion to ballistic motion as the mouse cursor approaches to the goal, yielding the level of risk-taking behavior represented by the Index of Difficulty (ID) at the location of strategy change. The results of experiment showed that IDs were highly correlated with probabilities of risk-taking behaviors obtained from 16 question items.
Keywords: Risk-taking behavior; Fitts task; Steering task; Decision making
Validating a Multilingual and Multimodal Affective Database BIBAKFull-Text 422-431
  Juan Miguel López; Idoia Cearreta; Inmaculada Fajardo; Nestor Garay
This paper summarizes the process of validating RekEmozio, a multilingual (Spanish and Basque) and multimodal (audio and video) affective database. Fifty-seven participants validated a sample of 2,618 videos of facial expressions and 102 utterances in the database. The results replicated previous findings of no significant differences in recognition rates among emotions. This validation has allowed having the audio and video material in the database classified in terms of the emotional category expressed. This normative data has proven to be useful for both training affective recognizers and synthesizers and carrying out empirical studies on emotions by psychologists.
Keywords: Affective computing; affective resources; user validation; multilingual and multimodal resources; semantics
Tools to Increase the Strategic Value of User Experience Design BIBAKFull-Text 432-440
  James E. Nieters; David Grabel; Vijay Agrawal
Case study describing tools and processes enabling accelerated adoption of Usability Standards, and increased efficiencies in development of accessible, internationalized, branded applications across large number of products in an enterprise. By building tools to support UE standards and best practices, the User Experience Team at Cisco not only achieved wide adoption of UE standards and best practices across Cisco applications, we also increased efficiencies in User Interface development and the ability to build internationalized, accessible software, thus increasing the strategic value of User Experience Design.
Keywords: User Experience; Branding; Tooling; Accessibility; Internationalization
Incorporation of User Preferences into Mobile Web Service Conversations BIBAKFull-Text 441-450
  Jonghun Park; Wan Lee; Jae-Yoon Jung; Kangchan Lee
WS-CDL (Web Services Choreography Description Language), a Candidate Recommendation from World Wide Web Consortium, facilitates the specification of rules to govern the ordering of message exchanges between web service participants. This paper considers a computing environment where a mobile client interoperates with a web service provider according to a WS-CDL specification that defines peer-to-peer interactions, and proposes a framework through which the client can specify its preference on how conversation should take place. The presented framework allows mobile clients to effectively cope with user and device mobility through providing a flexible means to reduce the number of exchanged messages without violating choreography requirement.
Keywords: Ubiquitous services; Mobile web services; Web service choreography; Conversation preference; WS-CDL
Dealing with Computer Literacy and Age Differences in the Design of a Ubicomp System to Cope with Cognitive Decline in Lonely Elders BIBAFull-Text 451-459
  Marcela D. Rodríguez; Alejandro Aguirre; Alberto L. Morán; Oscar Mayora-Ibarra
The aging of the population is a phenomenon faced by many nations. In Mexico, it is estimated that in 2005, 7.5% of the Mexican population was 60 years or older and that by 2030 will be reaching 17.5%. Growing old is often accompanied by the loss of close companionship that can aggravate the elders memory loss. It has been identified that for coping with cognitive decline, older adults need to have diverse relationships by communicating with others across a wide array of ages and cultures, and extend their social networks. In this paper we present a case study that enable us to get an initial understanding concerning the relationships of older adults with their relatives and the barriers they have faced to integrate themselves to the current technologically-supported family networks formed by the younger. Based on the findings of our case study, we propose to reduce the generational gap through a pervasive collaborative game that enables elders and their relatives to select the most appropriate interaction interface according to their age, preferences and technical skills.
Sharing Stories: Learning with Stories BIBAKFull-Text 460-468
  Nina Sabnani
The e-kaavad is inspired by the thousand year old Kaavad storytelling tradition in Rajasthan, India. The Kaavad is a travelling temple that came to the village with the storyteller, as not everyone had access to a temple. The Kaavad is a story box that has several doors that open up to reveal painted stories from the 'Great' epics and the 'Little' traditions. As the story evolves, the teller opens one door at a time and reveals the next part of the story. The last door opens to reveal the presiding deities, which ends the story session. The inspiration is its form as well as what it stood for; to take the school to the children if they don't have access to the school themselves. This paper presents the process by which the e-kaavad has been developed in form and content and how it has been received so far.
