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ICVR Tables of Contents: 070911-111-2

VMR 2011: 4th International Conference on Virtual and Mixed Reality, Part II: Systems and Applications

Fullname:VMR 2011: 4th International Conference on Virtual and Mixed Reality, Part II: Systems and Applications
Note:Volume 14 of HCI International 2011
Editors:Randall Shumaker
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6774
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-22023-4 (print), 978-3-642-22024-1 (online); hcibib: ICVR11-2
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. ICVR 2011-07-09 Volume 2
    1. VR in Education, Training and Health
    2. VR for Culture and Entertainment
    3. Virtual Humans and Avatars
    4. Developing Virtual and Mixed Environments

ICVR 2011-07-09 Volume 2

VR in Education, Training and Health

Serious Games for Psychological Health Education BIBAKFull-Text 3-10
  Anya Andrews
This paper presents a summary of recent research efforts aiming to address modern psychological health education needs through the use of innovative instructional tools. The current body of research on virtual learning environments and serious games as they relate to psychological treatment shows promising results, especially in the case of the instructional interventions that provide an optimal blend of education and training and focus on the psychological health knowledge acquisition as well as appropriate stress management skills and behaviors. In concert with the theoretical and research foundations within the psychological health domain and pedagogical precepts in the area of simulation and game-based learning, this article also presents design considerations for serious games for psychological health.
Keywords: Serious Games; Psychological Health Education; Mental Health; Virtual Learning Environments
Mixed Reality as a Means to Strengthen Post-stroke Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 11-19
  Ines Di Loreto; Liesjet Van Dokkum; Abdelkader Gouaich; Isabelle Laffont
Purpose of this paper is to present a mixed reality system (MRS) for rehabilitation of the upper limb after stroke. Aim of the system is to increase the amount of training using the fun factor as driver. While the acceptance of such a system can be assessed with patients, true clinical validity can be assessed only through a long randomized clinical trial. However, a first important impression of usefulness can be based on therapists' expertise. For this reason before testing the MRS with patients we carried a study with therapists involving the rehabilitation staff of a French hospital. Three sessions, one using the Wii System with a commercial game, another using an ad hoc developed game on a PC, and another using a mixed reality version of the same game were held. In synthesis results have shown the MR system is regarded to be useful for a larger number of patients, in particular the ones in the more acute phase after stroke.
Keywords: Mixed reality; Post stroke rehabilitation; Serious Games
A Virtual Experiment Platform for Mechanism Motion Cognitive Learning BIBAKFull-Text 20-29
  Xiumin Fan; Xi Zhang; Huangchong Cheng; Yanjun Ma; Qichang He
In order to give students a more intuitionistic understanding in mechanism motion system, a virtual experiment platform is designed and developed. First, experimental component models, which contain both visual information and logical information, are built. The logical information is modeled according to a Unified Modeling Language called Modelica (MO). Then, a virtual experiment scene, which is described by Modelica, is assembled in a virtual reality environment. The virtual scene MO model is flatted to a set of equations which are compiled and solved, and the mechanism motion data can be output. Last, the motion data are exported into the Virtual Reality environment for the simulation result visualization. Students can use the platform to build mechanism system experiments and simulate the component motion for a better understanding of mechanism composition and its movement principle. The platform is universal and can be expanded to other subjects easily because the experimental components are built by Unified Modeling Method.
Keywords: virtual experiment; mechanism motion experiment; modelica modeling; virtual reality
Mechatronic Prototype for Rigid Endoscopy Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 30-36
  Byron Perez-Gutierrez; Camilo Ariza-Zambrano; Juan Camilo Hernández
Haptic systems include hardware and software components for providing programmable sensations of mechanical nature, such as those related to the sense of touch. This article covers the mechatronic design of a rigid endonasal endoscopy simulator that allows the user to feel force feedback collisions with the anatomical structures during navigation in a virtual environment. The mechatronic system design provides tactile feedback information with three degrees of freedom to the user based on an open loop implemented control. The tests were performed on a computational prototype that allows the visualization of medical image volumes and navigation with collision detection system.
Keywords: Haptic; Virtual Reality; Virtual Endoscopy
Patterns of Gaming Preferences and Serious Game Effectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 37-43
  Katelyn Procci; James Bohnsack; Clint A. Bowers
According to the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), important predictors of system use include application-specific self-efficacy, ease of use, and perceived usefulness. Current work with the TAM includes extending the assessment framework to domains such as serious games as well as how other typically under-researched factors, such as gender, affect technology use. The current work reports on how there are gender differences in both game playing behaviors as well as general game genre preferences, offers implications for serious game designers regarding the development of effective learning interventions based on these differences, and finally suggests avenues for future research in this area.
Keywords: gender differences; serious games; technology acceptance model; user preferences
Serious Games for the Therapy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder of Children and Adolescents BIBAFull-Text 44-53
  Rafael Radkowski; Wilfried Huck; Gitta Domik; Martin Holtmann
The posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental-health problem that can emerge after a delayed reaction of a person to a traumatic incident. A common therapy is the so-called exposure therapy. However, children and adolescent cannot be treated with a common therapy. In this paper we describe a serious game for the therapy of a PTSD by children and adolescent. Objective of this paper is to introduce a concept for the game development and a method to balance the game. It is based on a so-called impulse hierarchy. The game prototype respectively the utilized concept and methods have been tested with healthy test persons. The results are a strong indication for the effective of the developed game concept and the usefulness of the key principles.
