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ICVR Tables of Contents: 070911-111-2

VMR 2009: 3rd International Conference on Virtual and Mixed Reality

Fullname:VMR 2009: 3rd International Conference on Virtual and Mixed Reality
Note:Volume 13 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Randall Shumaker
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5622
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02770-3 (print), 978-3-642-02771-0 (online); hcibib: ICVR09
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Interaction and Navigation in Virtual and Mixed Environments
  2. Design, Development and Evaluation of VR Environments
  3. Haptics and Tactile Interaction in VR
  4. Vision in Virtual and Mixed Reality
  5. VR Applications

Interaction and Navigation in Virtual and Mixed Environments

The 'H' in HCI: Enhancing Perception of Interaction through the Performative BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Simon Biggs; Mariza Dima; Henrik Ekeus; Sue Hawksley; Wendy Timmons; Mark Wright
Motion sensing technologies are well developed at the bio-mechanical (motion capture) and geo-locative (GPS) scales. However, there are many degrees of scale between these extremes and there have been few attempts to seek the integration of systems that were designed for distinct contexts and tasks. The proposition that motivated the Scale project team was that through such systems integration it would be possible to create an enhanced perception of interaction between human participants who might be co-located or remotely engaged, separated in either (or both) time or space. A further aim was to examine how the use of these technologies might inform current s discourse on the performative.
Keywords: multi-modal; scaleable; interactive environments; interdisciplinary research; perception
Advanced Interaction Techniques for Augmented Reality Applications BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Mark Billinghurst; Hirokazu Kato; Seiko Myojin
Augmented Reality (AR) research has been conducted for several decades, although until recently most AR applications had simple interaction methods using traditional input devices. AR tracking, display technology and software has progressed to the point where commercial applications can be developed. However there are opportunities to provide new advanced interaction techniques for AR applications. In this paper we describe several interaction methods that can be used to provide a better user experience, including tangible user interaction, multimodal input and mobile interaction.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Interaction Techniques; Tangible User Interfaces; Multimodal Input
Methods for Quantifying Emotion-Related Gait Kinematics BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  Elizabeth A. Crane; M. Melissa Gross; Ed Rothman
Quantitative models of whole body expressive movement can be developed by combining methods form biomechanics, psychology, and statistics. The purpose of this paper was to use motion capture data to assess emotion-related gait kinematics of hip and shoulder sagittal plane movement to evaluate the feasibility of using functional data analysis (FDA) for developing quantitative models. Overall, FDA was an effective method for comparing gait waveforms and emotion-related kinematics were associated with emotion arousal level.
Keywords: Whole Body Interaction; Motion Capture; Functional Data Analysis; Affective Computing
Towards an Advanced Framework for Whole Body Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 32-40
  David England; Martin Randles; Paul Fergus; A. Taleb-Bendiab
Whole Body Interaction has emerged in recent years as a discipline that integrates the physical, physiological, cognitive and emotional aspects of a person's complete interaction with a digital environment. In this paper we present a framework to handle the integration of the complex of input signals and the feedback required to support such interaction. The framework is based on the principles of Autonomic Computing and aims to provide adaption and robustness in the management of whole body interaction. Finally we present some example case studies of how such a framework could be used.
Keywords: Whole Body Interaction; Motion Capture; Autonomic Computing
Evaluation of Body Sway and the Relevant Dynamics While Viewing a Three-Dimensional Movie on a Head-Mounted Display by Using Stabilograms BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Kazuhiro Fujikake; Masaru Miyao; Tomoki Watanabe; Satoshi Hasegawa; Masako Omori; Hiroki Takada
The viewers of three-dimensional (3D) movies often complain of blurring and bleeding. They sometimes experience visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). In this study, the effect of VIMS on body sway was examined using stabilograms. We measured the sway in the center of gravity before and during the exposure to images projected on a head-mounted display (HMD). While viewing, the subjects were instructed to remain in the Romberg posture for the first 60 seconds and maintain a wide stance (midline of the heels, 20 cm apart) for the next 60 seconds. Employing Double-Wayland algorithm, we measured the degree of determinism in the dynamics of the sway in the center of gravity with respect to viewing 3D movies on HMD. As a result, the dynamics of the sway during and before the exposure was considered to be stochastic. Thus, exposure to 3D movies would not change the dynamics to a deterministic one.
Keywords: Three-dimensional (3D) movie; Visually induced motion sickness; Stabilogram; Degree of determinism; Double-Wayland algorithm
Estimation of User Interest from Face Approaches Captured by Webcam BIBAKFull-Text 51-59
  Kumiko Fujisawa; Kenro Aihara
We propose a methodology for estimating a user's interest in documents displayed on a computer screen from his or her physical actions. Some studies show that physical actions captured by a device can be indicators of a user's interest. We introduce the ongoing pilot study's results, which show the possible relationship between a user's face approaching the screen, as captured by a webcam, and their interest in the document on the screen. Our system uses a common user-friendly device. We evaluate our prototype system from the viewpoint of presuming an interest from such a face approach and the practicality of the system, and discuss the future possibilities of our research.
Keywords: Interface design; knowledge acquisition; user interest; motion capture
Spatial Navigation in a Virtual Multilevel Building: The Role of Exocentric View in Acquiring Survey Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 60-69
  Zhiqiang Luo; Henry Been-Lirn Duh; I-Ming Chen; Wenshu Luo
The present study aimed to test the function of the exocentric view on the acquisition of survey knowledge during spatial navigation in a virtual multilevel building. Subjects navigated a virtual three-level building in three conditions. In the first condition, subjects navigated the building without any aid. In the second condition, subjects navigated the building with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) floor map which illustrated the spatial layout on each level from one exocentric perspective. In the third condition, subjects could watch the spatial layout on each level from the exocentric perspective when traveling to another level by an elevator. After navigation, all subjects made the judgment of spatial relative direction. The analyses of the accuracy of spatial judgments showed that the accuracy of judgment of spatial horizontal direction was significantly improved when subjects observed the exocentric views of levels in the last two conditions; the judgment of spatial vertical direction was significantly worse in the 3D floor map condition than in other two conditions. Furthermore, the accuracy of judgment of both spatial horizontal and vertical directions was best in the direction faced by subjects when they first enter each level. The results suggested that the content of exocentric view should be carefully designed to improve the acquisition of survey knowledge. The application of the findings included the design of 3D map for the navigation in the virtual multilevel building.
A Real-World Pointing Device Based on an Optical Communication System BIBAFull-Text 70-79
  Yuichi Mitsudo
In the present paper, a new augmented reality environment that is based on an optical communication system is described. Optical communication devices have been used in several studies on ubiquitous computing. A novel physical structure of an optical communication system that enables the user to select the optical signal by simply pointing its transmitter with his/her finger is developed. In such an environment, the optical transmitter can be treated as a visual tag, referred to as a GhostTag, that includes continuous data, such as audio files. In addition, the PointSpeech application, which provides the user with audio assistant data via GhostTag, is presented herein.
VR Based Movie Watching Method by Reproduction of Spatial Sensation BIBAKFull-Text 80-89
  Kunihiro Nishimura; Aoi Ito; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
A conventional movie watching method is to view movies in front of a large screen such as theaters. Conventional presenting images in fixed position have a problem that it is easy for audiences to lose their spatial sensation of existing movies. In this paper, we propose a novel movie watching method in order to improve presence in existing media contents using virtual reality technology. We assumed when frames are presented with shooting angle based on audiences' looking position, their presence will be much higher. To represent the camera-shooting angle, we used a optical flow method. We proposed a movie watching viewing method based on the reconstructed camera shooting angle which is presented with a moving projector or a wall screen. We thought that our method made it possible to reconstruct lost spatial in movies.
