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Proceedings of ACM IDC'12: Interaction Design and Children 2012-06-12

Fullname:Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children
Editors:Heidi Schelhowe
Location:Bremen, Germany
Dates:2012-Jun-12 to 2012-Jun-12
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1007-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: IDC12
Papers:72
Pages:380
Links:Conference Website
Summary:Welcome to the 11th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children!
    Modern technologies are changing the way children play, learn, and live. New technologies have the potential to enhance communication, collaboration, creativity, and reflective thinking among children.
    As in prior conferences, IDC 2012 continues the IDC tradition aiming at designing for children's needs and meeting their interests, by presenting and discussing the most innovative research in the field of interaction design for children, by exhibiting the most recent developments in design and design methodologies, and by gathering the leading minds in the field of interaction design and children.
  1. Full Papers
  2. Short papers
  3. Demo Papers
  4. Doctoral Consortium
  5. Workshops
  6. Workshops: best papers
  7. Workshops
  8. Workshops: best paper

Full Papers

CASTOR: learning to create context-sensitive and emotionally engaging narrations in-situ BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Fabio Pittarello; Luca Bertani
This paper describes the design and the experimentation of a tablet-based authoring system for supporting the creation of stories in-situ, in the context of a learning path that has led 19 children aged 7 of the second class of a Primary School to learn how to build stories using different techniques, ranging from the traditional writing techniques exercised in class to the in-situ authoring with the tablet application. The project was characterized by a strong involvement of the teachers, that modeled a substantial part of the ordinary classroom work for embedding the in-situ experimentation and designing a smooth learning path.
   To our knowledge CASTOR is one of the first authoring systems allowing the direct creation of structured stories in-situ, rather than the simple gathering of material. Its architecture is based on a story model presented in previous works [3, 20] and characterized by the use of the environmental and social context for augmenting the emotional engagement of the story listeners.
   All the components of the architecture have been designed for complying with the learning needs and the skills of a class of young children. The final part of the paper will present the results of the experimentation, that gave interesting insights not only on the use of the authoring interface itself, but also on its effects on the children learning process.
DisCo: a co-design online tool for asynchronous distributed child and adult design partners BIBAFull-Text 11-19
  Greg Walsh; Allison Druin; Mona Leigh Guha; Elizabeth Bonsignore; Elizabeth Foss; Jason C. Yip; Evan Golub; Tamara Clegg; Quincy Brown; Robin Brewer; Asmi Joshi; Richelle Brown
Face-to-face design with child and adult design partners is not always possible due to distant geographical locations or time differences. Yet we believe that the designs of children in areas not co-located with system builders, or who live in locations not easily accessed, are just as important and valid as children who are easily accessible especially when designing for a multinational audience. This paper reports on the prototype design process of DisCo, a computer-based design tool that enables intergenerational co-designers to collaborate online and asynchronously while being geographically distributed. DisCo contains tools that enable the designers to iterate, annotate, and communicate from within the tool. This tool was used to facilitate distributed co-design. We learned that children were less forgiving of their inability to draw on the computer than on paper, and they formed small, intergenerational design teams at their own locations when the technology did not work as they expected.
Embedding technology in the classroom: the train the teacher model BIBAFull-Text 20-29
  Judy Robertson; Andrew Macvean; Katy Howland
This paper focuses on the importance of evaluating educational technology for young people aged 10-18 in naturalistic classroom contexts. We present the Train the Teacher Model (TTM) which formalizes a model for IDC researchers to use when deploying and validating an educational system. Our key findings indicate the need to work in partnership with classroom teachers, providing both initial training and continued support. This will both result in more valuable research data, and address a gap in teachers' continued professional development. The TTM aims to ensure that teachers, students and researchers can benefit from innovative educational systems deployed m real classroom contexts.
Exploring children's 'indexical encounter' with real and digitised archive photographs using tablet and large flat screen technologies BIBAFull-Text 30-39
  Susan Jones; Lynne Hall; Janette Hilton
Archive photographs are used widely in heritage education, but the photographic experience and our understanding of it, is poorer than it could be. This is primarily because the learning often fails to harness a photograph's tangible indexical link with the past, but also because the instability of photographic meaning requires that we assign explicit labels for historic purposes, without always being fully cognisant of the impact. Research has shown that manipulating defined realness does affect adults emotional and cognitive responses to photographs, but no similar studies have been undertaken to date with children. Pragmatics of re-creating the experience of looking at actual archive photographs remains a significant barrier, but the uptake of small, mobile tablet devices offers new opportunities to investigate what we have described here as children's indexical encounter with photographs. In this study children were shown matched pairs of natural and staged archive images, across three viewing conditions, (i) as real archive photographs and as (ii) digitised images on tablet and (iii) large flat screen devices. Children's emotional responses to natural archive images was significantly stronger when these were viewed as real archive photographs, but cognitive responses to natural photographs were significantly greater when these were viewed on tablets. Results are discussed with reference to the indexical experience and how an understanding of photographic properties can help tailor better visual learning experiences for children both in a heritage education context and in other disciplines.
Family and design in the IDC and CHI communities BIBAFull-Text 40-49
  Sara Isola; Jerry Alan Fails
As members of the HCI community we strive to design technologies that will benefit its intended users whether they are children, young adults, or older adults. The focus of this paper is to survey research related to technologies for families. In so doing we selected papers relating to technologies for families from all nine years of Interaction Design and Children (IDC) community (2003-2011) and then papers from the past 16 years of the larger Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) community (1996-2011). We present a survey of the design methods used in these papers. We identify trends in the technologies and identify the need for further exploration in the realm of participatory design for families.
Fostering early literacy skills in children's libraries: opportunities for embodied cognition and tangible technologies BIBAFull-Text 50-59
