HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | IDGD Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
IDGD Tables of Contents: 07-107-20911

UI-HCI International 2007: 2nd International Conference on Usability and Internationalization, Part I: HCI and Culture

Fullname:UI-HCII 2007: 2nd International Conference on Usability and Internationalization, Part I: HCI and Culture
Note:Volume 10 of HCI International 2007
Editors:Nuray M. Aykin
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2007-Jul-22 to 2007-Jul-27
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4559
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-73286-0 (print), 978-3-540-73287-7 (online); hcibib: IDGD07-1
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. IDGD 2007-07-22 Volume 1
    1. Part I: Cross-Cultural Design
    2. Part II: International and Intercultural Usability
    3. Part III: User Studies

IDGD 2007-07-22 Volume 1

Part I: Cross-Cultural Design

Panel Discussion: Global Innovative Design for Social Change BIBAKFull-Text 3-9
  Nuray M. Aykin; Apala Lahiri Chavan; Susan M. Dray; Girish V. Prabhu
As designers, we are solution seekers and innovators. It is in our core to find the best method or design to meet the needs of the customer, or create a great intuitive product that brings the most revenue. However, most of the work is concentrated on designing products for the people in the developed countries who could afford luxuries like the iPod and alike. There is a great shift now towards reaching beyond borders, especially designing for the people at the bottom of the pyramid. In this panel, we will concentrate on two areas that the design can play a significant role in advancement of societies: (1) Design for improving socio-economic structure such education, health, food and shelter, (2) Design for creating commercially viable products that can create sustainable businesses. Our panelists will share their experiences on how we, as designers, can make a difference in the way people live their lives.
Keywords: Bottom of the Pyramid; innovation; design; social change; social advancement
Enabling User Centered Design Processes in Open Source Communities BIBAKFull-Text 10-18
  Mads Bødker; Lene Nielsen; Rikke Orngreen
Drawing on tenets from action research, this paper presents a yearlong intervention designed to facilitate knowledge of actual users and use in an Open Source Software (OSS) development community. Results from the interventions are presented and the influence of central characteristics of the OSS community and its communication is discussed. Initial findings show that the ideology and praxis based approach of the OSS community, as well as their primary media of communication, present a challenge to the introduction of end-user issues.
Keywords: Open Source; usability; developers; community; learning; action research
A Dramatic Day in the Life of a Shared Indian Mobile Phone BIBAFull-Text 19-26
  Apala Lahiri Chavan
The paper explores the area of culture strain and how it affects the usage and hence the design of products and services. In this era of globalisation, it is increasingly important to create a tool kit of methods and techniques that will address cross cultural use of a product. This is particularly important in cases where the product is designed in and for a particular kind of culture and then it is 'exported' for use in widely different cultures. Till date, it has been common to 'localise' such a product by looking at the dominant cultural characteristics of the culture where the product is being exported for use. This paper takes the view that it is equally important to look at the culture (where the product is being exported for use) not just as it is supposed to be but also as it is. The difference between the 'cultural ideal' and 'cultural practice' [1] does indeed provide some rich opportunity areas for value added design solutions.
Smart Strategies for Creating Culture Friendly Products and Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 27-32
  Apala Lahiri Chavan
We increasingly live a 'local' global existence, whereby we are affected by the connectedness of the world but at the same time desire to retain our local identity. In this scenario, what strategy should one adopt when designing products and interfaces for use across the world? While we know the pitfalls of the 'one size fits all' strategy, is there an alternative way to include the cultural element in design without incurring huge cost and effort? This paper discusses one such strategy that allows cultural customisation without the' kill bill' budget.
When in Rome... Be Yourself: A Perspective on Dealing with Cultural Dissimilarities in Ethnography BIBAFull-Text 33-36
  Apala Lahiri Chavan; Rahul Ajmera
With the 'flattening' of the world, increasingly, our design research teams are called upon to execute projects in cultures that are foreign to them. Design research involves deep dive ethnography that needs to be carried out in a relatively short span of time. It is in these design ethnography studies that we have realized the impact of cultural difference between the researchers and the researched. This paper attempts to discuss our findings on the subject.
Designing User Interfaces for Mobile Entertaining Devices with Cross-Cultural Considerations BIBAKFull-Text 37-46
  Chien-Hsiung Chen; Chia-Ying Tsai
The purpose of this study is to explore the design process regarding how interaction designers in Taiwan deal with the OEM and ODM types of product and user interface design styles pertinent to mobile entertaining devices, such as MP3 players and portable media players (PMP). In addition to the discussion of what culture is and the way to design international user interfaces with cross-cultural considerations, detailed interaction design process with real world design examples is also introduced. It is hoped that the design process mentioned in this paper can be a good reference to interaction designers when they design product and user interface to satisfy users of various cultural backgrounds.
Keywords: Mobile entertaining device; Cross-cultural design; Interaction design; Usability testing
Kansei Design with Cross Cultural Perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 47-56
  Kuohsiang Chen; Shu-Chuan Chiu; Fang-chyuan Lin
This study aimed to explore the cross cultural perspectives (including that of Taiwan, China, Japan and Korea) toward Kansei design using mobile phone as an example. Formal features, Kansei adjectives and the relationships between them were investigated via Kansei engineering procedures: (1) collecting mobile phone samples and Kansei words; (2) selecting mobile phone samples and Kansei words using KJ method and Factor Analysis respectively; (3) designing four sets of bilingual questionnaires with 5-point Licker Scale;(4) conducting experiments on four sites with questionnaire; (5) analyzing results using Quantification Type I. The achieved tasks include: (1) The Kansei needs of consumers from different culture background; (2) The preferred formal features of a mobile phone among different cultural background; and (3) The relationships between Kansei words and formal features for different cultural background. The results can be used as reference for designing cross-culture mobile phones as well as other closely related products.
Keywords: Cross-cultural; Culture difference; Formal features; Kansei engineering; Mobile phones
The Challenge of Dealing with Cultural Differences in Industrial Design in Emerging Countries: Latin-American Case Studies BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  Alvaro Enrique Diaz
Recent trends in industrial design for emerging markets have focused on the economies of China, India and some countries of Latin America. Even though those countries have opened up their markets (and their economies have grown rapidly during the past decade), companies still struggle to get reliable information about their domestic consumers. Foreign manufacturers try to understand local markets to find major opportunities for new investments, and therefore, specialists in marketing and human factors are required to find innovative strategies to deal with cultural differences. In many cases, products and services need to be redesigned for these new markets. Three case studies in Latin-America (Mexico, Colombia and Nicaragua) -- in which ethnographic research was required to understand users' needs -- exemplify this process.
Keywords: Industrial design; Human factors; Cultural design; Ethnographic studies; Usability evaluation; Latin America
Emerging Issues in Doing Cross-Cultural Research in Multicultural and Multilingual Societies BIBAKFull-Text 65-73
  Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Vivian Hsueh-hua Chen
Cross-cultural research is one of the emerging areas in HCI field lately. There have been fruitful discussions on issues of using measurement or doing field work to address HCI issues 'across countries' or 'across-cultures'. However, methodological concerns in conducting research in multicultural and multilingual society have not been fully explored. This paper reviews research work done and outlines problems and concerns in doing cross-cultural research in multicultural and multilingual society/country. Consequently, we propose a conceptual framework/procedure as a starting point for further development of measurements or field strategies.
Keywords: Cross-cultural measurement
The Digital and the Divine: Taking a Ritual View of Communication and ICT Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 74-82
  Brooke E. Foucault; Jay Melican
Drawing upon James Carey's ritual model of communication as a framework, we argue that rituals, especially religious rituals, are important resources for technology design. We suggest that a ritual view of ICT interaction represents an alternative and significant model for ICT development and evaluation, and that the observance of religious rituals affords researchers the opportunity to see cultural values at the peak of their expression. To illustrate, we describe several examples and three case studies of religious rituals that involve technology. For each, we discuss the ritual's enactment, where and how it intersects with technology, and the broader cultural values it embodies. We conclude with remarks about how religious values are meaningful for the design of culturally relevant consumer technologies and we offer advice on how other researchers can use ritual observation to inform and inspire their technology designs.