Virtual Reality as Knowledge Enhancement Tool for Musculoskeletal Pathology BIBAKFull-Text 54-63
  Sophia Sakellariou; Vassilis Charissis; Stephen Grant; Janice Turner; Dianne Kelly; Chistodoulos Christomanos
Contemporary requirements of medical explanatory resources have sparked the initiative of developing a unique pilot application which could use real-time 3D visualisation in order to inform General Practitioners (GPs) and allied health professionals as well as educate patients on musculoskeletal issues and particularly lower back pain. The proposed application offers a selection of 3D spinal anatomical and pathological models with embedded information. The interface elements adhered to previous studies' suggestions that the knowledge acquisition and ultimately the understanding of such motley three-dimensional subjects typically entails a strong grasp of the 3D anatomy to which it relates. The Human-Computer Interaction is simplified in order to empower the user to explore the healthy and pathogenic anatomy of the spine without the typical real-life constrains. The paper presents the design philosophy of the interface and the evaluation results from twenty user trials. Finally the paper discusses the results and offers a future plan of action.
Keywords: VR; 3D; HCI; Musculoskeletal; Medical Education; visual interface; Low Back Pain
Study of Optimal Behavior in Complex Virtual Training Systems BIBAKFull-Text 64-72
  Jose San Martin
In previous works we have studied the behavior of simple training systems integrated by a haptic device basing on criteria derived from Manipulability concept. The study of complex systems needs to re-define the criteria of optimal design for these systems. It is necessary to analyze how the workspace of two different haptics, simultaneously on the same model, limits the movement of each other. Results of the new proposed measures are used on Insight ARTHRO VR training system. The Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) techniques use miniature cameras with microscopes, fiber-optic flashlights and high definition monitors. The camera and the instruments are inserted through small incisions on the skin called portals. The trainer uses two PHANToM OMNi haptic devices, one representing the camera and other the surgical instrumental.
Keywords: Haptics; Workspace Interference; Manipulability; Optimal Designing
Farming Education: A Case for Social Games in Learning BIBAKFull-Text 73-79
  Peter A. Smith; Alicia Sanchez
Social games have skyrocketed in popularity; much to the surprise of many in the game development community. By reinforcing individualized internalization of concepts while framing those experiences in terms of social activities, social games are filling a void not adequately filled by other games and may turn out to be power learning tools. Their potential use in education is still in its infancy as many consider how the characteristics unique to social games could be used within a learning paradigm. By creating asynchronous multiplayer environments and play dynamics designed to leverage both individual and collaborative goals, social games may foster long distance relationships and encourages reflection of the tasks preformed.
Keywords: Social Games; Social Networks; Learning Games; Serious Games
Sample Size Estimation for Statistical Comparative Test of Training by Using Augmented Reality via Theoretical Formula and OCC Graphs: Aeronautical Case of a Component Assemblage BIBAKFull-Text 80-89
  Fernando Suárez-Warden; Yocelin Cervantes-Gloria; Eduardo González-Mendívil
Advances in Augmented Reality applied to learning the assembly operation in terms of productivity, must certainly be evaluated. We propose a congruent sequence of statistical procedures that will lead to determine the estimated work sample size (n) according to the level of significance required by the aeronautical sector or a justified similar one and the estimated (sometimes preconceived) value of the plus-minus error (E or E±). We used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to verify that a normal distribution fits, it is a nonparametric one (free-distribution). And by taking into account normal population, confidence interval is determined using the Student's t distribution for (n-1) degrees of freedom. We have gotten E error and obtained various sample sizes via statistical formula. Additionally, we proceeded to utilize both an alpha α significance level and a beta β power of the test selected for the aeronautical segment to estimate the size of the sample via application of Operating Characteristic Curves (CCO), being this one of the ways with statistical high rigor. Several scenarios with different n values make up the outcome, herein. We disclosed diverse options for the different manners of estimation.
Keywords: Augmented Reality (AR); plus-minus error or margin of error; confidence interval (CI); Operating Characteristic Curves (OCC)
Enhancing English Learning Website Content and User Interface Functions Using Integrated Quality Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 90-99
  Dylan Sung
The present study investigated the applicability of an integrated quality assessment approach to assess English learning website quality. The study used the Kano Model to identify attractive quality attributes of the content and user interface functions of an English learning website. The Importance-Satisfaction Model was used to determine the interface functions that need to be improved. Findings of the study led to the conclusion that the content and user interface functions of English learning websites should be specially developed according to the satisfaction level of the learners and also the degree of importance perceived by them. On the basis of the key quality attributes identified by utilizing the integrated quality assessment model developed in this study, English learning website designers can make important decisions on specific areas for enhancing the quality of the website and improving the learning efficiency of the users.