  Camilla Nørgaard Jensen; Winslow Burleson; John Sadauskas
Early literacy is a leading indicator of academic success. Recent findings describe the important role that embodied cognition can play in the promotion of early literacy. Libraries -- children's libraries in particular -- stand to benefit greatly from emerging forms of tangible and embodied interactive technology that can leverage these findings. As informal community-based learning institutions with a mandate to provide user-centered, personalized reading and learning experiences, children's libraries are uniquely positioned to empower young learners through the development of reading skills. Within these institutions, reading skills -- particularly those representing embodied cognition -- are supported by social interaction with peers, caregivers, and librarians. Through embodied cognition, children develop critical early literacy skills by linking concepts with corresponding physical actions, to establish the foundation of reading comprehension. When such activities are playful, fun, and interactive, learning to read becomes intrinsically motivating. While embodied technology is particularly conducive to creating such novel interactions, few libraries have adopted technology that deliberately channels these phenomena towards literacy development. Through qualitative ethnographic methods this investigation presents opportunities for embodied cognition and tangible embedded interactive play and learning systems within children's libraries.
Impact of embodied interaction on learning processes: design and analysis of an educational application based on physical activity BIBAFull-Text 60-69
  Laura Malinverni; Brenda López Silva; Narcís Parés
There is a growing interest in learning studies about the use of interaction models that involve sensorimotor activities and affordances within an educational experience. This paper explores how concrete experiences, in this case an educational application designed for an Interactive Slide, can make concepts of buoyancy and Archimedes' principle understandable to children. We hypothesized that the relationship between kinesthetic experience and the Interactive Slide's affordances would improve learning. To test this hypothesis we have defined two principal experimental conditions, using the same application on the Interactive Slide and on a desktop computer, and compared the results from a sample of 331 children through pre and post-tests. Our results show modest but noticeable improvements in test scores from children assigned to the Interactive Slide condition. The results of this study highlight the opportunities of the Interactive Slide as a learning environment to foster the processes of building abstract concepts. However, additional exploration is necessary to improve the design strategies for new applications and refine the assessment methodology.
Investigating children's opinions of games: Fun Toolkit vs. This or That BIBAFull-Text 70-77
  Gavin Sim; Matthew Horton
Over the past decade many new evaluation methods have emerged for evaluating user experience with children, but the results of these studies have tended to be reported in isolation of other techniques. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of 2 user experience evaluations methods with children. A within-subject design was adopted using 20 children aged between 7 and 8. The children played 2 different games on a tablet PCs and their experiences of each were captured using 2 evaluation methods which have been validated with children: the Fun Toolkit and This or That. The results showed that the Fun Toolkit and This or That method yielded similar results and were able to establish a preference for one game over the other. However, there were some inconsistencies between the results of individual tools within the Fun toolkit and some of the constructs being measured in the This or That method. Further research will try to identify any ordering effects within each method and redundancies within the questions.
Learning kinematics in elementary grades using agent-based computational modeling: a visual programming-based approach BIBAFull-Text 78-87
  Pratim Sengupta; Amy Voss Farris
Integrating computational modeling and programming with learning and teaching physics is a non-trivial challenge for educational designers. In this paper, we attempt to address this challenge by presenting ViMAP, a new visual-programming language and modeling platform for learning kinematics, and its underlying design principles. We then report a study conducted with 3rd and 4th grade students which shows that using ViMAP, they were able to develop a) deep conceptual understandings of kinematics and b) relevant programming and computational modeling practices. We also identify how the design principles supported the development of these understandings and practices as students engaged in learning activities that integrated modeling, programming and physics.
Revive!: reactions to migration between different embodiments when playing with robotic pets BIBAFull-Text 88-97
  Elena Márquez Segura; Henriette Cramer; Paulo Fontaínha Gomes; Stina Nylander; Ana Paiva
This paper explores the issues that arise in the context of the migration of a robotic pet between different embodiments and the associated design challenges. In the following, we describe the perceptions that a group of children have of a dinosaur character crossing the boundary between its robotic embodiment (the Pleo commercial pet), and its virtual counterpart on a mobile phone. We analyse the children's perceptions of, as well as emotional reactions to, the migration of this character, and show how seemingly subtle variations in the migration process can affect the children's perception on the character and its embodiments. Among other findings, gaps in the migration process, or perceived unresponsiveness, appeared to be accompanied by anxiety in the participating children. Based on our results, we point to yet unsolved design challenges for migration in interactions with embodied characters, and offer insights for migration implementation.
Robo-Blocks: designing debugging abilities in a tangible programming system for early primary school children BIBAFull-Text 98-105
  Arnan Sipitakiat; Nusarin Nusen
Research on engaging young children in computer programming to develop high-level cognitive skills has suggested that debugging is among the most important actions leading to the development of logical thinking, problem solving, and social interaction skills. Although there have been a significant amount of studies done in this area, the debugging tools and techniques have been developed only as models and instructional methodologies outside of the tool itself. This work presents the design and analysis of debugging abilities embedded into a tangible programming system called Robo-Blocks. Students create a program by connecting physical command blocks, which then wirelessly controls the motion of a floor robot. Debugging is achieved by allowing children to run their program in a step-by-step manner and use passive objects to recognize and identify problems.
   Our evaluation with 52 children ages 8-9 has shown that (1) although tangible programming has the benefit of being exceptionally engaging to young children, early primary school children can quickly loose attention when no progress is made on a particular problem unless there are heuristics provided to help them move forward (2) Robo-Block's framework supplements the existing instructional methodologies used in the debugging process. Students showed significant increase in the ability to analyze problems and think of ways to correct them.
Scandinavian participatory design: dialogic curation with teenagers BIBAFull-Text 106-115