Keywords: Presence; Camera Work; Roaming Images; a Moving Projector; Spatial Sensation
Comparison of Measurement of Accommodation between LCD and CRT at the Stereoscopic Vision Gaze BIBAKFull-Text 90-96
  Masako Omori; Satoshi Hasegawa; Tomoyuki Watanabe; Kazuhiro Fujikake; Masaru Miyao
In the present study, we examined the visual accommodation of subjects who were gazing fixedly at 3D images from two different displays: a cathode ray tube (CRT) while wearing special glasses and a liquid crystal display (LCD) while not wearing special glasses. The subjects in this experiment were two healthy people aged 22 and 39 years, all with normal vision. The instrument objectively measured visual accommodative changes of the right eye in both binocular and natural viewing conditions. The results suggested that it was easy and comfortable to focus on both the LCD and CRT. When the subjects viewed the progressively receding target, their accommodation was about 0.8 D at the presumed furthest points, a level at which the ciliary muscle is relaxed. The accommodative power differed by about 1.5 D from the near to far point. Thus, the ciliary muscle is repeatedly strained and relaxed while the subject views the moving target.
Keywords: Accommodation; binocular and natural viewing; stereoscopic image; display; LCD and CRT
Is Embodied Interaction Beneficial When Learning Programming? BIBAFull-Text 97-105
  Pablo Romero; Benedict du Boulay; Judy Robertson; Judith Good; Katherine Howland
Embodied interaction has been claimed to offer important advantages for learning programming. However frequently claims have been based on intuitions and work in the area has focused largely around system-building rather than on evaluation and reflection around those claims. Taking into account research in the area as well as in areas such as tangibles, psychology of programming and the learning and teaching of programming, this paper identifies a set of important factors to take into account when analysing the potential of learning environments for programming employing embodied interaction. These factors are formulated as a set of questions that could be asked either when designing or analysing this type of learning environments.
Mobile Interfaces Using Body Worn Projector and Camera BIBAKFull-Text 106-113
  Nobuchika Sakata; Teppei Konishi; Shogo Nishida
Unlike most desktop computer and laptop, mobile interface are designed to facilitate user operating the information easily with various situations that is standing, walking, and moving. However, almost mobile devices such like cell phones have a small key pad and small display because those devices should keep compact and light weight for bringing and pocketing. Therefore, they impose a lot of burdens to users in terms of watching a small display and typing with a small keyboard. Such devices do not focus to provide implicit and awareness information. In this paper, we describe features of body worn projector, which has capability for projecting information to user's peripheral vision, and body worn camera, which has capability for recognizing user's posture and estimating user's behavior, is suitable interface for providing awareness, implicit, and even explicit information. Finally, we propose two mobile interfaces which are "Palm top display for glance information" and "Floor projection from Lumbar mounted projector".
Keywords: Mobile AR; Wearable Computer; Mobile Interface; Mobile Projector; Procams
Relationship between Physiological Indices and a Subjective Score in Evaluating Visually Induced Motion Sickness BIBAKFull-Text 114-119
  Norihiro Sugita; Makoto Yoshizawa; Akira Tanaka; Makoto Abe; Shigeru Chiba; Tomoyuki Yambe; Shin-ichi Nitta
Visual environments are evolving rapidly along with the popularization of high resolution and wide field-of-view displays. However, there is a concern that these environments may give negative effects on viewers' health such as visually-induced motion sickness (VIMS). Previous studies reported that some physiological indices were useful to assess the effect of visual stimulation. However, we have little knowledge about temporal relationship between the severity of sickness and the change in the physiological indices. In this study, the average mutual information has been employed to investigate this relationship. The analysis of experimental data has suggested that there is a possibility to detect a sign of VIMS prior to the development of symptoms of VIMS with the physiological indices.
Keywords: visually-induced motion sickness; physiological index; subjective score; averaged mutual information
Effect of a Stereoscopic Movie on the Correlation between Head Acceleration and Body Sway BIBAKFull-Text 120-127
  Hiroki Takada; Tetsuya Yamamoto; Masaru Miyao; Tatehiko Aoyama; Masashi Furuta; Tomoki Shiozawa
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is caused by sensory conflict, the disagreement between vergence and visual accommodation while observing stereoscopic images. VIMS can be measured by psychological and physiological methods. We quantitatively measured the head acceleration and body sway before and during exposure to a conventional 3D movie. The subjects wore a head mount display and maintained the Romberg posture for the first 60 s and a wide stance (midlines of the heels 20 cm apart) for the next 60 s. Head acceleration was measured using an Active Tracer with 50 Hz sampling. The Simulator Sickness Questioner (SSQ) was completed immediately afterward. For the SSQ sub-scores and each index for stabilograms, we employed two-way ANOVA with leg postures and presence/absence of stereoscopic images as factors. Moreover, we assumed that the input signal was the head acceleration in the transfer system to control the body sway and estimate the transfer function.
Keywords: visually induced motion sickness; stabilometry; sparse density; head acceleration; transfer function analysis
AR City Representation System Based on Map Recognition Using Topological Information BIBAKFull-Text 128-135
  Hideaki Uchiyama; Hideo Saito; Myriam Servieres; Guillaume Moreau
This paper presents a system for overlaying 3D GIS data information such as 3D buildings onto a 2D physical urban map. We propose a map recognition framework by analysis of distribution of local intersections in order to recognize the area of the physical map from a whole map. The retrieval of the geographical area described by the physical map is based on a hashing scheme, which is called LLAH. In the results, we will show some applications augmenting additional information on the map.
Keywords: GIS; Augmented Reality; LLAH
Estimation of Visually Induced Motion Sickness from Velocity Component of Moving Image BIBAFull-Text 136-142
  Hiroyasu Ujike
The purpose of the study is to examine whether the effects of global motion, (GM), on visually induced motion sickness, (VIMS), found with visual stimulus consisting of simple global motion will be applied to the effects of moving images including combination of global motion on VIMS. We, previously, found that velocity, but not temporal frequency component, of GM dominates subjective scores related to VIMS in the experiments presenting simple GM. To achieve the purpose, I made a model to estimate discomfort level of a standard observer during watching a moving image. The model, at the beginning, analyses GM included in the movie; and then, the time-series of velocity data in each element of analyzed GM is compared with the characteristics of simple GM on VIMS for estimating discomfort level. The validity of the model was examined by comparing the estimated discomfort level and actually measured average discomfort level using identical video movie which rather easily inducing VIMS. As a result, the model well estimates the values of subjective score actually measured during observers watching video movies.

Design, Development and Evaluation of VR Environments

Supporting Reusability of VR and AR Interface Elements and Interaction Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 145-153
  Wolfgang Broll; Jan Herling
In contrast to 2D environments which apply well established user interface elements and generally accepted interaction techniques, VR and AR applications typically provide rather individual and specific realizations. This often leads to inconsistent user interfaces and a long and cumbersome development process. In this paper we show how we extended our approach on modeling VR and AR interface elements and interaction techniques represented by interaction and behavior objects by some simple yet powerful mechanisms: modules, templates, and inheritance. We will also show how specific examples could benefit from that approach.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; Mixed Reality; 3D User Interfaces; Multi-modal User Interfaces; Interaction Techniques
Development of 3D Avatars for Professional Education BIBAFull-Text 154-158
  Miglena Dontschewa; Andreas Künz; Sabahat Kovanci
This article covers avatars as anthropomorphic tutors in learning processes within teaching and learning settings. Starting points and objectives are presented, as well as the requirements for the creation, the environment and the tools. The article focuses on the latter, the media-synergetic problems the different tools pose, and possible solutions to those problems.