Keywords: English as a foreign language (EFL); English learning; computer-assisted language learning (CALL); Internet-assisted language learning; e-learning; educational technology
The Influence of Virtual World Interactions toward Driving Real World Behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 100-109
  Hari Thiruvengada; Paul Derby; Wendy Foslien; John Beane; Anand Tharanathan
In the recent years, virtual worlds have gained wide spread popularity and acceptance in a variety of application domains including training, education, social networking, and conceptual demonstrations. This is largely due to their ability to support modeling of fully textured high-resolution real world objects, to provide a compelling user experience, and to offer novel, rich and exploratory interactions to the user. However, the impact of familiarity with the real world domain and objects on user behavior is still unclear. In this study, we discuss the findings from a pilot study on a virtual world facility tour that was based on a real world facility. The objectives of the tour were threefold. First, we sought to understand the feasibility of using a virtual tour in lieu of the actual real world tour. Second, the tour was used as an educational tool to demonstrate several sustainable or efficient energy initiatives to the facility occupants. Specifically, the virtual tour consisted of an interactive energy dashboard, a low voltage LED based lighting demonstration, an illustration of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) equipment operations during day and night, and renewable energy sources within the facility. Third, we sought to understand the impact of the tour on participants' future behaviors and attitudes toward sustainable energy. In order to address these overarching objectives, user feedback was collected using a survey after the users participated in the tour. We administered the survey to both occupants and nonoccupants of the facility to also understand the impact of familiarity on their behaviors. Users who were familiar with the facility were optimistic about their perception of learning how to navigate around the virtual replica than those who were not familiar. Our preliminary findings from the survey indicate that virtual worlds can have a positive impact on the users' behavior. Overall, we found that users' engagement during the virtual tour could contribute to learning and the development of lasting positive behaviors within virtual world, which can, in turn, translate into real world behaviors.
Keywords: Virtual Worlds; Experiential Learning; Human-in-the-loop simulation
Interactive Performance: Dramatic Improvisation in a Mixed Reality Environment for Learning BIBAKFull-Text 110-118
  Jeff Wirth; Anne E. Norris; Daniel P. Mapes; Kenneth E. Ingraham; J. Michael Moshell
A trained interactive performer uses a combination of head-motion capture and a new desktop gesture/posture control system to enact five avatars on a screen, as those avatars interact face-to-face with a participant/trainee. The inter-actor, assisted by a narrator/operator, provides voices for all five on-screen characters and leads the participant through a story-driven improvisational experience. This paper focuses on the processes of scenario development, inter-actor training and production management in the new creative discipline of interactive performance in mixed reality environments.
Keywords: interactive performance; mixed reality; avatar; role-playing; learning; training
Emotions and Telerehabilitation: Pilot Clinical Trials for Virtual Telerehabilitation Application Using Haptic Device and Its Impact on Post Stroke Patients' Mood and Motivation BIBAKFull-Text 119-128
  Shih-Ching Yeh; Margaret McLaughlin; Yujung Nam; Scott Sanders; Chien-Yen Chang; Bonnie Kennedy; Sheryl Flynn; Belinda Lange; Lei Li; Shu-ya Chen; Maureen Whitford; Carolee J. Winstein; Younbo Jung; Albert A. Rizzo
We describe a pilot clinical trial with a flexible telerehabilitation platform that allows a therapist to remotely monitor the exercise regimen and progress of a patient who previously suffered from a stroke. We developed virtual game environments which were host to a progressive set of training tasks from precise fine motor movements to reaching movements that involve full arm and shoulder activity. Concurrently, the therapist monitored the progress of the patient through a video channel. Assessment of psychosocial variables show that negative feelings (confusion, t(13)=2.54, p<.05, depression t(13)=2.58, p<.05, and tension, t(13)=2, p<.1) were significantly lessened after the game play. Patients' overall satisfaction with the telerehabilitation system was positively correlated with the feeling of co-presence of the therapist, r(8)=.770, p<.005. Patients felt less efficacious in continuing therapy after participating in the telerehabilitation game compared to their reported perseverance self-efficacy before the game, t(5)=2.71, p<.05 and showed decreased willingness to persist in therapy regardless of fatigue after the game play, t(5)=2.67, p<.05. However, when patients' pretest mood scores were taken into account, this trend was reversed. Patients' active mood before the game was positively correlated with their willingness to persist in the therapy after the game, r(14)=.699, p<.005. Telerehabilitation significantly enhanced stroke patients' psychological states.
Keywords: Virtual reality; stroke rehabilitation; telerehabilitation; haptics
Note: Best Paper Award
An Interactive Multimedia System for Parkinson's Patient Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 129-137
  Wenhui Yu; Catherine Vuong; Todd Ingalls
This paper describes a novel real-time Multimedia Rehabilitation Environment for the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). The system integrates two well known physical therapy techniques, multimodal sensory cueing and BIG protocol, with visual and auditory feedback to created an engaging mediated environment. The environment has been designed to fulfill the both the needs of the physical therapist and the patient.
Keywords: Parkinson's Disease; Physical Therapy; Mediated Rehabilitation; Sensory Cueing; Multimodal Feedback; Virtual Environment

VR for Culture and Entertainment

VClav 2.0 -- System for Playing 3D Virtual Copy of a Historical Clavichord BIBAKFull-Text 141-150
  Krzysztof Gardo; Ewa Lukasik
VClav 2.0 system presented in the paper enables user to interact with a digital 3D reconstruction of the historical clavichord in a manner similar to lifelike using Virtual Reality gloves to "play" music. The real clavichord was constructed by the famous maker in 18th century, Johann Adolph Hass from Hamburg, and is at the exposition in the Museum of Musical Instruments in Poznan, Poland (department of the National Museum). This is a system powered by the NeoAxis game engine and equipped with 5DT Data Glove 14 and Polhemus Patriot tracker. It is an exemplary solution for museums to actively present musical instruments.