  Ole Sejer Iversen; Rachel Charlotte Smith
Yarosh and colleagues voice a need to explicitly reveal values that drive our IDC research studies to avoid 'cargo cult science'. As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.
Sciensations: making sense of science by designing with sensors BIBAFull-Text 116-124
  Katja Grufberg; Martin Jonsson
In this paper we propose a way to motivate children to learn about science by creating a design process scenario where the children are the designers who have to learn about the material provided for their new products. The material in this case is technology embedded in the children's own toys, two of the main sensors of the video game console Nintendo Wii; the accelerometer and the IR sensor. Through embodied interactions with analogue physical models, in activities called Sciensations, we want to encourage a deeper understanding of the functioning of the technology and also of some related natural science phenomena. An elementary school class of twenty-five students in ages 10-11 was studied while engaged in a design process that ran from startup to prototype evaluation. The resulting design concepts showed several innovative usages of the sensing technologies that indicates an understanding both of the technology and the corresponding natural phenomena. The activities also encouraged discussions and reflections around these abstract concepts.
StoryFaces: pretend-play with ebooks to support social-emotional storytelling BIBAFull-Text 125-133
  Kimiko Ryokai; Hayes Raffle; Robert Kowalski
We introduce StoryFaces, a new composition and storytelling tool for children to explore the role of emotional expressions in children's narrative. StoryFaces invites children to record emotional expressions that become part of storybook illustrations. As children watch the story being told, they see their faces bring the story to life; then they can "go backstage" to play with the story by rearranging the videos and altering the story text. More experienced children can build an interactive ebook from the ground up, creating scenes, characters and expressive faces to craft personalized narratives. Our design rationale focuses on supporting children's exploration of emotional expression through their narrative play. Results with eighteen children ages 4-10 indicate that emotional expressions are inviting and motivating for children across this broad age range to engage in both reading and creating narrative. StoryFaces gave children's ephemeral facial expressions concrete forms with which they could manipulate, discuss, and think about the role of emotion in narratives. Our goal is to provoke new ideas about how pretend play with digital tools can empower young children in social-emotional narrative activities.
Supporting the design contributions of children with autism spectrum conditions BIBAFull-Text 134-143
  Christopher Frauenberger; Judith Good; Alyssa Alcorn; Helen Pain
In this paper we describe the development of a tool to support the contributions of children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) in a design critique activity. The work is part of the ECHOES project in which we have included children with ASC in a participatory design process to create a technologically enhanced learning environment. We first discuss the general difficulties of involving children with ASC in participatory design work, particularly a socially demanding activity such as design critique. Based on theory from autism research and the results from our own previous design work, we then lay out requirements for a tool to allow children with ASC to become meaningfully involved in a design critique of the ECHOES environment. Subsequently, we describe a prototype of an annotation tool based on these requirements, a pilot study, and feedback elicited from special education teachers. We then report on a study in which seven children with ASC were involved in critiquing a prototype of the ECHOES system using the annotator. In our analysis of the children's annotator use, we found that it served the intended purposes as a visual support, but also that it was appropriated for other means, such as emotional self-regulation. We discuss examples of these different uses and close by asking how these findings could be applied in other contexts where tools are required to facilitate a discourse in design, rather than directly capture its output.
Tangicons 3.0: an educational non-competitive collaborative game BIBAFull-Text 144-151
  Florian Scharf; Thomas Winkler; Claudia Hahn; Christian Wolters; Michael Herczeg
In this paper we present Tangicons 3.0, an educational game for children between the ages of 6 and 9. Tangicons foster algorithmic construction and reasoning as well as discussions among the players. In contradiction to other collaborative educational games Tangicons intend to avoid competition between children in favor for a strictly collaborative process. Children learn to solve problems together by manipulating physical objects that communicate with each other in order to move virtual characters on a map. This requires a high degree of abstraction. To sustain concentration and motivation, the game also includes playful elements as well as fine and gross motor activity. The focus of the investigation, however, will be the logical-abstract thinking of children. This new version of Tangicons is build with Sifteo cubes as the base technology and a computer for the output on a larger display and sound.
Technology for promoting scientific practice and personal meaning in life-relevant learning BIBAFull-Text 152-161
  Tamara Clegg; Elizabeth Bonsignore; Jason Yip; Helene Gelderblom; Alex Kuhn; Tobin Valenstein; Becky Lewittes; Allison Druin
Children often report that school science is boring and abstract. For this reason, we have developed Life-relevant Learning (LRL) environments to help learners understand the relevance that scientific thinking, processes, and experimentation can have in their everyday lives. In this paper, we detail findings that aim to increase our understanding of the ways in which technology can support learners' scientific practice and their personal meaning in LRL through the integration of two mobile apps into an LRL environment. Our analysis of the artifacts created in these systems show that technology must strike a balance between structured scaffolds and flexible personal design to support learners' scientifically meaningful experiences. Our data suggests that integration of media forms and mobile technology can provide creative ways for learners to express their scientific thinking, make artifacts of their personally meaningful experiences, and individualize artifacts in scientifically meaningful ways.
The choreography of conceptual development in computer supported instructional environments BIBAFull-Text 162-167
  Timothy Charoenying; Alex Gaysinsky; Kimiko Riyokai
A key affordance of computational learning environments is that they can be designed to instantiate specific rules and causal relationships between user inputs and perceptual output. In this sense, designers can attempt to engineer specific trajectories of learners' conceptual development by devising situations they believe will help learners construct a particular concept/scheme. We revisit and elaborate upon Papert's notion of 'body syntonicity' and present a three-parameter model of interaction to describe how the interplay between a learner's prior knowledge, immediate perceptions, and goals embedded into the instructional situation contributes to the emergence of new conceptual schemes. We retrospectively apply this model to prior works and to a current instructional design that combines mathematics learning with physical exercise.