Rapidly Prototyping Marker Based Tangible User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 159-168
  Maribeth Gandy; Brian Jones; Scott Robertson; Tiffany O'Quinn; Amos Y. Johnson
Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) can create engaging and useful interactive systems. However, along with the power of these interfaces comes challenges; they are often so specialized and novel that building a TUI system involves working at a low level with custom hardware and software. As a result the community of people that are capable of creating TUIs is limited. With this project we aim to make a particular class of TUIs accessible to a broader range of designers and HCI researchers by exposing TUI specific tools in a mixed-reality rapid prototyping environment know as DART (The Designer's Augmented Reality Toolkit). In this paper we discuss the creation of a system for rapidly prototyping marker based tangible user interfaces. These prototyping tools were then used to create a set of TUI-based applications with the goal of raising students' interest in science via an exploration of fine art concepts.
Keywords: Tangible User Interfaces; rapid prototyping; mixed reality; toolkits
Evaluation of Non-photorealistic 3D Urban Models for Mobile Device Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 169-178
  Christos Gatzidis; Vesna Brujic-Okretic; Maria Mastroyanni
This research presents a user evaluation study examining the effect different rendering styles of 3D virtual city models, as intended for navigational purposes, could potentially have on users with emphasis on non-photorealistically rendered (NPR) stylizations. The purpose of this experiment is to establish whether, particularly for the application area mentioned above, non-photorealistic, expressive rendering could provide alternative, more effective visual styles than the photorealistic representations of urban areas usually opted for by developers today. 50 participants were exposed to a predominably questionnaire-based study assessing various parameters by observation of the models on a UMPC (Ultra Mobile PC). The results of this research could potentially have significant implications on how future pedestrian navigational software should be visualized in the future.
Keywords: non-photorealistic rendering; mobile navigation; urban modeling; user studies
Integrating and Delivering Sound Using Motion Capture and Multi-tiered Speaker Placement BIBAKFull-Text 179-185
  Darin E. Hughes
Creating effective and compelling soundscapes for simulations is a challenging process that requires non-traditional tools and techniques outside the scope of standard production methods. In an immersive simulation, sound is at least as important as graphics; auditory cues can be heard from behind walls, around corners, and out of the line of sight. This paper describes a novel approach to interactive 3D sound design utilizing vision-based motion capture and multi-tiered, configurable loudspeaker delivery.
Keywords: Sound Design; Immersive Simulation; Motion Capture; 3D Sound; XACT
The Design of a Virtual Trailblazing Tool BIBAKFull-Text 186-195
  Daniel Iaboni; Carolyn MacGregor
Trails are a proven means of improving performance in virtual environments (VE) but there is very little understanding or support for the role of the trailblazer. The Use-IT Lab is currently designing a tool, the VTrail System, to support trailblazing in VE's. The objective of this document is to introduce the concept of trailblazing, present the initial prototype for a tool designed specifically to support trailblazing and discuss results from an initial usability study.
Keywords: trailblazing; virtual environments; wayfinding
User-Centered Evaluation of a Virtual Environment Training System: Utility of User Perception Measures BIBAKFull-Text 196-205
  Dawei Jia; Asim Bhatti; Chris Mawson; Saeid Nahavandi
This study assessed the utility of measures of Self-efficacy (SelfEfficacy) and Perceived VE efficacy (PVEefficacy) for quantifying how effective VEs are in procedural task training. SelfEfficacy and PVEefficacy have been identified as affective construct potentially underlying VE efficacy that is not evident from user task performance. The motivation for this study is to establish subjective measures of VE efficacy and investigate the relationship between PVEefficacy, SelfEfficacy and User task performance. Results demonstrated different levels of prior experience in manipulating 3D objects in gaming or computer environment (LOE3D) effects on task performance and user perception of VE efficacy. Regression analysis revealed LOE3D, SelfEfficacy, PVEefficacy explain significant portions of the variance in VE efficacy. Results of the study provide further evidence that task performance may share relationships with PVEefficacy and SelfEfficacy, and that affective constructs, such as PVEefficacy, and SelfEfficacy may serve as alternative, subjective measures of task performance that account for VE efficacy.
Keywords: User-based evaluation; Virtual Environment; Evaluation methodology
Emergent Design: Serendipity in Digital Educational Games BIBAKFull-Text 206-215
  Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust; Dietrich Albert
Using computer games for educational purposes is a fascinating idea that is getting increasingly popular amongst educators, researchers, and developers. From a technical as well as psycho-pedagogical viewpoint, today's educational games are at an early stage. Most products cannot compete with non-educational, commercial games and not with conventional educational software. Research must address fundamental challenges such as methods for convincing learning-game design or individualization of gaming experiences. An important key factor is development costs. To enter the market successfully requires reducing development costs significantly, however, without reducing gaming or learning quality. In this paper we introduce an approach of using existing methods for educational adaptation and personalization together with ideas of emergent game design.
Keywords: Digital educational games; game-based learning; adaptation; personalization; interactive storytelling; emergent game design
Intuitive Change of 3D Wand Function in Surface Design BIBAKFull-Text 216-224
  Sang-Hun Nam; Harksu Kim; Young-Ho Chai
According to the target model for a designer to sketch, an effective style or shape of input device can be defined differently. The spatial sketch system that supports various types of wand can help to sketch efficiently. We suggest the idea of changing wand style by altering the posture of a 3D wand. This method allows a designer to work in intuitive ways without being interrupted by complicated menus. We implement the surface drawing and merging technique with the grid based data structure which deals with multiple strokes from various types of wand.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Virtual Conceptual Sketch; Surface Modeling; Interaction Technique
Software-Agents for On-Demand Authoring of Mobile Augmented Reality Applications BIBAFull-Text 225-234
  Rafael Radkowski
The paper presents an concept for the automatic authoring of augmented reality (AR) applications. The approach is based on software agents that provide different functions and content on demand for an AR application. Autonomous software agents encapsulate the specific functions of an AR application. It is distinguished between two kinds of software agents: So called provider-agents and user-agents. The user agent is configured by a human user, the provider-agent provides the functionality of an AR application. By communication and cooperation, provider and user agents form an AR application. The AR-based concept has been tested with the agent platform JADE.
Multiuser Collaborative Exploration of Immersive Photorealistic Virtual Environments in Public Spaces BIBAFull-Text 235-243
  Scott Robertson; Brian Jones; Tiffany O'Quinn; Peter Presti; Jeff Wilson; Maribeth Gandy
We have developed and deployed a multimedia museum installation that enables one or several users to interact with and collaboratively explore a 3D virtual environment while simultaneously providing an engaging and educational, theater-like experience for a larger crowd of passive viewers. This interactive theater experience consists of a large, immersive projection display, a touch screen display for gross navigation and three wireless, motion-sensing, hand-held controllers which allow multiple users to collaboratively explore a photorealistic virtual environment of Atlanta, Georgia and learn about Atlanta's history and the philanthropic legacy of many of Atlanta's prominent citizens.