Keywords: cultural heritage; Virtual Reality; 3D modeling; clavichord; gesture driven HCI
A System for Creating the Content for a Multi-sensory Theater BIBAKFull-Text 151-157
  Koichi Hirota; Seichiro Ebisawa; Tomohiro Amemiya; Yasushi Ikei
This paper reports on the current progress in a project to develop a multi-sensory theater. The project is focused not only on the development of hardware devices for multi-sensory presentations but also on an investigation into the framework and method of expression for creating the content. Olfactory, wind, and pneumatic devices that present the sensation of odor, wind and gusts, respectively, were developed and integrated into an audio-visual theater environment. All the devices, including the video device, are controlled through a MIDI interface. Also, a framework for creating the multi-sensory content by programming the sequence of device operations was proposed and implemented.
Keywords: multi-sensory theater; odor; sensation of wind; multi-sensory content
Wearable Display System for Handing Down Intangible Cultural Heritage BIBAKFull-Text 158-166
  Atsushi Hiyama; Yusuke Doyama; Mariko Miyashita; Eikan Ebuchi; Masazumi Seki; Michitaka Hirose
In recent years, most of traditional craftsmanship is declining because of aging skilled craftspeople and fewer successors. Therefore, methods for digital archiving of such traditional craftsmanship are needed. We have constructed a wearable skill handing down system focused on first-person visual and audio information and biological information of a craftsman. We used instrumental information associated with the usage of the tools for evaluating the effect of proposed wearable display system of intangible cultural heritage. In this paper, we show the result of archiving and training on the skills of Kamisuki, Japanese traditional papermaking.
Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage; Skill transfer; Tacit Knowledge; Wearable computer
Stroke-Based Semi-automatic Region of Interest Detection Algorithm for In-Situ Painting Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 167-176
  Youngkyoon Jang; Woontack Woo
In the case of illumination and view direction changes, the ability to accurately detect the Regions of Interest (ROI) is important for robust recognition. In this paper, we propose a stroke-based semi-automatic ROI detection algorithm using adaptive thresholding and a Hough-transform method for in-situ painting recognition. The proposed algorithm handles both simple and complicated texture painting cases by adaptively finding the threshold. It provides dominant edges by using the determined threshold, thereby enabling the Hough-transform method to succeed. Next, the proposed algorithm is easy to learn, as it only requires minimal participation from the user to draw a diagonal line from one end of the ROI to the other. Even though it requires a stroke to specify two vertex searching regions, it detects unspecified vertices by estimating probable vertex positions calculated by selecting appropriate lines comprising the predetected vertices. In this way, it accurately (1.16 error pixels) detects the painting region, even though a user sees the painting from the flank and gives inaccurate (4.53 error pixels) input points. Finally, the proposed algorithm provides for a fast processing time on mobile devices by adopting the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) method and normalizing the size of the detected ROI; the ROI image becomes smaller in terms of general code format for recognition, while preserving a high recognition accuracy (99.51%). As such, it is expected that this work can be used for a mobile gallery viewing system.
Keywords: Semi-automatic ROI Detection; Hough-transform; Planar Object Recognition; Local Binary Pattern
Personalized Voice Assignment Techniques for Synchronized Scenario Speech Output in Entertainment Systems BIBAKFull-Text 177-186
  Shinichi Kawamoto; Tatsuo Yotsukura; Satoshi Nakamura; Shigeo Morishima
The paper describes voice assignment techniques for synchronized scenario speech output in an instant casting movie system that enables anyone to be a movie star using his or her own voice and face. Two prototype systems were implemented, and both systems worked well for various participants, ranging from children to the elderly.
Keywords: Instant casting movie system; post-recording; speaker similarity; voice morphing; synchronized speech output
Instant Movie Casting with Personality: Dive into the Movie System BIBAKFull-Text 187-196
  Shigeo Morishima; Yasushi Yagi; Satoshi Nakamura
"Dive into the Movie (DIM)" is a name of project to aim to realize a world innovative entertainment system which can provide an immersion experience into the story by giving a chance to audience to share an impression with his family or friends by watching a movie in which all audience can participate in the story as movie casts. To realize this system, we are trying to model and capture the personal characteristics instantly and precisely in face, body, gait, hair and voice. All of the modeling, character synthesis, rendering and compositing processes have to be performed on real-time without any manual operation. In this paper, a novel entertainment system, Future Cast System (FCS), is introduced as a prototype of DIM. The first experimental trial demonstration of FCS was performed at the World Exposition 2005 in which 1,630,000 people have experienced this event during 6 months. And finally up-to-date DIM system to realize more realistic sensation is introduced.
Keywords: Personality Modeling; Gait Motion; Entertainment; Face Capture
A Realtime and Direct-Touch Interaction System for the 3D Cultural Artifact Exhibition BIBAKFull-Text 197-205
  Wataru Wakita; Katsuhito Akahane; Masaharu Isshiki; Hiromi T. Tanaka
We propose a realtime and direct-touch interaction system for 3D cultural artifact exhibition based on a texture-based haptic rendering technique. In the field of digital archive, it is important to archive and exhibit the cultural artifact at the high-definition. To archive the shape, color and texture of the cultural artifact, it is important to archive and represent not only visual effect but haptic impression. Therefore, multimodal digital archiving, realtime multisensory rendering, and intuitive and immersive exhibition system are necessary. Therefore, we develop a realtime and direct-touch interaction system for the 3D cultural artifact exhibition based on a texture-based haptic rendering technique. In our system, the viewer can directly touch a stereoscopic vision of 3D digital archived cultural artifact with the string-based and scalable haptic interface device "SPIDAR" and vibration motor.