Short papers

A networked suite of mixed-technology robotic artifacts for advancing literacy in children BIBAFull-Text 168-171
  George J. Schafer; Keith Evan Green; Ian D. Walker; Elise Lewis
Illiteracy is a global problem that impacts societal and economic growth and development, and is directly correlated with the financial success, health and overall well-being of individuals. Studies indicate that picture-book reading within a facilitated story-time setting is an important tool for language acquisition in children. We hypothesize that in an increasingly digital society, literacy can be cultivated in a robot-embedded environment that is, at once, physical, digital and evocative of the picture-book being read. Inspired by concepts of embodied interaction, our developing LIT ROOM is an intelligent, fine-tunable suite of architectural-robotic artifacts distributed at room-scale in a public library setting. Presented here are motivations for and design overview of this developing interactive artifact. Through a reconfigurable, co-adaptive learning environment, the LIT ROOM aims to augment the dialogical reading of picture-books within an engaging and exploratory space for the advancement of literacy and learning.
BeSound: embodied reflexion for music education in childhood BIBAFull-Text 172-175
  Gualtiero Volpe; Giovanna Varni; Anna Rita Addessi; Barbara Mazzarino
Embodiment and reflexive interaction proved to be effective approaches to music education in childhood. A research challenge consists of merging them. This paper presents BeSound, an application intended to support children in learning the basic elements of composition. Children explore rhythm, melody, and harmony by playing at mimicking objects or characters; the qualities of their whole-body movements are analysed in real-time according to Rudolf Laban's Theory of Effort and used to control sound. The paper focuses on the design of BeSound and describes the analysis performed to distinguish between direct and flexible movements -- the Laban's Space component -- and between light and heavy movements -- the Laban's Weight component.
Building examples: media and learning affordances BIBAFull-Text 176-179
  Tiffany Tseng; Mitchel Resnick
Children engage in both structured and unstructured design activities with construction kits; for example, a child can choose to build predefined models with accompanying instructions or build their own models from scratch. This study explores the differences in children's play experience in both activities and looks specifically at how children respond to different instructional media. An exploratory study with six children between the ages of six and nine is described in which children used a paper-based, virtual, or physical model as a basis for creating a LEGO model. Children then had the opportunity to create a model of their own design. Through the study, the authors provide suggestions for enhanced virtual instruction guides and recommendations for combining the benefits of structured and unstructured play to create new design experiences for children.
Characters as agents for the co-design process BIBAFull-Text 180-183
  Cathy Grundy; Lyn Pemberton; Richard Morris
This paper describes a proposed new method for helping to understand the emotional requirements of children during the conceptual phase of designing an interface. The approach may be particularly useful where the feelings of the child are critical, but are difficult to investigate; for example when the issues are sensitive and may provoke emotional responses. Here we explore an approach that draws on the social agency that characters can provide to help the young user articulate their opinion. Children were asked to create fictitious cartoon 'personalities' that have desired attributes, personal qualities and behaviors that are relevant to a given scenario. Subsequently this influenced the conceptualization of a product under development for the context defined. The devices were being developed for final major projects across both the University of Brighton and the University of Sussex Product Design departments. Character design was found to be an engaging activity for the children, with a tangible outcome that can facilitate communication between the designer and pupil. It also provides a relatively sensitive method for getting information about the youngster's feelings through the dialogue that took place. This forms part of a larger study for a PhD thesis based on designing for children's emotional needs.
Children's web search with Google: the effectiveness of natural language queries BIBAFull-Text 184-187
  Yvonne Kammerer; Maja Bohnacker
In this paper, we present work in progress on how elementary school children use modern search engines to solve informational search tasks. Specifically, in a laboratory study with 21 children aged 8-10 we investigated whether the use of natural-language queries leads to more successful search outcomes than keyword queries when searching the Internet with Google. Both quantitative and qualitative data are reported that indicate the advantages of natural-language queries. Along, based on our observations we present a query-reformulation tool for a search engine interface for children that we are currently developing.
Creative access to technology: building sounding artifacts with children BIBAFull-Text 188-191
  Christoph Trappe
The research presented in this paper is driven by the idea that children can get unique access to technology through the construction of what one might want to call sound machines or sounding artifacts. This project seeks to leap beyond mere music making with digital devices for children by getting them involved in the construction and programming of such sounding artifacts. As our contribution to this research area we present our approach to the development of a graphical sound programming environment for children and present its application in the smart textile workshop Moving Sounds which was realized in collaboration with a local primary school. We discuss our experiences with the software and conclude with what we consider to be the next steps in the development of a flexible and rich sound synthesis environment for children.
Design challenges and concept for intergenerational online learning BIBAFull-Text 192-195
  Verena Fuchsberger; Julia Nebauer; Christiane Moser; Manfred Tscheligi
Online learning activities between grandparents and grandchildren are a promising solution for those, who live geographically separated or cannot meet face-to-face. Up to now, little is known about the characteristics these activities should have. In order to find out about the challenges that arise when designing an intergenerational online learning activity we analyzed children's preferences and needs, as well as those of grandparents. Investigating both perspectives ensures that the children benefit best from the activity itself and their grandparents' support. As the identified challenges mainly refer to the general set-up of learning activities, we also discuss a design concept illustrating how to meet the challenges.
Designing digital media for teen-aged apprentices: a participatory approach BIBAFull-Text 196-199
  Eva-Sophie Katterfeldt; Anja Zeising; Heidi Schelhowe
In this paper, we present results from the ongoing research project expertAzubi that seeks to foster the learning experiences from teen-aged children in work context by providing a Web 2.0 platform, in which they can collaborate and build a community. This target group grew up as so-called "Digital Natives". Due to a lack of established concepts how to involve teenagers in the development process of the platform, we chose several methods mainly known from user-centered design processes with children and adults. We report on our results from applying the methods in an exploratory fashion using six focus group workshops and drawing conclusions on their applicability for the target group of teen-aged Digital Natives.
Designing textual password systems for children BIBAFull-Text 200-203
  Janet C. Read; Brendan Cassidy
This paper describes two studies that looked at passwords for children. The first examined what children knew about the creation of textual passwords and then a second, follow on study, investigated the passwords that children chose to use. The two studies show that children have some understanding of how to make a good textual password but that the passwords they use are often in contradiction to their own knowledge of best practice. Based on the findings from these two studies, the authors propose three key design principles for systems that require textual passwords for children and where no alternative is available.
Development and evaluation of Fingu: a mathematics iPad game using multi-touch interaction BIBAFull-Text 204-207
  Wolmet Barendregt; Berner Lindström; Elisabeth Rietz-Leppänen; Ingemar Holgersson; Torgny Ottosson
We describe the design background of the mathematics game Fingu for iPad aimed at 4 to 8 year old children. We first describe how Fingu theoretically can support children's development of fundamental arithmetic skills, focusing on conceptual subitizing, the embodiment of numerosity, and finger gnosis. Then we present the results of an exploratory micro-longitudinal study of the game with 11 5- and 6-year old children playing the game for several weeks and being filmed at three occasions. We discuss how their behavior with the game develops over time and can be related to the development of arithmetic skills. Finally we discuss how we will proceed testing the effectiveness of Fingu in a larger controlled study.
Development of intelligent play practice for trampolines BIBAFull-Text 208-211
  Helle Skovbjerg Karoff; Lars Elbæk; Sigrid Rytz Hansen