Keywords: Religion; ritual; user research; ethnography; information and communication technologies (ICTs); technology design; technology evaluation
Shanghaied in a User-Friendly Manner -- An American's Initial Experiences in a Full-Time Usability Job in China BIBAKFull-Text 83-88
  Brian I. Glucroft
As the application of user-centered design spreads across the globe, technology companies are facing new challenges in establishing usability teams in non-western countries. Managers must decide whether to staff their usability teams with local or foreign individuals, and this decision can be influenced by the availability of usability experts who are native to the country. China's rapid economic growth has led to a strong demand for usability practitioners. Given the relatively small size of the usability community in China, there are unique opportunities for non-Chinese nationals. In this paper, I describe the initial experiences I faced as an American joining a usability team of Chinese nationals. I discuss my preparation and experience before arriving in China, as well as the adjustments I had had to make while conducting user-centered design in a culture that was very different from my own. I believe the sharing of my experiences in both work and non-work settings can offer helpful insights to other non-Chinese nationals interested in conducting usability work in China, as well as to managers who are considering adding non-local staff to their usability team.
Keywords: working abroad; user-centered design; China; cultural adaptation
A Tool for Cross-Cultural Human Computer Interaction Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 89-98
  Rüdiger Heimgärtner
This paper describes a tool for analyzing cross-cultural human computer interaction (HCI). From literature and reasoning possible cultural HCI indicators have been identified and measured with this tool to compare them in respect to the different culture of the users. Concept, implementation, usage, benefit and implications of this tool will be presented. Two online studies using this tool concerning cultural adaptability exemplified by use cases of navigation systems revealed differences in interaction behavior that depend on the cultural background of the users (e.g. attitude, preference, skill etc.) and proved that the tool is working properly.
Keywords: cultural adaptability; cultural user interface design; adaptive HCI (Human Computer Interaction/Interface); HMI (Human Machine Interaction/ Interface); cross-cultural HCI analysis; driver navigation systems; tool
Locating Culture in HCI with Information Kiosks and Social Networks BIBAFull-Text 99-107
  Tom Hope; Masahiro Hamasaki; Keisuke Ishida; Noriyuki Fujimura; Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Takuichi Nishimura
Concepts of 'culture' are often invoked in analysis of human-computer interaction, notably in attempts to refine or adapt systems to differing cultural contexts, such as in the process of internationalization or in creating systems and processes that can adapt to user's cultures. This paper takes ethnographic research in this area to the study of culture in HCI to address culture as a problematic unit of analysis. It does this via qualitative video-based analysis of user's interactions with information kiosks at international conferences. The paper argues that culture must be understood as contingent and nationality may not be the most important indicator in multi-national colocated settings.
HCI and SE -- The Cultures of the Professions BIBAKFull-Text 108-112
  Anirudha Joshi
The author reviewed and participated in several exemplar industry projects from the Indian IT industry to study the integration of human-computer interaction (HCI) design into software development by Indian software vendors. While several problems occurred because HCI skills were either not used, or were not used early enough in a project, or when the HCI professional lacked process support to carry out all HCI activities in the project, at least some of the problems occurred because of the cultural differences between the professions of designers and engineers. In the one case where HCI professionals were indeed used early and with a multi-disciplinary team, the results were positive. The case studies point to a greater need to integrate HCI into existing software engineering process models with commonly accepted roles, activities and deliverables leading to mutual respect between professions.
Keywords: HCI and SE integration
Development of Integrated Analysis System and Tool of Perception, Recognition, and Behavior for Web Usability Test: With Emphasis on Eye-Tracking, Mouse-Tracking, and Retrospective Think Aloud BIBAKFull-Text 113-121
  Byungjoo Kim; Ying Dong; Sungjin Kim; Kun-Pyo Lee
Recent researches reveal effort to observe user's experience from user's point of view in order to estimate usability of a web site. Eye-tracking and mouse-tracking to record and analysis what user sees and how user acts can be proper examples. However, although eye-tracking and mouse-tracking are used practically, not only difficult to find the case that uses both, but also the case is rare that considers what user is thinking. Hence, this paper introduced EMT System that tracks eye and mouse, and records user's thinking. And for applying EMT system, this paper developed EMT Tool, which helps a researcher to do usability test by recording the user's experience, and reproducing it visually. EMT Tool is consist of EMT Tracker which is responsible for observing and collecting user's experience and EMT Analyzer synthesizing and analyzing data from EMT Tracker.
Keywords: Web Usability Test; Integrated Analysis System; Eye-Tracking; Mouse-Tracking; Retrospective Think Aloud
Cultural Difference and Its Effects on User Research Methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 122-129
  Jungjoo Lee; Thu-Trang Tran; Kun-Pyo Lee
Various researches have proved that cultural differences affect the process and results of user research, emphasizing that should cultural attention be given in order to obtain sufficient results. After performing three experiment methods: probe, usability test, and focus group interview in the Netherlands and Korea, we discovered that productivity and effectiveness was poorer in Korea. The differences were found due to the contrary between cultures, strongly indicated by Hofstede's cultural dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism. In addition, we have proved that the different factors made an impact on user research process and result. Based on the analysis, we compiled guidelines for each of the method when performing in Korea.
Keywords: Cultural difference; User research methodology; User participatory study; User research guidelines
A Development of Graphical Interface for Decision Making Process Including Real-Time Consistency Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 130-137
  Joong-Ho Lee; Ki-Won Yeom; Ji-Hyung Park
Decision making problems are often imprecise and changeable because of potential inconsistency in human thinking. Although AHP gives a desirable guide to the reasonable solution via consistency ratio, there is still possibility of containing inconsistence during process. Therefore, an important step in many applications of decision making problems is to perform a consistency analysis in real-time. We introduce a new method of priority setting in decision making processes, which is implemented as an interactive and convenient graphical interface of the decision making problem. It is designed to support the real-time consistency evaluation. The conventional AHP does not provide graphical user interface and is impossible to monitor the interim findings in the middle of process, and is difficult to predict the difference of results when changing pair-wise comparison conditions, and is difficult to monitor the consistency of human judgment during operation. The proposed real-time calculation algorithm and visualization method is developed to realize effective and reliable decision making environment, and is verified its merit through the exemplary case. In addition, we propose new algorithm of evaluating consistency level. The rationality tension is proposed as a new index for evaluating a real-time consistency analysis with interactive graphical user interface. It is desirable for a system to provide fast and visible information of consistency in decision making processes.
Keywords: Decision Making; Priority Setting; AHP; Visualization; Interactive process; Consistency Ratio
Using Webzine to Create Effective Communications Between China and the West BIBAKFull-Text 138-145
  Christina Li; Sean Liu; Eleanor Lisney
Knowing the development and opinion from other nations is essential for designing usable product for different cultures. Effective communications between different countries is invaluable, however, often inhabited by the problem of limited language access. This paper will provide insight and practical experiences about how we offer swift and free information exchanges between UI practitioners in the west and in China by a bilingual webzine, -- uiGarden, that provides an opportunity for researchers and practitioners who work in the user experience design field in the Chinese and the English speaking worlds to exchange views and deepen each other's knowledge in the field.