Keywords: Digital Museum; Virtual Reality; Computer Graphics; Haptics
Digital Display Case: A Study on the Realization of a Virtual Transportation System for a Museum Collection BIBAKFull-Text 206-214
  Takafumi Watanabe; Kenji Inose; Makoto Ando; Takashi Kajinami; Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
This paper describes our proposed virtual transportation system. Our proposed system is a display case for use at art museums, which is based on computer graphics and image-based rendering (IBR) techniques. Using this system, anyone can simply create and realistically represent virtual cultural assets. This system consists of two main components: a display unit and a capture unit. The display unit is in the shape of a conventional display case in order to represent virtual cultural assets. The capture unit, which is created by attaching cameras to a conventional display case, reconstructs cultural assets using IBR techniques. In our experiment, we implemented a basic system using View Morphing as the IBR technique. The results show that this system can represent virtual cultural assets as 3D objects on the display unit by using arbitrary view images that are interpolated by View Morphing.
Keywords: digital display case; digital museum; image based rendering; virtual reality

Virtual Humans and Avatars

Integrating Multi-agents in a 3D Serious Game Aimed at Cognitive Stimulation BIBAKFull-Text 217-226
  Priscilla F. de Abreu; Luís Alfredo Vidal de Carvalho; Vera Maria Benjamim Werneck; Rosa Maria Esteves Moreira da Costa
Therapies for cognitive stimulation must be developed when some of the cognitive functions are not working properly. In many applications there is a strong dependence on therapist's intervention to control the patient's navigation in the environment and to change the difficulty level of a task. In general, these interventions, cause distractions, reducing the level of user immersion in the activities. As an alternative, the inclusion of intelligent agents can help to alleviate this problem by reducing the need of therapist involvement. This paper presents a serious game that combines the technologies of Virtual Reality and Multi-Agent Systems designed to improve the cognitive functions in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The integration of different technologies and the modelling methodology are described and open new software development perspectives for 3D environments construction.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Multi-Agents Systems; Serious Games; Cognitive Stimulation
Automatic 3-D Facial Fitting Technique for a Second Life Avatar BIBAFull-Text 227-236
  Hiroshi Dohi; Mitsuru Ishizuka
This paper describes an automatic 3-D facial fitting technique for a Second Life avatar. It is often difficult to create an original avatar by yourself that resembles a real person. In Second Life, the combinations of system-defined parameters deform the shape of the avatar, and we can't control each vertex directly. It needs to encode the deformation information into many parameters. As a reference target, we make use of MRI data that scans the real face. It is stable and not affected by lighting and diffused reflection. In our experiments, we picked up 428 vertices on the base model for facial fitting. Using the iteration technique, more than 50% of vertices are just on the reference targets, and more than 85% are within +/- 3mm of errors.
Reflected in a Liquid Crystal Display: Personalization and the Use of Avatars in Serious Games BIBAKFull-Text 237-242
  Shan Lakhmani; Clint A. Bowers
Personalization, in the realm of Serious Games, is the extent to which users believe that the digital environment is tailored to their characteristics and preferences. This belief can have major repercussions for a user's experience with the game and can subsequently be used to maximize the return on investment for serious game designers. Other factors that influence users' personalization in games include how the game affects the users' perception of self, presence in the game, and social relationships developed in the game. Users' avatars influence all of these factors. This goal of this paper is to examine the research done into avatars and personalization and presents it in the context of serious games research.
Keywords: avatars; personalization; presence; immersion; serious games
Leveraging Unencumbered Full Body Control of Animated Virtual Characters for Game-Based Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  Belinda Lange; Evan A. Suma; Brad Newman; Thai Phan; Chien-Yen Chang; Albert A. Rizzo; Mark T. Bolas
The use of commercial video games as rehabilitation tools, such as the Nintendo® Wii Fit™, has recently gained much interest in the physical therapy arena. However, physical rehabilitation requires accurate and appropriate tracking and feedback of performance, often not provided by existing commercial console devices or games. This paper describes the development of an application that leverages recent advances in commercial video game technology to provide fullbody control of animated virtual characters with low cost markerless tracking. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate an interactive game-based rehabilitation tool for balance training of adults with neurological injury. This paper outlines the development and evaluation of a game-based rehabilitation tool using the PrimeSense depth sensing technology, designed to elicit specific therapeutic motions when controlling a virtual avatar in pursuit of in-game goals. A sample of nine adults participated in the initial user testing, providing feedback on the hardware and software prototype.
Keywords: video game; balance; stoke; camera tracking
Interactive Exhibition with Ambience Using Video Avatar and Animation on Huge Screen BIBAKFull-Text 253-259
  Hasup Lee; Yoshisuke Tateyama; Tetsuro Ogi; Teiichi Nishioka; Takuro Kayahara; Kenichi Shinoda
In this paper, we develop an interactive exhibition system using a video avatar and an animation on huge screen. As the video avatar, we extract background images from recorded video stream using Chroma key and send the stream to remote using TCP/UDP protocols. The animation on huge screen provides immersion and ambience of the ages of displays. We restore clothes, ceremony, crowd, etc. using computer animation. 4K resolution projector with 300 inch screen is used in our system and it makes viewers to feel the ambience of the environment when and where the displays existed.