This paper addresses the use of technology as an add-on to traditional and well-known dynamics of play. By introducing the process of development simulated by the interactive trampoline, this paper seeks to emphasize the relationship between physical activity, safety and sociality as important issues for future development of interactive design for play practices.
Digitally augmenting the flannel board BIBAFull-Text 212-215
  Maria Ana Medeiros; Pedro Branco; Clara Coutinho
In this paper, we describe the design process of a flannel board augmented with audio and video recording capabilities. A participatory design methodology was followed by working with five-year-old children, over a six months period. The result was highly influenced by their behavior and spontaneous feedback. The resulting digital flannel board prototype supports the recording of the children's narration, the manipulation of figures and the playback of audio and projected "shadows".
Evaluation of the puppet theater based on inclusive design method: a case study of fourth-year elementary school students with normal hearing BIBAFull-Text 216-219
  Egusa Ryohei; Kusunoki Fusako; Wada Kumiko; Mizoguchi Hiroshi; Namatame Miki; Inagaki Shigenori
In this study, we examined the feature of the audience participation in the progress of the story in Puppet Theater. Puppet Theater is a puppet show system developed that is designed for appreciation by hearing-impaired children. Wada et al. (2012) conducted preliminary evaluation experiments performed with 52 healthy elementary school children who were surveyed using both questionnaires and interviews. The results indicated that audience participation in the progress of the story had the effect of encouraging the audience to think about the story. It was also confirmed that, through this participation, the audience is imbued with a sense of emotional investment in the characters, which stimulates audience into immersive participation in the story.
From tools to communities: designs to support online creative collaboration in scratch BIBAFull-Text 220-223
  Ricarose Roque; Yasmin Kafai; Deborah Fields
In this paper, we investigate the support of online creative collaborations among young programmers in Scratch. We designed and implemented two online collaboration events, the Collab Challenge and Collab Camp, implemented in January 2011 and in August 2011, respectively, in which members of the Scratch community were invited to work together on programming projects. This paper explores what we learned from iteratively designing and implementing the second event Collab Camp. In our analyses, we reflect on how the changes in context of collaboration (context), the opportunities for finding collaborators (connection), and the engagement of members in constructive feedback (critique) emerged as critical spaces supportive of online collaboration. We discuss how these spaces can serve as guiding principles for online communities that support young designers in creating expressive and personally meaningful projects together.
Group interaction on interactive multi-touch tables by children in India BIBAFull-Text 224-227
  Izdihar Jamil; Mark Perry; Kenton O'Hara; Abhijit Karnik; Mark T. Marshall; Swathi Jha; Sanjay Gupta; Sriram Subramanian
Interactive tables provide multi-touch capabilities that can enable children to collaborate face-to-face simultaneously. In this paper we extend existing understanding of children's use of interactive tabletops by examining their use by school children in a school in Delhi, India. In the study, we explore how the school children exhibit particular types of collaboration strategies and touch input techniques when dealing with digital objects. In particular, we highlight a number of behaviours of interest, such as how the children would move the same digital object on the table together. We also discuss how the children work in close proximity to each other and dynamically organize their spatial positions in order to work together, as well as establish territory and control. We go on to examine some of the finger-based interaction and manipulation strategies that arise in these contexts. Finally, the paper considers the implications of such behaviours for the deployment of tabletop applications in these particular educational contexts.
Growing up with Nell: a narrative interface for literacy BIBAFull-Text 228-231
  C. Scott Ananian; Chris J. Ball; Michael Stone
Nell is a tablet-oriented education platform for children in the developing world. A novel modular narrative system guides learning, even for children far from educational infrastructure, and provides personalized instruction which grows with the child. Nell's design builds on experience with the Sugar Learning Platform [17], used by over two million children around the world.
Ilha Musical: a CAVE for nurturing cultural appreciation BIBAFull-Text 232-235
  António Gomes; Hyunjoo Oh; Yoram Chisik; Monchu Chen
Engaging children born in the digital age with traditional culture practices is a pedagogical and a technological challenge. In this paper we describe Ilha Musical, an interactive panoramic experience designed to foster appreciation of traditional Madeiran cultural practices in children from the island and abroad. The design employs a rhythm game in which children engage in traditional folk music and song while being exposed to visuals of the landscape, architecture, dance and other cultural motifs. We conclude with an eye tracking and scene analysis showing the success of the game in using competition and cooperation as a means of engaging the children with each other as well as with the narrative, the physical display and interface elements.
Independent exploration with tangibles for students with intellectual disabilities BIBAFull-Text 236-239
  Taciana Pontual Falcão; Sara Price
Students with intellectual disabilities tend to be reliant on other people's opinions and attitudes, and fear taking the initiative. Thus, they are reluctant to independently undertake activities required in exploratory learning contexts -- a pedagogical approach recommended by constructivist theories. This research aims to investigate how different aspects of tangibles, like physicality, multisensory and dynamic feedback, can better support more independent exploration for students with intellectual disabilities. Empirical studies were undertaken where forty-six students with intellectual disabilities used four different tangible systems for exploratory activities. Preliminary results provide indications for adequate design choices under the categories of action-effect mapping, types of representations, embedded meanings and conceptual metaphors, and actions.
Interactive applications for children with hearing impairments: a process of inspiration, ideation, and conceptualization BIBAFull-Text 240-243
  Pieter Duysburgh; Karin Slegers; An Jacobs
In this paper, we describe the research and conceptualization process in which a design team aimed at creating a number of innovative concepts for interactive applications for hearing impaired children, in order to improve their quality of life. The design team experimented with various ways to include hearing-impaired children and their parents and teachers in this process. First, an inspiration phase was organized in which two field researchers used various ethnographic methods to gain a better understanding of hearing-impaired children. Next, the design team held two ideation sessions, which resulted in 13 concepts. After thorough evaluation of these concepts with all stakeholders involved, three concepts remained. One pedagogical concept was chosen to elaborate further on with the target group and is currently under development in a new research project. The paper ends with a series of recommendations for design teams focusing on hearing-impaired children.
Material pets, virtual spaces, isolated designers: how collaboration may be unintentionally constrained in the design of tangible computational crafts BIBAFull-Text 244-247
  Maneksha DuMont; Victor R. Lee
Novel computational technologies that incorporate aspects of youth's activities, toys and culture with more traditional computer-based technology have the potential to change the landscape of youth participation in computer programming and design. This paper describes an effort to combine and centralize these aspects and technologies into an activity called "Digible Pets". The Digible Pets project was developed to be part user-crafted touchable animal and part virtual digital pet. Crafted physical pets are programmed to interact within a virtual space through a PicoBoard. In this project, academically struggling students in an alternative school successfully designed, crafted and developed a Digible Pet over the course of five weeks. While the project was designed to encourage collaboration, students actually did little idea sharing or building within or between design groups. This paper explores how collaboration, and its potential to facilitate learning, was unintentionally constrained by both students' individual dispositions and the technology interfaces.
Math on a sphere: using public displays to support children's creativity and computational thinking on 3D surfaces BIBAFull-Text 248-251
  Sherry Hsi; Michael Eisenberg
Math on a Sphere (MoS) is a newly developed Web-based environment that enables children to imagine, program, and share creative designs on a public spherical display, the "Science on a Sphere" system created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The MoS software, similar in spirit to the Logo language, was installed at an exhibit located in the Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California at Berkeley and at the Fiske Planetarium at University of Colorado, Boulder. Twenty-five children ages 8 to 13 in two cohorts tested the MoS software during a half-day workshop held at the Lawrence Hall. In addition to using the MoS software to create beautiful and original works of art, children also engaged in hands-on crafts and inquiry-based math activities to further promote learning of spherical geometry and computational thinking. MoS software workshop had a positive impact on children's engagement, but had mixed results about their understanding of geometry as evidenced by direct observations and results from pre/post-surveys, which are reported here.