Note: Best Paper Award
A Design Method for Next Generation User Interfaces Inspired by the Mixed Reality Continuum BIBAKFull-Text 244-253
  Jörg Stöcklein; Christian Geiger; Volker Paelke; Patrick Pogscheba
In this paper we present a new approach to the systematic user centric development of next generation user interfaces (NGUI). Central elements of the approach are a conceptual model that extends the well established model view controller paradigm with an environment component, an iterative development methodology that guides development along the mixed reality continuum and tools to support the implementation. The approach is demonstrate with a concrete example of NGUI development.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Next Generation User Interface Development
On a Qualitative Method to Evaluate Motion Sickness Induced by Stereoscopic Images on Liquid Crystal Displays BIBAKFull-Text 254-262
  Hiroki Takada; Kazuhiro Fujikake; Masaru Miyao
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is known to be caused by sensory conflict, which is the disagreement between vergence and visual accommodation while observing stereoscopic images. The simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ) is a well-known method that is used herein for verifying the occurrence of VIMS. We quantitatively measure the sway of the centre of gravity of the human body before and during exposure to several images. During the measurement, subjects are instructed to maintain the Romberg posture for the first 60 s and a wide stance (midlines of the heels 20 cm apart) for the next 60 s. The stereoscopic images decrease the gradient of the potential function involved in the stochastic differential equations as a mathematical model of the body sway. We have succeeded in estimating the decrease in the gradient by using an index called sparse density.
Keywords: stabilometry; Simulator Sickness Questionnaire; sparse density; stochastic differential equation; potential
Balancing Design Freedom and Constraints in Wall Posters Masquerading as AR Tracking Markers BIBAKFull-Text 263-272
  Ryuhei Tenmoku; Akito Nishigami; Fumihisa Shibata; Asako Kimura; Hideyuki Tamura
This paper describes how to construct a mixed reality (MR) environment by adopting a geometric registration method using visually unobtrusive flat posters on the wall. The proposed method is one of the several approaches of the semi-fiducial invisibly coded symbols (SFINCS) research project, the purpose of which is achieving a good balance between elegance with regard to the environment and robust registration. In this method, posters tentatively used for geometric registration are designed to blend with the environment. However, they are recognized as markers based on certain design rules. Posters in a real scene can be found in real time using these design rules. This paper introduces procedures for developing poster design rules using toolkits developed by us.
Keywords: mixed reality; geometric registration; poster; semi-fiducial; authoring tool
Development of RFID Textile and Human Activity Detection Applications BIBAKFull-Text 273-281
  Ryoko Ueoka; Atsuji Masuda; Tetsuhiko Murakami; Hideyuki Miyayama; Hidenori Takeuchi; Kazuyuki Hashimoto; Michitaka Hirose
We developed RFID woven textile and a customized textile inspection machine with an automatic map making function. These developments have potentials to extend location aware systems in real use. In this paper, we present a process of the development of RFID, the developed map-making system and an accuracy of the automatically made map and time saving effect. And we outlined two prototypes of human activity detection using RFID textile. One is a pilot application of a tracking system using 19-meter coated RFID textile as a carpet. A person's tracking is detected by shoes that RFID readers were embedded. Another one is a pilot application of a human-activity tracking system using RFID textile wear. By wearing it, the predefined behaviour is detected by embedded RFID readers in the environment. In section 6 conclusions and future works are discussed.
Keywords: RFID textile; Map making system; Human activity detection
A Study on the Design of Augmented Reality User Interfaces for Mobile Learning Systems in Heritage Temples BIBAKFull-Text 282-290
  Kuo-Hsiung Wang; Li-Chieh Chen; Po-Ying Chu; Yun-Maw Cheng
In order to reduce switching attention and increase the performance and pleasure of mobile learning in heritage temples, the objective of this research was to employ the technology of Augmented Reality (AR) on the user interfaces of mobile devices. Based on field study and literature review, three user interface prototypes were constructed. They both offered two service modes but differed in the location of navigation bars and text display approaches. The results of experiment showed that users preferred animated and interactive virtual objects or characters with sound effects. In addition, transparent background of images and text message boxes were better. The superimposed information should not cover more than thirty percents of the screen so that users could still see the background clearly.
Keywords: Mobile Learning; User Interface Design; Augmented Reality

Haptics and Tactile Interaction in VR

Haptic Interaction and Interactive Simulation in an AR Environment for Aesthetic Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 293-302
  Monica Bordegoni; Francesco Ferrise; Marco Ambrogio
Market rules show that most of the times the aesthetic impact of a product is an important aspect that makes the difference in terms of success among different products. The product shape is generally created and represented during the conceptual phase of the product and the last trends show that the use of haptic devices allows users to more naturally and effectively interact with 3D models. Nevertheless the shape needs to satisfy some engineering requirements, and its aesthetic and functional analysis requires the collaboration and synchronization of activities performed by various experts having different competences and roles. This paper presents the description of an environment named PUODARSI that allows designers to modify the shape of a product and engineers to evaluate in real-time the impact of these changes on the structural and fluid dynamic properties of the product, describing the choice of the software tools, the implementation and some usability tests.
Keywords: Mixed reality; haptic interaction; interactive simulation
Evaluation of a Haptic-Based Interaction System for Virtual Manual Assembly BIBAKFull-Text 303-312
  Monica Bordegoni; Umberto Cugini; Paolo Belluco; Marcello Aliverti
This paper describes a mixed reality application for the assessment of manual assembly of mechanical systems. The application aims at using low cost technologies and at the same time at offering an effective environment for the assessment of a typical task consisting of assembling two components of a mechanical system. The application is based on the use of a 6-DOF interaction device that is used for positioning an object in space, and a haptic interface that is closer to reality and is used for simulating the insertion of a second component into the first one while feeling a force feedback. The application has been validated by an expert user in order to identify the main usability and performance problems and improve its design.
Keywords: Virtual Manual Assembly; haptic-based interaction; VR system evaluation
Transmission of Information through Haptic Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 313-317
  Koichi Hirota; Yuichiro Sekiguchi
This paper describes a novel approach to haptic interface that transmits information through dynamic interaction. The approach is based on the idea of emulating an object that causes dynamic reaction, such as a box with content inside, using a mechanical device. Hence, the device should be designed as an object-oriented and self-contained form that can be handled similarly to the real object. Implementation of a prototype device that materializes this idea is introduced, and a possibility of expanding the idea into various scales of interaction and different modality is also discussed.
Keywords: Haptic device; haptic interaction; inertial force; virtual reality
Development of Realistic Haptic Presentation Media BIBAKFull-Text 318-325
  Yasushi Ikei
This paper describes the development toward a realistic haptic presentation media -- the haptic displays for surface textures. The display utilizes vibratory simulation that is efficient for cutaneous sensation. First, the characteristics of frequency mixture stimulation are demonstrated in terms of the amplitude modulation and the additive synthesis of 250 Hz and 50 Hz where the sensitivity of human skin takes peaks due to inherent mechanoreceptors. As a part of elucidation, the perception of 50 Hz under 250 Hz stimulation and its hardness sensation were measured. The amplitude modulation was more suitable for its small absolute limen while the additive synthesis was for softer sensation. In addition, the tactile/proprioceptive hybrid haptic display was investigated in terms of 3D texture perception. Spatial textures on surfaces of an icosahedron were matched and identified at about three levels of perception difficulty. Textures were discriminated moderately despite limited stimulators that suggested proper improvement.
Keywords: Haptic texture display; Frequency mixture; Sensation scaling; Texture discrimination/identification
Analysis of Tactual Impression by Audio and Visual Stimulation for User Interface Design in Mixed Reality Environment BIBAKFull-Text 326-335
  Mami Kagimoto; Asako Kimura; Fumihisa Shibata; Hideyuki Tamura
In a mixed-reality (MR) environment, a touchable object can be made to change its appearance when a computer-generated image (MR visual stimulation) is superimposed onto it. In this research, we conduct experiments to study the effects of MR visual and audio stimuli on the tactual impression of the "roughness" of an object. We show that MR visual stimulation alters a subject's tactual impression of the roughness of an object and that the addition of MR audio stimulation intensifies that effect.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Tactual Impression; Psychophysical Influence and Visual and Audio Stimulation
Fundamental Research on Tactile Perception for Development of a Tactile Feel Display BIBAFull-Text 336-345
  Iyo Kunimoto; Naoki Saiwaki; Osamu Katayama; Yasuji Inobe
In our daily life we use a large number of electronic devices incorporating a touch interface, e.g., mobile phones and the iPod Touch. This function is, however, in its infancy, permitting only input, with output being limited only to vibration to confirm input. Meanwhile, if we could create touch sensations with "qualitative information," such as the delicate sensation of materials or the feeling of touching an object, it would bring not only an improvement in the quality of touch sensations, but would also bring the possibility of developing new human interfaces such as more realistic VR systems and user-friendly universal communication tools for people with disability. Such human interfaces would be most effective if they did not require the development of special vibratory devices. On this basis, the authors have developed, based on knowledge gained from previous research, a prototype of a unique vibratory device employing a micro-motor, and employed it in evaluation experiment in which various differing tactile sensations are presented to study subjects.