Keywords: Video Avatar; Museum Digitalization; Interactive Exhibition; Digital Restoration; Huge Screen
Realistic Facial Animation by Automatic Individual Head Modeling and Facial Muscle Adjustment BIBAKFull-Text 260-269
  Akinobu Maejima; Hiroyuki Kubo; Shigeo Morishima
We propose a technique for automatically generating a realistic facial animation with precise individual facial geometry and characteristic facial expressions. Our method is divided into two key methods: the head modeling process automatically generates a whole head model only from facial range scan data, the facial animation setup process automatically generates key shapes which represent individual facial expressions based on physics-based facial muscle simulation with an individual muscle layout estimated from facial expression videos. Facial animations considering individual characteristics can be synthesized using the generated head model and key shapes. Experimental results show that the proposed method can generate facial animations where 84% of subjects can identify themselves. Therefore, we conclude that our head modeling techniques are effective to entertainment system like a Future Cast.
Keywords: Individual Head Model; Automatic Mesh Completion; Facial Muscle Layout Estimation; Key Shape Generation; Facial Animation Synthesis
Geppetto: An Environment for the Efficient Control and Transmission of Digital Puppetry BIBAKFull-Text 270-278
  Daniel P. Mapes; Peter Tonner; Charles E. Hughes
An evolution of remote control puppetry systems is presented. These systems have been designed to provide high quality trainer to trainee communication in game scenarios containing multiple digital puppets with interaction occurring over long haul networks. The design requirements were to support dynamic switching of control between multiple puppets; suspension of disbelief when communicating through puppets; sensitivity to network bandwidth requirements; and as an affordable tool for professional interactive trainers (Interactors). The resulting system uses a novel pose blending solution guided by a scaled down desktop range motion capture controller as well as traditional button devices running on an standard game computer. This work incorporates aspects of motion capture, digital puppet design and rigging, game engines, networking, interactive performance, control devices and training.
Keywords: Digital puppetry; avatar; gesture; motion capture
Body Buddies: Social Signaling through Puppeteering BIBAKFull-Text 279-288
  Magy Seif El-Nasr; Katherine Isbister; Jeffery Ventrella; Bardia Aghabeigi; Chelsea Hash; Mona Erfani; Jacquelyn Ford Morie; Leslie Bishko
While virtual worlds have evolved to provide a good medium for social communication, they are very primitive in their social and affective communication design. The social communication methods within these worlds have progressed from early text-based social worlds, e.g. MUDS (multi-user dungeons) to 3D graphical interfaces with avatar control, such as Second Life. Current communication methods include triggering gestures by typed commands, and/or selecting a gesture by name through the user interface. There are no agreed-upon standards for organizing such gestures or interfaces. In this paper, we address this problem by discussing a Unity-based avatar puppeteering prototype we developed called Body Buddies. Body Buddies sits on top of the communication program Skype, and provides additional modalities for social signaling through avatar puppeteering. Additionally, we discuss results from an exploratory study we conducted to investigate how people use the interface. We also outline steps to continuously develop and evolve Body Buddies.
Keywords: avatar puppeteering; avatar nonverbal communication; social communication with avatars; avatar design; CVE (Collaborative Virtual Environment)
Why Can't a Virtual Character Be More Like a Human: A Mixed-Initiative Approach to Believable Agents BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Jichen Zhu; J. Michael Moshell; Santiago Ontañón; Elena Erbiceanu; Charles E. Hughes
Believable agents have applications in a wide range of human computer interaction-related domains, such as education, training, arts and entertainment. Autonomous characters that behave in a believable manner have the potential to maintain human users' suspense of disbelief and fully engage them in the experience. However, how to construct believable agents, especially in a generalizable and cost effective way, is still an open problem. This paper compares the two common approaches for constructing believable agents -- human-driven and artificial intelligence-driven interactive characters -- and proposes a mixed-initiative approach in the domain of interactive training systems. Our goal is to provide the user with engaging and effective educational experiences through their interaction with our system.
Keywords: Mixed-initiative system; character believability; interactive storytelling; artificial intelligence; interactive virtual environment

Developing Virtual and Mixed Environments

Collaborative Mixed-Reality Platform for the Design Assessment of Cars Interior BIBAKFull-Text 299-308
  Giandomenico Caruso; Samuele Polistina; Monica Bordegoni; Marcello Aliverti
The paper describes a collaborative platform to support the development and the evaluation of cars interior by using a Mixed Prototyping (MP) approach. The platform consists of two different systems: the 3D Haptic Modeler (3DHM) and the Mixed Reality Seating Buck (MRSB). The 3DHM is a workbench that allows us to modify the 3D model of a car dashboard by using a haptic device, while the MRSB is a configurable structure that enables us to simulate different driving seats. The two systems allow the collaboration among designers, engineers and end users in order to get, as final result, a concept design of the product that satisfies both design constraints and final users' preferences. The platform has been evaluated by means of several testing sessions, based on two different scenarios, so as to demonstrate the benefits and the potentials of our approach.