Parents and children having and using technology: what should we ask? BIBAFull-Text 252-255
  Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read
In this paper, we report the findings from a study investigating children's responses to technologies they have within their home by comparing them with the responses given by their parents.
   The results indicate that children can report this information accurately as there was an 84% match between the responses of a parent and their child. Furthermore it appears that children do not associate items they have within the house with items their parents report they have access to as the match in responses fell to 74% in this case. The discussion focuses on the understanding of technology with the multi use nature of some technologies being a fascinating issue that must be taken into consideration.
Participatory design for exertion interfaces for children BIBAFull-Text 256-259
  Pascal Landry; Narcís Parés; Joseph Minsky; Roc Parés
We propose an adaptation of Participatory Design (PD) specifically conceived for full-body interaction design addressing the specificities that this entails. The idea is to include the preferences and points of view of children in the process of designing exergames allowing them to: (a) design activities that foster sufficient physical activity and a rich diversity of movement, (b) link this activity to the topic of the game and, (c) understand and test their designs at full-body scale already at prototype level.
Robotic companion for diabetic children: emotional and educational support to diabetic children, through an interactive robot BIBAFull-Text 260-263
  Marco Nalin; Ilaria Baroni; Alberto Sanna; Clara Pozzi
This work describes the requirements that a robotic companion should have in order to properly provide support to diabetic children, in a hospital department. The paper will briefly introduce all the different needs that a diabetic child might have, and the difficulties she faces in the discovery and management of the disease. Starting from literature both on Animal Assisted Therapies (AAT) and robotic companions, the paper will try to outline which are the possible objectives of a "robot assisted therapy" for young diabetic patients, where the robot should aim at reducing child's stress and anxiety, help to improve her response to medical treatments, improve her self-efficacy, and motivate her to do physical activity. The paper will then continue presenting the requirements derived from these objectives.
Standing on the shoulders of their peers: success factors for massive cooperation among children creating open source animations and games on their smartphones BIBAFull-Text 264-267
  Tobias Gritschacher; Wolfgang Slany
We developed a website for kids where they can share new as well as remixed animations and games, e.g., interactive music videos, which they created on their smartphones or tablets using a visual "LEGO-style" programming environment called Catroid. Online communities for children like our website have unique requirements, and keeping the commitment of kids on a high level is a continuous challenge. For instance, one key motivator for kids is the ability to entertain their friends. Another success factor is the ability to learn from and cooperate with other children. In this short position paper we attempt at identifying the requirements for the success of such an online community, both from the point of view of the kids as well as of their parents, and at finding ways to make it attractive for both.
Time-Me: helping children understand time BIBAFull-Text 268-271
  Azmina Karimi; Beth Liang; Andrew Nip; Saba Nowroozi; Celeste Pang
This paper describes the premise and development of Time-Me, a tool in progress that aims to help young children better understand the concept of time. Current tools for teaching time to children mainly focus on reading it correctly on a clock. While these tools do help children begin to understand how to measure time, they do not fully help children understand the intrinsic value of time. Therefore, there may be a disconnect between reading time and understanding what is being read -- the passage, or duration, of time. The design team found this as an opportunity to address a gap between reading time and understanding time.
   Time-Me is a proposal that aims to bridge these seemingly separate elements together for young children and provide a way to help them develop a cohesive understanding of temporal spaces. Time-Me is currently a prototype that uses tangible elements to represent time duration in connection with daily activities. Through its tangible approach, the tool aims to help children contextualize and internalize time based on the activities they partake in throughout the day that are familiar to them.
   Interviews and walkthroughs with children, parents, and teachers helped inform the prototype to its current stage. Through input from these groups, we were able to incorporate design elements that can help push further development of the prototype, and be applied in home, daycare, and classroom environments.
Understanding reading experience to inform the design of ebooks for children BIBAFull-Text 272-275
  Luca Colombo; Monica Landoni; Elisa Rubegni
In this work in progress paper we explore the many facets and activities that contribute to the definition of reading experience, in particular when considering children as readers of electronic books (eBooks). We aim at understanding the importance of reading context and book choice as part of the reading experience in order to set up the main steps of a User-Centered Design (UCD) process that will result in innovative models and interfaces for more engaging children's eBooks.
Using children's drawings to elicit feedback on interactive museum prototypes BIBAFull-Text 276-279
  Emma Nicol; Eva Hornecker
In this paper we describe our experience of designing and running a user evaluation of early prototypes of digital installations prior to their deployment in a new national heritage museum. Children, their parents, siblings and friends were invited to participate in the study, We focus on the effectiveness of using children's drawings to elicit responses from the child participants. Drawings provided us with insight into children's experience of the installations. Moreover, they proved a useful entry point for interviewing young children, avoiding some of the known challenges in this.
v-Penglipur Lara: the development of a pedagogical agent in Malaysian folktales land BIBAFull-Text 280-283
  Masyarah Zulhaida Masmuzidin; Taoran Wan
It has been reported that the pedagogical agent is a great tool in enhancing learning and teaching. Its potential in educational technology can be seen from a variety effects on learning outcomes especially in terms of promoting users' learning; gaining users' attention; and in enhancing users' motivation. Notwithstanding all the research undertaken in the field of educational technology, there have been a limited number of studies involving children. We will investigate the potential of pedagogical agent in enhancing children's learning performance in a virtual learning environment and, specifically, we will focus on the pedagogical agent's potential in enhancing children's understanding of Malaysian folktales and moral values. In this paper, we explain briefly about Malaysian folktales in so-called Hikayat Land and the implementation of the Pedagogical Agent Level of Details (PALD) model. We also share our experience of using the Pandorabots web service in developing our pedagogical agent, v-Penglipur Lara, or the storyteller.
What makes competitions fun to participate?: the role of audience for middle school game designers BIBAFull-Text 284-287
  Yasmin B. Kafai; Quinn Burke; Chad Mote
Though recent efforts have focused on creating tools and communities for youth game designers, the emergence of online competitions is a recent phenomenon in engaging students in such activities. In this paper we describe and analyze how a class of middle-school students participated in a national STEM video game challenge. Using Scratch, students designed, debugged and submitted their own video games over a three-month period. In analyzing the game designs, we paid particular attention to the role different authentic audiences and what we learned about supporting participation in online competitions.
You have to die!: parents and children playing cooperative games BIBAFull-Text 288-291
  Wolmet Barendregt
This paper reports on a study of how parents and children play several cooperative co-located games with different characteristics. The aim is to contribute to a deeper understanding of how specific game design elements structure the cooperative interaction between parents and children. The results show that the cooperative gameplay between parents and children differs between the games, based on the specific design details of the game. It is suggested that designs where skilled performance of one player is hindered by unskilled performance of the other player can create tension between the players. Thus, game designers of cooperative games wishing to support parent-child interaction have to be aware of these effects and determine how they design the progression in the game related to the balance between players.