Keywords: cultural exchange; China; cross-culture usability; webzine
Designing "Culture" into Modern Product: A Case Study of Cultural Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 146-153
  Rungtai Lin; Ming-Xian Sun; Ya-Ping Chang; Yu-Ching Chan; Yi-Chen Hsieh; Yuan-Ching Huang
"Culture" plays an important role in the design field, and "cross cultural design" will be a key design evaluation point in the future. Designing "culture" into modern product will be a design trend in the global market. Obviously, we need a better understand of cross-cultural communication not only for the global market, but also for local design. While cross-cultural factors become important issues for product design in the global economy, the intersection of design and culture becomes a key issue making both local design and the global market worthy of further in-depth study. The importance of studying culture is shown repeatedly in several studies in all areas of technology design. Therefore, this study focuses on the analysis of cultural meaning, operational interface, and the scenario in which the cultural object is used. This paper establishes a cultural product design model to provide designers with a valuable reference for designing a successful cross-cultural product.
Keywords: cross cultural design; cultural difference; Taiwan aboriginal culture
Digital Archive Database for Cultural Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 154-163
  Rungtai Lin; Ricer Cheng; Ming-Xian Sun
The purpose of this paper is to build a digital archive database for Taiwanese people to learn Taiwanese culture through the internet and e-learning environment. This study will be completed in three steps. Firstly, the paper is to explore the meaning of cultural objects and to extract the cultural features from Taiwanese culture; especially, Taiwan ordinary garment cultures. Then, a protocol of information-exchanging is used to analyze the cultural features, and to combine the images with the text using a standardization of digital images. Finally, a digital archive database is established and a friendly interface is designed for users. Results are presented here providing the users with a digital archive database to learn Taiwan local cultural features.
Keywords: Digital archive; database; cultural design; Taiwan aboriginal culture
Cross-Cultural Understanding of Content and Interface in the Context of E-Learning Systems BIBAKFull-Text 164-173
  Abdalghani Mushtaha; Olga De Troyer
This paper describes a comparative study in understanding content and interface in the context of e-learning systems by using anthropologists' and designers' cultural dimensions. The purpose was to determine the differences between Belgian and Palestinian audiences, and to find the most important cultural dimensions to use for localizing / internationalizing e-learning systems. Results indicate differences in culture between the two groups, but not as much as expected. The outcome shows similar preferences, whilst others differ.
Keywords: e-learning; Web design; Cross-cultural dimensions; localization; Internationalization
Differences in Task Descriptions in the Think Aloud Test BIBAKFull-Text 174-180
  Lene Nielsen; Sameer Chavan
This paper analyzes and discusses the ways tasks are described and perceived in a remote Think Aloud (TA) usability tests session. The paper includes reports from a study and the problems encountered during a session of remote TA tests. The sessions were performed as synchronous tests, where the facilitator and observers received data and managed the evaluation in real time with a remote participant. It was done using a system with audio conferencing and remote application sharing. The analysis and discussion include both a task description perspective and a cultural difference perspective and hereby adds to existing knowledge of usability testing.
Keywords: Usability; Remote Think Aloud Test; Cultural Usability
The Use of Cognitive and Social Psychological Principles in Field Research: How It Furthers Our Understanding of User Behaviors, Needs and Motivations, and Informs the Product Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 181-185
  Krisela Rivera; Elissa Darnell
Field research methods (also known as Ethnography) are useful in gathering user requirements, informing product direction, and identifying user needs and barriers. This paper will focus on how we perform data analysis for the Horizontal Visits sub-area. Horizontal Visits help identify user patterns and behaviors that inform product strategies and inspire product innovations. This paper introduces how psychological principles and deep dive analysis are helping eBay build better products and more useful features for its customers. Specifically, this research tried to deeply understand how and why people buy products. The study investigates users' approach to buying, attitudes, mental models, and needs. We learned that after an initial analysis of the data is completed one should continue to drill down into the meaning of the data by applying Cognitive and Social Psychological Principles to help team members more deeply understand the overall behaviors and motivations behind users' actions.
Keywords: global market; psychological principles; field research; ethnography; product development; design process; user experience research
The Role of Annotation in Intercultural Communication BIBAKFull-Text 186-195
  Tomohiro Shigenobu; Kunikazu Fujii; Takashi Yoshino
In intercultural communication, there are large barriers when the languages and the cultures are different. It is undoubtedly preferable for people to have smooth communications using their mother language. Therefore, we have developed a chat system called AnnoChat. AnnoChat has an annotation function for smooth intercultural communications. We applied AnnoChat in experiments with Japanese, Chinese, and Korean speakers. The results of the experiments showed that about 70% of the added annotations were reusable as intercultural knowledge information. About 20% of the added annotations were used to supplement information that could not be described while chatting. It is thought to be an effective example of applying annotation in intercultural communications.
Keywords: Intercultural Communication; Machine Translation; Annotation; Computer-Mediated Communication
An Activity Approach to Cross-Cultural Design BIBAKFull-Text 196-205
  Huatong Sun
The demanding challenges urge us to develop an effective way to address cultural issues in IT localization and design well-localized products to support complex activities in a concrete context. This article proposes an activity approach to cross-cultural design informed by key concepts and methods from activity theory, genre theory, and British cultural studies. The approach brings cross-cultural design focus from operational affordances to social affordances.
Keywords: Cross-cultural design; localization; activity; affordance
Creating an International Design Team BIBAKFull-Text 206-211
  Becky Sundling
The Microsoft Mobile and Embedded Devices User Experience Team (MEDX) is made up of 20 designers and researchers at the main headquarter office in Redmond, outside of Seattle, USA. In the spring of 2005, a design team of four people was started in Beijing, China. How does one successfully set up a remote team when collaboration is central to the task? What are the realities of creating clear communications across diverse languages, cultures and time zones? How does one create an appealing career path for remote talent? This paper will discuss the challenges, celebrations and lessons learned during the first two years of MEDX Beijing's development.
Keywords: User Experience; International Design Team; Interaction Design; Visual Design; Remote Team; Beijing; China; Mobile Design; Microsoft
Incorporating the Cultural Dimensions into the Theoretical Framework of Website Information Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 212-221
  Wan Abdul Rahim Wan Mohd Isa; Nor Laila Md. Noor; Shafie Mehad
Information Architecture (IA) has emerged as a discipline that is concerned with the development of systematic approaches to the presentation and organization of online information. The IA discipline has commanded significant attention from professional practitioners but lacks in the theoretical perspective. In our effort to formalize the knowledge of the discipline, we report on the extension of our initial work of formalizing the architectural framework for understanding website IA. Since the web is not a culturally neutral medium, we sought to delineate the cultural dimensions within our formed framework of website IA with the incorporation of the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Hofstede's (2005), Hall's (1966), Hall and Hall's (1990) and Trompenaar's (1997). This attempt contributes towards the progress of putting a sense of cultural localization to the IA augmentation for local and international website design. In addition, to avoid theoretical aloofness and arbitrariness, practical design presumptions are also reflected.
Keywords: Information Architecture; Culture Interface; Cross Culture; Interface Design; Localization

Part II: International and Intercultural Usability

Cross-Use: Cross-Cultural Usability User Evaluation-In-Context BIBAKFull-Text 225-234
  Jasem M. Alostath; Abdulwahed Mohammed Khalfan
This paper introduces the Cross-Use experiment, which aims to evaluate the mapping between website design elements and cultural attributes using a user-in-context evaluation approach. This is done by developing three UI designs, and applying them to 63 local participants from the case study cultures (UK, Egypt, and Kuwait). The experiment was conducted using the developed prototypes was able to classify cultures differently, and highlighted those design markers that affects cultural differences in the design of e-banking websites. This is based on user preferences and usability.