Enhanced Industrial Maintenance Work Task Planning by Using Virtual Engineering Tools and Haptic User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 346-354
  Simo-Pekka Leino; Salla Lind; Matthieu Poyade; Sauli Kiviranta; Petteri Multanen; Arcadio Reyes-Lecuona; Ari Mäkiranta; Ali Muhammad
Good maintainability is an essential feature for machines and processes in industry. It promotes, among others, maintenance safety, post-maintenance reliability and cost-effective maintenance by ensuring quick and easy operation and short downtime. Virtual engineering tools provide an effective way for maintainability design already during the design phase. Machine designers may not consider maintenance tasks systematically, which can leave important task details open. The missing detail planning can contribute significantly to the probability of safety or reliability risks. So far, generic tools or facilities for planning demanding maintenance tasks in detail have not been available for companies' independent use. Another challenge is to develop and apply better user interfaces for design processes. Virtual engineering tools, such as virtual reality (VR) and haptics, provide a potential solution for improving maintenance planning and maintainability design. This paper introduces development and benefits of a new haptic interface for planning and training industrial maintenance tasks. The paper introduces a test with haptics tools in virtual maintenance case examples. As a conclusion we will sum up, whether the use of a haptic user interface would enhance task planning and maintainability design. In addition, we propose a set of recommendations regarding use of haptics in maintenance planning and maintainability design.
Keywords: Haptics; Virtual Environments; Maintenance
Characterizing the Space by Thermal Feedback through a Wearable Device BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Akagawa; Young Ah Seong; Michitaka Hirose
Thermal sensation is a kind of a haptic sensation and is very familiar feeling. However it is difficult to realize a thermal display which gives realistic thermal feedback because thermal characteristic has a larger ambiguity and is late-response. Alternatively, thermal feedback could be used as a new channel for the transmission of imaginary characteristics. We are aiming to add characteristics to the existing space by providing people with location-dependent thermal information. By manipulating thermal information presented to people, we can change implicit partitioning of the space without physically reconstructing it. "Thermotaxis" is a system that gives sensations of cool and warm to users by controlling thermoelectric devices wirelessly. In this system, the space is characterized as being cool or warm. Users experience the difference in temperatures while they walk in the space. Preliminary analysis shows that people stay close in the area of a comfortable temperature.
Keywords: Ambient Controlling; Characterizing the Space; Thermal Sensation; Thermal Feedback; Wearable Computing
A High-Level Haptic Interface for Enhanced Interaction within Virtools™ BIBAKFull-Text 365-374
  Matthieu Poyade; Arcadio Reyes-Lecuona; Simo-Pekka Leino; Sauli Kiviranta; Raquel Viciana-Abad; Salla Lind
Haptics is the outstanding technology to provide tri-dimensional interaction within Virtual Environments (VE). Nevertheless, many software solutions are not fully prepared to support Haptics. This paper presents a user-friendly implementation of Sensable Phantom haptic interfaces onto the interactive VE authoring platform, Virtools 4.0. Haptics implementation was realized using the Haptic Library (HLAPI) from OpenHaptics toolkit 2.0 which provides highly satisfactory custom forces effects. The integration of Phantom interaction at end-user development fulfils logical VE interactive authoring under Virtools. Haptics implementation was qualitatively assessed in a manual maintenance case, a welding task, as a part of the national Finnish project, VIRVO. Manipulation enhancements provided by the integration of Phantom interaction in Virtools suggest many further improvements for more complicated industrial pilot experiments as a part of the European Commission funded project ManuVAR.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Haptics; OpenHaptics; Virtools™; Force Feedback
A Study of the Attenuation in the Properties of Haptic Devices at the Limit of the Workspace BIBAKFull-Text 375-384
  Jose San Martin
In the context of the optimization in virtual reality systems involving a haptic device, this paper introduces a correction in the formula that defined the performance of the device near the boundary of its workspace. We introduce too corrections to an index based on the Manipulability which takes in account the frequency with which each zone of the application workspace is visited during the simulation process, in order to help the designer for obtaining the best positioning of the device respect to the virtual environment. We demonstrate the new formula studying three different tasks to be accomplished. Finally we look for this best positioning analyzing not only the displacement but the different orientations we can introduce in the virtual environment in order to take advantage of the best zones of the workspace in terms of Manipulability.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Haptic interface; Manipulability; Mechanical Performance; Optimal designing
A Virtual Button with Tactile Feedback Using Ultrasonic Vibration BIBAFull-Text 385-393
  Kaoru Tashiro; Yuta Shiokawa; Tomotake Aono; Takashi Maeno
A virtual button with tactile feedback is realized by use of ultrasonic vibration with amplitude of a few micrometers. Button-like click feeling is displayed by recreating rapid change in reaction force arising from buckling of a mechanical push button utilizing squeeze film effect. First, click feeling display system was constructed based on the principle of perceiving click feeling when pushing a mechanical button. In the system, stimulation are applied to the operators at both buckling and restitution point. Then, by conducting several sensory evaluation experiments, the optimum parameters of the ultrasonic vibration was determined to display button-like click feeling. Finally, by conducting usability test, it was verified that the usability of the virtual button was equivalent to that of a mechanical button.
Enhancing Haptic Rendering through Predictive Collision Detection BIBAKFull-Text 394-402
  Athanasios Vogiannou; Konstantinos Moustakas; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Michael G. Strintzis
This paper presents an efficient collision detection method for interactive haptic simulations of virtual environments that consist of both static and moving objects. The proposed method is based on a novel algorithm for predicting the time of proximity between a pair objects and the appropriate employment of the calculated prediction in a complex virtual scene with multiple objects. The user is able to interact with the virtual objects and receive real-time haptic feedback using the PHANToM Desktop haptic device, while the visual results are shown in the screen display. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and the reliability of the presented approach compared to state-of-the-art spatial subdivisions methods, especially for haptic rendering, where collision detection and response is a procedure of critical importance.
Keywords: collision detection and prediction; haptic interaction

Vision in Virtual and Mixed Reality

Shape Disparity Inspection of the Textured Object and Its Notification by Overlay Projection BIBAFull-Text 405-412
  Toshiyuki Amano; Hirokazu Kato
In this paper we describe about use of the projector camera feedback system for shape disparity check of the textured object. Using the negative feedback in the proposed system, we realized real time shape disparity inspection and its visualization at the same time. In the experimental result, we confirmed the system has an ability to distinguish the 2 mm of shape disparity and its response time was 0.2 sec.