Demo Papers

An interactive exploration system that visually supports learning of country features BIBAFull-Text 292-295
  Tomoko Kajiyama; Shin'ichi Satoh
We have improved our previously reported 'Concentric Ring View' search interface for multi-faceted metadata so that the display of the retrieved results is more meaningful. We constructed a country data exploration system as a teaching tool for geography education at the elementary- and middle-school levels. This system enables students to search for information flexibly and intuitively by combining attributes using simple operations. We defined seven attributes (five from textbooks and two related to national flags) and created a world map that helps the student place the retrieved results in context.
   To evaluate the system and identify ways to enhance it as a teaching resource, we had three students use it and interviewed a senior teacher. All the students were able to easily and enjoyably use the system with its simple ring operation. They were able to learn about countries during their exploring process naturally by identifying the common properties in retrieved results and analyzing the relationships between attribute values and information gleaned from the world map. This system not only provides visual clues to students, it can help teachers make their lessons more flexible.
Bifocal modeling: mixing real and virtual labs for advanced science learning BIBAFull-Text 296-299
  Paulo Blikstein; Tamar Fuhrmann; Daniel Greene; Shima Salehi
In this paper, we describe a set of user studies within the Bifocal Modeling (BM) framework. BM juxtaposes physical and computer models using sensor-based and computer modeling technologies, highlighting the discrepancies between ideal and real systems. When creating bifocal models, students build both a physical model with sensors of a given scientific phenomenon, and a computer model of the same phenomenon, connecting the two in real time with a special hardware interface. In this paper, we describe four formats for using BM in the classroom, as well as its affordances and characteristics.
Catroid: a mobile visual programming system for children BIBAFull-Text 300-303
  Wolfgang Slany
Catroid is a free and open source visual programming language, programming environment, image manipulation program, and website. Catroid allows casual and first-time users starting from age eight to develop their own animations and games solely using their Android phones or tablets. Catroid also allows to wirelessly control external hardware such as Lego Mindstorms robots via Bluetooth, Bluetooth Arduino boards, as well as Parrot's popular and inexpensive AR. Drone quadcopters via WiFi.
Designing a community to support long-term interest in programming for middle school children BIBAFull-Text 304-307
  Kyle J. Harms; Jordana H. Kerr; Michelle Ichinco; Mark Santolucito; Alexis Chuck; Terian Koscik; Mary Chou; Caitlin L. Kelleher
To facilitate long-term engagement in programming for middle school children, we developed the Looking Glass Community. The Community includes both a website and integrated access to community resources within the novice programming environment, Looking Glass. We discuss how we designed the Community to support engagement by providing a source for initial ideas, support for learning new skills, positive feedback, and role models.
Designing the anti-heuristic game: a game which violates heuristics BIBAFull-Text 308-311
  Gavin Sim
Inspection based methods are not very well researched in the area of Child Computer Interaction. One such evaluation method is the heuristic evaluation that requires a small number of evaluators to inspect an interface for compliance to a number of guidelines or principles. This paper reports on the development of the Anti-Heuristic Game, a game that has been designed to violate all of Nielsen's 10 heuristics. By developing a game whereby the problems are predefined and largely known, it will be possible to establish the effectiveness of children in identifying and reporting problems using the heuristic evaluation method. If children can perform a heuristic evaluation this will enable the benefits of inspection based methods to be realized within Child Computer Interaction.
Improving on a physics-based programming system for children BIBAFull-Text 312-315
  Robert Sheehan; Ducksan Cho; Joon Ha Park
Children who were programming for the first time at a faculty open day made several suggestions to improve the 2D physics-based programming system they were using. From these suggestions a number of additions were made to the prototype system. These improvements make the production of certain types of games and simulations much simpler, extending the catalogue of program types the system can produce. This revised system is a functioning work in progress.
Proportion: a tablet app for collaborative learning BIBAFull-Text 316-319
  Jochen Rick
Everyday computing technology is transitioning from PCs to more natural user interfaces. At the forefront of this trend are multi-touch tablets. Each year, tablets become more affordable, capable and widespread. Now is the time for research to shape how they will be used to support learning. In this paper, I introduce the Proportion tablet application as both a concrete vision of how tablets can be used to support co-located collaborative learning and as a research platform for investigating that possibility. I motivate the work, describe how the design has evolved and outline the questions this design-based research aims to address.
Replay: a self-documenting construction kit BIBAFull-Text 320-322
  Tiffany Tseng; Robert Hemsley; Mitchel Resnick
Replay is a self-documenting construction kit for children to both share their designs with others and reflect on their own design process. Replay consists of a set of angular pieces that can sense their connection and orientation. A virtual model is rendered in real time as a design is constructed, and an on-screen playback interface allows users to view models from multiple perspectives and watch how a design was assembled. This paper describes the early development of Replay and describes potential directions for the documentation of physical designs.
t-books: merging traditional storybooks with electronics BIBAFull-Text 323-326
  Cristina Sylla; Pedro Branco; Sérgio Gonçalves; Clara Coutinho; Paulo Brito
In this paper, we describe the design process and a first pilot study of t-books, a toolkit consisting of an electronic platform, a book with slots on it and a set of picture cards that children place on the book to interact and explore the narrative. t-books was motivated by the wish to offer children an environment where they can play with the language elements, while engaging as story authors. In this process children can enlarge their vocabulary, experiment different storylines and learn to create meaningful sequences that evolve to a narrative. At the same time children can build their own story world by choosing among a diversity of different characters, settings and actions according to their needs and preferences, thus generating a simulation environment within the story universe, where alternative scenarios, and what-if questions can be posed and tested. A first insight of children's interaction with t-books showed that children were highly motivated to create and share their own stories.