Keywords: Inclusive; Storytelling; traditional Kaavad; elementary education; self-learning; harnessing technology
The Digital Packaging of Electronic Money BIBAKFull-Text 469-475
  Supriya Singh
In this paper I examine how money is digitally packaged (or not packaged) and its influence on the meaning of the gift and remittance. Remittances received by developing nations in 2005 were an estimated $US167 billion. These, together with gifts for ceremonial occasions demonstrate the importance of money as a medium of personal relationships. Gifts in particular have been wrapped in distinctive ways to express their ritual meanings. This wrapping of gifts has not easily translated to digital media. In this paper I draw on personal experience and participant observation in India, Malaysia and Australia. This is supplemented by literature, and content analysis of websites dealing with gifts and remittances.
Keywords: electronic money; digital wrapping; gifts; remittances
Security Design Based on Social and Cultural Practice: Sharing of Passwords BIBAKFull-Text 476-485
  Supriya Singh; Anuja Cabraal; Catherine Demosthenous; Gunela Astbrink; Michele Furlong
We draw on a qualitative study of 108 people to examine the routine sharing of passwords for online banking among married and de facto couples, Aboriginal users and people with disability in Australia. The sharing of passwords goes against current banking authentication systems and consumer protection laws that require customers not to reveal their access codes to anybody, including family members. The everyday violation of these security requirements results from the lack of fit between security design and social and cultural practice, rather than a lack of security awareness. We argue for the need to go beyond individualistic user-centered design, so that social and cross-cultural practices are at the centre of the design of technologies. The need for a social and culturally centered approach to design is even more important when dealing with different notions of privacy across cultures and a culture of shared use in public and private spaces.
Keywords: Banking; security; Australia; sharing passwords; social and cultural centered design; privacy across cultures
Mobile Personalization at Large Sports Events User Experience and Mobile Device Personalization BIBAKFull-Text 486-495
  Xu Sun; Andrew May
Mobile personalization is frequently discussed, and has been shown in relation to a number of usage scenarios. However, this research has focused mainly on technology development. There have been few studies of mobile user experience, and personalization in sports. This paper is devoted to the new field of studying the user experience related to mobile personalization at large sports events (LSE). In order to support and enrich the user experience at LSE with mobile personalization, this study investigates the current audience experience at stadiums and derives the usage patterns that device personalization could usefully support in this context.
Keywords: User experience; mobile personalization; usage pattern
How Should You Frame Questions to Measure User Attitudes Accurately? An Experimental Design Study BIBAKFull-Text 496-505
  Seema Swamy
Attitudes are most frequently measured through responses to questionnaires. The validity of the results is strongly dependent on the quality of the instrument. Questionnaires employed to evaluate users' attitudes toward issues, products, or services frequently tend to have several biases yielding inflated responses. A 2 x 2 experimental design study established that rating attitudinal items on a Likert scale in a questionnaire with all statements framed in positive valence tend to produce higher attitudinal scores than when statements are balanced with both positive and negative valence.
Keywords: Attitude measurement; validity; reliability; survey; experimental design; questionnaire; and Likert scale
Measuring the Emotional Drivers of Visual Preference in China BIBAKFull-Text 506-509
  Hsun Tang; JiaMing Lang; JinYu Lou; Kenneth Farmer
The purpose of this research is to understand the visual preference of Chinese internet users and to create a visual language system that elicits key emotional experiences. Designers carefully selected a rich variety of visual stimuli that spanned different products / environments as well as abstract forms. A laddering interview methodology was used to elicit the emotions evoked by the different visual design cues. The results of the research were used to modify web page design.
Keywords: Emotion; Laddering Interview; Visual Design; Chinese
Developing Adaptive Mobile Support for Crisis Response in Synthetic Task Environments BIBAKFull-Text 510-519
  Guido M. te Brake; Nanja J. J. M. Smets
This paper presents an experimental platform for the development and evaluation of mobile decision support for crisis response operations. Using a game-engine, synthetic task environments can be created in which coordination support and the usability of adaptive user interfaces for first responders can be examined in a highly controlled manner. Results of the first experiment in which the platform was used to examine the influences of map size and spatial ability on task performance and situational awareness are presented, and ongoing work is described.