Keywords: Collaborative design; Mixed Reality; Virtual Prototype; Haptic modeling; Ergonomic assessment
Active Location Tracking for Projected Reality Using Wiimotes BIBAKFull-Text 309-317
  Siam Charoenseang; Nemin Suksen
Some addressed issues in projected reality are location acquisition, limited work space, and geometric distortion. This paper proposes a low-cost, robust, fast, and simple method for handling addressed problems using infrared camera in Nintendo's Wiimotes and a pan-tilt camera head. Two Wiimotes are attached on both horizontal and vertical axes of a portable projector mounted on a pan-tilt camera head. Hence, it can detect 4 infrared LEDs on the corners of a display surface in perspective projection volume. The augmented images are wrapped to fit the display area. To increase the system workspace, a pan-tilt camera head is used to track the display surface. While the display surface or the projector moves, a proposed fast location tracking algorithm between two Wiimotes is implemented. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of real time location tracking at 97 fps that is more than the refresh rate of typical projector. Finally, the active location tracking using the pan-tilt camera head can give workspace more than 36 times of the normal perspective projection workspace.
Keywords: Perspective Location Tracking; Projected Reality; Augmented Reality
Fast Prototyping of Virtual Replica of Real Products BIBAKFull-Text 318-326
  Francesco Ferrise; Monica Bordegoni
The ability to capture customers' needs and the voice of customers, and to translate them into a set of product specifications that at best satisfy the target customers has increasingly become a key element of business strategy. The common practice consists in evaluating products at the end of the design process through physical prototypes with the participation of users and potential customers. The same practice can be implemented by using virtual replica of real products, reducing cost and time necessary to build some variants. The paper presents a methodology for the development of the virtual prototype of a piece of furniture, produced by a company that is interested in studying how customers perceive and evaluate some variants of the hinge mechanism. The virtual prototype has been implemented using a tool for virtual reality applications oriented to non-expert programmers. The modularity and flexibility of the approach used for implementing the virtual replica has allowed us to re-use the components, and to easily change the parameters, also during the test activities.
Keywords: Virtual Products; Virtual Prototyping; Fast Prototyping
Effectiveness of a Tactile Display for Providing Orientation Information of 3d-patterned Surfaces BIBAFull-Text 327-332
  Nadia Vanessa Garcia-Hernandez; Ioannis Sarakoglou; Nikolaos G. Tsagarakis; Darwin G. Caldwell
This paper studies the effectiveness of a tactile display in providing information about the orientation of 3d-patterned surfaces. In particular, it investigates the perception of the orientation of sinusoidal gratings rendered through the display in a passive guided touch modality. The results of this study have revealed that participants could successfully perceive variations in the orientation of the rendered sinusoidal gratings. Moreover, they indicate a small difference in the perception of orientation between touching virtual gratings and touching real gratings.
ClearSpace: Mixed Reality Virtual Teamrooms BIBAKFull-Text 333-342
  Alex Hill; Matthew N. Bonner; Blair MacIntyre
We describe ClearSpace, a tool for collaboration between distributed teamrooms that combines components of virtual worlds and mixed presence groupware. This prototype is a starting point for exploring solutions to display and presence disparity by leveraging model-based user representations. We describe our deployed system and a mirroring approach that solves several problems with scaling up ClearBoard style portals to a common virtual space. We also describe techniques for enforcing consistency between heterogeneous virtual and physical contexts through system-managed awareness.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Distributed Groupware; Mixed Presence Groupware
Mesh Deformations in X3D via CUDA with Freeform Deformation Lattices BIBAKFull-Text 343-351
  Yvonne Jung; Holger Graf; Johannes Behr; Arjan Kuijper
In this paper we present a GPU-accelerated implementation of the well-known freeform deformation algorithm to allow for deformable objects within fully interactive virtual environments. We furthermore outline how our real-time deformation approach can be integrated into the X3D standard for more accessibility of the proposed methods. The presented technique can be used to deform complex detailed geometries without pre-processing the mesh by simply generating a lattice around the model. The local deformation is then computed for this lattice instead of the complex geometry, which efficiently can be carried out on the GPU using CUDA.
Keywords: Deformable objects; real-time simulation; FFD; CUDA; X3D
Visualization and Management of u-Contents for Ubiquitous VR BIBAKFull-Text 352-361
  Kiyoung Kim; JongHyun Han; Changgu Kang; Woontack Woo
Ubiquitous Virtual Reality, where ubiquitous computing meets mixed reality, is coming to our lives based on recent developments in the two fields. In this paper, we focus on the conceptual properties of contents including definition rather than infrastructures or algorithms for Ubiquitous Virtual Reality. For this purpose, we define u-Content and its descriptor with three conceptual key properties: u-Realism, u-Intelligence, and u-Mobility. Then we address the overall scheme of the descriptor with a Context-aware Augmented Reality Toolkit for visualization and management. We also show how the proposed concept is applied in the recent applications.
Keywords: Ubiquitous VR; u-Contents; Augmented Reality; Context
Semi Autonomous Camera Control in Dynamic Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 362-369
  Marcel Klomann; Jan-Torsten Milde
We present a system for controlling the camera movement in an interactive dynamic virtual world. The camera control is scripted in a specialized scripting language. A portable script interpreter has been implemented, allowing to run the scripts both on standard PCs and XBOX 360 systems.