Keywords: Culture; Usability; User preferences; e-banking; user-in-context evaluation
Testing Remote Users: An Innovative Technology BIBAKFull-Text 235-242
  Rebecca Matson Sukach Baker; Esin O. Kiris; Omar Vasnaik
Conducting usability tests with remote users require unique approaches and techniques. Remote users often have requirements that differ significantly from local users, as the technology is not wholly contained in a controlled usability lab. Based on the authors' experience with remote usability techniques, this paper provides insights and practical tips about a technology used to host and monitor remote usability tests, users' reactions to the testing technology, and the communication rhythm within the testing organization.
Keywords: Remote Usability; Usability Test; User-Centered Design
Web Usability and Evaluation: Issues and Concerns BIBAFull-Text 243-249
  Sanjay Batra; Ram R. Bishu
This paper presents a summary of usability work done at the Usability Laboratory at University of Nebraska in the last few years. The main objective of the first study was to compare the efficiency and effectiveness between user testing and heuristic analysis in evaluating four different commercial websites. The results showed that both user testing and heuristic analysis addressed very different usability problems and both methods are equally efficient and effective. In the second study. the primary purpose was to compare the performance between remote usability testing and traditional usability testing. The results indicate that remote usability testing is no different from traditional usability testing. The third study attempted to look at cultural differences in web usability. The results indicated that cultural dimensions have significant effects on user's web preferences. The primary objective of final study was to determine if user's surfing behavior could be predicted through their cognitive style. Results show that cognitive span scores are not strong enough to form association rule with individual difference clusters of web surfing behavior. The results are discussed with respect to all perspectives of Web.
The Impact of Different Icon Sets on the Usability of a Word Processor BIBAKFull-Text 250-257
  Tanya René Beelders; Pieter J. Blignaut; Theo McDonald; Engela Dednam
This paper discusses the results of usability tests obtained when testing different sets of icons in a word processor environment. An alternative set of icons was developed for a subset of word processor functions and compared to the standard icons. The score obtained for completed tasks as well as the time taken to complete tasks successfully were evaluated. Results indicate that the score is not affected by the icons used in the interface. It was noted that word processor expertise and the icons used have a significant effect on the time taken to complete some tasks. However, each of these factors exhibits an effect in only a single task completed in the prototype. Possible reasons for the significant difference are discussed.
Keywords: Usability; icons; interface
Systems Development Methods and Usability in Norway: An Industrial Perspective BIBAFull-Text 258-266
  Bendik Bygstad; Gheorghita Ghinea; Eivind Brevik
This paper investigates the relationship between traditional systems development methodologies and usability, through a survey of 78 Norwegian IT companies. Building on previous research we proposed two hypotheses; (1) that software companies will generally pay lip service to usability, but do not prioritize it in industrial projects, and (2) that systems development methods and usability are perceived as not being integrated. We find support for both hypotheses. Thus, the use of systems development methods is fairly stable, confirming earlier research. Most companies do not use a formal method, and of those who do, the majority use their own method. Generally, the use of methods is rather pragmatic: Companies that do not use formal methods report that they use elements from such methods. Further, companies that use their own method import elements from standardised methods into their own.
Activities for Usability in Lenovo China BIBAKFull-Text 267-273
  Baihong Chen; Rong Yang
This paper briefly introduces activities for usability in Lenovo China. First, the progress and the current status of usability in Lenovo China will be introduced. Second, a basic flow of usability activities is summarized. Finally, some results of activities for usability applied to Lenovo products will be presented.
Keywords: usability; design process
The Cultural Usability (CULTUSAB) Project: Studies of Cultural Models in Psychological Usability Evaluation Methods BIBAKFull-Text 274-280
  Torkil Clemmensen; Thomas Plocher
Cultural models in terms of the characteristics and content of folk theories and folk psychology have been important to social scientists for centuries. We suggest that they should be at the heart of the scientific study of human-computer interaction (HCI). The CULTUSAB project is conducting an in-depth investigation of the key dimensions of culture that affect usability testing situations, including language, power distance, and cognitive style. All phases of the usability test are being evaluated for cultural impact, including planning, conducting, and reporting results. Special attention is being focused on subject-evaluator communication and cultural bias in the test design and structure of the user interface being tested. Experiments are being replicated in three countries: Denmark, India and China. The research will result in new testing methods and guidelines that increase the validity of usability tests by avoiding cultural bias, and allow us to produce comparable results across different countries.
Keywords: Cultural usability; think aloud usability test; cross cultural research
Cultural Usability Tests -- How Usability Tests Are Not the Same All over the World BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Torkil Clemmensen; Qingxin Shi; Jyoti Kumar; Huiyang Li; Xianghong Sun; Pradeep Yammiyavar
The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability evaluation. In this paper we report on a multi-site, cross-cultural grounded theory field study of think aloud testing in seven companies in three countries (Denmark, China and India). The theoretical model that emerges from the data suggests that the production of a usability problem list is multi-causal and subject to cultural variations. Even the way usability problems are experienced by test participants may be different. In the discussion we outline practical guidelines for a test that is more sensitive towards cultural usability.
Keywords: Usability test; think aloud; cultural usability; field study
Getting the Most Out of Personas for Product Usability Enhancements BIBAFull-Text 291-296
  Jianming Dong; Kuldeep Kelkar; Kelly Braun
In User-Centered Design, there is always the need to precisely define the user attributes, so that the product can be designed based on the patterns of these attributes. The methods of user definitions include quantitative segmentation analysis, as well as qualitative research on the patterns of user behaviors. Because these attributes are often complicated and abstract, researchers may have difficulty communicating these patterns to other team members.
Testing Object Management (TOM): A Prototype for Usability Knowledge Management in Global Software BIBAKFull-Text 297-305
  Ian Douglas
The collection and sharing of results from usability laboratories around the world has not yet made good use of emerging models of Internet-based knowledge sharing technologies. This paper will present a model for a system that could improve the sharing of knowledge on a global scale and also facilitate the linkage of design guidelines and patterns to the accumulated evidence from the many worldwide studies that are not processed into academic publications.
Keywords: knowledge management; usability testing; global software development
Assessing Usability Problems in Latin-American Academic Webpages with Cognitive Walkthroughs and Datamining Techniques BIBAFull-Text 306-316
  María Paula González; Jesús Lorés; Toni Granollers
Qualitative usability evaluation is usually included within the Evaluation Stage in Usability Engineering through a Qualitative Usability Testing process QUT. This QUT process includes the application of methods that have been defined focusing on the evaluation of a particular interactive system, becoming highly expensive when a context of use has to be evaluated (by analyzing a large number of interfaces belonging to that context) in order to detect common usability problems from a qualitative viewpoint. This paper presents the QUTCKDD methodology which incorporate techniques from Knowledge Discovery in Databases, extending the existing QUT process in order to solve the above situation. To illustrate the QUTCKDD methodology, an experimentation related to a particular Latin-American context of use is also discussed.
Usability Constructs: A Cross-Cultural Study of How Users and Developers Experience Their Use of Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 317-326
  Morten Hertzum; Torkil Clemmensen; Kasper Hornbæk; Jyoti Kumar; Qingxin Shi; Pradeep Yammiyavar
Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development and uptake of information systems: cultural background (Chinese, Danish, or Indian) and stakeholder group (developer or user). We find that for the user group frustrating and useful systems are experienced similarly, whereas for the developers frustrating systems are experienced similarly to easy-to-use systems. Looking at the most characteristic construct for each participant we find that Chinese participants use constructs related to security, task types, training, and system issues, whereas Danish and to some extent Indian participants make more use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing.