Complemental Use of Multiple Cameras for Stable Tracking of Multiple Markers BIBAKFull-Text 413-420
  Yuki Arai; Hideo Saito
In many applications of Augmented Reality (AR), rectangular markers are tracked in real time by capturing with cameras. In this paper, we consider the AR application in which virtual objects are displayed onto markers while the markers and the cameras are freely moving. In this situation, the marker cannot be tracked when the marker is occluded by some objects. In this paper, we propose a method for tracking the projection matrix between the image and the marker even when the maker is occluded, by using cameras. In this method, we transfer the projection matrix for the marker that is detected by the cameras in order to estimate the relative projection matrix for the occluded marker. After computing the relative projection matrices using multiple cameras, we compute a more accurate projection matrix by using particle filter. As a result, we can continuously track the markers even when the marker is occluded.
Keywords: augmented reality; marker tracking; particle filter; multiple cameras
AR Display for Observing Sports Events Based on Camera Tracking Using Pattern of Ground BIBAKFull-Text 421-430
  Akihito Enomoto; Hideo Saito
We present an AR display system for observing sports events on a desktop stadium based on-camera tracking using pattern of the desktop ground by overlaying players in real sports events captured with multiple cameras. In this paper, we take soccer as the sports event. In the proposed system, the pose and the position of an observing camera are estimated in real-time by using a soccer field pattern on the desk top and an AR marker. The soccer field pattern in the desktop stadium on which the object soccer game is observed via AR display is previously registered with the real soccer stadium in which the real soccer game is captured with multiple cameras. In the previous procedure, we also estimate camera parameters (projection matrices) of the multiple cameras capturing the real soccer game using planar structures in the soccer field. Positions of soccer player and ball are also previously estimated based on the camera parameters. In the on-line procedure for AR display, the textures of the players captured in the multiple soccer video are simply overlaid onto AR camera videos with CG models which are generated for giving additional visual information.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Free viewpoint videos; Multiple cameras
Interactive Fluid Simulation Using Augmented Reality Interface BIBAKFull-Text 431-438
  Makoto Fujisawa; Hirokazu Kato
This paper presents an interactive fluid simulation system using augmented reality interface. The presented system uses Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to simulate the behavior of liquid and adopts a particle-particle interaction approach to calculate the surface tension that becomes important in a small-scale liquid. Fluid-solid interaction can be calculated effectively by representing a solid as a distance function. Therefore, the shape of the solid can be represented precisely without increasing the number of the particles. Moreover, The system can directly operate the solid by augmented reality interface.
Keywords: real-time fluid simulation; surface tension; augmented reality interface
Lens Accommodation to the Stereoscopic Vision on HMD BIBAKFull-Text 439-444
  Satoshi Hasegawa; Masako Omori; Tomoyuki Watanabe; Kazuhiro Fujikake; Masaru Miyao
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect on visual function of gazing at stereoscopic images on a head mounted display (HMD). We measured visual accommodation during stereoscopic viewing while using a HMD by using our original instrument of measurement. The presented image was shown 3-dimensionally on an HMD set up at a visual distance of 3 cm. A spherical object moved back and forth toward and away from the observer in a 10 sec cycle. While the subjects were gazing at the 3D image with both eyes, the lens accommodation in the right eye was measured and recorded. Accommodation to the virtual objects was shown during the viewing of stereoscopic images of 3D computer graphics, but was not shown when the images were displayed without appropriate binocular parallax. It is suggested that stereoscopic moving images on HMD induced the visual accommodation by the expansion and contraction of the ciliary muscle, which is synchronizing with convergence.
Keywords: Binocular HMD; Stereoscopic image; 3-dimension; Visual function
Acquiring a Physical World and Serving Its Mirror World Simultaneously BIBAKFull-Text 445-453
  Sengpyo Hong; Jong-gil Ahn; Heedong Ko; Jinwook Kim
A mirror world, which is a virtual space modeling a physical space, attracts enormous interests from VR community recently. Various applications such as Second Life, Google Earth and Virtual Earth have proven their usefulness and potentialities. We introduce a novel method to build a mirror world by acquiring environment data represented as a point cloud. Since our system provides a streaming service of the mirror world while gathering the environment information simultaneously, users located in an immersive display system can navigate and interact in the mirror world reflecting the physical world of the present state. Mobile agent which is a mobile robot carrying two laser rangefinder is responsible for exploring the physical world and creating an environment model. Environment modeling involves position tracking method to merge scattered geometric data. Optimizing method is also need to reduce space complexity of environment model.
Keywords: Laser Rangefinder; Laser Scan; Environment Modeling; Mirror World
In-Situ 3D Indoor Modeler with a Camera and Self-contained Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 454-464
  Tomoya Ishikawa; Kalaivani Thangamani; Masakatsu Kourogi; Andrew P. Gee; Walterio W. Mayol-Cuevas; Keechul Jung; Takeshi Kurata
We propose a 3D modeler for supporting in-situ indoor modeling effectively. The modeler allows a user easily to create models from a single photo by interaction techniques taking advantage of features in indoor space and visualization techniques. In order to integrate the models, the modeler provides automatic integration functions using Visual SLAM and pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR), and interactive tools to modify the result. Moreover, for preventing shortage of texture images to be used for the models, our modeler automatically searches from 3D models created by the user for un-textured regions and intuitively visualizes shooting positions to take a photo for the regions. These functions make it possible that the user easily create photorealistic indoor 3D models that have enough textures on the fly.
Keywords: 3D indoor modeling; Mixed reality; Virtualized object; Visual SLAM; Pedestrian dead-reckoning; Self-contained sensor
Evaluation of Visually-Controlled Task Performance in Three Dimension Virtual Reality Environment BIBAKFull-Text 465-471
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Tien-Lung Sun; Hung-Jen Chen; Ping-Yun Cheng
The present study aims to evaluate three commercial VR display devices on the market via a 3D Fitts' task. In addition, a Simulation Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to assess simulator sickness of participants. Ten participants performed repetitive pointing tasks over different conditions of varying display devices, movement directions and indices of difficulty. Based on the results, it seems that the 3D TV technology may not provide enough perceptual depth to enhance movement performance in a 3D VE. The projection display obtained the best performance and preference among the three display devices. The HMD gave the worst result in both the experimental task and the SSQ assessment due to the accompanied discomfort and fatigue.
Keywords: Fitts' law; virtual reality; projection display; HMD; 3D TV
Visual Data Mining in Immersive Virtual Environment Based on 4K Stereo Images BIBAKFull-Text 472-481
  Tetsuro Ogi; Yoshisuke Tateyama; So Sato
In this study, super high-definition immersive visual data mining environment using 4K stereo projector was developed. In this system, data can be represented with high accuracy in the three-dimensional space using the super high-definition stereo images, and the user can recognize the relation among several kinds of data by integrating them in the immersive environment using the plug-in function. This system was applied to the seismic data visualization and the effectiveness of this system was evaluated.