Keywords: crisis response operations; synthetic task environments; adaptive support systems
Structural User Preferences of Interfaces and Time Orientation BIBAKFull-Text 520-526
  Nancy Thiels; Theresa Maxeiner; Kerstin Röse
Today the user orientation within the development process of user interfaces in production environment is concentrated on tasks. This is realized by focusing on user groups. To enhance the usability of user interfaces, the development process is expanded by the personalization of user interfaces. Thus user preferences and their attributes e.g. individual differences concerning the structure of interfaces have to be examined for being able to develop appropriate interfaces for specific users. Different test methods to gain these preferences and attributes are described within this paper. The found structural preferences can be connected to the concept of time orientation: it classifies people in two different categories: polychrons and monochrons. The test results confirm that these characteristic are rather individual differences than intercultural variables.
Keywords: Cross-cultural; Usability Engineering; Time orientation; User inter-face development
Overcoming the Language Barrier: The Potential of the Visual Language LoCoS in International Human-Computer Communication BIBAKFull-Text 527-536
  Marleen Vanhauer; Karina Oertel; Jörg Voskamp
The present paper investigates whether the artificial language LoCoS is suited for application in international Human-Computer Communication, in comparison to natural and extended-natural foreign language. In the present study, LoCoS was examined with regard to criteria of effectiveness, encoding, efficiency, acceptance, learnability and functionality in contrast to English or English in combination with emoticons. The random sample yielded 47 persons from 19 different countries totally. A tentative acceptance of LoCoS as a symbolic language was observed, although the effort required to learn it was rated notably lower than that required to learn a foreign language. Communication occurred more efficiently because fewer LoCoS symbols than words were used. A general trend towards the use of extended natural languages could be detected, indicating that symbols are not exclusively accepted (yet), but are increasingly used in combination with a natural language.
Keywords: International Human-Computer Communication; Visual Communication; Internationalization; Artificial Languages; Visual Languages; Iconic Languages; Semiotics
A Remote Study on East-West Cultural Differences in Mobile User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 537-545
  Qifeng Yan; Guanyi Gu
Most of current user interfaces and interaction systems are based on psychological and social models drawn from the European and American research traditions. However, recently, the applicability of these models is reconsidered after many products and services were proved to be failed in eastern cultures. This paper proposes that different user experiences should be designed for different cultures. In this research, East-West cultural differences are found in 3 user experience areas: 1, correlation of subjective and objective results; 2, Personal mobile networks; 3, Device interaction learning style. Some problems found during this research and some possible future improvements are also discussed.
Keywords: Cultural Differences; User Experience; Mobile experience; Cross-cultural design
Cultural and Social Aspects of Security and Privacy -- The Critical Elements of Trusted Online Service BIBAKFull-Text 546-553
  Yinan Yang; Edward Lewis; Lawrie Brown
The lack of trust is identified as the key concern for consumers in the eCommerce environment. Service providers attempt to address this concern by implementing Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) systems for online security and privacy and to enhance user confidence. Much research has focused on the technical implementation of online security and privacy systems. This paper discusses social and cultural influence as critical elements of a trusted online service environment. It suggests a mechanism for enhancing trust in e-commerce that takes account of these influences.
Keywords: Trust; social factors; PKI
Dynamic Scripting in Crisis Environments BIBAKFull-Text 554-563
  Zhenke Yang; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz
This paper presents a system that focuses on improving event reporting in crisis situation management. The idea is to provide reporters with software with an intelligent adaptive interface based on dynamic scripting to ensure report consistency and minimize composing time. The dynamic scripting approach is modeled after human reasoning with specific knowledge. Our approach differs from other approaches to adaptive interfaces in that, instead of trying to fit the users' interpretation of observations into sensible reports, we use possible crisis scenario as the starting point of the reports.
Keywords: Dynamic scripting; Adaptive interfaces; Expert system; specific knowledge; Jess
How to Quantify User Experience: Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model Based on Summative Usability Testing BIBAKFull-Text 564-573
  Ronggang Zhou
The concept of usability is complicated and fuzziness. Fuzzy theory is developed to provide comprehensive evaluation capabilities in the presence of imprecise and uncertain information. Starting with the ISO 9241 dimensions (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction), a fuzzy comprehensive model based on fuzzy theory for evaluating usability is proposed instead of conventional methods. The model has ability to assess user experience comprehensively with defuzzied score. Combined with data of summative usability, it can be applied to benchmark product usability, and a case study indicated the approach can quantify user experience directly and comprehensively.
Keywords: user experience; usability; usability testing; fuzzy comprehensive evaluation; analytic hierarchy process (AHP)