Keywords: Cultural usability; Usage experiences; Repertory-grid technique
A Study for Usability Risk Level in Physical User Interface of Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 327-335
  Beom Suk Jin; Sang Min Ko; Jae Seung Mun; Yong Gu Ji
The purpose of this study is to develop a framework of quantitative evaluation of PUI risk level to ensure the usability in designing mobile devices. Three PUI factors -- key type, use scene and device form -- were selected as the main criteria for PUI risk level. They are defined as Key Manipulation Value (KMV), Function Manipulation Value (FMV) and Handling Value (HV), considering the requirements. In short, this study provides a framework of quantitative evaluation with the requirements of the three PUI factors, and analyzes risk level by KMV, FMV and HV. This result can be utilized as a criterion for usability at the design phase. In addition, evaluation with this framework at the early design phase helps to anticipate the problems, so the opportunity to solve the problem can be offered in advance.
Keywords: Mobile Phone; Physical User Interface; Risk Level
Tracing Cognitive Processes for Usability Evaluation: A Cross Cultural Mind Tape Study BIBAKFull-Text 336-345
  Jyoti Kumar; Janni Nielsen; Pradeep Yammiyavar
Cultural differences in cognitive processes and cognitive tools have been extensively documented. Design and use of culturally sensitive interfaces have been in demand in HCI for sometime. In this study the method of stimulated retrospective verbalization which is called here as Mind Tape study, has been used to capture cognitive differences of Danish and Indian users while interacting with chosen websites on a given task. The recording of the interaction captures screen activities and video of user. The replay of the recording is used as stimulus during a voice over interview. Using Mind tape, not only the sequence of activities during task fulfillment is observed, but also an insight into the user's cognitive processes, motives and intentions, regarding the choices made and activities done are recorded. The paper reports the cultural sensitivity and suitability of the mind tape method for cross cultural usability evaluations in light of the study conducted.
Keywords: Stimulated Retrospective Verbalisation; Usability testing; Cross Cultural
Lessons from Applying Usability Engineering to Fast-Paced Product Development Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 346-354
  Dong-Seok Lee; Young-Hwan Pan
This study discusses why usability engineering, which seems easy to contribute to more usable products, finds little support in fast-paced product development organizations. It discusses the ways in which the environment of a product development organization is quite different from that of a web or software company. Among the differences are faster-paced development, more rigorous process stages, lower number of iterations allowed, and higher cost for usability amendment. Thus many usability professionals cannot escape from the traps of simply fixing glitches instead of solving major problems, and working on product issues only in reaction to usability problems generated by other stakeholders. This study provides some innovative suggestions for usability professionals as effective alternatives to remaining stuck in the typical evaluation and refinement strategy of usability engineering.
Keywords: Usability engineering; product development organizations; limitation of usability engineering; ROI of usability engineering
An Axiomatic Method for Cross Cultural Usability Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Sheau-Farn Max Liang
Cross cultural influences on usability should be investigated together with human cognition and perception, and the context of use. In practice, to reveal culture similarities is more important than differences. An axiomatic method for cross cultural usability analysis was proposed for tackling these issues. It was argued that usability problems related to human cognition and perception can be identified through the Independence Axiom, whereas the best design can be recognized through the Information Axiom with the domain-specific knowledge.
Keywords: Axiomatic Design; Cross Cultural Usability; Culture Similarities
The Impact of Culture on Usability: Designing Usable Products for the International User BIBAKFull-Text 365-368
  Carol Lodge
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of culture on the usability and design of global applications. Specifically, this paper will serve to address the theoretical implications of Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the impact of these cultural models on designing usable global products. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding best practices for designing international products.
Keywords: Culture; usability; International User
A Digital Training System for Freehand Sketch Practice BIBAKFull-Text 369-378
  Ding-Bang Luh; Shao-Nung Chen
Freehand sketch is a fast and easy tool for idea development and communication, especially in the critical front-end or predevelopment stages. While it is important to any designer, lacking of appropriate mechanism for correction in fundamental design education makes even professionals hard to precisely handle accuracy of perspective sketch. Based on two-point perspective method and using cubic shape as subject, this research develops reverse drawing approach and accordingly establishes a digital training system for freehand sketch practice, namely Perspective Practice. Users can operate conventional pen and paper for input and the system automatically illustrates on screen a correct perspective drawing on top of the sketch done by the user, pointing out the concept or technique for improvement. The system provides users with ways in understanding their current skills and guidelines for improvement, through which the efficacy in digital technical training can be enhanced.
Keywords: freehand sketch; perspective drawing; reverse drawing method; digital training
Culture Issues in Traffic Sign Usability BIBAKFull-Text 379-387
  Annie W. Y. Ng; Alan H. S. Chan
Traffic signs are probably the best known graphical symbols that we encounter along roads and highways daily in a traffic system. The authors had conducted two experiments with two different groups of Hong Kong Chinese subjects to investigate the usability of traffic signs with guessing and comprehension tasks. The first experiment used Mainland China traffic signs, while the second experiment employed Hong Kong traffic signs. In this paper, the effects of two user factors (Mainland China visit experience and non-local driving experience) and one sign feature (concreteness) on task performance were investigated for exploring the culture issues in traffic sign usability. It was shown that Mainland China visit experience of subjects was a significant factor in affecting their sign guessing performance. The result also indicated that when a specific cultural issue is incorporated in a traffic sign, the sign should be accompanied by supplementary text to reduce the effect of cultural bias. It was interesting to note that non-local driving experience had a negative effect on local sign comprehension when signs were pictorially similar but different in intended messages; but the effect was positive when the signs look alike and conveyed the same meaning. A recommendation to ensure sign comprehensibility for non-local drivers is that a leaflet containing sign information should be made available for vehicle drivers at passport control points. On sign feature, concrete signs that bear a resemblance to actual objects contribute to higher guessability scores than abstract ones, which may be due to the fact that the thinking style of Chinese people is synthetic, concrete, and relies on the periphery of the visible world. Therefore, concrete signs are better than abstract signs in regard of providing visualization aids in helping Chinese subjects to complete the guessing task. The findings revealed the importance of taking the cultural issue into consideration when developing traffic signs, and provided information and recommendations for the design of highly comprehensible traffic signs.
Keywords: culture; usability; traffic sign; sign concreteness
International Remote Usability Evaluation: The Bliss of Not Being There BIBAKFull-Text 388-397
  Mika P. Nieminen; Petri Mannonen; Johanna Viitanen
This paper describes the planning and implementation of a cross-border usability test that was to be executed in five European countries. The usability evaluation was designed by the Usability Group at Helsinki University of Technology who also performed the testing for the Finnish partner. In the other countries the usability tests were to be implemented by teams of subject matter specialists with very heterogeneous disciplines ranging from software engineering to social sciences, gender equality and vocational counselling. This paper describes the level of materials and training prepared for the remote usability testing and discusses its adequacy both via test personnel satisfaction and comments, and by comparing the found usability problems and observed phenomena in the test sessions between the test executed by the usability experts and the subject matter specialists.
Keywords: International usability testing; remote usability testing; localizing usability test materials; usability testing by non-expert evaluators
A Framework for Evaluating the Usability of Spoken Language Dialog Systems (SLDSs) BIBAFull-Text 398-404
  Wonkyu Park; Sung Ho Han; Yong S. Park; Jungchul Park; Huichul Yang
Usability evaluation is now considered an essential procedure in developing a spoken language dialogue system (SLDS). This paper proposes a systematic framework for evaluating the usability of SLDSs. The framework consists of what to evaluate and how to evaluate. What to evaluate includes components, evaluation criteria, and usability measures to evaluate various aspects of SLDSs. With respect to how to evaluate, a procedure for developing scenarios and scenario-based evaluation methods are introduced. In addition, a case study, in which the usability an SLDS was evaluated, was conducted to validate the proposed framework. The results of the case study showed successfully the usability level, usability problems, and design implications for further development. The framework proposed in the study can be practically applied to usability evaluation of SLDSs.