Keywords: Visual Data Mining; Immersive Virtual Environment; 4K Stereo Image; Seismic Data Analysis
MR-Mirror: A Complex of Real and Virtual Mirrors BIBAKFull-Text 482-491
  Hideaki Sato; Itaru Kitahara; Yuichi Ohta
MR-mirror is a novel Mixed-Reality (MR) display system created by using real and virtual mirrors. It merges real visual information reflected on a real mirror and a virtual one displayed on an electronic monitor. A user's body is presented by the reflection on the real mirror, and virtual objects are presented on a monitor that is visible through the real mirror. Users can observe an MR scene without wearing such devices as a head-mounted display and can interact with the virtual objects around them using their body motion in MR space. We implemented a prototype MR-mirror and a demonstration system.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Virtual Mirror; Interaction
A Novel Approach to On-Site Camera Calibration and Tracking for MR Pre-visualization Procedure BIBAKFull-Text 492-502
  Wataru Toishita; Yutaka Momoda; Ryuhei Tenmoku; Fumihisa Shibata; Hideyuki Tamura; Takafumi Taketomi; Tomokazu Sato; Naokazu Yokoya
This paper presents camera calibration and tracking method for mixed reality based pre-visualization system for filmmaking. The proposed calibration method collects environmental information required for tracking efficiently since the rough camera path and target environment are known before actual shooting. Previous camera tracking methods using natural feature are suitable for outdoor environment. However, it takes large human cost to construct the database. Our proposed method reduces the cost of calibration process by using fiducial markers. Fiducial markers are used as reference points and feature landmark database is constructed automatically. In shooting phase, moreover, the speed and robustness of tracking are improved by using SIFT descriptor.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Pre-visualization; Tracking; Natural Feature
Robust Hybrid Tracking with Life-Size Avatar in Mixed Reality Environment BIBAFull-Text 503-510
  Tran Cong Thien Qui; Shang Ping Lee; William Russell Pensyl; Daniel Keith Jernigan
We have developed a system which enables us to track participant-observers accurately in a large area for the purpose of immersing them in a mixed reality environment. This system is robust even under uncompromising lighting conditions. Accurate tracking of the observer's spatial and orientation point of view is achieved by using hybrid inertial sensors and computer vision techniques. We demonstrate our results by presenting life-size, animated human avatars sitting in real chairs, in a stable and low-jitter manner. The system installation allows the observers to freely walk around and navigate themselves in the environment even while still being able to see the avatars from various angles. The project installation provides and exciting way for cultural and historical narratives to be presented vividly in the real present world.

VR Applications

Collaboration Design System Using Internet and Virtual Reality Technology BIBAKFull-Text 513-521
  Hideki Aoyama; Rie Iida
Globalization of manufacturing industry makes production bases covering two or more areas and countries. Moreover, in order to timely offer products which respond to consumer needs, it has been becoming important to shorten the lead time of product development. Opportunities to do collaboration work with designers/engineers existing different places are thus increasing. A support system for collaboration design work without physical moving of designers/engineers is strongly demanded to cut down time and cost. This research aims at proposing the intuitive 3-dimensional geometric model construction method and developing a system which supports collaboration design work for the discussion stage of ideas in the upstream of design processes. In this paper, a system which can intuitively build a 3D model and support collaboration design work for designers/engineers being different places by sharing mutually a design object through the Internet is described.
Keywords: Design Collaboration; Internet; Virtual Reality; 3D Modeling; Industry Product Design; Basic Design; CAD
Evaluating the Potential of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Mixed Reality BIBAKFull-Text 522-531
  Nicholas Beato; Daniel P. Mapes; Charles E. Hughes; Cali M. Fidopiastis; Eileen M. Smith
We describe the development and use of a mixed reality (MR) testbed to evaluate potential scenarios that may alleviate performance deficits in subjects who may be experiencing cognitive deficiencies, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The system blends real world sensory data with synthetic enhancements in the visual and aural domains. It captures user actions (movement, view direction, environment interaction, and task performance) and psychophysical states (engagement, workload, and skin conductivity) during an MR-enabled experience in order to determine task performance in the context of a variety of stimuli (visual and aural distracters in time-constrained activities). The goal is to discover triggers that affect stress levels and task performance in order to develop individualized plans for personal improvement.
Keywords: Mixed reality; post traumatic stress disorder; psychophysical sensing; medical rehabilitation; cognitive rehabilitation
Augmented Reality Video See-through HMD Oriented to Product Design Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 532-541
  Giandomenico Caruso; Umberto Cugini
Current state of the art technology offers various solutions for developing virtual prototyping applications that also allow the interaction with the real environment. In particular, Augmented Reality (AR) technologies include tracking systems, stereoscopic visualization systems, photorealistic rendering tools, hi-resolution video overlay systems that allow us to create various types of applications where the virtual prototype is contextualized within the real world. One application domain is product design: AR technologies allow designers to perform some evaluation tests on the virtual prototype of industrial products without the necessity to produce a physical prototype. This paper describes the development of a new Video See-Through Head Mounted Display (VST-HMD) that is high-performing and based on stereoscopic visualization. The developed display system overcomes some issues concerning the correct visualization of virtual objects that are close to the user's point of view. The paper also presents the results of some tests about an AR application developed for product design assessment.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Head Mounted Display; Video See-Through HMD; Design Assessment
Mixed Reality Neurosurgical Microscope for Training and Intra-operative Purposes BIBAKFull-Text 542-549
  Alessandro De Mauro; Jörg Raczkowsky; Marc Eric Halatsch; Heinz Wörn
In recent years, neurosurgery has been deeply influenced by new technologies. It requires fine techniques targeted to obtain treatments minimally invasive though often traumatic. The precision of the surgical gesture is related both to experience of the surgeon and accuracy of the available technological instruments. Computer Aided Surgery (CAS) can offer several benefits for the patient's safety. From a technological point of view we observe the use of the Virtual Reality (VR) for the surgeons training and Augmented Reality (AR) for the intra-operative aid for treatments. This paper presents a prototype for a mixed reality system for neurosurgical interventions embedded on a real surgical microscope for pre- and intra-operative purposes. Its main purposes are: the realistic simulation (visual and haptic) of the spatula palpation of low-grade glioma and also the stereoscopic visualization in AR of relevant 3D data for safe surgical movements in the image guided interventions.
Keywords: virtual and augmented reality; physical modeling; haptic feedback; training systems; neurosurgery
A Real-Virtual Mapping Method for Mechanical Product Assembly Process Planning in Virtual Assembly Environment BIBAKFull-Text 550-559
  Xiumin Fan; Feng Gao; Hongmin Zhu; Dianliang Wu; Qi Yin
In order to realize assembly process planning in virtual reality environment, an assembly process planning generation method based on real-virtual mapping of basic motion sequence is proposed. Based on the analysis of current assembly process content from enterprise, assembly process information is modeled; standard assembly operations and basic assembly motion are defined. The mapping matrix among standard assembly operations and basic assembly motions are set up. A method to get basic motion sequence in virtual environment during virtual assembling process by real user is put forward. A prototype system is developed based on these research results, and the system function is demonstrated through assembly process of automobile engine components. It shows that this assembly process generation method based on real-virtual mapping of motion sequence is feasible, and it also provides a new idea for the application of virtual assembly technique for product manufacturing process.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Virtual assembly; Assembly process planning; Standard assembly operation; Assembly basic motion; Real-virtual mapping
Rebalancing the Visual System of People with Amblyopia "Lazy Eye" by Using HMD and Image Enhancement BIBAKFull-Text 560-565
  Sina Fateh; Claude Speeg
Amblyopia or "lazy eye" occurs when during early childhood visual information from one eye is absent or poorly transmitted to the brain. This visual deprivation causes poor vision and the eye gradually becomes weaker (amblyope) relative to the other eye which becomes stronger. The visual imbalance is caused by the brain's preference for the strong eye. To restore vision, conventional treatments use occlusion and vision penalization of the strong eye to force the brain to use the amblyope eye. Conventional treatments are regarded as effective in young children but impractical in older subjects and patient compliance remains the main cause of treatment failure. This presentation describes our preliminary efforts to develop a convenient and viable binocular head mounted display (HMD) interface. The goal is to rebalance the vision by using a simultaneous enhancing/attenuation image adjustment. The image presented to the normal eye will be attenuated while the image presented to the amblyope eye will be enhanced. During this operation the user will be engage in recreational activities such as watching movies, using internet or playing video games.