Keywords: Camera control; script interpreter; PC and XBOX
Panoramic Image-Based Navigation for Smart-Phone in Indoor Environment BIBAKFull-Text 370-376
  Van Vinh Nguyen; Jin Guk Kim; Jong Weon Lee
In this paper, we propose a vision-based indoor navigation system for a smart-phone. The proposed system is designed to help a user traveling around an indoor environment to determine his current position and to give him the direction toward a chosen destination. For sensing user's position and orientation, the system utilizes panoramic images, which are pre-captured the environment and then processed to create a database. For matching images captured from user's smart-phone with the database, we use SURF [1], a robust detector and descriptor. Besides, to minimize responding time, the system employs client-server architecture in which a server module is mainly in charge of time consuming processes. Also, a tracking mechanism is applied to reduce matching time on the server. The experimental results show that the system can work well on a smart-phone in interactive time.
Keywords: Indoor navigation; panorama tracking; augmented reality
Foundation of a New Digital Ecosystem for u-Content: Needs, Definition, and Design BIBAFull-Text 377-386
  Yoosoo Oh; Sébastien Duval; Sehwan Kim; Hyoseok Yoon; Taejin Ha; Woontack Woo
In this paper, we analyze and classify digital ecosystems to demonstrate the need for a new digital ecosystem, oriented towards contents for ubiquitous virtual reality (U-VR), and to identify appropriate designs. First, we survey the digital ecosystems, explore their differences, identify unmet challenges, and consider their appropriateness for emerging services tightly linking real and virtual (i.e. digital) spaces. Second, we define a new type of content ecosystem (u-Content ecosystem) and describe its necessary and desirable features. Finally, the results of our analysis show that our proposed ecosystem surpasses the existing ecosystems for U-VR applications and contents.
Semantic Web-Techniques and Software Agents for the Automatic Integration of Virtual Prototypes BIBAFull-Text 387-396
  Rafael Radkowski; Florian Weidemann
A virtual prototype is a computer internal representation of a real prototype. It is composited by a set of different aspect models. A common technique to analyze a virtual prototype is the usage of virtual reality applications. However, this requires a composition of different aspect models and their integration into a virtual environment. In this paper, an agent-based technique is presented, which facilitates this automatic integration of different aspect models. The Resource Description Framework is utilized to annotate the aspect models. A software agent compares the annotations of different models. By this it identifies similar models. A software prototype has been created that shows the usefulness of the approach.
Virtual Factory Manager BIBAKFull-Text 397-406
  Marco Sacco; Giovanni Dal Maso; Ferdinando Milella; Paolo Pedrazzoli; Diego Rovere; Walter Terkaj
The current challenges in manufacturing engineering are the integration of the product/process/factory worlds (data and tools) and the synchronization of their lifecycles. Major ICT players already offer all-comprehensive Product Lifecycle Management suites supporting most of the processes. However, they do not offer all the required functionalities and they lack of interoperability. An answer will be given by the development of a Virtual Factory Framework (VFF): an integrated virtual environment that supports factory processes along all the phases of its lifecycle. This paper will focus on the Virtual Factory Manager (VFM) that acts as a server supporting the I/O communications within the framework for the software tools needing to access its data repository. The VFM will ensure data consistency and avoid data loss or corruption while different modules access/modify partial areas of the data repository at different times. Finally, an industrial case study will show the potentiality of the VFM.
Keywords: Virtual Factory; Interoperability; Reference Model
FiveStar: Ultra-Realistic Space Experience System BIBAKFull-Text 407-414
  Masahiro Urano; Yasushi Ikei; Koichi Hirota; Tomohiro Amemiya
This paper describes the development of the FiveStar system that provides five senses stimulations to the participant for the creation of ultra-realistic experiences. We performed an upgraded demonstration of the system to evaluate its individual technologies at Asiagraph 2010 in Tokyo. The content of the exhibit was the encounter with a yokai character that produces effects of extra-ordinary interaction between the participant and the imaginary characters. The experiences of participants were investigated as exploratory effort for the elucidation of this type of ultra-reality created in a fantasy world.
Keywords: Multiple-modality; Interactive Experience; Augmented Reality; Ultra Reality
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Control for Large Robot Teams BIBAKFull-Text 415-424
  Huadong Wang; Andreas Kolling; Nathan Brooks; Michael Lewis; Katia P. Sycara
In this paper, we discuss and investigate the advantages of an asynchronous display, called image queue, for foraging tasks with emphasis on Urban Search and Rescue. The image queue approach mines video data to present the operator with a relevant and comprehensive view of the environment, which helps the user to identify targets of interest such as injured victims. This approach allows operators to search through a large amount of data gathered by autonomous robot teams, and fills the gap for comprehensive and scalable displays to obtain a network-centric perspective for UGVs. It is found that the image queue reduces errors and operator's workload comparing with the traditional synchronous display. Furthermore, it disentangles target detection from concurrent system operations and enables a call center approach to target detection. With such an approach, it could scale up to a larger multi-robot systems gathering huge amounts of data with multiple operators.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; metrics; evaluation; multi-robot system; interface design; simulation
Acceleration of Massive Particle Data Visualization Based on GPU BIBAKFull-Text 425-431
  Hyun-Roc Yang; Kyung-Kyu Kang; Dongho Kim
In case of using ray tracing for rendering of massive particles, it usually takes more time than mesh-based models, where the particle data used for the representation of fluid are generated by the fluid simulator. It also has a large amount of particle set with high density. In this paper, we apply two schemes to reduce the rendering time and solve the problems using the characteristics of the particles. We suggest that GPGPU can improve the efficiency of the operations through parallel processing and a modified Kd-tree spatial subdivision algorithm for speed-up.
Keywords: GPGPU; CUDA; Ray tracing; Kd-tree; octree