Usability of Adaptable and Adaptive Menus BIBAFull-Text 405-411
  Jungchul Park; Sung Ho Han; Yong S. Park; Youngseok Cho
This study investigates the usability of different adaptable and adaptive menu interfaces in a desktop environment. A controlled experiment was conducted to compare two different adaptive menus and one adaptable menu with a traditional menu. The two adaptive menus include an adaptive split menu that moves frequently used menu items to the top, and an adaptive highlight menu that automatically boldfaces frequently used menu items. Target selection times and the number of errors were recorded while the participants were performing menu selection tasks. Subjective satisfaction including perceived recognizability, perceived efficiency, and overall preference were also measured. The results showed that the adaptable menu outperformed the other menus in terms of both the performance and the satisfaction. The adaptive split menu was not as efficient as its theoretical prototype, especially when the selection frequency changed. The adaptive highlight menu, newly proposed in this study, was not significantly better than the traditional menu in terms of the selection time. However, it was preferred by the users since it helped them select frequently used items and was much less sensitive to the variations of selection frequency.
Towards Detecting Cognitive Load and Emotions in Usability Studies Using the RealEYES Framework BIBAKFull-Text 412-421
  Randolf Schultz; Christian Peter; Michael Blech; Jörg Voskamp; Bodo Urban
In this paper, we will discuss some extensions to the RealEYES framework that can help to automatically detect interesting sections in usability studies using additional sensor input and knowledge discovery techniques.
Keywords: usability; emotions; cognitive load; human performance monitoring
Relationship Model in Cultural Usability Testing BIBAKFull-Text 422-431
  Qingxin Shi; Torkil Clemmensen
Culture plays an important role in the global market today. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. In this paper we first introduce culture theories and two kinds of relationships in thinking aloud usability testing and then review previous research. Based on the discussion, we extract the potential factors which may influence cross-culture usability testing and then propose a relationship model. Finally, we discuss how the two thinking aloud approaches may be used in cross-culture usability testing.
Keywords: Usability test; culture; thinking aloud theory; localization
An Empirical Evaluation of Graphical Usable Interface on Mobile Chat BIBAFull-Text 432-441
  Victoria Siew Yen Yee; Daniel Su Kuen Seong
Current text-based mobile group chatting systems hinder navigation ease through long chat archive in a limited screen display. Moreover, tracking messages sent by specific chatter is cumbersome and time consuming. Hence, graphical-based usable interface that aids navigation and message tracking through minimal key-pressed and enhances user expression via avatars employment is proposed. The research outcomes typified that there was significant linear relationship between user interface and usability on text-based and graphical-based usable interface on mobile chat. Moreover, the experimental evaluation results indicated that text-based usability could be improved by creating interface that encourages usages whereas the graphical-based usable mobile chat is augmented by crafting user friendly interface that enhances user satisfaction, encourages usages and promotes navigation ease. The empirical findings and results exemplified that the potential use of graphical-based usable mobile chat as substitution to the text-based that presently has poor reception and is under utilised in commercial arena.
A Tale of Two Teams: Success and Failure in Virtual Team Meetings BIBAFull-Text 442-451
  Marilyn Tremaine; Allen E. Milewski; Richard Egan; Suling Zhang
Interaction between two teams with the same team leader and with similar size and goals moved from weekly face-to-face meetings to virtual meetings because of the temporary displacement of the team leader to a time zone six hours ahead of the rest of the team. One team focused primarily on software development and the second team on developing and testing a research instrument. The Software Team floundered through multiple different meeting arrangements and eventually agreed to disperse until the leader returned to the same time zone. In contrast, the Research Instrument Team kept a single meeting time that was set before it moved to virtual gatherings, and continued to be an active and productive team. This paper explores what factors led to this divergence in team success and concludes that the implicit temporal structures entraining the members of the Software Team coupled with an inability to repair member unhappiness and an unequal dispersion of skill sets among virtual and co-located members led to one team's eventual shutdown.
Assumptions Considered Harmful BIBAFull-Text 452-461
  Heike Winschiers; Jens Fendler
A cultural evaluation of Usability Engineering in the Namibian context reveals a number of good practices as well as locally inadequate methods. One major challenge in cross-cultural Usability Engineering is the implicit western understanding of usability and its associated assumptions which often lead to a locally inappropriate usability evaluation. Conceptualisation sessions held with different Namibian user groups confirmed a deviating perception of the term "usability". None of the groups mentioned terms "commonly" associated with "usability" such as speed, learnable, or memorable. Thus standard usability testing comprises a dual bias through the western definition of usability and the related choice of methods which aim to test an already biased objective. We therefore suggest an ethnocentric software development framework which incorporates a contextual redefinition of usability.
Analyzing Non-verbal Cues in Usability Evaluation Tests BIBAKFull-Text 462-471
  Pradeep Yammiyavar; Torkil Clemmensen; Jyoti Kumar
Verbal data is the primary focus for analysis in the prevalent Usability evaluations like in 'Think Aloud Method'. This study involves 18 cross cultural TA tests and it was found that users use gestures profoundly to communicate their mental activities. It was observed that hand gestures are attempts to communicate abstract feelings as well as to quantify, to simplify a complex expression & refer to fuzzy thoughts. 10 further TA tests, with close up cameras for capture of facial expressions yielded gestures of affect states of surprise, satisfaction, confusion, deep thinking, frustration and boredom being experienced by the user. Most importantly, the users were either verbally silent or were using words seemingly incongruent to verbalisation. Observing that there is rich meaning in gestures, this paper argues for gestures as additional data sources in TA analysis.
Keywords: Think Aloud Test; Gesture Analysis
Online Analysis of Hierarchical Events in Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 472-479
  Xiang Zhang; Guangyou Xu; Xiaoling Xiao; Linmi Tao
Automatic online analysis of meetings is very important from three points of view: serving as an important archive of a meeting, understanding human interaction processes, and providing the attentive services based on the meeting situation for participants. Based on this view, this paper presents principle and implementation of online analysis of hierarchical events in meeting scenario. A hierarchical dynamic Bayesian network modeling different levels of events is designed. In this model, the recognition of low-level events is supervised by high-level events Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for on-line inference for the hierarchical dynamic Bayesian network. Situation events and four sorts of interaction events in meeting scenario are detected and recognized. Experimental results show that our approach can detect and recognize multi-layer semantic events in dynamic environment. Comparing with previous methods of meeting analysis, our approach supports online probabilistic inference for activities at different layers in meeting scenario.
Keywords: Meeting analysis; dynamic Bayesian network; particle filter; event detection and recognition

Part III: User Studies

A Cross Culture Study on Phone Carrying and Physical Personalization BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Yanqing Cui; Jan Chipchase; Fumiko Ichikawa
The mobile phone has become one of the essential objects that people carry when they leave home. By conducting a series of street interviews in 11 cities on 4 continents, we attempted to identify the main carrying options in different cultures and how these options affected user experience in interacting with the phone. We also identified several cultural differences ranging from the prevalence of cases, straps, and other physical phone modification to other ways to personalize and protect the appearance of the phone. Phone straps and decorative stickers were more prevalent in cities such as Tokyo, Seoul and Beijing but seldom witnessed in other cultures. Based on findings from this research, we identified a number of factors that affected carrying position and style, which can be summarized as ease of access vs. the need to maintain security. Non-instrumental attributes include: identity, sociability, and aesthetics. Some practical implications on interaction and industrial design are also discussed.
Keywords: Mobile Phone; Mobile Essentials; Culture; Personalization; Carrying; User Experience
Performance Modeling Using Anthropometry for Minority Population BIBAFull-Text 493-501
  V. Gnaneswaran; Ram R. Bishu
The purpose of this study is to develop predictive models for grip strength, dexterity and manipulability, for four minority populations using anthropometry. A total of sixty subjects representing Hispanics, African Americans, Asian Indians and Vietnamese participated in this study. Subjects performed the three tasks for the following five hand conditions: bare hand, cotton gloves, Kevlar gloves, leather gloves and vinyl gloves. Grip strength was measured using a standard Jamar hand dynamometer. A pegboard task was used to measure the dexterity of the subjects. Manipulability was measured using knot-tying task. Models were developed with linear modeling techniques. Hand breadth was found to be the most contributing factor for all the three tasks.