Keywords: Binocular HMD; amblyopia; vision restoration; enhancement/attenuation; visual rebalance; compliance
A Two-User Framework for Rapid Immersive Full Cycle Product Customization BIBAKFull-Text 566-575
  Maxim Foursa; David d'Angelo; Gerold Wesche; Manfred Bogen
In this paper we present an approach for a full cycle product customization in Virtual Environments (VE). The main goal of our work is to develop an integrated immersive framework, which allows configuring products from a great number of parts. Our framework supports collaborative work of two users and operates both on desktop computers and in immersive environments. The framework is integrated into a manufacturing environment, thus making the immediate production of customized products possible. The integrated modules of the framework allow importing CAD files directly into VE, creation of new objects on the basis of constructive solid geometry principles, attaching virtual connectivity-describing attributes to parts, guided assembly of parts and comprehensive analysis of products. In order to identify the influence of immersion and collaboration on the performance in assembly and manipulation tasks in VE, we performed a quantitative assessment of user performance, which we also describe in the paper.
Keywords: Virtual Environment; Mass Customization; Product Development
A Mixed Reality-Based Assembly Verification and Training Platform BIBAKFull-Text 576-585
  Shiqi Li; Tao Peng; Chi Xu; Yan Fu; Yang Liu
Mixed reality (MR) based human-machine interaction provides a seamless interface between user and application environment, which synthesizes the advantages of the convenient interaction of virtual reality, and the strong realistic of augmented reality. In this paper, MR is applied in the context of industrial assembly process, and a MR based assembly verification and training platform is proposed. In the MR based assembly environment, virtual model, real images and augmented information are jointly displayed on the assembly scene, accessorizing multi-video display windows of different angles of view to browse the real assembly scene. Additionally, constraint proxies figuratively reconstruct part's constraint relationship in the MR environment, and avoid the complex calculation of constraint's match. By using a virtual hand with constraints guided to assemble, an effective and realistic assembly process experience is provided to the user.
Keywords: Mixed reality; Virtual assembly; Assembly verification; Assembly training
Trial of Formulating Affordance Features for Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 586-595
  Tamotsu Murakami; Mariko Higuchi; Hideyoshi Yanagisawa
The aim of this research is to formulate relationships between the geometrical attributes of objects and affordance for operations as affordance features. If affordance features are well formulated, then they will allow designers to strengthen intended affordances for higher usability of products or to systematically examine and achieve product or interface shapes with both high usability and aestheticity or novelty. In this paper we show some affordance features and their relationships with quantitative conditions obtained from an analysis of user tests involving sample objects of various shapes.
Keywords: Affordance; feature; product design; usability; emotional design
An Empirical Study of Assembly Error Detection Using an Augmented Vision System BIBAKFull-Text 596-604
  Barbara Odenthal; Marcel Ph. Mayer; Wolfgang Kabuß; Bernhard Kausch; Christopher M. Schlick
Within the Cluster of Excellence "Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries" of RWTH Aachen University a numerical control unit and its ergonomic human-machine interface are developed for a robotized production unit. In order to cope with novel systems, the human operator will have to meet new challenges regarding the work requirements. Therefore, a first prototype of an augmented vision system to assist the human operator is developed dealing with the task of error detection and identification in an assembly object. Laboratory tests have been performed to find a preferable solution to display information.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Assembly
Design and Implementation of Augmented Reality Environment for Complex Anatomy Training: Inguinal Canal Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 605-614
  Sophia Sakellariou; Ben M. Ward; Vassilis Charissis; David Chanock; Paul Anderson
Adhering to contemporary requirements for reduction of cadaveric training of medical trainees we have developed a prototype augmented reality environment which investigates complex anatomical sections. A human 3D model has been implemented in order to facilitate educational tactics presented in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. Opting for a sophisticated approach of interaction, the interface elements are based on simplified visual representation of real anatomical elements, and can be operated through haptic devices and surround auditory cues. This paper discusses the challenges involved in the development process of the augmented reality environment, and the HCI design, introduces the visual components of the interface and presents the outcome of a preliminary evaluation of the proposed VR training method on a group of twelve medical doctors. The paper concludes with a tentative plan of future work which aims to expand the context and interactivity of the system so as to enable the trainees to rehearse surgical methods in a simulated VR environment.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Haptics; HCI; Inguinal Canal; Medical Training
The Use of Virtual Reality in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) BIBAKFull-Text 615-624
  Deanne C. Simms; Susan O'Donnell; Heather Molyneaux
Background. Interest in the treatment of PTSD is increasing with concerns about the psychological effects of war on troops. Objective. We performed a comprehensive literature review on virtual reality (VR) for treating combat-related PTSD. Methods. Canada's primary institute for scientific and technical information (NRC-CISTI) performed the initial literature search in 2008. Of 296 items which met inclusion criteria, 20 pertained to VR in the treatment of mental health.. An additional 20 more recent items were added in 2009, making a total of 40 items reviewed. Of those, 6 empirical studies involved patients with PTSD [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Results. VR exposure therapy (VRET) has been successfully used to treat anxiety and phobia disorders including PTSD [7, 8]. VRET may be particularly suitable for clients with combat-related PTSD as it aids in exposure treatments for these clients whom are often unable to engage in traditional therapy [9, 10]. Future research should include randomized, controlled studies employing large samples.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Posttraumatic stress disorder; treatment
Effect of an Eyesight Recovering Stereoscopic Movie System on Visual Acuity and Asthenopia BIBAKFull-Text 625-632
  Akihiro Sugiura; Tetsuya Yamamoto; Hiroki Takada; Masaru Miyao
Relaxing the contracted muscles involved in focus-adjustment around the eyeball, such as the ciliary body and extraocular muscles, is expected to improve pseudomyopia. This hypothesis has led to the development of Dr.REX -- an apparatus for recovering eyesight by using a stereoscopic video. In this study, we verified the effects of this apparatus on visual acuity and asthenopia in the short and medium terms. Thirty-two myopic Japanese students participated in this study. We compared the severity of asthenopia in subjects who used Dr.REX and in those who performed close work on video display terminals (VDTs). We determined that the use of the apparatus improved visual acuity in both the short and medium terms. In addition, asthenopia seemed to be less severe in subjects who used Dr.Rex than in those who performed close work on VDTs.
Keywords: Pseudomyopia; visual acuity; asthenopia; stereoscopic video; visually induced motion sickness (VIMS)
Augmented Reality System for Dental Implant Surgery BIBAKFull-Text 633-638
  Satoshi Yamaguchi; Takafumi Ohtani; Hirofumi Yatani; Taiji Sohmura
Recently, computer-assisted navigation systems have been developed to realize safe and precise surgery. In conventional systems, surgeons feel anxious intra-operatively because they have to watch a surgical monitor while operating instruments in the oral cavity. The objective of this study is to develop a novel dental implant navigation system by combining the retinal projection head mounted display (RPHMD) and the augmented reality techniques that can directly overlay pre-operative simulation images onto the real view of the surgeon. In this paper, we propose an image overlay procedure based on the RPHMD and verify its accuracy.
Keywords: Dental Implant Surgery; Augmented Reality; Surgical Navigation
A Feasible Tracking Method of Augmented Reality for Supporting Fieldwork of Nuclear Power Plant BIBAKFull-Text 639-646
  Weida Yan; Hirotake Ishii; Hiroshi Shimoda; Masanori Izumi
For the application of augmented reality in plant maintenance work, real-time tracking and technology with higher accuracy is necessary. This study focuses on the tracking method in vision based SLAM. In NPP, line features are abundant, and they are detected more easily and reliably than point features. Line features offer more information than points, but its tracking method is more complex. In this study, line features are used as landmark for tracking. The representation of the 3D line is relied on Plücker coordinates. A Gaussian sum approximates the feature initial state and is updated as new observations are gathered by the camera. Then extend Kalman filter is adopted for SLAM approach.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Tracking; Line Feature; Plücker coordinates