Doctoral Consortium

Augmenting imagination for children with autism BIBAFull-Text 327-330
  Zhen Bai
Evidence shows that children with autism suffer a deficit in spontaneous pretend play, which is believed to have developmental links to key competences of their future lives such as creativity and social interaction. In my PhD thesis, I would like to examine the use of Augmented Reality (AR), which superimposes imaginary objects on the real scene, as a novel therapeutic approach that may encourage children with autism to be involved in pretend play. In this paper, we present the design of an interactive AR system as an entry point to explore the main research questions of the thesis.
Creating physically active games for young adolescents BIBAFull-Text 331-334
  Rémi Bec
Obesity became a serious issue and many governments campaign encouraged interventions that can promote healthier lifestyles. Psychological theories and models in health mapped out the factors that can support or repulse individuals to change behaviour. Forming intentions is important to promote a behaviour change however quite often they are not implemented. One way to encourage people to be healthier can be addressed through games. Therefore, a qualitative research in the field of design has been undertaken to find out how games can be created to encourage physical activity among young adolescents aged 11-14 on a daily basis and on a long term period.
Designing for emergent play BIBAFull-Text 335-338
  Linda de Valk
This paper describes the PhD research on designing for open-ended play environments for children aged 6-8 years old. I discuss my research topic in more detail, as well as the developed design prototype and a first explorative study with this prototype. The focus of this study was on supporting playful experiences in different stages of play. Results show that playful experiences are supported by (different) design elements throughout the three stages of play. For the doctoral consortium, I also propose my research agenda for future work as point of discussion.
Developing adaptive exergames for adolescent children BIBAFull-Text 339-342
  Andrew P. Macvean
Thanks to progression in ubiquitous technologies, exergames have emerged with the potential to motivate and facilitate exercise within an enjoyable context. While early research has shown the potential of the genre, little work has been done on systems that specifically target adolescent children, with their unique requirements and needs. In order to develop well suited exergames, capable of adapting to the situation of the player, work must me done to better understand the exergame experience. In this research we investigate how different demographics (gender, gaming backgrounds, exercise backgrounds) of adolescent children react to an exergame in order to begin understanding what contributes to an affective exergame experience, and how this differs between users. This work forms the first steps in modelling children within exergames with the goal of developing systems capable of adapting to the unique needs of the player.
Empowerment through design: engaging alternative high school students through the design, development and crafting of digitally-enhanced pets BIBAFull-Text 343-346
  Maneksha DuMont
Students in alternative school are not served by existing interventions, which often focus on remediation and rote learning. Tangible computational crafts, because of their emotional affordances and relationships to youth's known likes and activities, may be a way to engage struggling students in sophisticated learning through design projects. I aim to explore how underachieving youth enrolled in a rural alternative public high school for failing students use PicoBoard, an external logic board, to design, develop and craft their own digital pets. The study focuses on empowering novice students to be designers. Questions include how students engage in the process of finding and fixing errors, and whether the design project helps students develop a productive relationship to making mistakes and learning. Initial analyses suggest students without programming experience can design and develop a personal digital pet over the course of five weeks, that students take pride in their physical creations, divide work tasks according to perceived strengths, and learn important aspects of debugging and code remixing, even when not confident about their abilities.
Supporting non-formal learning through co-design of social games with children BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  Diego Alvarado
Intrinsic motivation is hard to attain when designing games for educational purposes in non-formal learning settings. The approach I take in my research is to use a co-design technique to understand what motivates and entertains children while they work together in the creation of a social game aiming to teach younger children how to respond to an emergency. The technique has been assessed through a series of workshops which results I am currently analyzing in order to find issues that could lead to the implementation of a system to be used in the co-design technique. The idea is to ease the execution of the technique by introducing technologies intuitive to use for children. Moreover, I am interested in obtaining more information about children's social interactions that help me to solve the question of how a social game should be designed so children engage in the playing activity and can successfully learn from it.
The choreography of conceptual development in computer supported instructional environments BIBAFull-Text 351-354
  Timothy Charoenying
A key affordance of computational learning environments is that they can be designed to instantiate specific rules and causal relationships between user inputs and perceptual output. In this sense, designers can attempt to engineer specific trajectories of learners' conceptual development by devising situations they believe will help learners construct a particular concept/scheme. Building on classic constructivist theories of cognition, I introduce a three-parameter model of interaction to describe how the interplay between a learner's prior knowledge; immediate perceptions; and the objectives of an instructional situation contributes to the emergence of new conceptual schemes. I describe how this model has informed the design of embodied interactions for supporting mathematics learning through physical exercise.
Towards a socially adaptive digital playground BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Robby van Delden
We are working towards a socially adaptive digital playground for children. To this end, we are looking into nonverbal synchrony and other social signals as a measure of social behaviour and into ways to alter game dynamics to trigger and inhibit certain social behaviours. Our first results indicate that we can indeed influence social behaviours in a digital playground by changing game dynamics. Furthermore, our first results show that we will be able to sense some of these social behaviours using only computer vision techniques. I propose an iterative method for working towards a socially adaptive digital playground.
Waiting for learning: designing interactive educational materials for patient waiting areas BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Zeina Atrash Leong
This document describes the plan for research and development of educational media for children in doctor's office waiting areas. Technology in health care has become increasingly prominent and effective for doctors, administration, and patients; however, the research on the use of technology for health education is limited. In this project, I focus on clinics for Sickle Cell Disease treatment. Here patients come in a variety of ages and severity, but they share a common disease and visit the clinic frequently. In this document I describe my current research to better understand the behaviors of patients as they wait in the clinic, their expectations and understandings of Sickle Cell and its treatment, the educational material currently available, and my methods for developing interactive technologies for these environments.

Workshops

Interactive technologies for children with special needs BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Meryl Alper; Juan Pablo Hourcade; Shuli Gilutz
There is a growing trend in both the academic and private sectors of designing innovative interactive technologies for children. These technologies could be a unique platform for addressing the freedoms and rights of children with special needs. They afford new kinds of support for children with special needs' full participation, both as children and later on as adults, in the public sphere. This workshop highlighted three underexplored themes in designing interactive technologies for children with disabilities, including considerations for participatory design, interactive technologies for children with hearing impairments, and the possibly transformative potential of tangible computing. Some of the future research opportunities and challenges in the areas of deep engagement, interdisciplinarity, individuality, and practicality are discussed.

Workshops: best papers

Challenges, opportunities and future perspectives in including children with disabilities in the design of interactive technology BIBAFull-Text 367-370
  Christopher Frauenberger; Judith Good; Alyssa Alcorn
In this paper we discuss participatory approaches to designing interactive technologies for children with disabilities. While participatory design (PD) has been increasingly influential in the field of Human-Computer Interaction as a whole, applying its methods and theories to children with disabilities raises challenges specific to this target group and poses more fundamental questions about the limits of PD. We will first build the underlying argument of why we believe PD is particularly important when designing for children with disabilities, before discussing the challenges and opportunities that come with implementing PD in this context. We ground this discussion in our own experiences with developing a learning environment for children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). We then consider future perspectives and develop research questions by reflecting on our experiences.
Tangibles for students with intellectual disabilities BIBAFull-Text 371-374
  Taciana Pontual Falcão; Sara Price
Students with intellectual disabilities tend to be reliant on other people's opinions and attitudes, and fear taking initiatives. Thus, they are reluctant to independently undertake activities of exploratory learning -- a pedagogical approach recommended by constructivist theories. This research aims to investigate how different aspects of tangibles can better support more independent exploration for students with intellectual disabilities. In this paper we discuss three relevant themes that have emerged from ongoing analysis of empirical studies where children with intellectual disabilities experimented with four different tangible systems: the importance of both space and time dimensions of embodiment; the complexity of conveying concepts through audio representations; and the role of actions both as cognitive resources for thinking and expression.

Workshops

Digital fabrication for educational contexts BIBAFull-Text 375-376
  Dennis Krannich; Bernard Robben; Sabrina Wilske
In this workshop we present the concept of digital fabrication and discuss how this novel and diverse approach can be applied for educational contexts.

Workshops: best paper

"Seeing solids" via patterns of light: evaluating a tangible 3D-input device BIBAFull-Text 377-380
  Ben Leduc-Mills; Halley Profita; Michael Eisenberg
This paper describes pilot tests of a prototype device for 3-dimensional input called the UCube; briefly, this device permits spatial input to be conveyed "by hand", by turning on (or off) elements of a volumetric array of lights whose positions are then sent to a desktop computer. The purpose of the UCube is to allow users -- especially students and novices with little experience of 3D design -- to create a wide variety of three-dimensional shapes without the need for complex modeling software. In this paper, we describe tests of the UCube with middle-school students, focusing on the ability of students to visualize and model solid forms employing the device. We use the results of these pilot tests to ground a wider-ranging discussion of (a) how the device itself might be further developed, and (b) more general issues in designing systems for interactive three-dimensional input and fabrication.