Investigating the Differences in Web Browsing Behaviour of Chinese and European Users Using Mouse Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 502-512
  Lee Griffiths; Zhongming Chen
The World Wide Web has become a ubiquitous information source and communication channel. With such an extensive user population, it is imperative to understand how users view Web pages. Studies of Web browsing behaviour aimed at different cultures have previously been carried out using methodologies such as questionnaires, observation and expensive eye-tracking. Mouse-tracking however, has not been previously widely applied to studies of Web browsing behaviour. This paper presents an exploratory study in which Web browsing behaviour was investigated with a help of a remote proxy mouse tracker. Furthermore, this paper compares the browsing behaviour of European users with Chinese users. This comparative study tries to explore whether or not there exists any differences in expected menu positions between Chinese and European users using mouse tracking methodology.
Keywords: Cross-culture; Eye-mouse Correlation; Mouse Track Patterns
The Effect of Morphological Elements on the Icon Recognition in Smart Phones BIBAKFull-Text 513-522
  Chiwu Huang; Chieh-Ming Tsai
This study aims to explore the effect of morphological elements on the icon recognition in smart phone. 42 icons were first selected and classified in a morphological chart based on its visual design elements. Then, icons were evaluated by a group of respondents with or without design background through e-mail. Main findings include: 1) Some morphological elements may affect the recognition rates of icons. Icons imitating real objects and using conventional symbols are better in recognition rate. In contrast, some particular symbols may be difficult to recognize. 2) Gaps may still exist between designers and users. The result of this study shows that the un-answered rate of the respondents without design background is significantly higher than the ones with design background. This may suggests that gaps may still exist between designers and users. Therefore, it is recommended that a designer should bear user in mind when designing icons in order to minimize these gaps.
Keywords: Smart phone; Icon; Recognition rate; Morphological elements
Performance Evaluation of the Wheel Navigation Key Used for Mobile Phone and MP3 BIBAKFull-Text 523-530
  Hyun-Wook Jung; Jung-Yong Kim
The aim of the study was to investigate the usability of wheel-type navigation key of cell phone and MP3 product. An experiment was designed to evaluate the functional benefit of wheel navigation key by using performance test. A questionnaire was also used to examine the personal preference. Eighteen subjects were recruited. In results, a significant difference was found in performance time between wheel-type and button-type product. In general, the difference was more significant as subject's skill level was higher. In questionnaire, different preference depending on the skill level and key type was reported. In conclusion, it was shown that the wheel-type navigation key improved the performance better as the skill level and search requirement became higher. Therefore, the wheel navigation key would be helpful device for users if we could use them selectively in order to speed up the searching task and replacing simple push button task.
Keywords: Usability; Mobile phone; MP3; Wheel Navigation Key; Button Key
Correlation Between Cognitive Style and Structure and Flow in Mobile Phone Interface: Comparing Performance and Preference of Korean and Dutch Users BIBAKFull-Text 531-540
  Ji Hye Kim; Kun-Pyo Lee; Im Kyeong You
This paper presents experiments conducted to determine the correlation between culturally different cognitive styles and issues of information architecture and flow, specifically in mobile phone interface. Korean and Dutch participants participated in on-screen prototype test and cognitive style test. In Experiment 1, each cultural group showed a different preference on the function/theme-related menus and individuals' categorization styles had correlation with their preferences. Overall, the findings indicated that performance and preferences in a certain menu structure are associated with cognitive styles and it eventually helps to design culturally adapted interface. In Experiment 2, both groups showed more favorable attitude toward a Parallel approach and no significant correlation between cognitive styles and performance or preference were found. The correlation between prior experience and preference was not found to be significant in any tests.
Keywords: User interface Design; Mobile Phone; Cognitive Style; Cultural Difference
Incorporating JND into the Design of Mobile Device Display BIBAKFull-Text 541-549
  Joo Hwan Lee; Won Yong Suh; Cheol Lee; Jang Hyeon Jo; Myung Hwan Yun
The main purpose of this article is to incorporate the JND (Just Notice able Difference) into the design of mobile device display, especially LCD display of mobile phone. JND is the difference threshold between stimuli that can be detectable by human sense. Thirty participants were employed for two experimentations in order to find out JND value of sensation for LCD. The critical design variables of LCD and the affective component of user satisfaction were investigated using AHP and regression analysis. Finally, the JND of design variables of LCD and its characteristics were investigated.
Keywords: Mobile device; Display; JND; LCD
Fit Evaluation of 3D Virtual Garment BIBAKFull-Text 550-558
  Joohyun Lee; Yunja Nam; Ming Hai Cui; Kueng Mi Choi; Young Lim Choi
Fitting in the real world can be reflected in cyber space for 3D virtual fitting simulation technology to be used by the tool for fit estimating. This study examined objectiveness and correctness of the information on clothing fit using 3D virtual garment simulated. Subjects were selected in various BMI. The patterns (skirt & slacks) were developed in the sizes of each subject. The garments were constructed from the patterns. Sensory test was done to compare the virtual garment with the real garment and the vacant space between skin and garment was calculated. As a result, the appearance of the virtual garment did not express pulling and wrinkles. The vacant space of the virtual garment did not have influence upon the gravity to produce space at the place where the garment covered human body not to make actual appearance.
Keywords: fit evaluation; deviation; 3D virtual garment simulation
Evaluation of Two Pointing Control Devices for a Cellular Phone BIBAKFull-Text 559-565
  Ji Hyoun Lim; Cheol Lee; Sun Young Park; Myung Hwan Yun
Increasing number of functions in a cellular phone requires an advanced interface beyond a simple menu selection. In this study two pointing devices -- an optic sensor and a pointing stick -- were examined, which had recently been or planned to be applied to cellular phones. We evaluated two cellular phones equipped with each pointing device. Operations of the two devices were evaluated with objective and subjective measures. The throughputs, an index of performance based on Fitts' law, were collected in the multi-direction pointing and selecting task. A user interface (UI) checklist analysis was conducted as a subjective measure to evaluated users' acceptance of the devices. The results showed that values of throughput distinctively varied by direction of a movement when the optical sensor was used. In the UI checklist analysis, the pointing stick device was rated with higher scores than the optic sensor device.
Keywords: Fitts' Law; Pointing Control Device; User Interface; Mobile phone
Design and Evaluation of a Handled Trackball as a Robust Interface in Motion BIBAKFull-Text 566-575
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Chi-No Liu; Jun-Lung Hwang
In this study, a handled trackball was developed aiming at future use in a vibration environment within cockpits, ships, or other carriers. The study was to determine an optimal handle posture for the handled device from combinations of three forward slopes (0°, 15°, and 30°) and lateral slopes (0°, 15°, and 30°). The device was also compared with a table trackball for basic operation properties. An experimental cursor movement task was used to measure the response time of each design, accompanied by subjective fatigue and usability evaluations. The results found that the forward 30° and lateral 30° combination reached the top cursor movement performance without imposing undue fatigue to the operator. The study suggests using the forward 30° and lateral 30° handled trackball as the optimal design solution to maintain the performance when the operation of the trackball is under severe vibration environment.
Keywords: handled trackball; vibration environment
Impact of Culture on International User Research -- A Case Study: Integration Pre-study in Paper Mills BIBAKFull-Text 576-585
  Anna Oikarinen; Marko Nieminen
Global paper industry needs systems that can be used in all locations. International user studies can be helpful when integrating systems. Not only due to the lack of common language but also the differences in culture and the usage of systems, information from different countries needs to be collected and analyzed so that the integration development is not be biased and unilateral. During the study some food for thought was gathered on what to consider when planning an international user study.
Keywords: International user study; integration; Hofstede; cultural theory
Computer Mediated Banking: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of SMEs BIBAKFull-Text 586-595
  Alison Ruth; Jenine P. Beekhuyzen
This paper presents a view of banking as undertaken by SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprise) in Australia. It presents a user perspective to give insight into how people talk about banking, how they are using traditional bank services, and what it means to them to bank with new technologies. This paper builds on previous analysis and interpretation of the perceptions of these issues in the banking project. In this paper we apply Burke's [5] dramatistic analysis. The paper analyses 15 SMEs to elaborate the mediation of money between banks and individual SMEs. We found that when talking about banking, individuals refer to location (scene) and processes using cheques, cash and the online interface (acts and agency) Thus an elaboration of the elements indicates that the scene-act-agency interaction is perhaps a significant nexus through which individuals negotiate this activity.
Keywords: SME; banking; Internet
A Comparative Study of Thai and UK Older Web Users BIBAKFull-Text 596-605
  Prush Sa-nga-ngam; Sri Kurniawan
Numerous studies had pointed out the effect of culture on interactive system design and use. This paper reports on a study on the use and preference of web browsers by 100 respondents aged 50 years old and over from Thailand and UK, who arguably differ in their culture and online developmental curve. The questionnaire explored their online activities, browser manipulations, problems with standard browsers and features required. The study reveals differences in the types of activities these two groups of users performed online and in their preferences. The results of this study points to the need to design a culturally inclusive web browser in addition to an age-friendly web browser when dealing with older web browsers from different countries.
Keywords: web browser; ageing; questionnaire; culture
A Qualitative Oriented Study About IT Procurement Processes: Comparison of 4 European Countries BIBAKFull-Text 606-614
  Michael Schiessl; Sabrina Duda
This study shows that in a qualitative study a small sample size is sufficient to gain interesting results and show differences between the procurement of IT services in different countries. It demonstrates how a requirements analysis can be conducted in a very early phase of a web development project. For the website of an IT company which sells products worldwide the needs of potential users of its website should be identified. With 8 users each from Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and Spain, an in-depth interview was conducted; after that some page drafts were shown. The users were from different hierarchy levels and from companies of varying sizes; all involved in the IT procurement process. The study showed who is involved in the different stages and what is relevant in each stage. The distribution of responsibilities was different in each country. The study gave insights into how to support potential buyers during the IT procurement process and how to adapt the web pages to local needs.
Keywords: International Usability; Requirement Analysis; IT Procurement; Web Usability; User Test
An Empirical Study on the Smallest Comfortable Button/Icon Size on Touch Screen BIBAKFull-Text 615-621
  Xianghong Sun; Thomas Plocher; Weina Qu
For the convenience of firefighters' decision-making and operation, touch screen display was chosen as the preferred interface for a fire information display system. Few studies were conducted to determine comfortable button/icon size on touch screens. This experiment investigated the effect of four factors on operators' performance with touch screen: 1) button size (20*20, 30*30, 40*40, and 50*50 pixels 2), spacing between buttons (0, 5, 10, and 20 pixels), 3) button/icon types (digit buttons only, picture icons only, combination), and 4) glove wearing (wearing vs. not wearing). 14 males were asked to accomplish a series of matching tasks on touch screen with the forefinger of right hand. Results showed that the spacing between buttons/icons, and wearing or not wearing a glove did not affect performance. Subjects pointed to the digit buttons faster than the other two kinds of buttons/icons. There was a significant difference among button/icon sizes. People performed best when it was equal to or bigger than 40*40 pixels.
Keywords: touch screen; button size
Usability Evaluation of Children Edutainment Software BIBAKFull-Text 622-630
  Danli Wang; Jie Li; Guozhong Dai
Owing to its educational content and entertainment model, edutainment software is getting widespread interest. Given the fast increasing popularity of the computer, edutainment software shows a promising prospect of extensive development. However, just like the HCI software, children's edutainment software possesses the problem of usability. This paper, based on the study of usability evaluation methods, provides a scenario-based software evaluation method, and used the method to evaluate the Children Heaven edutainment software. Analysis of the evaluation results recognized the success of the software design. It also gives suggestions and comments for revising the software. The process of the evaluation experiments also verified the effectiveness of the scenario-based usability evaluation method for software.
Keywords: Software Usability; Scenario-Based Evaluation Method; Edutainment Software for Children
Effect of Different Modal Feedback on Attention Recovery BIBAKFull-Text 631-636
  Min Cheol Whang; H. J. Hyun; Joa Sang Lim; Kang Ryoung Park; Yongjoo Cho; J. S. Park
This study aims to empirically examine the effect of feedback on attention recovery. The role of feedback has been proven to be positive in particular to extend the limitation of attention resource. We studied the impact of feedback on attention by varying its type and modality. An experimental system was developed to observe how accurately the participants performed the figure-matching task with differential feedback provided on a real-time basis based on the ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) diagnostic model. Investigated in this study were two types of feedbacks (1) single feedback such as visual, auditory and tactile stimulus and (2) double feedback with two types of feedback. Eight university students participated in this study with six different feedback conditions and controlled conditions. The results showed that the tactile feedback and the combined tactile with visual feedback significantly contributed most to attention recovery and performance.
Keywords: attention; feedback; modality; attention recovery
Do We Talk Differently: Cross Culture Study on Conference Call BIBAKFull-Text 637-645
  Xingrong Xiao; Chen Zhao; Shaoke Zhang
Cross cultural collaboration is popular in the world with increasing globalization, where cultural issues are important to be explored. In this paper, we reported an investigation of culture differences and cultural effects on communication problems in cross culture conference call using an ethnographic technique which refers to long interviews. In these interviews, communication differences among Chinese, Japanese, Indian and Americans were investigated. Our results showed that (1) culture differences in conference call existed in the dimensions of indirectness, power distance, assertiveness, language and speaker-centered vs. listener-centered; (2) and these culture differences caused communication problems in conference call such as misunderstanding, bad impression, unequal participation.
Keywords: Culture; Communication Style; Conference Call
The Mobile Phone's Optimal Vibration Frequency in Mobile Environments BIBAKFull-Text 646-652
  Jinho Yim; Rohae Myung; Byongjun Lee
Mobile environments are very dynamic and unpredictable [1]. When a mobile phone user is moving, his attention resources are reserved partly for passively monitoring and reacting to contexts and events and partly for actively constructing them [2]. In this paper, we suggest guidelines related to the optimal vibration frequency for the perception of mobile phone vibration when the user is moving. To guarantee the validity of this study, subjects were asked to indicate their perception of the randomly given 7 vibrotactile stimuli while they performed routine activities on a sidewalk, subway, or bus. With Logistic Regression analysis, the results showed that the optimal vibration frequency in the dynamic state was higher than 180 Hz, considerably higher than 151 Hz -- the optimal vibration frequency obtained in the static state in the previous study. From this study, mobile phone manufacturers should consider this factor when designing the vibration frequency for the vibration mode so that missed calls in mobile environments are minimized.
Keywords: Multimodal; mobile environments; mobile phone; perception; optimal vibration frequency; missed call
A Comparative Study of Mid-market IT Customers in China and U.S BIBAKFull-Text 653-657
  Yi Ren Yuan; Thomas Hogaboam
Many companies are realizing the economic benefit of localizing products designs. Comparative studies are often used to obtain information needed to support these localized designs. Our experience with one such study revealed that it is also necessary to localize the study design itself. Additionally, results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in the structure and use of IT staff in the U.S. and China.
Keywords: Parallel study; SMB; Mid-market; Customer interview; Study design